Article

Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps

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  • Sterling International, Inc.
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Abstract

Background: The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Results: Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. Conclusion: These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps.

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... In addition, they have low environmental persistence and mammalian toxicity and are normally available in large quantities at reasonable prices due to their widespread use as fragrances and food flavours (Isman 2006). Many essential oils have been reported to be highly repellent to various biting insects and arthropods (such as mosquitoes, sand flies, stable flies, ticks and other medically important pests) (Moore et al. 2007;Nerio et al. 2009;Zhu et al. 2010;Zhu 2011), as well as stinging insects (especially yellow jackets, paper wasps and hornets) (Zhang et al. 2013a), and several agricultural pests (Isman and Miresmailli 2011), such as the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hori 1998;Masatoshi 1998), onion aphid, Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahasi) (Masatoshi and Hiroaki 1997), maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Ndungu et al. 1995), red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Saim and Meloan 1986), two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (El-Gengaihi et al. 1996), Resselivella oculiperda (Rubsaamen) (van Tol et al. 2007), and the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Youssef et al. 2009). Thus, essential oils are good candidate repellents for stink bugs, including BMSBs. ...
... Many essential oils, including some of those tested in the present study, have been reported to be strongly repellent to various biting insects/arthropods (Dolan and Panella 2011), such as mosquitoes, sand flies, stable flies, ticks and other health-related pests (Moore et al. 2007;Nerio et al. 2009;Zhu et al. 2010;Zhu 2011), stinging insects, especially yellow jackets, paper wasps and hornets (Zhang et al. 2013a), and several agricultural pests (Isman and Miresmailli 2011); however, their repellency to the stink bugs was unknown until our study. ...
... These EAD-active and behaviourally repellent volatile compounds showed both similarity and diversity in terms of chemical structures, including monoterpene aldehydes, alcohols and ketones, plus phenylpropanoids, among many others (table 1). Similar antennal response patterns to various repellent compounds from these essential oils were also reported from vespid social wasps (yellow jackets, paper wasps and hornets) (Zhang et al. 2013a). Interestingly, a synthetic mixture of the spined soldier bug (SSB) aggregation pheromone (Aldrich et al. 1986) also showed significant repellency to the BMSB nymphs and adults ( fig. ...
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The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), native to Northeastern Asia, is a serious invasive pest in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and France. Several common essential oils and their compositions were tested against BMSBs as potential repellents. All the tested individual essential oils and a ternary oil blend showed significant repellency to both BMSB nymphs and adults. Clove oil, lemongrass oil, spearmint oil, ylang-ylang oil, and the ternary oil mixture (clove, lemongrass and spearmint) almost completely blocked attraction of BMSBs to the stink bug attractant-baited traps; whereas wintergreen oil, geranium oil, pennyroyal oil and rosemary oil resulted in 60–85% trap catch reductions. Over 20 BMSB antennally active compounds were identified from SPME headspace samples of the eight repellent essential oils using GC-EAD and GC-MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds tested in the field, eugenol, l-carvone, p/l-menthone, pulegone, methyl salicylate, trans/cis-citral, methyl benzoate and β-caryophyllene significantly reduced trap catches of BMSBs by 72–99%; these compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. Surprisingly, a synthetic mixture of the predacious spined soldier bug (SSB) [Podisus maculiventris (Say)] aggregation pheromone (trans-2-hexenal, α-terpineol and benzyl alcohol) also showed a significant inhibition of BMSB response to its attractants. These repellent essential oils and their active compounds, as well as the synthetic SSB pheromone, are potentially useful as part of an efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM programme to combat this serious invasive stink bug.
... It has been found that secondary plant metabolites are repellent to a variety of insect taxa including social wasps (Maia & Moore, 2011). Recent studies conducted with naïve foragers showed that the presence of these odours near protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich sources elicit rejection responses, decreasing food acceptance (Boev e, Honraet, & Rossel, 2014;Buteler, Lozada, D'Adamo, Melo, & Stadler, 2016;Yossen et al., 2019;Zhang, Schneidmiller, & Hoover, 2013). In particular, the combination of food and a repellent odour raises a conflicting situation that negatively affects foraging towards that resource. ...
... Here, we aimed to deepen knowledge on olfactory plasticity of eusocial wasps by studying how V. germanica social wasps respond to an aversive odour while foraging on undepleted protein sources and to what extent such behavioural patterns can be modulated by appetitive experience. By means of a set of behavioural experiments conducted under field conditions, we first assessed the response of foragers to a protein-rich source paired to lavender essential oil odour, a known repellent odour for wasps (Zhang et al., 2013). Subsequently, we evaluated whether the response of naïve foragers to the aversive odour could be modified after experience with the meat source paired with the aversive odour. ...
... Lavender essential oil odour (i.e. EO-odour) was used as aversive stimulus since it has been reported as a strong repellent odour for vespid wasps (Boev e et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2013). Pure essential oil (100 ml) was applied on a filter paper (Whatman No. 1) placed underneath the small container. ...
Article
Experience can modify how animals respond to relevant stimuli from their environment, for example, through associative learning. In particular, odour stimuli play a central role in foraging by influencing decision making. Numerous studies have shown that odours can acquire relevance for an animal by becoming associated with food after appetitive experience. Therefore, studying to what extent learning can modulate the behavioural response to olfactory stimuli is essential to improve our understanding about the role of experience in food exploitation in nature. Here, we evaluated whether foraging experience can modulate the response of Vespula germanica, a food generalist and opportunistic eusocial wasp, towards an aversive odour. Through field experiments, we evaluated the response of naïve and experienced wasps towards an aversive odour under different scenarios, to also examine how these changes affect foraging decisions. Both naïve wasps and wasps that had foraging experience in the absence of the aversive odour were not attracted to the odour alone and avoided meat sources paired with this cue. However, wasps that had foraging experience with the aversive odour showed an opposite behavioural pattern; they preferred meat sources with the aversive odour and were equally attracted to this odour and the meat source. The behavioural repertoire (i.e. approaches, landings and search behaviour) elicited by the aversive odour after experience with it indicates that change in the response was due to associative learning, leading the odour which was initially repellent, to become attractive. Interestingly, the change in the aversive odour's valence occurred after one collecting experience and three to five visits promoted long-term memory of the odour. In conclusion, our results show that spontaneous responses to odours can be modulated by experience and provide new insights about learning and memory abilities of social wasps in relation to olfactory cues.
... Recently, plant-based repellents have been proposed as a potential alternative to classic pesticides against pest wasps, in certain scenarios (Boevé, Honraet, & Rossel, 2014;Buteler, Lozada, D'Adamo, Melo, & Stadler, 2016;Zhang, Schneidmiller, & Hoover, 2013). They reported the repellent effect of numerous essential oils as well as some of their synthetic constituents against yellowjackets and paper wasps (Boevé et al., 2014). ...
... They reported the repellent effect of numerous essential oils as well as some of their synthetic constituents against yellowjackets and paper wasps (Boevé et al., 2014). Zhang et al. (2013) demonstrated that individual terpenoids are responsible for the repellent effect of essential oils. Moreover, testing the effectiveness of individual components of essential oils as repellents is relevant from an applied perspective given that they have the advantage of having a consistent chemical composition and being easier to register as biopesticides (Isman, 2006;Maia & Moore, 2011). ...
... So far, wasp repellents have been studied in terms of the individual response of naïve wasps and captured in baited traps (Boevé et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2013). More recently, Buteler et al. (2016) took into account the role of learning and memory mechanisms at the individual level, when analysing the repellent effect of essential oils on the relocation behaviour of V. germanica. ...
Article
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Recently, plant‐based repellents have been proposed as a potential alternative to classic pesticides against pest wasps, in certain scenarios. Here, the repellent effect of Dysphania multifida essential oil and one of its main terpenoid components, α‐terpinene, were tested under field conditions with natural populations of wasps in Patagonia Argentina. D. multifida essential oil (paico), as well as α‐terpinene, repelled V. germanica wasps in the field. A strong avoidance of food baits treated with the essential oil or α‐terpinene was observed in choice and no‐choice tests. In no‐choice tests, the time it took wasps to arrive at the bait was significantly greater in treated baits than in control baits. Also, the total number of arriving wasps in 30 min was significantly greater in untreated baits in comparison with treated baits, under similar environmental conditions and wasp density. As the wasps’ flight season progressed, wasp density and motivation for proteinaceous food sources increased. This was evidenced by a greater total number of wasps in untreated baits with time. On the contrary, the number of wasps in treated baits remained low throughout the peak season. Both the paico essential oil and the α‐terpinene act as powerful repellents for V. germanica wasps, generating an avoidance response to treated food sources. Thus, these compounds have potential to be used as repellents to prevent wasps’ approaches and foraging, when applied in close proximity to a food source.
