Efficiency Of The Photodynamic Therapy Using Gold Nanoparticles (np-Au) And PpIX Induced And Not Induced

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The use of gold nanoparticles (np‐Au) to eliminate cancer has proved to be very effective due to the fact that cancerous cells accumulate it 600% more than healthy cells. In addition they have a high capacity of absorption and dispersion of light. Therefore, the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be improved by the simultaneous use of np‐Au and photosensitizes (Ps), emphasizing the high efficiency of the PDT to diagnose and to treat pre‐malignant and malignant processes. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using np‐Au and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced and not induced by the δ‐aminolevulinic acid (ALA). It were found the conditions of synthesis of hydrosoluble np‐Au, and were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and UV‐VIS spectroscopy. It was realized a kinetic by TEM to determine the cellular incorporation time of np‐Au, the maximum incorporation of np‐Au was of 16 h. PDT was applied using different doses of np‐Au and photosensitizers. It was observed that the use of PDT simultaneously with np‐Au did not increase the mortality of HeLa cells. In the case of C33, when PpIX not induced is used as photosensitizer simultaneously with np‐Au, the mortality increased 20%.

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... Conventionally, the detection of fluorescence in tumors using photosensitizers has been used for [326] the detection of lesions (premalignant, malignant, infectious, etc.) in vivo, location of lesions in vivo to guide both the application of PDT and surgeries, measurement of the photobleaching of photosensitizers during PDT, and estimation of the efficiency of PDT. Some examples of the clinical applications of diagnostic fluorescence are the detection of micrometastases in ovaries [327] and Barrett's esophagus and bladder carcinoma in situ [328]. ...
... Different groups are developing NPs coupled to PSs for PDT. The first work published in Mexico on NPs combined with PDT was performed by our working group: we demonstrated that the use of PDT combined with AuNP increased the percentage of cell death in cervix carcinoma C33-A cells from 50% with conventional PDT to 70% with PDT using the NP conjugate 95,96 . These NPs were characterized and thermal diffusivity of the PS, PpIX, was determined by thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in a solution mixed with an AuNP at different concentrations. ...
Nanotechnology is a promising interdisciplinary field for developing improved methods of diagnosis and treatment of different diseases, including cancer. Give their optical, magnetic, and structural property, the nanoparticles have been proposed to be use in the development of unconventional treatments for cancer such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). In PDT, a photosensitizing agent is used that accumulates in tumor cells, generating reactive oxygen species that causes the death of malignant cells after irradiation with light at a particular wavelength. However, the use of PDT presents different problems in its application due to the characteristics of hydrophobicity of the photosensitizers, which hinder the efficiency of administration and treatment. It is here where the use of nanoparticles is proposed as a delivery vehicle to optimize treatment application. In this review we describe the use of nanoparticles coupled to PDT in the treatment of cancer and its molecular mechanism of action.
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