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Wicked Problems in Design Thinking

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... There are minimal studies about the industrial design profession from the perspective of the practitioners, especially how they engage with manufacturing-based stakeholders and novel technologies. Since the industrial design profession is broad (Conway, 1995) and interdisciplinary (Buchanan, 1992) and is in a constant flux, a holistic understanding has to be gained of the profession as a whole to determine its current state. ...
... means (Fry, 1988, Conway, 1995, Buchanan, 1992, Koskinen et al., 2012 .This ambiguity can be one reason for confusion (Walker, 1989). Heskett (1980Heskett ( , 2001Heskett ( , 2002 expresses his concerns with the multiple levels of meanings 'design' offers. ...
... Since there was no industrial design education in the beginnings of industrialisation and mass production, many of what people describe as industrial designers today actually came from quite diverse backgrounds, such as architecture, engineering, advertising, commercial art etc. (Heskett, 1980, Järvinen and Koskinen, 2001, Britannica Academic, 2018. This is reflected by the inherent quality of industrial design's nature to be an interdisciplinary as well as to be an integrative discipline (Friedman, 2003, Buchanan, 1992. The breadth of the profession is so extensive that it makes it hard to exactly define what it is concerned with, since it can frequently overlap with other design fields (Conway, 1995). ...
Thesis
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The industrial design profession is on the verge of another manufacturing revolution commonly referred to as Industry 4.0. This paradigm shift will influence the way in which products are made, which subsequently, will influence the future industrial designer. Industrial design, which is evolving, is intrinsically linked to manufacturing; however, what is required of industrial design to adapt to these new changes to be brought on by Industry 4.0 in manufacturing is yet unknown. Current literature gives little insight into how industrial designers need to adapt and evolve to the current developments in manufacturing to remain value drivers in an Industry 4.0 paradigm. This provides an impactful research gap focusing on how the industrial design field must evolve to stay relevant and provide value for future manufacturing in this new evolving paradigm. This thesis uses a mixed methods approach, beginning with a focus group for a pilot study to construct questions for a subsequent online questionnaire. This questionnaire was formulated using the existing literature on industrial design to establish the present state of industrial design practice globally and to identify areas for improvement, as well as opportunities for growth within the discipline. This approach helped define and communicate the capabilities and value of industrial design for future manufacturing industries. Core values of industrial design were found to be stable, however these need to be communicated more effectively to production-based stakeholders to facilitate adequate collaboration. Furthermore, it was established that industrial designers lack technology literacy, and that early manufacturing engagement is critical for industrial designers to have a successful collaborative experience for new product development. Industrial designers must also embrace new technologies that correspond with their core strengths to successfully evolve alongside an Industry 4.0 manufacturing environment. The outcome of this thesis provides an empirical foundation for the future of industrial design in relation to its value to manufacturing, as well as expanding and adjusting the industrial design curriculum in universities to stay relevant in an Industry 4.0 manufacturing environment.
... Design activity is a nonlinear process of recognizing and interacting with the situation that is occurring there (Schön, 1983). Design activity, characterized by its nonlinear design process, is adapted to "wicked problems" (Buchanan, 1992). A methodology that simplifies designerly thinking and adapts it to the general domain is design thinking (Johansson et al., 2013). ...
... Traditional analytical approaches are effective when dealing with well-defined problems or when the product under development is relatively well understood, but they do not work well for complex service systems involving a wide variety of actors. For this reason, design thinking, an approach for dealing with complex human problems, has received much attention (Buchanan, 1992). ...
... Design thinking is a practical problem-solving approach based on human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and is characterized by cooperation with diverse people and iterative practices (Brown, 2008;Norman, 2013;Liedtka, 2015). It emerged as a series of methods to deal with uncertain and unclear "wicked problems" (Buchanan, 1992). It aims to discover insights through a process of abstraction by discussing observed facts from a variety of perspectives, and to generalize patterns and motivations of social behavior (Cross, 2011;Dorst, 2011). ...
