Article

The anti-inflammatory activity of Colocasia esculenta

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  • KLE University, College of Pharmacy, KLE Academia of higher education and research
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Abstract

Anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Colocasia esculenta Linn. was studied in wistar rats using the carrageenan induced left hind paw edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy and cotton pellet induced granuloma model. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited carrageenan induced rat paw edema. It also showed an inhibitory effect on leukocyte migration and a reduction on the pleural exudates as well as reduction on the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma method. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract produced significant (p

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... Cooked corm decreased tissue cholesterol and triglycerides in cholesterol-fed rats [239]. Ethanolic leaf extracts exerted anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in Wistar rats [240]. Ethanolic corm extracts elicited hepatoprotective effects in paracetamol-and carbon tetrachloride-treated laboratory rats [241] while ethanolic leaf extracts had similar effects in precision-cut liver slices from rats [242]. ...
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Fungi are unicellular or multicellular thick-walled eukaryotic organisms that are not capable of photosynthesis and are placed in a biological kingdom of their own. They are ubiquitous in our environment, and include tens of thousands, perhaps even millions of species of yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms. Together with bacteria, fungi are the principal decomposers of plant materials such as cellulose and lignin, fulfilling vital ecological functions in all terrestrial habitats. Some species of fungi are also of major importance in households (for instance, as foods such as edible mushrooms), medicine (for instance, as producers of antibiotics such as penicillin), and industry (for instance, for making bread, wine, and cheese). About 300 fungal species cause infections in humans, varying from relatively harmless skin complaints such as pityriasis versicolor to potentially life-threatening systemic syndromes such as candidiasis. Fortunately, a broad armamentarium of efficacious antifungal drugs has been developed, ranging from topical nystatin to parenteral amphotericin B. In addition, most, if not all traditional medical systems throughout the world have identified a large assortment of plant-based remedies for treating these infections. This also holds true for the multi-ethnic and multicultural Republic of Suriname (South America), where plant-based traditional medicines are abundantly used, either alone or in conjunction with allopathic medications. This monograph extensively addresses nine plants that are traditionally used for treating fungal infections in Suriname, and explains the phytochemical and pharmacological rationales for these applications. These sections are preceded by some general observations about the Fungal Kingdom; a few words about the characteristics of fungi, their taxonomy, and their significance to humans; information about fungal infections as well as the available forms of treatment; and some details about Suriname including health aspects, the health care structure, and the main fungal infections in the country. The monograph is concluded with an evaluation of the status of the Surinamese herbal antifungal substances and the previsions of developing them into mainstream antifungal formulations.
... Among minerals, calcium, iron, phosphorous, and zinc are present in appreciable amounts along with traces of other minerals (Kaensombath & Lindberg, 2012). The leaves, due to their rich phytochemical composition, possess numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidative, antidiabetic (Akter et al., 2013;Eleazu, Iroaganachi, & Eleazu, 2013), antimicrobial (Blesson, Saji, Nivya, & Kumar 2015;Dhanraj, Kadam, Patil, & Mane, 2013), anticancer (Brown, Reitzenstein, Liu, & Jadus, 2005), antihypertensive (Vasant et al., 2012) and anti-inflammatory activities (Biren, Nayak, Bhatt, & Seth, 2007). They have also been used for dietary management of arthritis, neurological disorders, respiratory distress and blood purification (Ferreres et al., 2012;Gonçalves et al., 2013;Taib, Sibarani, & Zuska, 2021). ...
Article
Colocasia esculenta (L) or taro is a tropical crop largely produced for its tubers (corms) while leaves and stems remain underutilized and untapped by-products with promising potential applications. Colocasia leaves are low in calories, rich in proteins, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. However, its utilization as food remains limited owing to the lack of awareness vis-à-vis its nutritional profile and the presence of antinutrients such as tannins, phytates and oxalates. The antinutritional factors can be overcome by cooking and varied processing techniques thereby unveiling the nutritional benefits. The high content of bioactive compounds and antioxidative potential of colocasia leaves renders several health benefits such as anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activity. The paper reviews the available literature on the nutritional, antinutritional, phytochemical profile of taro leaves and the advanced analytical techniques for their identification and quantification. Further, its health benefits and food applications have been discussed.