... The present work was aimed at the screening of wasp repellents to point out the most promising ones, and to this effect we designed a laboratory bioassay. In a recent paper, Zhang et al. [31] demonstrated the potential of volatiles as repellents against wasps. These authors identified several essential oils and pure chemicals by combining field trappings and physiological experiments using electroantennogram detection (EAD). ...
... Several negative controls were performed by testing unloaded instead of loaded vials, and they always led to non-significant results (data not shown). Further, different vespid species were often tested simultaneously, but they are known to react similarly towards repellents [31], and aggressive interactions were rarely observed in the container and boxes. ...
... They are also attracted to plant odors indicating a source of carbohydrates [47]. For instance, leaves of catmint, N. cataria, can become highly attractive to wasps through a sugar rewarding [47], while the essential oil of this plant was found to be a moderate or weak repellent (Figure 2), and its major compound, nepetalactone, as a strong or moderate repellent [31]. Such dissimilar behavioral responses are not inconsistent with EAD responses of wasps (see [31]), because chemicals can trigger an antennal reaction, regardless of being a repellent, or attractant. ...
Article
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Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial, but they can be a nuisance and dangerous to people due to their tendency to sting. Here, the aim was to screen samples of volatiles (i.e., essential oils and pure chemicals) for their repellency against wasps. The number of wasps (mainly Vespula vulgaris) present in a glass box with attractant and 5 μL sample was compared to the number of wasps in a similar box with attractant only. Both boxes were connected to a large glass container harboring 18-35 wasps. Among 66 tested samples, some essential oils from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, as well as some pure natural compounds such as the monoterpenes (-)-terpinen-4-ol and isopulegol showed a significant repellency against vespids. Our results corroborate the potential of (mixtures of) volatiles in repelling these insects.
... The few tools available to control this pest coupled with the health concerns associated with the use of synthetic insecticides such as fipronil (Tingle et al. 2003) require industry and the scientific community to place greater emphasis on research into new insecticidal products based on less toxic substances. Recent studies suggest that the use of repellents to ward off vespid wasps could lead to the development of new control techniques for these insects (Zhang et al. 2013;Boevé et al. 2014). ...
... Most of the research on insect repellents has been conducted on products to repel mosquitoes (Tawatsin et al. 2001;Fradin & Day 2002;Patel et al. 2012), but little research effort has been devoted towards using repellents to directly ward off wasps (Zhang et al. 2013;Boevé et al. 2014). Such repellents could be used to deter wasps from houses or recreational areas and in combination with baited traps, in a 'push-pull' scenario (Cook et al. 2007). ...
... The present study tested the repellent effect of five different plant essential oils on V. germanica. These were chosen either because the oils or some of their components had been tested against wasps (Zhang et al. 2013;Boevé et al. 2014), because their terpenoid components are known insect repellents and insecticides (Regnault-Roger et al. 2012), and they are readily available and/or their fragrance would make them attractive to potential end users. The objective was to identify potential repellents based on plant essential oils, to assess their efficacy, and to gain further insight as to whether these compounds are repellent or if they only mask food odours and how the learning capacities of the wasps are affected by a repellent. ...
Article
Secondary plant metabolites such as those present in essential oils can be toxic to herbivorous insects and also repel attack, given they play a role in selection and acceptance of host plants. However, few studies have dealt with the use of plant-based repellents to manage invasive wasps. The objective was to assess essential oils with potential as wasp repellents, and to gain further insight as to how they affect the learning capacities of these insects. Five essential oils were tested on Vespula germanica (Fabricius) wasps in field choice and no-choice tests. When given a choice, foragers avoided the treated baits almost completely. Wind tunnel bioassays demonstrated that wasps recognise the repellent essential oils through olfactory cues, leading to a dose-dependent decreased response to the food stimulus. The effect of the repellents on the cognitive ability of V.germanica workers was also studied in relation to food search efficiency. Naive workers landed on the treated baits, although it took them longer than to land on control baits. When workers were allowed to forage on a food bait twice before a repellent was added, an effect on relocation behaviour was observed. The returning workers arriving to a feeding site with essential oil were reticent to land on it, suggesting that there is indeed a repellent effect and not just masking of the food source. A push-pull system combining attractive baits with the use of plant-based repellents is a promising management strategy in urban settings for this insect pest.
... In the current study, we examined the repellency effect and mechanism of GC film against BPH. According to previous studies, Eos and other secondary metabolites, as well as their mixtures, have shown moderate repellency activities against many insects [14,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. Therefore, the GC film contains citral, also speculated to have this effect, as the major component. ...
... Many essential oils have shown repellency against biting arthropods [34][35][36] and against agricultural pests [37][38][39]. Zhang et al. tested 21 essential oils and 17 showed significant repellency on yellow jackets (mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)) and paper wasps (mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)), and E/Z-citral, among 11 active compounds, showed a significant repellency on vespid workers [16]. Similar results were also observed in Tanacetum parthenium and Tanacetum vulgare. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using of plant essential oil that coevolved as a defense mechanism against agriculture insects is an alternative means of controlling many insect pests. In order to repel brown planthoppers (BPHs), the most notorious rice insect pest, a new film based on guar gum incorporated with citral (GC film) was formulated, which was effective while being environmentally friendly. In this paper, the effect and mechanism of GC film repellency against BPHs were determined. Repellent activity test and olfactory reaction analysis showed that GC film had repellency effect against BPHs, with repellency of 60.00% and 73.93%, respectively. The result of olfactory reaction indicated that GC film repellency against BPHs relied on smell. EPG analysis showed the proportion and mean duration of np waveform were significantly higher than in CK and increased following the treatment concentration, which indicated that GC film affected the recognition of BPHs to rice. Further analysis by RNA sequencing analysis showed a total of 679 genes were significantly upregulated and 284 genes were significantly downregulated in the BPHs fed on the rice sprayed with GC film compared to control. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene 797 and gustatory receptor gene (GR)/odorant receptor (OR) gene 13110 showed a significant decrease in differential expression and significant increase in differential expression, respectively. There were 0.66 and 2.55 differential expression multiples between treated BPHs and control, respectively. According to the results described above, we reasoned that GC film repellency against BPHs due to smell, by release of citral, caused the recognition difficulties for BPHs to rice, and OBP gene 797 and GR/OR gene 13110 appeared to be the crucial candidate genes for GC film repellency against BPHs. The present study depicted a clear and consistent repellency effect for GC film against BPHs and preliminarily clarified the mechanism of GC film as a repellent against BPHs, which might offer an alternative approach for control of BPHs in the near future. Our results could also help in the development and improvement of GC films.
... The essential oil (EO) is isolated from lavender mostly by hydrodistillation [1,[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] or steam distillation [15][16][17] of fresh or dried flowers, even though a few alternative techniques have been also used to accelerate this procedure [18][19][20]. The composition analysis of LEO has been performed in various studies assessing its antifungal [3,4,21], antibacterial [10], antioxidant [4,17,22], insect repellent [7,23,24] activity, as well as its application in the food industry [5]. The most appreciated lavender oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries are those with high content in linalyl acetate and linalool and low content in camphor, while those richer in camphor are mainly used in aromatherapy and phytotherapy [25,26]. ...
... LEO GC-MS analysis of the gas phase has been applied to study the volatiles content by using different sampling techniques, such as solidphase microextraction (SPME) [20,23,24,[35][36][37][38][39][40], or dynamic headspace (DHS) [41]. There is also a study applying solid-phase trapping solvent extraction (SPTE), reduced pressure steam distillation (RPSD) and simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction (SDE) for comparison purposes in the evaluation of oil quality [36]. ...
... Plant-derived odours also have a relevant role in wasps foraging. For example, terpenes can elicit strong aversive responses both in naïve and experienced wasps, deterring approaches and landings on food baits (Zhang et al. 2013;Buteler et al. 2016;Yossen et al. 2019). Research has shown that, when paired up with protein sources, these aversive odour cues can markedly affect food preferences (D'Adamo et al. 2001;Yossen et al 2019). ...
... Odours were chosen based on earlier studies that reported that they can significantly influence food preferences in V. germanica foragers (D'Adamo et al. 2000;Yossen et al. 2020). Lavender essential oil odour was used as an aversive cue (hereafter, aversive odour group) since it has been demonstrated that it elicits spontaneous avoidance responses (Zhang et al. 2013;Yossen et al. 2020). On the other hand, lavender essential oil was also used as a learnt appetitive cue (hereafter, learnt odour group). ...