Article
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More companies are using design to gain an advantage in today’s highly competitive business market. However, there are few empirical studies on its innovation impact on organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the knowledge resources of companies, moderated by the degree of design activities, and innovation types. Based on the sensemaking organizational model, this study examines how companies’ knowledge resources mediate design activities and influence innovation. This study introduces design activities as a moderator to link the corporate knowledge resources’ (human, social, and organizational knowledge) impact to incremental and radical innovation. The sensemaking organizational model is extended through a human-centered lens. Analysis of 151 companies showed that human, social, and organizational knowledge had a selective impact on incremental and radical innovation. Interestingly, the findings supported the hypothesis that organizational knowledge enhances radical innovation through design activities. This paper bridges the gap between corporate knowledge resources and innovation moderated by design activities enhancing the sensemaking organizational model. It points to the need for design activities for creative problem-setting and enabling the discovery of problems found during the research phase through innovation. Long-term corporate activities increase knowledge resources and reduce the potential for radical innovation. Mechanisms that promote new connections between organizations and leverage corporate knowledge resources benefit radical innovation. This explains the managemental impact on the various knowledge resources in innovation and the role of design activities.
... Being situated and particular makes design processes indeterminate and 'wicked' (Buchanan, 1992). The many different activities, interests, stakeholders and conflicting motives makes design problems impossible to pre-define (Buchanan, 1992;. ...
... Being situated and particular makes design processes indeterminate and 'wicked' (Buchanan, 1992). The many different activities, interests, stakeholders and conflicting motives makes design problems impossible to pre-define (Buchanan, 1992;. As I entered the project, I had some ideas about problems, solutions, and methods but following the principles of PD, the needs and circumstances of the participants dictated the direction of the process. ...
... My theoretical and methodological toolbox has accordingly been assembled throughout the process by the studies incorporated in this thesis but also through the discoveries and needs emerging in the design project. This could be described as the 'wickedness' of design challenges (Buchanan, 1992), but it could also be explained as an abductive research process: the theoretical framework has been developed and deepened through the interaction with the empirical material. ...
Book
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This thesis explores how Participatory Design (PD) and Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can be combined and used as a theoretical framework and methodology in a professional development activity for teachers. A shift in the way we view teachers, from implementors to designers who actively construct, invent, and develop the practice of schooling also calls for changes in teacher education and professional development activities. The study presented here explores teachers' work and learning during a professional development activity conducted as a participatory design project between two K-12 schools in Sweden and the USA, using media production to create an international collaboration on Ocean Literacy. The work draws on central notions and practices based on the Scandinavian School of Participatory Design and the Change Laboratory methodology (CL) based on the theoretical framework of expansive learning. The thesis is comprised of three articles answering research questions about what challenges and strategies develop in a design process as a situated professional development approach and how we can understand learning as part of and expanding beyond a design process using activity theoretical tools.The first article presents a description of challenges and strategies developed by teachers in the first iteration of the design process and the results of using an activity theoretical model for collaborative analysis of the process. The second article analyses a CL intervention in the second iteration of the design process, adopted after the results of the first iteration. The analytical focus here was placed on empirical manifestations of the epistemological principles of the theoretical framework of expansive learning. The third article explores the occurrences and cyclicity of the learning actions postulated by the theoretical framework in the same intervention through a detailed analysis of the participants' discourse in the process. The thesis comes to a conclusion with a tentative formulation of design principles based on findings from the studies. The results point to how innovative educational design can have consequences for teachers' work with conflicting needs, tensions, and contradictions at the systemic level of the activity. PD processes in educational settings require toolsand concepts to capture this complexity and create sustainable solutions. In this study, activity theoretical models served as a collaborative tool for teachers to analyse and change their practice and to describe and explain work integrated learning in the design process. The work highlighted the need for teachers' expertise in design as well as the important role of media literacy in the use of new technology. Their active and practical engagement in the materials, basedupon the tradition of PD, must be understood as an important part of the development of agency and volition, and findings suggest that the combination of PD and CL methodologies can serve as a vehicle for expansive learning and new innovative learning designs in educational settings. This approach was conceptualized as expansive design.