... Dalimartha [5] says that the saponins in Colocasia stalks and leaves have potential as a wound medicine. According to Hibai et al. [6] in the research of Biren et al. [7] and Eddy [8], it affirmed that colocasia leaves have chemical content, including saponins, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, flobatin, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, and alkaloids [9]. ...
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Colocasia esculenta L. (Schoot) is a widely used plant in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Central America. The parts of the Colocasia plant that can be used are the tubers, stalks, and leaves. There has not been much research on the content of this plant. The study aims to determine the flavonoids and terpenoids in the ethanol extract of Colocasia stalk and leaves. The maceration method with 70% ethanol solvent and drying with vacuum evaporator. Determination of flavonoid levels based on quercetin marker compounds using AlCl3 reagent by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The terpenoid levels were carried out gravimetrically with petroleum ether as a solvent. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Colocasia stalk and leaf contained flavonoids, respectively 3.18 +0.0581% and 4.33 +0.0285%, while the results of the terpenoid levels for stalks were 7.10 +0.0676% and leaves were 8.39 +0.0023%.
... [4] Colocasia esculenta L. Schott corm is rich with mucilage, up to 22.3%, [5] and it is used in Egypt as a food. Although previous studies proved that C. esculenta L. Schott leaves have anti-inflammatory activity, [6,7] no study has been performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of C. esculenta L. Schott corm mucilage. Consequently, this study was carried out to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the mucilage of C. esculenta corms cultivated in Egypt. ...
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Background: Therapeutic strategies used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome having many limitations due to their side effects; this necessitates searching for new substitutes with similar therapeutic results and limited side effects. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory activity of the mucilage of Colocasia esculenta L. Schott var. typical corm cultivated in Egypt was explored both in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: In vivo anti‑inflammatory activity was evaluated based on histopathological examination, determination of ulcer area and ulcer index, and measurement of inflammatory mediators, namely, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor‑α, in acetic acid‑induced ulcerated rat colon, comparing to Prednisolone as a reference drug. In vitro evaluation of the anti‑inflammatory activity of the tested mucilage was carried out by measuring its cyclooxygenase (COX‑1/COX‑2) and 5‑lipoxygenase inhibitory activity comparing to Celecoxib and Zileuton as reference drugs, respectively. Results: Pretreatment with the mucilage improved the histopathological features of the rats ulcerated colon and decreased the ulcer area and the ulcer index in a dose‑dependent manner. The mucilage improved all the tested inflammatory mediators. In addition, it has a potent COX‑2 inhibitory activity with lower effect on COX‑1 and 5‑lipooxygenase. Conclusion: The obtained results support the use of C. esculenta corm mucilage as an alternative for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with minimum gastrointestinal side effects. Key words: Anti‑inflammatory activity, Colocasia esculenta, mucilage
... contain various secondary metabolites. It is known that the Colocasia esculenta extract contains components of sugar, polyphenolic, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids (30). ...
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Colocasia esculenta is the plants feed ingredients shown to reduce the cholesterol content of livestock products, such as in ducks. This study aims to examine the use of Colocasia esculenta Scho. plant in local duck rations on egg production, and the content of cholesterol and triglycerides. As a treatment in this study were the level of use of Colocasia esculenta meal (CM), 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, with 4 replications, which designed with a completely randomized design. As many as 80 ducks in the laying period were used, ranging in age from 19 to 30 weeks. The data obtained showed that an increasing level of CM up to 10% resulted in increased egg production, egg weight and decreased feed convertion ratio. Conversely, the blood and yolk total cholesterol and triglyceride content actually decreased until the level CM was 20%. It was concluded that the use of CM up to a level of 10% could improve the performance of egg production, and the use of up to a level of 20% decreased the cholesterol and triglyceride content of blood and egg yolk. This is an important role about those subject for required healthy food for human nutrition
... Some of the active compounds above, as an antibacterial and antifungal, reduce the number of microorganism colonies in denture wearers. 8 ...
