The Modern Landscape Architecture Education Using Traditional Feng Shui Theory in China

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This paper offers a series of reflections on traditional Chinese Feng Shui theory and landscape architecture. It has two main parts. The first part is a general discussion on the traditional Chinese Feng Shui theory and landscape design and planning. It points out that Feng Shui theory is usually considered a superstition, which was popular in ancient China, but there are also elements of science in Feng Shui theory. The second part deals with the application of the traditional Chinese Feng Shui theory to the education in modern landscape architecture. The author proposes that we can borrow the ideas and principles of Feng Shui practice when we study how to select the site and orient the garden, plant and grow landscape plants, and decorate the archway. The principles of Feng Shui theory can also be integrated into landscape architecture concepts like borrowed scenery, opposite scenery, miniature scenery, and abbreviated scenery to construct the landscape.

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The rise of Feng Shui, which emerged as an East Asian philosophy, in the west and the increasing interest in this philosophy have caused Feng Shui to become applicable in many places today. Feng Shui, which has been practiced for five thousand years in China, literally means “wind and water”, and is an art of living in harmony with the earth. Basic concepts of Feng Shui are Chi, Yin-Yang and five elements. Chi is the most important element of the philosophy of Feng Shui and is the energy of life in everything in the world. One of the important tools used in Feng Shui applications is Bagua map. Bagua (ba: eight, gua: area) is used as the settlement guide in Feng Shui, and has an area center and nine divisions. In Feng Shui, Bagua is used as a mystical tool to diagnose the lack of balance in space and life. The main purpose of Feng Shui is to observe nature, adapt to nature and protect nature. Feng Shui plays an important role in landscape quality assessment, landscape restoration, harmony between nature and man, and most importantly, as important as the day-to-day preservation and enrichment of space identity. What is important here is the settlement and balancing of the Yin-Yang energy. Feng Shui remedies and recommendations are available to provide this balance in a home garden. The garden can be design in line with Feng Shui’s recommendation; colors, plants, trees, workshops, water elements, garden furniture, lighting, wind chimes and other garden accessories. In this research, a home garden landscape design project based on Feng Shui philosophy, basic concepts and applications was made. The effects of the philosophy on the people and the garden design were measured by the photo-surveys and evaluated with analyzes. As a result of the research, the positive effect suggested by the philosophy have been confirmed by the application of the Feng Shui principles to the garden design. In addition, it has been determined that concrete findings obtained by blending landscape design criteria and Feng Shui principles can be used in the field of landscape design. In particular, new perspectives for garden designs based on the Feng Shui principles have been established and various proposals have been made for disciplines related to the subject.
Chinese geomancy Fengshui was the fundamental basis, norm and guiding ideology for site selection of environment, planning, design and building of a residence. Its effect scope showed a homology and similarity with the building goal and environment design. Long-term since, someone put feng shui as a kind of feudal superstition, and give the negate, others believe the praise highly of feng shui, vehemently. However feng shui as a kind of culture, historically have been enmities, which inevitably contains a some reasonable factors. Based on this, the author tries to from scientific point of view, make use of ecology theory to explore the Fengshui cultures scientific, hoping to reveal its rationality, and acquire the correct understanding of Fengshui culture. In this way, the paper attempts to establish an environment designparadigm with Chinese characteristics, which can guide the design of environmental art.This paper uses the ecological system theory in the residential Fengshui on to homestead,explores the external environment and reveals the existing in the residential Fengshui cultures scientific, thereby,we can correctly put forward reasonable views on the residential Fengshui culture.
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As the world population continues to grow and as global urbanization continues to unfold, our ecosystems and landscapes will be increasingly domesticated and designed. Developing and maintaining sustainable landscapes have become one of the most challenging and imperative tasks for scientists and stakeholders of all sorts. To accomplish this task, landscape ecology and landscape architecture can and must play a critical role. Landscape architects intentionally modify and create landscapes, and their imprints and influences are pervasive and profound, far beyond the physical limits of the designed landscapes. As an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary enterprise that integrates the science and art of studying and influencing the relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes, the theory, methods, and applications of landscape ecology are directly relevant to sustainability. However, neither landscape ecology nor landscape architecture is likely to achieve its expected goal if they are not truly integrated to produce a sustainable landscape architecture. In this paper, we argue that the ancient Chinese philosophy of “unity of man with nature” and its associated design principles can provide useful guidelines for this integration as well as for the development of a sustainable landscape architecture. We discuss several principles and models of Chinese landscape architecture, including “unity of man with nature” philosophy, “peach blossom spring” ideal, “world-in-a-pot” model, and Feng–Shui theory, and their implications for developing a sustainable landscape architecture. Although differences in the philosophical roots and design traditions between Eastern and Western landscape architecture will continue to exist, interactions and integration between the two will continue to increase under the theme of sustainability. To promote the translation of scientific knowledge into practice, we urge landscape ecologists to work proactively with landscape architects to integrate pattern–process–scale and holistic perspectives into the design and planning of landscapes.
The purpose of this study is to suggest practical planning principles, which are absent in landscape ecology planning, according to which the spatial completeness of the watershed is derived from native Korean Feng-Shui ( ). Landscape ecology planning principles are used widely in contemporary planning projects in terms of patch, corridor, matrix and network of landscape pattern. However, landscape indices for planning principles are complicated and constrained, and so are limited to applications for site and eco-village plannings. Native Korean Feng-Shui is different from Chinese Feng-Shui in that it is aimed at theoretical completeness in terms of aspect and topographical shape, based on the concept of ideal Myung-dang ( ) to complete the space, according to local conditions in the physiognomy of the watershed. The complementary method is called Bi-bo ( ) in native Korean Feng-Shui. These principles have been applied in traditional Korean villages, leading to consistent location choices and fractal patterns in land use. Furthermore, Bi-bo woodlands and ponds have been introduced to achieve spatial completeness in the landscape structure of the village.
This paper attempts to estimate real estate prices from a Hong Kong perspective. A hedonic price model is estimated utilizing housing transaction data during a period of relatively stable property price movements. Empirical results suggest that while a residential property of larger size, higher floor level, and better view commands a higher transaction price, a property lying closer to the mass transit railway station also commands a price premium. The nonlinear effect of floor level has also been confirmed to exert an impact upon prices. Furthermore, an apartment located on an “unlucky number” floor is not preferred by homebuyers and is usually transacted at a price discount.
Feng-shui is a comprehensive concept dealing with design professions such as city and regional planning, architecture, indoor design and landscape architecture as a design phenomenon. It is also a design concept including space design principles whose main design aims are observing nature to ensure balance with nature and conserving nature by designing harmonies environments with nature. These principles make feng-shui extracted only from being hobby, mystical belief or art. Many actual design approaches such as sustainable design, ecological settlements, ecological planning and design were based on this philosophy which appeared centuries ago in the Far East. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the theoretical base and the implementations of feng-shui and to determine the ideal feng-shui models in open green space design approaches. At the first stage conceptual explanation about feng-shui and the development of feng-shui through history was set. At the second stage experiences and application at international stage were discussed. And, finally the usage of feng-shui in landscape architecture design was evaluated and proposals were offered.
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