... It is important, nevertheless, to dispel a series of quite common misunderstandings that view the design of public services as limited to the simple graphic rendering of an interface, or as a problem of an exclusively technological nature. Public service design represents a classic example of one of those wicked problems that Richard Buchanan, using Horst Rittel's definition, so usefully described, identifying the design thinking approach as the only one capable of handling these specific sets of problems (Buchanan, 1992(Buchanan, /2019. They present unique challenges to traditional solutions because they are symptomatic of numerous conflicts; they are problems that risk being aggravated rather than resolved by solutions that are isolated from the broader context. ...
... It is important, nevertheless, to dispel a series of quite common misunderstandings that view the design of public services as limited to the simple graphic rendering of an interface, or as a problem of an exclusively technological nature. Public service design represents a classic example of one of those wicked problems that Richard Buchanan, using Horst Rittel's definition, so usefully described, identifying the design thinking approach as the only one capable of handling these specific sets of problems (Buchanan, 1992(Buchanan, /2019. They present unique challenges to traditional solutions because they are symptomatic of numerous conflicts; they are problems that risk being aggravated rather than resolved by solutions that are isolated from the broader context. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper investigates how speculative design and particularly design fiction can be an effective educational approach to public sector design. The innovation and digitization of public services has been an important driver for the introduction of design thinking and service design methodologies in the public administration in recent years. Design for the public sector on the other hand affects the way the citizen-institution relationship is conducted and therefore requires an ethical and possibly critical approach. Likewise, the global challenges that await public policy choices are increasingly confronted with analyses and foresights of the future. Design fiction is a way through which, starting from the designer's educational path, design, politics, foresight and civic participation can be combined within a conscious and ethical narrative framework.
... Such an understanding distinguishes design from all the natural and social sciences, enforcing a profound division between the artificial and the natural. Early foundational debates in the field of design studies featured a plethora of contrasting definitions and philosophies of design, yet converged on this Simonian partition and conception of the artificial (Buchanan, 1992). Design has thus typically been underpinned by an avowed instrumental reason to shape the contingent features of "the artificial" in order to improve the habitability of the world, with the "natural" as a stable backdrop from which resources are drawn and adapted to human goals and purposes. ...
... This rapprochement between design and management was in some sense prefigured by Simon (1969), but is also quintessentially manifest in the work of design theorist Richard Buchanan, who views the design discipline as fundamentally "a humanistic enterprise" (Buchanan, 1995). In his influential matrix of the Four Orders of Design (see Buchanan, 1992), he outlines the expanding trajectory of design from a professional practice initially concerned with the design of visual communications (first order) and industrial goods (second order) to one increasingly concerned with the design of services and processes (third order) as well as systems and organizations (fourth order). The fourth order, Buchanan (2015) argued more recently, "is the hallmark of the current design movement" (p. 5) in which "management has become a logical extension of the new design thinking" (p. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we intend to make explicit the shared ontological foundation of design and management and question them in light of the advent of the Anthropocene. To do so, we first draw these disciplines closer before qualifying their common ground as an underlying "cosmology they share". This cosmology is characterized by the centrality of the notion of organization. We argue that design as well as design knowledge must be assessed with regards to this peculiar cosmology. We call for the need to go beyond what we call the "monism of organizations" or the "organized world". We propose a new direction for design oriented equally a) toward the organized world, setting the task to suitably deconstruct it or properly shut it down, and b) towards the Earth itself, in search of a new, more adequate cosmology and more sustain-able forms of life rather than trying to hubristically improve the habitability of the world.
... In addition, there is an increasing demand of customization, being at the same time in a global competition with competitors all over the world. This trend, which is inducing the development from macro to micro markets, results in diminished lot sizes due to augmenting product varieties (high-volume to low-volume production) [1]. To cope with this augmenting variety as well as to be able to identify possible optimization potentials in the existing production system, it is important to have a precise knowledge of the product range and characteristics manufactured and/or assembled in this system. ...