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Background: One of requirements for a material to be used in dentistry is that the material must be non toxic and non irritant, as well as have biocompatibility properties, not triggering a detrimental effect on the biological environment, both locally and systemically. The first-line tests that must be conducted is in vitro tests, one of which is MTT Assay. Samples used in this research were fibroblast cells (cultured BHK-21 cells) since fibroblasts are the most important and largest components in pulp, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Purpose: This research aimed to determine toxicity effect of taro leaf extracts (Colocasia esculenta L. Schoot) on BHK-21 fibroblast cells. Methods: This research is an experimental laboratory research using Post Test Only Control Group design. The research treatment are the administration of Taro leaf extract (Colocasia esculenta L. Schoot) with 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% concentration on BHK-21 fibroblast cell. Results: The fibroblast cell life percentage in 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% concentration respectively are 106,3%, 50,9%, 36,2%, and 30,1%. The toxicity results are obtained using MTT assay technique after 24 hours. The optical density absorbency values are read by ELISA reader and represent life cell viability. Conclusion: Taro leaf extract (Colocasia esculenta L. Schoot) at a concentration above 80% is considered as non-toxic material to BHK-21 fibroblast cells
... Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of taro in Wistar rats by inhibiting the leukocyte migration along with reduced pleural exudates and granuloma weight [47], thus the results indicated that ethanolic extract produced significant antiinflammatory activity. ...
... Decoction made from Colocasia esculenta is traditionally used in various diseases such as hypertension, hepatic disorder, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, ulcer etc. The Colocasia esculenta has been reported for anti-inflammatory [169], hypolipidemic [170], anti-cancer [171], antioxidant [172], and antibacterial [173] activities. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta have also been reported to contain flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, schaftoside, isoschaftoside [172], luteolin, apigenin [174], vitamins A, B, and C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and oxalic acid [173], and minerals such as magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, and boron [175,176]. ...
Book
Phytotherapy has the potential to give patients long term benefits with less or no side effects. This is the second volume of the series. This volume brings 11 chapters that cover updates on general phytotherapy, traditional Chinese medicine as well as information on anti-diabetic and antihypertensive herbs (including Senna spp., Curcumin, Carum carvi, Premna serratifolia, Eugenia jambolana and more). The monographs presented within this volume give several details necessary for pharmacopoeial data for quality assurance of pharmaceutical products derived from these specific plant sources: botanical features, distribution, identity tests, purity requirements, chemical assays, active or major chemical constituents, clinical applications, pharmacology, contraindications, warnings, precautions, potential adverse reactions, and posology. Hence academic and professional pharmacologists or clinicians will find comprehensive information on a variety of therapeutic agents along with guidelines for applying them in practical phytotherapy of diabetes and hypertension.
... Taro is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis and pulmonary congestion [5]. In addition, several pharmacological activities are also attributed to the plant such as the antioxidant activity [6] and anti-inflammatory activity [7]. Secondary metabolites isolated from the plant after phytochemical studies were alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, quinone, terpenoids, steroids [8] as well as flavonoids such as Orientin, Isoorientin, Iso-vitexin, and Vitexin [6]. ...
Article
This study was designed to investigate the acute and subacute toxicity of the aqueous extract from colocasia esculenta (CE) leaves infected by Phytophthora colocsiae (PC) in rats. Toxicity of the aqueous extract was evaluated in both male and female wistar rats after a single administration (Acute model) and during 21 days (subacute model). Acute administration of the extract up to a dose 4000 mg/kg did not induce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality of any rat tested. Therefore, LD50 was estimated to be more than 4000 mg/kg. In the subacute treatment, 3 days before the end of treatment, the male rats treated with the infected Colocasia esculenta leaves extract at doses of 800 mg/kg presented some signs of toxicity such as spiky hair, breathing, paralysis and death. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease (p < .05) of platelets for all doses in female rats. Biochemical investigations revealed a significant (p < .01) increase in the serum AST and HDL cholesterol at dose of 800 mg/kg in male rats. A significant decrease (p < .05) in the level of tissue creatinine at a dose of 800 mg/kg in treated female rats has also been observed. Histopathological examination revealed adverse effects on the lungs in male rats at dose of 800 mg/kg. The present findings suggest that CE infected by PC would be no major health risks at the doses tested but could affect their health at higher doses and repeated administration.
