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Automatic synchronization unit for the parallel operation of synchronous generators

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In this study, an automatic synchronization unit has been developed for the parallel connection of synchronous generators. Two synchronous generators are connected in parallel automatically with the developed control unit. Synchronous generators are also connected in parallel with the line. The voltages, frequencies, phase sequences and synchronism time data have been transferred to the microcontroller. These data are monitored and evaluated by the control algorithm coded into the microcontroller. Parallel operation of generators are realized automatically when all parallel connection conditions are occur. The system doesn't require additional measuring tools for monitoring and control processes. The developed automatic synchronization unit is fast, cost effective, reliable and precise to be used for monitoring, measurement and parallel operation of the synchronous generators.
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AUTOMATIC
SYNCHRONIZATION UNIT FOR THE PARALLEL OPERATION OF SYNCHRONOUS
GENERATORS
Erdal Bekiroglu
1
, Member, IEEE Alper Bayrak
2
, Student Member, IEEE
1
Abant Izzet Baysal University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bolu, Turkey bekiroglu_e@ibu.edu.tr
2
Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir, Turkey alperbayrak@iyte.edu.tr
Abstract: In this study, an automatic synchronization
unit has been developed for the parallel connection of
synchronous generators. Two synchronous generators
are connected in parallel automatically with the
developed control unit. Synchronous generators are also
connected in parallel with the line. The voltages,
frequencies, phase sequences and synchronism time data
have been transferred to the microcontroller. These data
are monitored and evaluated by the control algorithm
coded into the microcontroller. Parallel operation of
generators are realized automatically when all parallel
connection conditions are occur. The system doesn’t
require additional measuring tools for monitoring and
control processes. The developed automatic
synchronization unit is fast, cost effective, reliable and
precise to be used for monitoring, measurement and
parallel operation of the synchronous generators.
Index Terms: Synchronization, synchronous
generators, parallel connection, microcontroller.
I. INTRODUCTION
Electrical power systems consist of the
interconnection of large numbers of synchronous
generators operating in parallel, interconnected by
transmission lines, and supplying large numbers of
widely distributed loads. When a synchronous
generator (SG) is connected to an interconnected
system containing many other SGs, the voltage and
frequency at its terminals are fixed by the system [1].
Some of the benefits of operating multiple
generators in parallel include increased reliability,
expandability, flexibility, serviceability and efficiency.
The redundancy inherent in parallel power generation
provides significantly greater reliability for critical
loads. In a parallel configuration, if one generator
fails, the most critical loads are redistributed among
the other units in the system. Utilizing multiple
smaller generators instead of a single large unit offers
greater location flexibility. With multiple generators
available, individual units can be taken out of service
for repair or maintenance without losing standby
power for critical circuits. Electrical machines operate
at maximum efficiency value close to the rated load. If
the load is too low, the efficiency of the SG will
decrease. Parallel operation allows operating SGs
around their rated load resulting operating with high
efficiency [2, 3].
Variety studies related to parallel operation and
control of SGs have presented in the literature. These
studies include simulation, power control,
synchronization and stability of power system
including SGs [4, 5]. A standard of synchronization
used for power systems is given in [6]. Simulation of
parallel connected SGs is presented in [7]. An
automatic digital synchronization system has been
proposed in [8]. Using sensors and PLC in the control
unit increase the cost of the system. A control unit for
the parallel operation of AC Generators is developed
and presented in [9]. Zero crossing detectors are used
for transmit voltage signals of generators to the
microcontroller.
In this study, microcontroller based an automatic
synchronization unit has been developed for the
parallel operation of SGs. The control unit read
calculates and evaluates the frequency, voltage, phase
sequence of the received input signals and then
provides the synchronization for the monitoring
parallel connection conditions and parallel operation
of generators. The program coded into the
microcontroller has developed effectively to
eliminate the interface electronics circuit from the
system.
Parallel operation of generators is achieved
automatically with the control unit when all parallel
connection conditions occur. There is no need to use
measuring tools, such as voltmeters, frequency
meters, phase sequence meter, and synchroscope for
monitoring the parallel connection conditions. The
proposed automatic synchronization unit is cost
effective, quick, reliable, stable and accurate to be
used for monitoring, measurement and parallel
operation of the SGs.
II. PARALLEL OPERATION OF THE SGs
SGs are connected in parallel to feed bigger loads
and improve reliability of the electrical power
systems. When required conditions are occur a SG
can be connected in parallel with another SG or with
transmission line. The parallel conditions required for
the parallel connection of SGs are given as follows:
1. Frequencies should be equal (f1=f2)
2. Voltages should be equal (V1=V2)
3. Phase sequence of the SGs should be same
(Direction of the rotating field should be
same)
4. Parallel connection should be realized at the
synchronism time.
978-1-4244-3861-7/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE766
In the classical systems; frequencies are measured
with frequency meters, voltages are measured with
voltmeters, phase sequence is measured with phase
sequence meter, and synchronism time is measured
with synchroscope. In the presented study, all of the
measurement tools are eliminated from the system.