... Design thinking refers to the integration of designers' tools, methods and perspectives to areas that are non-design focused, such as business, finance, or healthcare to confront critical issues experienced by users [1]. The design thinking process involves collaboration between interdisciplinary teams that aim to solve identified design obstacles and pinpoint underlying issues by empathizing with users through synchronous and asynchronous monitoring and evaluation. ...
Article
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Visualization is the process of mentally establishing, forming, and acknowledging information and the aptness to externally communicate it. This paper highlights the role that visualization methods play in framing the design thinking process. We present a conceptual framework to showcase explanatory examples of visualization regarding each stage of the design thinking process, identifying its purpose and advantages. Finally, we attempt to suggest the use of visualization within design thinking to assist researchers and practitioners in their design thinking process.
... While working on these projects and appraising the initial spatial situations and user-scenarios, the need arose to provide more instruments -including tools and the methods to apply themto aspiring designers and professionals. Like many design challenges, the multiple layered space and service design projects involve many stakeholders and disciplines and deal with wicked problems (Buchanan, 1992). The creation of a taxonomy system for service spaces and the creation of applied design tools are particularly relevant in space and service design projects (Fassi, Galluzzo & De Rosa, 2018). ...
... The creation of a taxonomy system for service spaces and the creation of applied design tools are particularly relevant in space and service design projects (Fassi, Galluzzo & De Rosa, 2018). These address the supporting touchpoints of the services and assist the designers and aspiring designers in holistic complex problem solving (Buchanan, 1992). ...
Conference Paper
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Space and service design is an emerging discipline, triggered by contemporary social-cultural-economic challenges. Shifting from traditional spatial emphasis, the focus is on the user-centeredness and systems of spaces and services, addressing touchpoints as spaces, communication systems, objects and the intangible scenarios, interactions and experiences. Comparative literature research revealed that existing service design methods and tools were found to provide insufficient responses to the combination of space and service. Through maximum variation sampling a taxonomy system for service spaces and tools simultaneously addressing service and spatial touchpoints was developed and provides critical reference points that allow for comparison of the situation pre-intervention and analysis of the intended effectiveness of the adapted situation. Finally, the article describes a space and service design process of "the Make Learn Space" for the city of Leuven, a project in line with two societal innovation challenges, namely Design for New Learning Environments and Design for Circular Economy.
... One example of such this rationale processes, which is used by organisations, is Design Thinking. It is a technique that encourages the participants to frame problems as ambiguous and in need of deeper understanding (Buchanan, 1992), then places those impacted by the problem as the focus of the process (Brown, 2008). It is commonly represented as a five-stage process that comprises of Empathise, Define, Ideate, Prototype, and Test (see Figure 1). ...
Conference Paper
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Emerging leaders are high-performing staff that show great promise as a leader. They often represent their senior leadership team in driving strategy. They also support on-the-ground staff in the day-today operations. This represents a dichotomy of skills and qualities expected of emerging leaders. While there are many training programmes available for individuals in established leadership roles, there is still little to no focus on programmes that cultivate emerging leaders. This paper explores the design and impact of an emerging leadership training programme. We scaffolded the programme with a design thinking framework to 1) provide participants with a personalised leadership training experience, 2) enable participants to create tangible leadership learning outcomes, and 3) develop their empathy skills in a team environment. We then interviewed the participants 18 months post programme to identify the impact of the programme and the design activities. We report on how design activities in the training programme reinforced the participants' leadership learnings and facilitate a change in their mindset, from a team player to a team leader. This paper demonstrates the value of design activities in changing individual mindsets and reinforcing learnings in the context of leadership training.
... In some settings, such as agriculture, the conflicting pressures of organizational drivers and competing perspectives of different stakeholder groups can mean that attempting to make changes to improve animal welfare presents a "wicked problem" (132). Iterative design thinking can provide a valuable approach to addressing wicked problems (133), allowing for reframing problems and identifying novel solutions as well as new ways of working which respond to conflicting goals (134). ...