... Tanaman talas diduga memiliki kandungan yang diantaranya yaitu flavonoid dan saponin (Biren et al., 2007). Flavonoid merupakan senyawa polifenol yang memiliki fungsi sebagai senyawa antibakteri dengan cara membentuk senyawa kompleks terhadap protein ekstraseluler yang mengganggu integritas membran sel bakteri. ...
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Tablet effervescent merupakan salah satu bentuk sediaan tablet yang dibuat dengan cara pengempaan bahan-bahan aktif dengan campuran asam-basa organik, seperti asam sitrat atau asam tartrat dan natrium bikarbonat. Tanaman talas (Colocasia esculenta L.) memiliki kandungan senyawa kimia diantaranya flavonoid yang merupakan senyawa polifenol yang mempunyai fungsi sebagai senyawa antiseptik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui formulasi sediaan tablet effervecent yang optimal untuk kulit dari aktivitas antiseptik ekstrak etanol daun talas terhadap bakteri penyebab permasalahan kulit. Pada formulasi sediaan tablet effervescent dibuat 3 formula dengan 3 variasi konsentrasi asam sitrat dan asam tartrat ( 1:3, 1:1, 3:1). Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan maserasi menggunakan pelarut etanol 96%. Metode yang digunakan untuk pembuatan tablet effervescent adalah granulasi basah. Penelitian ini melakukan evaluasi sifat fisik pada tablet effervescent meliputi uji keseragaman bobot, uji kekerasan, uji kerapuhan, dan uji waktu larut guna diperoleh tablet effervescent dengan perbandingan asam sitrat asam tartrat yang paling baik. Hasil yang diperoleh dari ketiga formula yang diuji, menunjukkan formula 1 dengan perbandingan asam sitrat dan asam tartrat (3:1) menghasilkan sifat fisik yang paling baik.Kata Kunci: Tablet Effervescent, Daun Talas, Antiseptik, Asam Sitrat, Asam Tartrat.
... Taro is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis and pulmonary congestion [5]. In addition, several pharmacological activities are also attributed to the plant such as the antioxidant activity [6] and anti-inflammatory activity [7]. Secondary metabolites isolated from the plant after phytochemical studies were alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, quinone, terpenoids, steroids [8] as well as flavonoids such as Orientin, Isoorientin, Iso-vitexin, and Vitexin [6]. ...
... Taro is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis and pulmonary congestion [5]. In addition, several pharmacological activities are also attributed to the plant such as the antioxidant activity [6] and anti-inflammatory activity [7]. Secondary metabolites isolated from the plant after phytochemical studies were alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, quinone, terpenoids, steroids [8] as well as flavonoids such as Orientin, Isoorientin, Iso-vitexin, and Vitexin [6]. ...
... Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice (150-300 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed a dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing and a significant inhibition of both the phases of formalin pain test, but with a less intense effect on the first than the second phase. Juice extract of L. siceraria also showed anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammatory models such as., ethyl phenyl propionate-induced ear edema, carrageenan and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema 11 and also the albumin induced paw edema in rats 9 . Diuretic activity Diuretic activity of L.siceraria fruit was assessed by measuring different parameters like total urine volume, urine concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride. ...
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Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae), popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound), flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein) and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content. In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.
... Its corm contains starch, protein and considerable amount of oxalic acid along with anthocyanins perlargonidin 3-glucoside, cyaniding 3- rhamnoside and cyaniding 3-glucoside [1, 3, 4]. Recent pharmacological studies reveals that leaves of C. esculenta reported to had antibacterial and antifungal [1], anthelmintic [5], anti-inflammatory [6] and antidiabetic [7] activity. Moreover, α-amylase inhibitory activity [8], antidiabetic [9], in vivo antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity [10] were also attributed to tuber or root of C. esculenta. ...
Article
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In the present investigation antioxidant and salivary alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of methanol extract of Colocasia esculenta corm was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of C. esculenta (CME) was evaluated by FRAP, DPPH, and ferric reducing power assay. Similarly, total phenol content and salivary alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of CME was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteau and DNS method respectively. The result of total phenolic content assay reveals that CME containing 0.0137 + 1.33 mg GAE/g dw of CME. The observed resultant antioxidant activity of CME in all studied models was moderate as compared with reference standard BHT and BHA. At 1 mg/ml, CME showed salivary alphaamylase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.94 mg/ml. In conclusion, from the results of present study it is confirmed that antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of methanol extract of C. esculenta may contribute in its earlier observed antidiabetic potential.