The developed control unit measures required signals
of the SGs and determines parallel connection time
when all conditions are provided. The hardware
implementation of the parallel operation system with
classical measurement tools is given in Fig. 1.
Fig.1 - Hardware implementation of the parallel operation
system of SGs
III. AUTOMATIC SYNCHRONIZATION UNIT
To eliminate measurement tools and to obtain
simplified, precise and quick parallel connection for
SGs a PIC microcontroller based automatic
synchronization monitoring and control unit has been
designed. The main block diagram of the
microcontroller based parallel connection system is
given in Fig. 2. As seen from the figure, voltage
signals of the SGs are transmitted to the
microcontroller.
Fig. 2 - Block diagram of the microcontroller based parallel
connection system
Transformers are used to convert phase voltages
to the lower voltages that can be processed with
microcontroller. Microcontroller converts these
signals and then calculates the frequencies, voltages,
phase sequence of the SGs. If these three conditions
are provided, microcontroller captures synchronism
time between phase voltages of the SGs. When
synchronization occurs the microcontroller sends the
control signal to the relay and parallel connection
switch is turned on for parallel operation. The
designed automatic synchronization control unit has
been shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 - A photograph of the automatic synchronization unit
A single 16F877 PIC microcontroller has been
used in the control system. Microcontroller has been
operated with 4 MHz oscillator. Loop time of each
command is 1 ȝs. Comparator, ADC, Timer-1
modules and A, B, E ports of the microcontroller
have been used in the application. Port configuration
of the microcontroller used for the study is shown n
Fig. 4.
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Ports A and E have been set as analogous inputs
and port-B is set as digital outputs. R1 and R2 phases
of the two synchronous generators are connected to
the number 0 and 1 inputs of the port-A, and S1 and
S2 phases are connected to the number 5 input of port-
A and number 0 input of port-E, respectively. The
control unit doesn’t require the T-phases of the
generators. A relay realizing the parallel connection is
connected to the number 4 input of the port B. Control
unit read, calculate and evaluate the frequency,
voltage, phase sequence of the received input signals
and then provide the synchronization for the parallel
operation of generators.
The flowchart of the main software program coded
into the microcontroller for the parellel operation of
the SGs is shown in Fig. 5. As shown from the
flowchart; frequency, voltage, and phase sequence of
the each SG is determined, respectively and when all
the conditions occur, the synchronism time is searched
to achieve parallel operation of the system.
Each parallel connection condition has been
determined by sub-routine of the software programme.
Detailed informations about sub-routines are given as
follows, individullly.
Frequency calculation; The signals received from
the R phases of the generators are checked for the
calculation of frequencies. Comparator module of the
microcontroller is used in this stage. Input signal is
compared with internal produced reference voltage
V
ref
=0 and then converted to the square wave signal.
This square wave signal takes logic 1 and 0 data.
Microcontroller run the Timer-1 when the value of
signal is 1 and stop the Timer-1 when the signal rising
from the 0 to the 1 once more. This is a period of the
signal. Microcontroller read value of the counter and
calculates the frequency from the loop time. Flowchart
of the frequency calculation is given in Fig. 6.
Voltage calculation; The signals received from the
R phases of the generators are used for the calculation
of voltages. The received signals are converted to the
square wave signals as described in the calculation of
the frequency. Microcontroller captures point of the
square wave falling from the 1 to the 0. The reference
signal is bigger than the reference signal in the period
of square wave has a 0 value. In the other words, the
input signal is in the positive period. Microcontroller
receives approximately 300 samples from the signal
until the square wave rising to the 1 once again. Each
received sample compared with the previous sample
and the bigger value is saved as a new value. As a
result, the peak value of the half period of the input
signal is obtained. Then the rms value of the voltage is
calculated. Flowchart of the voltage calculation is
given in Fig. 7.
Fig. 5 – Flowchart of the main software program
768
Fig. 6 - Flowchart of the frequency calculation loop
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Fig. 7 - Flowchart of the voltage calculation loop
Determination of the phase sequence; The signals
received from the R and S phases of the generators
are used for the determination of the phase-sequence.
The received signals are converted to the square wave
signals. Microcontroller captures point of the square
wave falling from the 1 to the 0 and wait 90
o
+120
o
beginning from that point. Controller captures the
peak value of the phase-R with the 90
o
waiting period
and then checks the peak value of the phase-S has
peak value or not at the 120
o
forward.
According to
769
the calculation, the controller determining the phase
sequence direction as 0 or 1. If the phase sequence is
determined as 0, the phase sequence is in CW
direction, else the phase sequence is determined as 1
and the phase sequence is in CCW direction.
Flowchart of the phase sequence determination is
given in Fig. 8.
Fig. 8 - Flowchart of the phase sequence determination loop
Synchronism time; Synchronization algorithm is
operated when all of the parallel connection
conditions are provided. The signals received from
the R phases of the generators are used for the
detection of the synchronization. Both R-phases of
the generators are converted to the square wave
signals. Microcontroller explores the rising point
from 0 to the 1 value simultaneously for two signals.