Article
Full-text available
Food search is guided by cues from different sensory modalities, such as olfactory and visual. In social wasps, olfaction plays a key role in locating new resources. However, while several studies have focused on the importance of odours in predation, less is known about their role during scavenging, when spatial memories become a relevant guidance mechanism. Here, we investigated whether the use of odours during carrion exploitation by Vespula germanica wasps depends on whether they are locating or relocating the resource. By means of field choice experiments, we evaluated wasp response to odours: an odour eliciting a spontaneous aversive response, a learnt odour eliciting an appetitive response, and the conspecifics’ odour eliciting an attractive response. Experiments were conducted in different contexts, i.e., during food localisation by naïve foragers, re-localisation of a resource at the learnt site and re-localisation of a resource that had been displaced from the learnt site. All olfactory stimuli evaluated markedly influenced foraging decisions in naïve wasps and in experienced wasps when the food was moved from the learnt location. However, odours were ignored during the wasp’s return to the foraging site. These results suggest a cue hierarchy, in which local landmarks are more reliable to relocate carrion, while olfaction would be useful to locate novel resources or relocate a known source when spatial memories fail. Our findings demonstrate a context-dependent use of odours during carrion exploitation by V. germanica wasps and highlight the importance of spatial memories as an important factor modulating odour response.
... The essential oil (EO) is isolated from lavender mostly by hydrodistillation [1,[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] or steam distillation [15][16][17] of fresh or dried flowers, even though a few alternative techniques have been also used to accelerate this procedure [18][19][20]. The composition analysis of LEO has been performed in various studies assessing its antifungal [3,4,21], antibacterial [10], antioxidant [4,17,22], insect repellent [7,23,24] activity, as well as its application in the food industry [5]. The most appreciated lavender oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries are those with high content in linalyl acetate and linalool and low content in camphor, while those richer in camphor are mainly used in aromatherapy and phytotherapy [25,26]. ...
... LEO GC-MS analysis of the gas phase has been applied to study the volatiles content by using different sampling techniques, such as solidphase microextraction (SPME) [20,23,24,[35][36][37][38][39][40], or dynamic headspace (DHS) [41]. There is also a study applying solid-phase trapping solvent extraction (SPTE), reduced pressure steam distillation (RPSD) and simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction (SDE) for comparison purposes in the evaluation of oil quality [36]. ...
Article
A static headspace gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (HS–GC/MS) method was developed and optimized with the aim to be applied in the analysis of lavender essential oil. To obtain a comprehensive profile of the essential oil, the optimum HS–GC/MS method parameters were selected based on a Design of Experiments (DοE) process. Plackett-Burman experimental design was applied by utilizing seven parameters of the HS injection system. Incubation equilibration temperature and time, agitator’s vortex speed, post injection dwell time, inlet temperature, split ratio and injection flow rate were screened to select the optimum conditions on the basis of the number and the intensity of the identified compounds. Other parameters, such as sample volume and dilution solvent ratio, were also examined to achieve a comprehensive profile in a chromatographic run of 55 min. With the obtained optimum method, more than 40 volatile compounds were identified in lavender’s essential oils from different geographical regions in Greece. The method can find utility for the quality assessment of lavender’s essential oil and provide information on its characteristic aroma and discrimination among species based on the acquired GC-MS profiles.
... Several studies have confirmed this, with M. pulegium EO proving to be a highly effective insecticide (Hanane et al., 2018;Lougraimzi et al., 2018;Tine-Djebbar et al., 2018) and insect repellent (Giatropoulos et al., 2018;Salem et al., 2017) towards a broad variety of pests, Table 2. In other instances, M. pulegium EO presents moderate repellency towards insects, such as wasps (Zhang et al., 2013) and mosquitos (Bueno and Andrade, 2010). Furthermore, all active components detected individually presented strong repellency effects to vespid wasps, Table 2, indicating that an antagonistic effect is responsible for the lower repellency effect of the M. pulegium EO (Zhang et al., 2013). ...
... In other instances, M. pulegium EO presents moderate repellency towards insects, such as wasps (Zhang et al., 2013) and mosquitos (Bueno and Andrade, 2010). Furthermore, all active components detected individually presented strong repellency effects to vespid wasps, Table 2, indicating that an antagonistic effect is responsible for the lower repellency effect of the M. pulegium EO (Zhang et al., 2013). The same effect was observed for nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with single compounds presenting higher activity than the EO (Ntalli et al., 2010). ...
Article
The widespread use of pesticides has made them into a frequent pollutant of soils and water. The usage of essential oils has gathered the attention of the scientific research community in the last decade as they present a reduced environmental impact compared to conventional pesticides and are equally or more effective in controlling pests in crops. Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) essential oil is of particular interest due to its traditional usage in plague/pest control. In fact, recent studies show that it is highly effective and presents a broad spectrum of action as a biocide, affecting bacteria, fungi, yeast, insects, acarines, parasites, nematodes, and plants. This is mainly due to the most common constituents of the essential oil, pulegone and menthone, which are known to have strong pesticidal and antioxidant properties. This review focus on summarizing and systematizing the composition and efficacy as a biocide of M. pulegium essential oils and the developments of the last decade regarding the usage of M. pulegium essential oil as an alternative to pesticides. Encapsulation and inclusion in biofilms are also mentioned as strategies to incorporate M. pulegium essential oil in applications associated with pharmaceutical and food industries.
... However, the repellency of DEET can vary according to tick species and life stage (Carroll et al., 2004;Jensenius et al., 2005;Soares et al., 2010a;Borges et al., 2015). Essential oils and other plant extracts are a rich source of substances that repel and kill ticks (Bissinger and Roe, 2010;Benelli et al., 2016).The terpene βcitronellol is a major component of the essential oil from the carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllum), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), and geranium (Perlagonium graveolens L.) (Tunón et al., 2006;Chanthai et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2012).Soares et al. (2010b)observed high rates and long lasting repellency against Amblyomma cajennense s. l. nymphs using a Cymbopogon nardus extract. The monoterpenoid βcitronellol repelled Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Tunón et al., 2006). ...
Article
Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum can parasite humans and domestic animals and are vectors of pathogens, including zoonoses. Repellents are an important tool of tick control. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of N,N-diethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard repellent, versus β-citronellol in a Petri dish bioassay. A semicircle of filter paper (31.8 cm²) was treated with 87 μL of one of four concentrations (0.200, 0.100, 0.050 and 0.025 mg/cm²) of β-citronellol, DEET or solvent (ethanol). A head-to-head test was developed treating one side with increasing concentrations of β-citronellol as above mentioned, against the highest concentration of DEET. Besides that a blank assay was performed. Three males and three females were placed in the middle of the plate and their location was evaluated 5, 10 and 30 min after the test was initiated. As a result, the time had no significant effect on repellency response of the ticks exposed to both compounds and their concentrations. The repellency response raised according with the increase of concentration. Additionally, our findings indicate that the tick A. sculptum was more sensitive to the compounds tested and β-citronellol showed a higher efficacy than DEET. In addition, β-citronellol could be formulated to protect humans and other animals from R. sanguineus s. l. and A. sculptum infestation, as well as the diseases transmitted by these species.
... For instance, the ability of tea tree oil and lemongrass oil to act as yellowjacket repellents is dose-dependent, with higher concentrations producing a stronger effect [25]. The ability of essential oils to repel also depends on their proximity to the attractant source, with repellency increasing when oils are placed closer to the attractant [26]. Some molecules are capable of eliciting opposite reactions entirely. ...
Article
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Several yellowjacket species are important pests in both their native habitat and in areas where they are invasive. Traps that contain one or more chemical attractants to lure insects inside are commonly used to combat these yellowjackets in urban environments. Usually, attractants are placed within the trap and combined indiscriminately, though little is known about how this design influences trap attractiveness or efficacy. Here, using the common attractant heptyl butyrate in combination with chicken extract, we demonstrate that spatial partitioning of attractants results in increased capture of the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica—a widespread pestiferous species. Specifically, we show that partitioning of these attractants results in increased visitation of yellowjackets to a trap while also leading to more individuals entering the trap. Further, we provide evidence that this effect is driven by the ability of heptyl butyrate to function as an attractant to the general location of the trap while also blocking the effects of meat extract as a trap-entering stimulus. Thus, our data challenge the current paradigm of combining attractants inside yellowjacket traps, and suggest that these methods can be improved through the consideration of spatial variables and interactions. Our results not only provide novel insight into the mechanisms of yellowjacket attraction, but are also likely to be applicable to the control of other insects for which attractant-based traps are used.
... Naturally occurring terpene oils have been found to be less hazardous substitutes for synthetic pesticides. One common constituent of these oils is citral, which has shown promise as both insect repellent and insecticide [6][7][8][9][10]. ...