... Cyanoglucoside from C. esculenta has been implicated as an aggravating factor in neurological disorders (Grindley et al., 2002). Although the plant is traditionally claimed to possess diverse pharmacological actions including neuropharmacological activity, only the anti-inflammatory (Shah et al., 2007) and anticancer activities (Brown et al., 2005) have been studied. Considering the available information and folklore use of the plant, the present study was designed to evaluate the anti-compulsive effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta (HECE) using the marbleburying behavior test in mice. ...
Article
Over the past decades, the inhibition of spontaneous burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anxiolytic drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Although Colocasia esculenta Linn. (Araceae), commonly known as elephant ear (English), possesses several medicinal properties, little is known for its use in neurological activity. The current research evaluated the anti-obsessive-compulsive disorder (anti-compulsive) activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Colocasia esculenta (HECE) for the first time using the marble-burying behavior test in mice. In the present study, the effect of HECE (25 and 50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) was examined using the marble-burying behavior test, which is an animal model of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), using Swiss albino mice. The acute toxicity studies showed that the LD50 value of the HECE in mice was 1000 mg/kg by i.p. route. The effect of HECE (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was characterized by significant reduction in the number of buried marbles as compared with the control group (p < 0.001). The effect of HECE was comparable with that of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) - a reference standard drug used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (p < 0.001). Fluoxetine and HECE do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the anti-compulsive activity of the constituents from this plant.
... Prevention of collagen fiber formation and suppression of mucopolysaccharids are considered as indicators for the antiproliferative effect of anti-inflammatory agents, where monocyte infiltration and fibroblast proliferation are the major events in chronic inflammation rather than neutrophil infiltration and fluid exudation (183) . In the cotton pellet-induced granuloma model, inflammation and granuloma develops during the period of several days; this model is an indication for the proliferative phase of inflammation (184) ; it involves proliferation of macrophages, neutrophils and fibroblasts, which are basic sources of granuloma formation (185) . Hence, the decrease in the weight of granuloma indicates that the proliferative phase was effectively suppressed by the tested compounds (doxycycline or The cotton-pellet induced granuloma is widely used to evaluate the transudative and proliferative components of the chronic inflammation (186) . ...
Thesis
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Background and Objective: Chronic inflammatory diseases affected a large number of population. The side effects of currently available anti-inflammatory agents considered as a major problem during their clinical use; therefore, development of newer and more effective and safe anti-inflammatory drugs is necessary. Recently, significant progress has been made through utilization of the application of matrix metallo-proteinase inhibitory properties of some compounds to develop anti-inflammatory drugs that are efficacious, relatively free of side effects, and they can be used effectively for a long time. The present study was designed to evaluate the dose-response relationship of the anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and pentoxifylline in rats models of induced chronic inflammation compared to that produced by the standard drugs dexamethasone and methotrexate, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the standard drugs when combined with either doxycycline or pentoxifylline. Methods: Two-hundreds and sixty-six rats were used in the present study, and the study protocol includes 4 stages: First stage: 120 rats were used, and allocated into fifteen groups, each containing 8 rats, for the study of the antiinflammatory activity of doxycycline and pentoxifylline in rat model of formaldehyde-induced chronic inflammation. Second stage: 32 rats were used, and allocated into four groups, each containing 8 rats, for the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline (2.5 mg/kg) and pentoxifylline (4.0 mg/kg) when used in combination with dexamethasone or methotrexate in rat model of formaldehyde-induced chronic inflammation. Third stage: 90 rats were used, and allocated into fifteen groups, each containing 6 rats, for the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and pentoxifylline in rat model of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Fourth stage: 24 rats were used, and allocated into four groups, each containing 6 rats, for the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline (2.5 mg/kg) and pentoxyfylline (4.0 mg/kg) when used in combination with dexamethasone or methotrexate in rat model of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Results: The result of the present study indicating that doxycycline in a dose range of (0.1, 0.2. 0.4, 0.6, 1.2, 2.5 mg/kg) and pentoxifylline in a dose range of (0.125, 0.25. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally and significantly suppress inflammation in rats models of formaldehyde induced chronic inflammation and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Doxycycline (2.5 mg/kg body weight) and pentoxifylline (4.0 mg/kg body weight) in combination with dexamethasone (1.0 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppress inflammation in rats models of formaldehyde induced chronic inflammation and cotton pellet-induced granuloma, which is significantly higher than all of the effects produced by other approaches of treatments. Conclusion: Doxycycline and pentoxifylline, in a dose dependent pattern, are effective in attenuating formaldehyde induced chronic inflammation and cotton-pellet induced granuloma in rats and therefore they could be investigated as a potential treatments for chronic inflammatory conditions in human. Both doxycycline and pentoxifylline have the ability to produce an increment in the anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone and methotrexate.