The synchronism point is captured when the two
phase are rising to 1 at the same time and the
microcontroller sends control signal to the number 4
input of the port B to achieve parallel operation of
generators with the relay. Flowchart of the
synchronism time calculation is given in Fig. 9.
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Fig. 9 - Flowchart of the synchronism time calculation loop
770
IV. CONCLUSIONS
PIC16F877 microcontroller based an automatic
synchronization unit has been achieved for the
monitoring parallel connection conditions and parallel
operation of SGs. Phase voltages of the SGs are
transmitted to the microcontroller by the 220/5Vsignal
transformers. There is no need for any interface
electronics circuit for processing, converting and then
transmitting signals to the microcontroller. All signals
are transmitted to the microcontroller directly.
Microcontroller calculates phase voltages, frequencies
and phase sequences of the SGs according to the
received signals. When all of the parallel connection
conditions are exist, the microcontroller search for
synchronism time to produce signal for the parallel
operation. The developed system is simple and
reliable. It is independent from extra measurement
tools. As a result it is cost effective and can be used
easily for the SGs parallel operation. It can also be
used for the educational purposes.
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported from the Scientific
Research Project Commision of the Abant Izzet
Baysal University, under grant 2006.01.09.252.
REFERENCES
[1]. Fitzgerald, A.E, Kingsley, C., Umans, S.D., Electric
Machinery, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapore,
1992.
[2]. Colak I., Synchronous Machines, Seckin Press, Ankara,
2003, In Turkish.
[3]. Generac Power Systems, Technical Perspective,
Generator Paralleling, 1-4.
[4]. Mahmoud M. S., Ismail A., Control of electric power
systems, Systems Analysis Modeling Simulation,
43(12) (2003). p. 1639-1673.
[5]. Metwally H.M.B. Operation of new variable speed
constant voltage and frequency generator connected to
the grid, Energy Conversion and Management, 41(7),
(2000) p. 701-712.
[6]. IEEE Std C37.118-2005, IEEE Power Engineering
Society, IEEE standard for synchrophasors for power
systems, 2005.
[7]. Çolak I., Yılmaz E.N., Simulation of the parallel
connection of electrical power stations, IJEEE
International Journal of Electrical Engineering
Education, 36 (4) (1999). p. 332-341,.
[8]. Emam, S.E.A., Automatic digital synchronization,
International Conference on Electrical, Electronic and
Computer Engineering, ICEEC'04, (2004). p. 778-784.
[9]. Çolak, ø., Bayındır, R., Sefa, ø., Demirbaú, ù., Bal, G.,
Developing of a control unit for the parallel operation
of AC generators, TPE’06 3rd International Conference
on Technical and Physical Problems in Power
Engineering, (2006). p. 134-137.
Erdal Bekiroglu received his BSc, MSc and PhD degrees
in the Electrical Technologies Education from the Gazi
University. He worked as a research assistant at Gazi
University between 1996 and 2003. He is currently assistant
professor at Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture,
Abant Izzet Baysal University. His research interests are
fuzzy logic, digital signal processors, drive and control of
electrical machines.
Alper Bayrak received his BSc and MSc degrees in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department from
Karadeniz Technical University and Gazi University
respectively. He worked as research assistant at Bolu Abant
Izzet Baysal University, between 2005-2006 and at Gazi
University between 2006-2007. He has been working at
Izmir Institute of Technology till 2007. His research
interests are robotics, microprocessors and biomedical
image analysis.
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... 3. The phase sequences of the SGs are similar. 4. phase shift =0 [3]. ...
... (2009) [17] • This paper presents a microcontroller (PIC16F877) based automatic synchronisation unit. ...
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In this paper two automatic synchronizing boards are built on using microcontroller and PLC. In the first circuit the sequence is known previously and the circuit is constructed for three sensors; one for frequency and the second for voltage and the third for phase shift. The three sensors send three signals to the PLC[l] and when they fulfded the PLC gives an output to operate the circuit breaker between the incoming generator and the other system through its operating coil. In the second circuit there is an additional sensor for phase sequence check. In this circuit there are two circuit breakers one for correct sequence and the other for the reversed one. The microcontroller [2,3,4] used is the PIC16F877, and the incoming generator is a unit coded as Mv1305.
Developing of a control unit for the parallel operation of AC generators
  • İ Çolak
  • R Bayindir
  • İ Sefa
  • Ç Demirbaş
  • G Bal
Technical Perspective, Generator Paralleling
  • Generac Power
  • Systems
Synchronous Machines
  • I Colak
  • Ieee Std
IEEE Std C37.118-2005, IEEE Power Engineering Society, IEEE standard for synchrophasors for power systems, 2005.
Developing of a control unit for the parallel operation of AC generators, TPE'06 3rd International Conference on Technical and Physical Problems in Power Engineering
  • Ø Çolak
  • R Bayındır
  • Ø Sefa
  • Ù Demirbaú
  • G Bal
Çolak, ø., Bayındır, R., Sefa, ø., Demirbaú, ù., Bal, G., Developing of a control unit for the parallel operation of AC generators, TPE'06 3rd International Conference on Technical and Physical Problems in Power Engineering, (2006). p. 134-137.