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Due to the effect of severe environmental conditions, such as intense heat, blowing sand, and ultraviolet light, conventional pesticide applications have repeatedly failed to adequately control mosquito and sandfly populations in desert areas. In this study, a vinyl silsesquioxane (VS) was added to a pesticide (citral) to enhance residual, thermal and anti-ultraviolet properties via three double-bond reactions in the presence of an initiator: (1) the connection of VS and citral, (2) a radical self-polymerization of VS and (3) a radical self-polymerization of citral. VS-citral, the expected and main product of the copolymerization of VS and citral, was characterized using standard spectrum techniques. The molecular consequences of the free radical polymerization were analyzed by MALDITOF spectrometry. Anti-ultraviolet and thermal stability properties of the VS-citral system were tested using scanning spectrophotometry (SSP) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The repellency of VS-citral decreased over time, from 97.63% at 0 h to 72.98% at 1 h and 60.0% at 2 h, as did the repellency of citral, from 89.56% at 0 h to 62.73% at 1 h and 50.95% at 2 h.
... Essential oils have several activities and applications such as insecticides, repellents, cosmetics, fragrances, herbicides, among others. Repellency of 17 essential oils against pestiferous yellowjackets wasps of human food sources was recently reported in the literature (Zhang et al., 2013). Research on natural products with insecticidal activity needs to determine the compounds responsible for this activity. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of four doses of mineral fertilization in biomass production, the content and composition of essential oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) in five harvest seasons. In the evaluation of the production of biomass of citronella grass was adopted the statistical design in block randomized in a subdivided plot scheme, with five repetitions. The plots consisted by four levels of mineral fertilization with fertilizers NPK (0, 50, 100 and 150% of the recommended dose) the recommendation of mineral fertilizer was 100 kg ha-1 P205, 40 hg ha-1 K2O and 50 kg N ha-1 provided by superphosphate, potassium chloride and ammonium sulfate, respectively; the subplots for five harvest times (60, 88, 116, 144 and 172 days after transplant). The extraction of essential oil of citronella grass was made by hydrodistillation and the identification of compounds of the essential oil by GC/MS. The mineral fertilizer of 150% of the recommended dose propitiated the biggest taxes of growth in all the analyzed variable. The biggest essential oil content was obtained in the doses of 100% (1.59%) and 150% of NPK (1.67%). Ten chemical compounds were identified in essential oil of citronella grass, between monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds of the essential oil were the citronellal, geraniol and elemol. The content and the composition of the essential oil of citronella grass varied depending on the dose of mineral fertilizer used.
... These data are largely unpublished; however, Landolt et al. (2000) showed that AA2MB was similar to AAIB in attracting V. germanica, V. pensylvanica, and P. aurifer. Zhang et al. (2013) used AA2MB lures as a positive control in tests of plant-based chemical repellents and trapped several yellowjacket species as well as P. dominula. Field tests of AA2MB in Oklahoma showed high numbers of V. squamosa, V. maculifrons, and D. maculata captured. ...
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Chemical attractants for trapping temperate social wasps have been discovered during the screening of chemicals as attractants for flies, the study of pentatomid bug pheromones, and the testing of volatiles of fermented sweet baits. Wasp attraction to these chemicals seems to be related to either food-finding or prey-finding behavior. Of these attractive chemicals, commercial lures marketed in North America for trapping wasps generally contain heptyl butyrate, or the combination of acetic acid and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Heptyl butyrate is a very good attractant for two major pest wasp species in North America and minor wasp pests in the Vespula rufa species group. The combination of acetic acid with isobutanol attracted nearly all North American pest species of social wasps, including yellowjackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), a hornet (Vespa crabro), and several paper wasps (Polistes spp.). The testing of wasp chemical attractants in different geographic areas demonstrated responses of many wasp taxa and showed a broad potential scope for the marketing of trap lures. Comparisons of compounds structurally similar to isobutanol revealed similar activity with 2-methyl-1-butanol, which is now used commercially because of a vapor pressure that is more favorable than isobutanol for formulations and dispensers. Doses and concentrations needed for good wasp catches were determined for heptyl butyrate, acetic acid, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol, either formulated in water or dispensed from a controlled release device. Trap designs were developed based on consumer considerations; visual appeal, ease and safety of use, and low environmental impact. The resultant lures and traps are marketed in numerous physical and on-line retail outlets throughout the United States and southern Canada.
... Control by baiting may be considered as a lesser evil, but it works only if people stay in the neighborhood of the trap. Recent studies of several essential oils and single volatiles demonstrate their repellent effects against vespids [4,5], but some volatiles can attract vespids [6,7]. Such chemicals may be integrated in a "push-pull" strategy that combines repellents around people, and attractants at some distance from them, to trap the vespids [8]. ...
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Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm) were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm², in 30 min intervals, from t = -120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = -120, -90, -60, -30, and 0 min) remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions.
... Control by baiting may be considered as a lesser evil, but it works only if people stay in the neighborhood of the trap. Recent studies of several essential oils and single volatiles demonstrate their repellent effects against vespids [4,5], but some volatiles can attract vespids [6,7]. Such chemicals may be integrated in a "push-pull" strategy that combines repellents around people, and attractants at some distance from them, to trap the vespids [8]. ...
Article
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Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10ˆ1010ˆ10ˆ10 cm) were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm 2 , in 30 min intervals, from t = ´120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = ´120, ´90, ´60, ´30, and 0 min) remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions.
... 17 Currently pharmacological effects are being actively investigated. In vitro studies demonstrate that it has antiviral, 18 anti-nociceptive, 19 antifungal, 20 antioxidant, 21 antimicrobial, 22 anticancer, 23 Insecticidal, 24 pest repellent 25 and anti plasmid activity. 16 Test Organisms: Most common problematic pathogens, one from gram positive and other from gram negative bacteria, are selected as test organisms. ...
... Variations in chemical composition owing to seasonal or geographic differences, growth conditions, and extraction methods for thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil (Senatore 1996;Hudaib et al. 2002;Asllani and Toska 2003) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) essential oil (Zheljazkov et al. 2011;Desai et al. 2014;Moncada et al. 2014) are well documented, along with their insecticidal activity (Lee et al. 2001;Machial et al. 2010;Jiang et al. 2012), repellence (Diaz-Montano andTrumble 2013;Zhang et al. 2013), and physiological impact such as insect larval growth or feeding deterrence (Hummelbrunner and Isman 2001;Jiang et al. 2012) as well as acaricidal activity (Sertkaya et al. 2010). Although many screening data highlighted the merit of both essential oils as insect control agents, understandings of the activities of individual constituents and their comparative contributions to the overall toxicity are vital in the considerations of candidate oils as for practical use (i.e., determinations of cultivation condition, commercialization, or quality control). ...
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The chemical composition of a plant essential oil can be affected by many environmental and biological factors. Understanding the role of individual constituents as well as their interactions to the overall insecticidal bioactivity is prerequisite to the use of essential oils as an alternative to conventional insecticides. In the present study, the chemical compositions of plant essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of individual constituents were evaluated against third instar larvae and an ovarian cell line of Trichoplusia ni. Thymol was the most abundant compound in thyme oil and the primary active constituent in contact and cytotoxicity tests, whereas p-cymene was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. In lemongrass oil, citral was identified as the major active and most abundant constituent. A weak correlation between insecticidal activity and cytotoxicity was observed, indicating limitation of the latter as a screening tool for novel insecticides. Although the evaporation of thymol was enhanced at higher temperatures, its contribution to fumigant activity was limited.
... After 4-h exposure, pogostone and caryophyllene exhibited stronger repellent (Class II) than patchoulol (Class I; Table 4). Repellence of the essential oil of P. cablin leaves has been demonstrated to other insects (Zhu et al. 2003, Yang et al. 2010, Gokulakrishnan et al. 2013, Zhang et al. 2013. One of the main components, patchoulol also has been demonstrated to possess repellent activity against several other insects (Zhu et al. 2003, Gokulakrishnan et al. 2013. ...
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The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), alpha-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male Blattela germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 mu g per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 mu g per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 mu g per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50=339.90 mu g per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents.
... Eugenol, eugenol acetate and beta-caryophyllene were effective in repellency of red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), being eugenol the fastest acting compound [47] . Clove oil was also effective spatial repellent for pestiferous social wasps Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) and paper wasps mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ) [48] . ...
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Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.
... Methyl benzoate is one of the most abundant phenylpropanoid-derived volatile emitted from different plant parts and sources [32][33][34]. It is documented to have attractant activity to Hylastinus obscurus (clover root borer) [33] but potential repellent activity to Apis mellifera (honeybees) [35] and strong repellency to several pestiferous social wasps (yellow jackets, Vespula pennyslvanica and paper wasps, Polistes dominulus) [36]. ...