... The inducibility of the catalase gene could play an important role in combating the oxidative stress induced by ICH (137) . It has also been postulated that the beneficial effect of PPAR γ agonists in stroke is because of their anti-inflammatory effect (137) .Most of the proinflammatory responses are amplified and regulated by the transcription factor NF-КB. PPAR γ agonists have been shown to inhibit NF-КB, either directly by interacting with its subunits, by competing for common transcription coactivators, or through up-regulation of its inhibitory protein КBa (138) . ...
Thesis
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Background and Objective Chronic inflammatory diseases affected a large number of populations. The side effects of currently available anti-inflammatory agents considered as a major problem during their clinical use; therefore, development of a newer, more effective and safe anti-inflammatory drugs are necessary. Recently, significant progress has been made through the application of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists as anti-inflammatory drugs that are efficacious, relatively free of side effects, and can be used effectively for a long time. The present study was designed to evaluate the dose-response relationship of the anti-inflammatory activity of Telmisartan in rat models of induced chronic inflammation compared to that produced by the standard drug Dexamethasone, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of adjuvant use of Telmisartan with Dexamethasone. Methods: One hundred and eight rats were used in the present study; the study protocol includes 4 stages: First stage: 48 rats were allocated into eight groups, each containing 6 rats, for the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of different doses of Telmisartan in rat model of formaldehyde-induced chronic inflammation. Second stage: 6 rats were used to study of the anti-inflammatory activity of Telmisartan (1.5 mg/kg) in combination with Dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) in the same model. Third stage: 48 rats were allocated into eight groups, each containing 6 rats, for the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of Telmisartan in rat model of cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Fourth stage: six rats were used to study the anti-inflammatory activity of Telmisartan (1.5 mg/kg) when used as adjuvant with Dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) in the same model. Results: The result of the present study indicated that Telmisartan in a dosedependent pattern (0.1, 0.2. 0.4, 0.6, 1.5, 3 mg/kg) significantly suppress inflammation in rat models of formaldehyde induced chronic inflammation and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Telmisartan (1.5 mg/kg body weight) in combination with Dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppress inflammation in rat models of formaldehyde induced chronic inflammation and cotton pellet-induced granuloma, which is significantly higher than all of the effects produced by other approaches of treatment when Telmisartan used alone. Conclusion: Telmisartan, in a dose dependent pattern, was effective in attenuating formaldehyde-induced chronic inflammation and cotton-pellet induced granuloma in rats; therefore, it may considered as a potential treatment for chronic inflammatory conditions in human, especially in hypertensive diabetic patients. Telmisartan, as adjuvant has the ability to increase the anti-inflammatory activity of Dexamethasone within the dose limit used in the study.
... Decoction made from Colocasia esculenta is traditionally used in various diseases such as hypertension, hepatic disorder, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, ulcer etc. The Colocasia esculenta has been reported for antiinflammatory [180], hypolipidemic [181], anti-cancer [182], antioxidant [183], and antibacterial [184] activities. The leaves of Colocasia esculenta have also been reported to contains flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, schaftoside, isoschaftoside [183], ...
