Teaching While Learning While Practicing: Reframing Faculty Development for the Patient-Centered Medical Home
Dr. Clay is staff physician, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, and clinical assistant professor, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, both in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Dr. Sikon is chair, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Cleveland Clinic, and associate professor of medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, both in Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Lypson is assistant dean for graduate medical education and professor of internal medicine and medical education, University of Michigan Medical School, and staff physician, VA Ann Arbor Health Care System, both in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Dr. Gomez is professor of clinical medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California. Dr. Kennedy-Malone is professor of nursing, School of Nursing at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North Carolina. Dr. Bussey-Jones is associate professor of medicine and staff member, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. Bowen is professor of medicine, Oregon Health & Sciences University School of Medicine, Portland, Oregon, and education consultant, Veterans Health Administration Office of Academic Affiliations, Washington, DC.Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges (Impact Factor: 2.93). 07/2013; 88(9). DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31829ecf89
Soaring costs of health care, patients living longer with chronic illnesses, and continued attrition of interest in primary care contribute to the urgency of developing an improved model of health care delivery. Out of this need, the concept of the team-based, patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has developed. Amidst implementation in academic settings, clinical teachers face complex challenges not previously encountered: teaching while simultaneously learning about the PCMH model, redesigning clinical delivery systems while simultaneously delivering care within them, and working more closely in expanded interprofessional teams.To address these challenges, the authors reviewed three existing faculty development models and recommended four important adaptations for preparing clinical teachers for their roles as system change agents and facilitators of learning in these new settings. First, many faculty find themselves in the awkward position of teaching concepts they have yet to master themselves. Professional development programs must recognize that, at least initially, health professions learners and faculty will be learning system redesign content and skills together while practicing in the evolving workplace. Second, all care delivery team members influence learning in the workplace. Thus, the definition of faculty must expand to include nurses, pharmacists, social workers, medical assistants, patients, and others. These team members will need to accept their roles as educators. Third, learning to deliver health care in teams will require support of both interprofessional collaboration and intraprofessional identity development. Fourth, learning to manage change and uncertainty should be part of the core content of any faculty development program within the PCMH.
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ABSTRACT: This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The utilitarian view to interpreters' roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter's emotional support perceived as tools. When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients' and interpreters' voice, objectifying interpreters' emotional work, and exploiting patients' needs. Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter's role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care.
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ABSTRACT: Background Community Pharmacists and General Practitioners (GPs) are increasingly being encouraged to adopt more collaborative approaches to health care delivery as collaboration in primary care has been shown to be effective in improving patient outcomes. However, little is known about pharmacist attitudes towards collaborating with their GP counterparts and variables that influence this interprofessional collaboration. This study aims to develop and validate 1) an instrument to measure pharmacist attitudes towards collaboration with GPs and 2) a model that illustrates how pharmacist attitudes (and other variables) influence collaborative behaviour with GPs. Methods A questionnaire containing the newly developed “Attitudes Towards Collaboration Instrument for Pharmacists” (ATCI-P) and a previously validated behavioural measure “Frequency of Interprofessional Collaboration Instrument for Pharmacists” (FICI-P) was administered to a sample of 1215 Australian pharmacists. The ATCI-P was developed based on existing literature and qualitative interviews with GPs and community pharmacists. Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the structure of the ATCI-P and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to assess the internal consistency of the instrument. Structural equation modelling was used to determine how pharmacist attitudes (as measured by the ATCI-P) and other variables, influence collaborative behaviour (as measured by the FICI-P). Results Four hundred and ninety-two surveys were completed and returned for a response rate of 40%. Principal Component Analysis revealed the ATCI-P consisted of two factors: ‘interactional determinants’ and ‘practitioner determinants’, both with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .90 and .93 respectively). The model demonstrated adequate fit (χ2/df = 1.89, CFI = .955, RMSEA = .062, 90% CI [.049-.074]) and illustrated that ‘interactional determinants’ was the strongest predictor of collaboration and was in turn influenced by ‘practitioner determinants’. The extent of the pharmacist’s contact with physicians during their pre-registration training was also found to be a significant predictor of collaboration (B = .23, SE = .43, p <.001). Conclusions The results of the study provide evidence for the validity of the ATCI-P in measuring pharmacist attitudes towards collaboration with GPs and support a model of collaboration, from the pharmacist’s perspective, in which collaborative behaviour is influenced directly by ‘interactional’ and ‘environmental determinants’, and indirectly by ‘practitioner determinants’.
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ABSTRACT: Primary care physicians who can deliver high quality primary care services are essential for strengthening the primary health care system. In Korea, primary care was regarded as substandard services practiced by any medical doctor without postgraduate education in primary care. The current and future health care systems are challenged by increasing complexity and co-morbidity and healthcare costs in medical care. The developed countries are preparing for the future by increasing support for basic, postgraduate, and continuing medical education in primary care. To strengthen the primary care in Korea, basic medical education programs should require experience in primary care clinics with a teaching and education function. Postgraduate primary care medical education must be enhanced to be qualified to practice in the community. The recognition of the importance of primary care and the need for changes in the current education and healthcare system among medical professionals and other stakeholders and support systems such as legislation and finance for primary care medical education.
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