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Essential oils extracted from plants are composed of volatile organic compounds that can affect insect behavior. Identifying the active components of the essential oils to their biochemical target is necessary to design novel biopesticides. In this study, essential oils extracted from Diospyros discolor (Willd.) were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to create an untargeted metabolite profile. Subsequently, a conformational ensemble of the Drosophila melanogaster octopamine receptor in mushroom bodies (OAMB) was created from a molecular dynamics simulation to resemble a flexible receptor for docking studies. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of several metabolites, i.e. mostly aromatic esters. Interestingly, these aromatic esters were found to exhibit relatively higher binding affinities to OAMB than the receptor’s natural agonist, octopamine. The molecular origin of this observed enhanced affinity is the π -stacking interaction between the aromatic moieties of the residues and ligands. This strategy, computational inspection in tandem with untargeted metabolomics, may provide insights in screening the essential oils as potential OAMB inhibitors.
... Essential oils have several activities and applications such as insecticides, repellents, cosmetics, fragrances, herbicides, among others. Repellency of 17 essential oils against pestiferous yellowjackets wasps of human food sources was recently reported in the literature (Zhang et al., 2013). Research on natural products with insecticidal activity needs to determine the compounds responsible for this activity. ...
Article
The demand for effective insecticides in pest control with low toxicity to the non-target organisms, such as natural enemies and pollinators, is increasing steadily. A good alternative for synthetic insecticides is natural compounds, including essential oils (EO). This work assessed toxicity of essential oils extracted from Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, A. camphorata, A. dracunculus and A. vulgaris against the melonworm Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae, a pest of Cucurbitaceae, and their selectivity for fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and jataí bee Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Meliponinae). The plants were grown in a greenhouse with mineral fertilization and were used for EO extraction. The insects in the bioassay belonged to the second instar of D. hyalinata and adult forms of S. saevissima and T. angustula. Essential oil from A. annua induced a high mortality rate in D. hyalinata (96 %) over a 48 h period. The same essential oil was selective for predator S. saevissima (42 % mortality) and pollinator T. angustula (74 % mortality), while causing high mortality in D. hyalinata. The insecticidal activity of A. annua oil was attributed to the synergism of its constituents viz., camphor and 1,8-cineole. Therefore, this essential oil contains constituents that are promising for effective use as insecticide due to its high toxicity and rapid action against D. hyalinata as well as low toxicity for predator and pollinator.
... 42,43,45 The effectiveness of eugenol was consistent with previous studies reporting that eugenol has repellent activity against M. persicae 29 and other insects. 40,46,47 Despite the fact that the repellent effect of O. basilicum could be attributed to dominant VOCs, 27,41 the role of other minor compounds cannot be disregarded 48 since they can be behaviorally active even in low doses. 49 As minor compounds emitted from O. basilicum, -terpineol, myrcene, geranyl acetone, and sabinene were demonstrated as repellent at one or more of the concentrations tested. ...
... Eugenol, eugenol acetic acid derivation and betacaryophyllene were viable in repellency of red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (Kafle and Shih et al., 2003). Clove oil was additionally demonstrated powerful for repellent of pestiferous social wasps Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) and paper wasps for the most part Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Zhang et al., 2013). So, in this circumstance the clove oil could be a viable option for being utilized as a larvicidal operator. ...
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Syzygium aromaticum commonly known as Clove is considered to be the most precious spice among others, which has been continued to be utilized for centuries for different biological and therapeutic purposes. It is a tropical tree which belongs to the Myrtaceae family and natively originated from Indonesia. However, in current times it is found in a few other places of the world including Brazil. Clove is viewed as perhaps the most extravagant source of phenolic mixes, for example, eugenol, eugenol acetic acid derivatives and so on. These mixtures have incredible potential for restorative, organic and other rural applications. In this review we have tried to figure out some of the important medicinal or therapeutic as well as phytobiotic and agricultural utilizations of the products prepared from Clove. We have tried to give an extra emphasis on the application of clove as a product of herbal contraception however for this purpose dose of the extract (either aqueous or ethanolic) of clove plays the vital role in this case. Although for establishing or making clove products commercially available as a safe product for herbal contraception or other medicinal impacts, more studies are required, and it could open a new era in the field of herbal medicine that would be much safer and feasible.
... Consequently, detection and effective control of wasp nests, before large population sizes are reached, is vital. Such control actions include physical hand removal of nests, biological and chemical control and chemical repellents (Field and Darby 1991;Sackmann et al. 2001;Wood et al. 2006;Zhang et al. 2013;van Zyl et al. 2018). To date, no single method exists to effectively control this wasp species across its invasive range, in part due to local adaptations and between country differences that complicate standardised control actions. ...
Article
The eusocial wasp Vespula germanica is a problematic invasive species in the Southern Hemisphere regions. Especially in New Zealand, Tasmania and Argentina, population densities can be very high and result in large negative impacts. In these regions, the development of baits is used not only to monitor population sizes but also to poison wasps when they return with treated baits to their nests. In contrast, this wasp has been present in South Africa since 1974 but is still confined to a small geographical area. Therefore, detection of the presence of V. germanica with a low level of false negatives is important. The foundation of such a monitoring strategy is a reliable bait or lure that can be placed, in a standard way, in different environments to detect wasp presence. In this study, we tested two baits and two lures at eight localities in 2013 and two baits and four lures at nine localities in 2014. Trap catches confirm low population densities of the target species even in the core of its distribution in South Africa with on average between 3 and 11 wasps (median of 0) caught per trap. Confirming classical bait preference studies, meat baits, specifically lean smoked ham and lean beef mince, trapped significantly more foragers in both sampling years than the unbaited control treatments. However, all catches using synthetic lures with various compounds known to be attractive to Vespula species were almost always indistinguishable from control treatments. Consequently, more research is required in optimising baiting of V. germanica in South Africa, where it occurs at relatively low densities and worker activity peaks when seasonal conditions are unfavourable (hot and dry). Low population densities could explain why synthetic lures that are effective in other invaded continents were not effective in South Africa.
... A second promising compound we identified is p-anisaldehyde which is also present in fragrances and yet the literature is silent on its antiviral potential, although it has been used to deter pests (57,58). Benzyl acetate is another essential oil widely used in perfumes and cosmetics as well as pesticide applications (59). Phenethyl acetate is a volatile flavor present in many fruits and other foods as well as in fungal infected honeybee larvae, where it induces hygienic behavior (60). ...
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Purpose Since the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa there has been considerable effort towards developing drugs to treat Ebola virus disease and yet to date there is no FDA approved treatment. This is important as at the time of writing this manuscript there is an ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which has killed over 1000. Methods We have evaluated a small number of natural products, some of which had shown antiviral activity against other pathogens. This is exemplified with eugenol, which is found in high concentrations in multiple essential oils, and has shown antiviral activity against feline calicivirus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Influenza A virus, Herpes Simplex virus type 1 and 2, and four airborne phages. Results Four compounds possessed EC50 values less than or equal to 11 μM. Of these, eugenol, had an EC50 of 1.3 μM against EBOV and is present in several plants including clove, cinnamon, basil and bay. Eugenol is much smaller and structurally unlike any compound that has been previously identified as an inhibitor of EBOV, therefore it may provide new mechanistic insights. Conclusion This compound is readily accessible in bulk quantities, is inexpensive, and has a long history of human consumption, which endorses the idea for further assessment as an antiviral therapeutic. This work also suggests that a more exhaustive assessment of natural product libraries against EBOV and other viruses is warranted to improve our ability to identify compounds that are so distinct from FDA approved drugs.
... Indeed, EOs can interfere with insects' behaviour and physiology, delaying their development, adult emergence and fertility, and affecting oviposition (Regnault-Roger et al., 2012;Werdin González et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2013). Biopesticides based on EOs are considered more eco-friendly than synthetic molecules, as they have a low persistence in the environment and are usually considered non-toxic to humans (Terriquez et al., 2013). ...
Article
The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys is an invasive agricultural pest in North America and Europe, and also a dwelling nuisance in autumn, due to the overwintering adults aggregating inside buildings. The repellent potential of ginger, clove, vetiver and turmeric essential oils (EOs) was tested on H. halys adults of three different physiological‐behavioural phases: exiting overwintering (EXOV), active during summer (SUMM) and entering overwintering (ENOV). In a two‐choice apparatus, fresh food was used as an attractant in both sides, together with three males when testing ENOV individuals. A filter paper with different concentrations of the EOs was the treatment side, and a filter paper with ethanol acted as control. The position of the individually tested bugs was recorded after 1, 6 and 24 hr. All tested EOs were repellent at concentrations higher than 3%, independent of sex or length of exposure. Turmeric and clove were the most repellent EOs, whereas ginger and vetiver showed on average a medium‐to‐low repellency. Significant differences emerged among the physiological‐behavioural phases, with SUMM individuals showing a greater repellency to many of the tested concentrations, and EXOV individuals being overall the least susceptible to these substances. The response to vetiver oil was ambiguous, as at 25%, it elicited both a strong repellency in SUMM and a strong attraction in EXOV. Turmeric and clove EOs are promising candidates in integrated pest management strategies to reduce attacks by H. halys to susceptible crops especially during summer, as well as to prevent the entrance of overwintering bugs in buildings in autumn.