Article
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Digital technologies offer new ways to ensure that animals can lead a good life in managed settings. As interactive enrichment and smart environments appear in zoos, farms, shelters, kennels and vet facilities, it is essential that the design of such technologies be guided by clear, scientifically-grounded understandings of what animals need and want, to be successful in improving their wellbeing. The field of Animal-Computer Interaction proposes that this can be achieved by centering animals as stakeholders in technology design, but there remains a need for robust methods to support interdisciplinary teams in placing animals' interests at the heart of design projects. Responding to this gap, we present the Welfare through Competence framework, which is grounded in contemporary animal welfare science, established technology design practices and applied expertise in animal-centered design. The framework brings together the “Five Domains of Animal Welfare” model and the “Coe Individual Competence” model, and provides a structured approach to defining animal-centric objectives and refining them through the course of a design project. In this paper, we demonstrate how design teams can use this framework to promote positive animal welfare in a range of managed settings. These much-needed methodological advances contribute a new theoretical foundation to debates around the possibility of animal-centered design, and offer a practical agenda for creating technologies that support a good life for animals.
... Design methods are epistemologically distinct from conventional qualitative methods used within the social sciences. Design is often focused on addressing wicked problems in complex settings (Buchanan, 1992;Head & Alford, 2015), where the information required to produce solutions to a problem depends upon one's idea for solving it (Rylander, 2009). What this means in practice is that a design process is deliberately iterative and emergent, alternating between problem articulation and suggested solutions, and characterized by imagination, prototyping, and empathizing with the user (Conklin, 2006;Lawson, 2010). ...
... In business ethics, adopting design thinking leads to a radical change in the approach to problem solving at the organisational, strategic and product-development levels of an enterprise (Brown and Katz 2009). Complex problems, such as the 'wicked problems' (Buchanan 1992) in gamification, must be handled contextually at the design stage of a system, which in turn requires a degree of practical foresight (Jones 1992). This implies a shift in focus from mere analysis of a problem to its contextual resolution as the starting point of the construction of the system (Nelson and Stolterman 2012), as in the case of game design elements. ...
Article
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Public engagement is crucial to strengthen responsibility frameworks in highly innovative contexts, including as part of business organisations. One particular innovation that calls for public engagement is gamification. Gamification fosters changes in working practices to improve the organisation, efficiency and productivity of a business by introducing gratification and engagement mechanisms in non-gaming contexts. Gamification modifies the workforce's perception of constraints and stimulates the voluntary assumption of best practices to the benefit of employees and enterprises alike. Here, we broadly discuss the use of gamification at work. Indeed, gamification raises several concerns about privacy, due to the massive collection, storage and processing of data, and about the freedom of employees: as the level of data protection decreases, so too does workers' self-determination. We argue that the implementation of privacy by design can not only strengthen autonomy via data protection but also develop more viable instances of RRI in accordance with human rights. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Additionally, Design Method Movement launched in the 1960s attributed to design theorists longing to find a scientific method to explain ambiguous design activities triggered the separation of design and craft directly (Yeomans,1988) resulting from the craft recognized as a mismatch with modern production. Design(erly) Thinking was one of the outcomes of this movement and has been discussing till now (Simon, 1969;Schön, 1983;Rittel and Webber, 1973;Buchanan, 1992;Lawson, 2006Lawson, [1980; Cross, 2006Cross, ,2011Krippendorff, 2006;Dell'Era et al.,2020). Design Thinking is human/user-centred and its externalization are design concepts based on sketches and prototypes with immaterial properties and far away from physical materials. ...
Conference Paper
The increasingly decayed eco-system, especially the sudden outbreak of Covid-19, stresses the need to transform human-centered design ethics to non/de/post-human and object-oriented ontology, indicating the mainstream Material Turn in modern philosophy. A circular economy is an ideal economic strategy for sustainable development aiming at achieving the goal of Cradle to Cradle. Realizing material flow in a closed-loop circulating system can be seen as the critical point of a circular economy where the material is playing a crucial role. However, design thinking-oriented artefact design education mode is essentially immaterial and human-centered, separating designers from physical materials and manufacturing, making designers lack sustainability abilities. In this paper, I suggest an alternative design education mode directed by material thinking which regards material as a new “living” species to guide designers to have a dialogue with materials to bridge the gap between designers and the real physical world.