Book
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Hypertension remains one of the commonest forms of cardiovascular diseases affecting and plaguing both developing and developed countries. Hypertension, despite its ever-increasing prevalence across all age-groups, sex and race is often associated with potent debilitating complications that constitute huge financial and social burdens to both its sufferers and the society at large. Thus, hypertension and other related cardiovascular diseases are considered public menace. Effective management of hypertension requires a holistic and multidisciplinary approach, based on the identification of patients at highest cardiovascular risk and the use of multifactorial interventions, targeting not only the high blood pressure but all modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Despite, remarkable and landmark progress and success recorded with the use of conventional pharmacotherapies in the management of hypertension and its complications, therapeutic failures are still remain a major clinical concern. Thus, the current book defines, highlights and discusses the epidemiology, classification, aetiopathophysiology and risk factors, and complications of hypertension, conventional treatment strategies and alternative therapies (particularly with herbal therapies) employed in the local management of the disease. In addition, an in-depth insight into the recent development in the therapeutic/clinical use of mono- and multi-herbal therapies in the local management of hypertension with the view of providing evidence-based pre-clinical and clinical data that are geared towards promoting the therapeutic use of these alternatives as alternative/adjuvant therapy in the effective management of hypertension
... Its corm contains starch, protein and considerable amount of oxalic acid along with anthocyanins perlargonidin 3-glucoside, cyaniding 3- rhamnoside and cyaniding 3-glucoside [1, 3, 4]. Recent pharmacological studies reveals that leaves of C. esculenta reported to had antibacterial and antifungal [1], anthelmintic [5], anti-inflammatory [6] and antidiabetic [7] activity. Moreover, α-amylase inhibitory activity [8], antidiabetic [9], in vivo antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity [10] were also attributed to tuber or root of C. esculenta. ...
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... CE is traditionally used in various diseases such as high BP, hepatic disorder, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, ulcer etc. The CE has been reported for anti-inflammatory (12), hypolipidemic (13), anti-cancer (14), antioxidant (15), and antibacterial (16) activities. ...
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Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
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In rat carrageenin pleurisy, both steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAID and NSAID respectively) produced a dose-related reduction of exudate volume and of prostaglandin (PG)E2 contents in the exudate at 3 h after carrageenin. However, with the exception of ketoprofen, administration of all the NSAID in low doses resulted in a significant reduction of PGE2 contents with no significant reduction in exudate volume. NSAID reduced leucocyte number and total activities of lysosomal enzymes in the exudate at 3 h after carrageenin only at the higher doses, while SAID did so in a dose-related manner. Both SAID and NSAID reduced the arylsulfatase activity released into the exudate (free activity) dose-relatedly but not the free activity of beta-glucuronidase at 3 h after carrageenin. However, some drug treatments resulted in a lower reduction in free arylsulfatase activity than in exudate volume. These results suggest that the reduction of PGE2 contents may be the main contribution to the anti-exudative activities of anti-inflammatory drugs in rat carrageenin pleurisy and that this effect may be complemented by the reduction of free activity of lysosomal enzymes such as arylsulfatase.
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A sequential 37-step pathway scheme has been devised that describes the actions and events responsible for the onset, development, and decay of carrageenan pleurisy. It is postulated that the subpleural cytotoxicity of absorbed carrageenan initiates the response by producing a biphasic subpleural inflammation, the first phase of which precedes any sign of pleural exudation. Pleural exudation began 1 h after the injection of carrageenan and consisted of mobilized neutrophils and a barely detectable exudate volume. The time course of intrapleural neutrophil mobilization was monophasic (S shaped). Monocyte mobilization began after neutrophil mobilization and was also monophasic. Pleural exudate formation was biphasic. The first exudative phase was sensitive to inhibitors of neutrophil mobilization and arachidonate acid cyclooxygenase (AACO). Drug studies revealed that although neutrophils were required to initiate the first exudative process, the cells of the pleura produced a postulated reactive prostaglandin intermediate that increased vascular permeability and resulted in exudate formation. The etiology of the second exudative phase is unknown. This phase is insensitive to AACO inhibitors but is highly sensitive to steroids. Inhibition of monocyte mobilization by colchicine revealed that these were not associated with any exudate formation. Monocytes are postulated to stop the exudative process. These cells phagocytose the mobilized neutrophils and return the pleural cavity to normal. Thus, in this model of acute inflammation, monocytic function is related solely to anti-inflammatory activities.
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