... Spatial repellents have also been effective in food packaging facilities (Licciardello et al. 2013, Olivero-Verbel et al. 2013. In agriculture, identified repellent compounds and technology have successfully repelled specific crop pests (Zhang et al. 2013, Zhan et al. 2014, Rashid et al. 2017. For example, Zhan et al. (2014) demonstrated that eight compounds repelled the brown marmorated stink bug, an invasive crop pest. ...
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The 2018 student debates of the Entomological Society of America were held at the Joint Annual Meeting for the Entomological Societies of America, Canada, and British Columbia in Vancouver, BC. Three unbiased introductory speakers and six debate teams discussed and debated topics under the theme 'Entomology in the 21st Century: Tackling Insect Invasions, Promoting Advancements in Technology, and Using Effective Science Communication'. This year's debate topics included: 1) What is the most harmful invasive insect species in the world? 2) How can scientists diffuse the stigma or scare factor surrounding issues that become controversial such as genetically modified organisms, agricultural biotechnological developments, or pesticide chemicals? 3) What new/emerging technologies have the potential to revolutionize entomology (other than Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)? Introductory speakers and debate teams spent approximately 9 mo preparing their statements and arguments and had the opportunity to share this at the Joint Annual Meeting with an engaged audience.
... In this regard, the use of essential oils (EOs) as natural insecticides is growing enormously, thanks to their high biodegradability and wide bioactivities [13,14]. The metabolites present in the different EOs possess multiple properties due to single action or synergistic action, such as acute toxicity, feeding and oviposition deterrence, repellence, and attraction [15,16]. Although the mechanisms of action are not perfectly known, several studies have shown that the greatest toxicity is caused by the interaction of the oil with the nervous system of insects mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), or by the antagonism of octopamine receptors [17]. ...
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Citation: Basile, S.; Badalamenti, N.; Riccobono, O.; Guarino, S.; Ilardi, V.; Bruno, M.; Peri, E. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Insecticidal Activity of Calendula incana subsp. maritima and Laserpitium siler subsp. siculum
... Formerly studies have also confirmed wide-ranging biological activities of the species of Millettia, including M. ferruginea such as pesticidal, anti-inflammatory antiviral, bactericidal, and antitumoral activities (Mollel & Adema, 2006;Wang et al., 2020). It was also indicated that plant essential oils and/or solvent extracts contain several phytochemicals, and the repellency to insects is typically enhanced by the synergistic effects of the individual components on them (Zhang et al., 2013). Likewise, plants were revealed to be a principal basis of bioactive phytochemicals, with an exhibition of repellent, toxicant, and antifeedant effects on a variety of field and storage insects (Jahromi et al., 2012). ...
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Millettia ferruginea leaf solvent extracts were tested for repellency against the most important pests of stored maize; the maize weevils and the red flour beetles. 2.5%, 5%, and 10% dosages were applied in 9 cm Whatman number 1 filter paper, with dividing it into three parts. The untreated portion was used as a control, while the neutral was served as the insect release portion. Significantly (P <0.05) higher percentage weevils and beetles (>55%) repellency was recorded in all M. ferruginea leaf polar solvent extracts applied at rates of 5% and 10%, at 2 days after treatment than nonpolar and partial polar solvent extract treatments, and the untreated check. One hundred percent weevils and beetles repellency were recorded in all M. ferruginea leaf polar extract treatments applied at rates of 10%, at 3 days after treatment. Therefore, the M. ferruginea leaf polar solvent extracts were potent, and they could be used in the management of the maize weevils and the red flour beetles in stored maize, at 5% and 10% dosages, under farmers' storage conditions in Ethiopia. However, the crude extracts effect on a human beings,
... 10 Seventeen EOs (including peppermint, citronella, clove, pennyroyal and lemongrass) showed spatial repellency on yellowjackets and paper wasps. 11 However, whether repellency by these EOs and their constituents is conserved in other insect pest species and whether repellency by EOs and EO constituents is olfaction-based are largely unknown. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Insects rely on their sense of smell to locate food and hosts, find mates and select sites for laying eggs. Use of volatile compounds, such as essential oils (EOs), to repel insect pests and disrupt their olfaction‐driven behaviors has great practical significance in integrated pest management. However, our knowledge on the olfaction‐based mechanisms of EO repellency is quite limited. RESULTS We evaluated the repellency of peppermint oil and nine plant EO components in Drosophila melanogaster, a model insect for olfaction study, and Drosophila suzukii, a major fruit crop pest. All nine volatiles, menthone, (−)‐menthol, menthyl acetate, (R)‐(+)‐limonene, nerol, (+)‐fenchone, (−)‐α‐thujone, camphor, norcamphor and peppermint oil, elicited repellency in D. melanogaster in a dose‐dependent manner. Most of the compounds, except camphor, also elicited repellency in D. suzukii. Menthone, (R)‐(+)‐limonene and (+)‐fenchone were the most potent repellents against D. suzukii. Repellency was reduced or abolished in two D. melanogaster mutants of the odorant receptor co‐receptor (Orco), indicating that the observed repellency is odorant receptor (Or)‐mediated. Repellency by peppermint oil, menthone, (R)‐(+)‐limonene, (−)‐α‐thujone and norcamphor also involves Or‐independent mechanism(s). Single sensillum recording from both species revealed that common and distinct Ors and olfactory receptor neurons were activated by these compounds. CONCLUSIONS The tested plant EO components evoke repellency by activating multiple Ors in both Drosophila species. Our study provides a foundation for further elucidation of the mechanism of EOs repellency and species‐specific olfactory adaptations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an economically important pest of tea crops, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae), in China. The use of non-host plant essential oils for manipulation of E. vitis was investigated for potential incorporation into a ‘push-pull’ control strategy for this pest. The effectiveness of 14 plant essential oils in repelling E. vitis was investigated in laboratory assays. Rosemary oil, geranium oil, lavender oil, cinnamon oil, and basil oil repelled leafhoppers in a Y-shaped olfactometer. We also compared the efficacy of these five plant essential oils to repel E. vitis in the presence of a host plant volatile-based leafhopper attractant, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, in a tea plantation. In the treatment combination, four plates (north, south, east, and west) treated with an essential oil surrounded a central sticky plate treated with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Fewer E. vitis were found on the plates treated with rosemary oil (12.5% reduction) than on the four water-sprayed control treatment plates surrounding a central plate with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. We compared the distribution of E. vitis on the plates, and the relative numbers of E. vitis on each plate were compared with similar plates in the control treatment. When four plates treated with rosemary oil surrounded a central (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate-treated plate, the distribution of E. vitis on the different plates changed significantly compared with that of the control. Relatively fewer E. vitis were found on the east (13.0% reduction) rosemary oil-treated plates and more E. vitis (11.3% increase) were found on the central attractant-treated plate. Our findings indicate that rosemary oil is a promising leafhopper repellent that should be tested further in a ‘push-pull’ strategy for control of E. vitis.
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Protein bait preferences of wasps (Vespula vulgaris and V. germanica) were determined by measuring the number of wasps attracted to different bait types, the amount of each bait type collected by wasps, and the proportion of wasps collecting bait. Fresh fish and meat baits attracted the largest number of wasps, but canned sardine cat‐food was collected in the greatest amounts. Factors influencing attraction of wasps to sardine cat‐food included wasp density, season, and weather. The number of wasps attracted to sardine cat‐food increased rapidly in January but lagged behind the number of wasps flying in and out of nests, peaked later, and declined earlier. The proportion of wasps that returned to nests carrying sardine cat‐food peaked in February‐March, when it was higher than the proportion collecting natural protein food. Sardine cat‐food is currently the best bait to use for wasp control because of its attractiveness, palatability, and acceptability to wasps. Future research should investigate other methods besides freezing for prolonging the shelf‐life of sardine cat‐food baits, and the use of solvent extracts of sardine cat‐food to prolong the field‐life of baits.
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Males ofPodisus fretus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) release a long-range attractant pheromone containing linalool (49.0%), (E)-2-hexenal (34.5%), benzyl alcohol (12.0%), nerolidol (2.0%),-terpineol (1.1%), and traces of several other compounds. The eastern yellowjacket,Vespula maculifrons (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is attracted to artificial pheromones forP. fretus and for the sympatric species,Podisus maculiventris.
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Workers and queens of the eastern yellowjacket,Vespula maculifrons, are attracted to the artificial long-range attractant pheromone of the predaceous pentatomid,Podisus maculiventris. A 11 mixture of linalool or -terpineol and (E)-2-hexenal is as attractive toV. maculifrons workers as the pheromone.
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Volatiles from bark of three nonhost angiosperm trees of Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Populus tremula) were collected by headspace sampling and direct solvent extraction in June 1998, and identified and quantified by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only small amounts of bark volatiles were detected in the aerations in situ from undamaged stems of the nonhost trees. In headspace volatiles from bark chips the two birch species had a similar odour profile, with two sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, alpha-zingiberene and alpha-santalene, as the most dominant components. Bark of P. tremula emitted significantly less sesquiterpenes and more green leaf volatiles (GLVs) than the two birch species did. Solvent extraction of fresh bark gave similar volatile composition for the two birches compared to the headspace of bark chips, but large differences were found in P. tremula. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis (GC-EAD) of the headspace volatiles from fresh bark chips of the three nonhost species revealed five compounds that consistently elicited antennal responses by I. typographus. The strongest antennal responses were elicited by trans-conophthorin, (SS,7S)-(-)-7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4. 5]decane with optical purity of ca. 90% (S,S). The other four antennally active bark volatiles were 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol, which had similar electroantennogram (EAC) dose-response curves and response thresholds. (+/-)-trans-Conophthorin showed a different, linear EAC dose-response curve, with a 10 times lower response threshold than the other GC-EAD active compounds, similar to the pheromone component, (-)-(4S)-cis-verbenol. These results suggest that not only the green leaf alcohols from leaves of the angiosperm trees but also the nonhost bark volatiles could be used by I. typographus as long-range olfactory cues to discriminate between its conifer host and the nonhosts, birch and aspen.
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A method of separating ZE-nepetalactone and EZ-nepetalactone from catnip oil involving mixing catnip oil dissolved in at least one water immiscible, non-halogenated organic solvent with at least one inorganic base dissolved in water to form a biphasic mixture, stirring the biphasic mixture to hydrolyze ZE-nepetalactone to form ZE-nepetalic acid, separating the aqueous phase containing ZE-nepetalic acid from the organic phase containing EZ-nepetalactone in the biphasic mixture, and optionally acidifying the aqueous phase to about pH 4.5 and adding at least one water immiscible, non-halogenated organic solvent to azeotropically lactonize the ZE-nepetalic acid in the presence of a catalytic amount of p-toluene sulfonic acid to form ZE-nepetalactone.
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The combination of acetic acid and isobutanol is attractive to different species of Vespidae in different areas of the United States. In Washington, the blend was attractive to workers and queens of Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), Vespula germanica (F.), and workers of Dolichovespula maculata (L.). In Maryland, these chemicals were attractive to worker Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), worker V. germanica, worker Vespula squamosa (Drury), worker D. maculata, worker Vespa crabro L., and female Polistes dominulus F. In Oklahoma, the blend was attractive to worker V. maculifrons, worker V. squamosa, female Polistes fuscatus (F.), and Polistes annularis (L.). Several species were weakly attracted to acetic acid alone; V. maculifrons and D. maculata in Maryland, and V. squamosa, V. maculifrons, P. fuscatus, P. perplexus, and P. annularis in Oklahoma. Queens of V. germanica in Washington, workers of V. maculifrons in Maryland, as well as workers of V. squamosa and V. maculifrons in Oklahoma were weakly attracted to isobutanol alone.
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The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and -terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed.
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Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.
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Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment.
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Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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Several compounds isolated from fermented molasses headspace were tested in comparison to heptyl butyrate as potential attractants for social wasps. Significant numbers of females of the golden paper wasp, Polistes aurifer Saussure, were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid and isobutanol. In a comparison of doses of isobutanol, captures of female golden paper wasps were significantly related to dose, with greatest numbers captured in the highest dose tested (one ml). In a comparison of concentrations of 0.125 to 2% acetic acid in water as a trap bait (traps also baited with 1 ml of isobutanol in a polyethylene cap), captures of golden paper wasps were not correlated to acetic acid concentration. This is the first chemical attractant demonstrated for a species of Polistes. It should provide a useful means of trapping golden paper wasps, and possibly other species, as a means of sampling or perhaps for use in population reduction.
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Fifteen volatile compounds found in bay leaves and crushed bay leaves, were tested as repellents against adults of Tribolium castaneum when added to wheat flour. Bay leaves were repellent as were three compounds, benzaldehyde, piperidine, and geraniol when present at 50 ppm. Alpha pinene showed attractant properties.
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A new standard plastic wet trap was used to collect and preserve various species of yellowjackets attracted to synthetic chemical lure. The trap was used to monitor seasonal differences in the activity of yellowjackets in 4 southern and central California localities. Responsive sympatric yellowjacket species were readily detected, even when some species represented less than 1% of the yellowjackets present. Although more than 0.5 million Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) were trapped in 3 localized sites, there was no apparent reduction in the intensity of yellowjacket scavenging activity in the trapped areas during the time when traps were exposed.
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The occurrence of various presumably sympatric species of Nearctic yellowjackets was determined in widely separated areas. Long-term trapping with n-heptyl butyrate in California, Maryland, and Minnesota disclosed the presence of up to 6 sympatric species of Vespula in some localities. The most responsive included Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), Vespula sulphurea (Saussure), and Vespula atropilosa (Sladen). Male yellowjackets, Vespula germanica (F.), Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), and Dolichovespula species were nearly unresponsive to synthetic attractants but trapping combined with net collection indicated additional sympatry in some localities. Traps revealed the presence of various species of Vespula in specific localities and traps were used to determine the relative seasonal abundance only of responsive species. The detection sensitivity of trapping may be enhanced by the simultaneous use of protein, carbohydrate or various synthetic attractants.
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Worker yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) were captured in traps baited with combinations of an aqueous solution of acetic acid and polyethylene caps loaded with either butyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, or isobutanol. Vespula germanica (F.) were captured in large numbers in traps baited with acetic acid and isobutanol or acetic acid and butyl butyrate. Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) were captured in large numbers in traps baited with heptyl butyrate, acetic acid and heptyl butyrate, acetic acid and butyl butyrate, and acetic acid and isobutanol. Acetic acid generally enhanced the attractiveness of these other compounds to V. pensylvanica and V. germanica. Vespula atropilosa (Sladen) were captured in large numbers in traps baited with heptyl butyrate or acetic acid and heptyl butyrate, with no apparent effect of the addition of acetic acid to the trap, and they were only weakly attracted to other baits. The importance of acetic acid to attraction of V. germanica and V. pensylvanica to these lures supports the hypothesis that this response is food-finding behavior. The chemical lure comprised of acetic acid and isobutanol can be used for trapping the worldwide pest V. germanica, with the added advantage of simultaneous attractiveness to V. pensylvanica.
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A bait of canned fish poisoned with 0.5 % or 1 % mirex substantially reduced populations of the European wasp, Paravespula germanica (Fab.), in a part‐cleared, part‐forested resort area in the Marlborough Sounds. In separate baiting regimes, bait was taken for as long as 9 weeks when 0.5% formulation was offered from 5 stations, but when 1 % formulation was offered from 10 and from 15 stations the time was reduced to 5 weeks and 4 weeks respectively. Synthetic and extracted materials tested as baits were unattractive to wasps, but fish baits attractive when fresh could be freeze‐dried without loss of acceptability. Marked wasps were caught up to 1200 m from their nests, and in the control programme 64 ppm mirex was recovered from dry brood comb of a defunct nest 700 m from the nearest bait source. The importance to bait control programmes of data on flight distance and foraging habits, and of the winter survival of colonies with prolonged queen production, is discussed. Some observations on reproductive biology are made in an appendix to the paper.
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El número de trabajadores de Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), la avispa “chaqueta amarilla” occidental, y los de V. atropilosa (Sladen) atrapados con el butirato heptílico en el estado de Washington aumentó con una mayor liberación del atrayente en frascos dispensadores, hasta un estimado de 2.3 miligramos de butirato heptílico por hora, los trabajadores de Vespula germanica (F.), la avispa “chaqueta amarilla” alemán, tambien fueron capturados en números significantes, y el número de trabajadores capturados aumentó con la mayor liberación de butirato heptílico, hasta un estimado de 1.4 miligramos por hora. El número de los trabajadores de Vespula squamosa (Drury) atrapados con butirato heptílico en Oklahoma aumentó con el aumento de la liberación de butirato heptílico de los dispensadores, hasta un estimado 3.3 miligramos por hora. Los frascos dispensadores, con hoyos de 6, 12, 22 y 33 mm de diametro en el tapón del frasco, perdieron 0.42, 1.37, 2.3, y 3.3 miligramos de butirato heptílico por hora en el laboratorio y estas proporciones cambiaron poco sobre un período de 4 semanas, indicando una proporción del orden cerca del cero del patrón de liberación. La proporción de perdida de 2 ml de butirato heptílico aplicado a una pelota de algodón bajó con el tiempo de exposición, desde una proporción inicial de 6.0 miligramos por hora hasta cerca de cero a los 16 dias después del tratamiento. La recolección de avispas en trampas para venta comercial puede ser mejorada con el uso de un dispensador de liberación controlada.
Article
Our aim was to test a set of baits and pesticides for the control of yellowjacket populations in NW Patagonia (Argentina), through field trials. We tested the attractiveness of protein (fresh and freeze-dried beef) and carbohydrate (corn syrup and honey) baits (alone and mixed) and three pesticides commonly employed to control terrestrial domestic arthropods (hydramethylnon 2%, permethrin 0.3% and chlorpyrifos 0.25%). Our results show that beef proved to be the most attractive bait tested, for Vespula germanica wasps in NW Patagonia. Honey and corn syrup alone or mixed with beef did not attract foraging wasps as did beef-only baits throughout the wasp season. Additionally, we show that the attractiveness of lyophilized beef baits is similar to that of fresh beef. The efficacy of the insecticides tested was limited. In fact, only baiting with hydramethylnon 2% reduced wasp populations (54%) and this occurred after 72 h since poisoning. However, given the potential of insects to develop resistance to a consistent use of a single product (e.g. fipronil 0.1%), the use of hydramethylnon may allow the alternating of insecticides in specific situations. The information provided here contributes to the existent knowledge on baits and insecticides for the control of yellowjackets using toxic baits.
Article
Seasonal and annual intensity of foraging pestiferous yellowjackets in California (USA) was determined with wet capture traps using heptyl butyrate (HB) lure. Although 3 species were sympatric at every test site, the most abundant at > 85 to 90% of total was V. pensylvanica (Saussure). There was a nearly 40-fold annual variation in the total number captured at some sites, the ultimate number of foragers apparently related to spring weather episodes. Independent of total number caught, traps indicated typical summer-fall seasonality, with the peak occurring in the warmest months. Queens and workers were attracted to HB. Early-season queen trapping and season-long trapping of foragers did not reduce the number of daily foragers nor reduce the number of reported sting episodes. In the short-term a ring of strategically placed interceptive traps reduced the number of yellowjackets foraging at a picnic food pavilion. Longer-term control was achieved one year with proprietary baits. Longer-term control one year was achieved with bait. Using minced chicken or one specific commercial fish-flavored pet food as the matrix, 0.05% chlorfenapyr or indoxacarb provided >90% non-resurgent control within 7 days. Results with bifenthrin, imidacloprid, and others were less spectacular, probably because of being repellent or having too rapid KD effects. Confirmation trials indicated that bait efficacy depends upon a minimum number of foragers/day. Trap catch is a good indicator of that minimum, there generally needing to be about 25 wasps/trap/day for baiting to be effective. Control may be achieved with toxicants such as fipronil or indoxacarb as they are transferred from the cuticle of foragers to other wasps in the colony. This transfer was substantiated by placing a wire-mesh cage soaked with 0.05% fipronil over a nest entrance for 15 min. The few caged exiting wasps were released and allowed to return to the colony, whereupon the colony was eliminated within 1 day.
Article
The repellencies of 13 labiate essential oils against Myzus persicae were investigated with a linear track olfactometer. Rosemary, thyme, peppermint, lavender, and spearmint oils repelled aphids at a dose of 10 l. Rosemary and thyme oils repelled at a dose of 1 l. The repellent actions of 13 components of rosemary oil were also evaluated. Among these components linalool, d,l-camphor, and -terpineol had repellent action. The repellency of rosemary oil in a screenhouse was investigated. Aphids were released in a screenhouse and allowed to choose between tobacco plants in an area permeated with rosemary oil odor and plants in a control area. The number of aphids in the treatment area was about 70% of that in the control area. These results indicated that the landing of M. persicae on host plants was influenced by odors and that it may be possible to control aphids with repellents.
Article
Thyme oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and Thymol the major constituents was purchased from Prolabo Co. and they were tested againstTetranychus urticae Koch. Thymol was more potent than Thyme oil as a deterrent factor for reducing egg laying by the mite. Mortality percentage reached 100% with both materials used, however, with low concentration the effect was pronounced with Thymol than Thyme oil.
Article
The repellency of the essential oil of the shrubCleome monophylla (Family: Capparidaceae) and identified constituents of the oil were evaluated against the livestock tick,Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and the maize weevil,Sitophillus zeamais. In a tick climbing repellency bioassay, the oil ofC. monophylla exhibited repellency which, at the highest dose, was comparable to that of the commercial arthropod repellent N,N-diethyl toluamide (DEET). In a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay,C. monophylla oil showed higher or comparable repellency againstS. zeamais relative to DEET at all the doses tested. 14 Compounds were identified in theC. monophylla oil by GC, GC-MS and coinjection with authentic samples. Terpenolene was found to occur in largest quantity (14%) followed by 1-α-terpeneol (10%), pentacosane (9%), (α+β)-humulene (8%), phytol (5%) and 2-dodecanone (4%). The most repellent components againstR. appendiculatus andS. zeamais were 1-α-terpeneol and 2-dodecanone. The overall pattern of repellency activity of theC. monophylla constituents with respect to the two arthropods was, however, different. The potential ofC. monophylla in tick and maize weevil control is discussed.
Article
Compositions and lures are described which provide vapor blends of acetic acid and one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of isobutanol, racemic 2-methyl-1-butanol, S-(-)-2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, heptyl butyrate, and butyl butyrate which function as highly effective attractants for yellowjacket wasps and paper wasps. By attracting wasps to traps or baits, the chemical attractants provide a means for detecting, surveying, monitoring, and controlling the wasps.
Article
A combination of volatile components which act synergistically to effectively attract yellowjackets in the Vespula species group is provided. A preferred formulation includes (E)-2-hexenal and linalool in the first component (A) and acetic acid and isobutanol in the second component (B). The two components are combined such that the vapors of the components blend to effectively attract the targeted yellowjackets. A dispenser may be utilized to release the vapors and may also be included within a trap to provide a means for monitoring or controlling the insects.
Article
Twelve insecticides incorporated into fish-flavored cat food were compared as baits for Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure). They included chlorinated hydrocarbon, organophosphate. and carbamate insecticides and with the exception of mirex, imparted varying degrees of repellency to the baits. Artificial attractants were synthesized and field tested. The addition of I of these, heptyl crotonate, doubled the amount of 0.5% mirex bait and tripled the amount of 1% mixed bait removed by yellow jackets. Excellent control of yellow jackets was obtained in test areas ranging in size from a single residential lot to about 40 hectares (100 acres). Annual control was obtained with a single baiting at any time during the production of brood. One bait station, containing 450 g of bait, per 2 hectares gave control. Rebaiting was done only when most of the bait was removed by the yellow jackets within the 1st week of control. bait was acceptable to yellow jackets as long as it remained.
Article
A cooked horsemeat bait containing 1% chlordane wp, which was exposed in protected dispensers for retrieval by foraging yellow jackets for larval and colony destruction, controlled 2 species of ground-nesting yellow jackets, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) and V. vulgaris (L.), in park and suburban areas in San Mateo County, California. Highly effective control was obtained by using 1 dispenser (4 oz toxic bait) per 2 acres at a cost of $2.00 per acre in smaller park areas.
Article
Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid.
Article
The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed.
Cleome monophylla essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) repellents
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32 Ndungu M, Lawndale W, Hassanali A, Morena L and Cabra CS, Cleome monophylla essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) repellents. Entomol Exp Appl 76:217-222 (1995).
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Rust MK, Reierson DA and Vetter RS. Developing baits for the control of yellowjackets in California. Final Report 2010 for Structural Pest Control Board [Online]. Structural Pest Control Board, Grant No. 041–04, pp. 1–33 (2010). Avail-able: http://www.pestboard.ca.gov/howdoi/research/2009_yellow jacket.pdf (2010).
Plant-based insect repellents, in Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods and Uses
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Moore SJ, Lenglet A and Hill N, Plant-based insect repellents, in Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods and Uses, ed. by Debboun M, Frances SP and Strickman D. CRC Press, New York, NY, pp. 275-303 (2007).
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Gold RE and Jones SC, Handbook of Household and Structrual Insect Pests. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD (2000).
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17 Rust MK, Reierson DA and Vetter RS. Developing baits for the control of yellowjackets in California. Final Report 2010 for Structural Pest Control Board [Online]. Structural Pest Control Board, Grant No. 041-04, pp. 1-33 (2010). Available: http://www.pestboard.ca.gov/howdoi/research/2009_yellow jacket.pdf (2010).
Cleome monophylla essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) repellents
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Developing baits for the control of yellowjackets in California Final Report 2010 for Structural Pest Control Board
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