... Hence, in order to understand content and design as initially equal, we borrow an understanding of design from studies of information science (Buchanan, 1992;Dorst, 2008;Shareef, Dwivedi, Kumar, & Kumar, 2017) and the applied journalism field (Zappaterra, 2007). In information science, content design typically refers to the practice of developing front-end website elements. ...
Article
Content Design is advocated as one of the key factors influencing consumers' attitude and buying behavior. However, its real effects on sales performance remain largely unknown. We propose a research framework to evaluate the effect of content design on sales and empirically test its employability within the German magazine retail sector. To develop the research framework , we first derive a set of related success factors from several literature streams. We then conduct a content analysis of over 500 magazine covers and relate this data to real-life retail sales figures via linear mixed model analysis to investigate which aspects of content design affect sales. The findings point toward the usefulness of our proposed framework. They further indicate that in hedonic media consumption, the colors purple and blue, text-image congruence, wording that leads to ease of cognitive processing and promotional activities are pivotal in sales.
... The concept of wicked problems is raised by Horst Rittel (Rittel & Webber, 1973) with the statement "class of social system problems which are ill-formulated, where the information is confusing, where there are many clients and decision makers with conflicting values, and where the ramifications in the whole system are thoroughly confusing." (Buchanan, 1992). Based on the nature of embracing challenges, design thinking enables innovation to replace strategic management as an approach to tackle the wicked problems in the complex society (Brown & Wyatt, 2010;Johansson-Sköldberg, Woodilla, & Çetinkaya, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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This study aims at exploring the potential of financial sector innovation (fintech) as an instrument to boost economic development in Albania. Before the 2008 global financial and economic crisis, the Albanian economy witnessed high growth rates, slowing down and has not succeeded in recovering at the same pace. Amidst the economy's sluggishness, low innovation and ICT integration levels, structural reforms, EU integration aspiration, and consecutive natural disasters paralysed and kneeled heavily on the economy. From a sectoral perspective, different sectors have sustained growth interchangeably, presenting high volatility and instability. Despite its immaturity and fragilities, the financial system in Albania has proved to be relatively stable, liquid, and well-capitalised (Bank of Albania, 2019). In this study, we use a questionnaire-based survey to explore: (i) customers' (current and potential) perspectives toward innovative financial products and ii) strategies perspective on innovation and ICT integration in the financial market and approach to innovative financial products and fintech. Our findings suggest that there is little knowledge and awareness about financial products among customers while usage propensity is positive. Financial institutions have long relied on traditional products, while there are space and capacity to move towards more innovative products.
... Design Thinking (DT) provides a human-centred base to examine and reframe interdisciplinary or unfamiliar problems to find innovative solutions. The term "wicked problems" coined by Horst Rittel, refers to these complex problems that stem from multiple causes, and affect a multitude of stakeholders with various needs that do not have a single solution (Rittel & Webber, 1973;Buchanan, 1992). For this reason, wicked problems, first, cannot be solved by following a conventional engineering-grounded linear process, and second, they require the involvement of the stakeholders, who have a connection with, and are affected by the problem. ...
Article
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Design Thinking (DT) is not merely a well-known design methodology but also an entire mindset towards solving complex societal problems in an innovative way.Its popularity in diverse disciplines beyond design, is due to its relation with thedevelopment of key 21st-century skills, such as creativity, critical thinking, collaborationand communication. Teaching the DT mindset has always required methods differentfrom the traditional, one-way, mainly teacher-led approaches in which studentsplay a more passive role in the learning process. Such creative methods includeconstructivist teaching practices, such as learning-by-doing and learning-by-making.Game modding, which is defined as the modification of existing games, is also seenas a constructivist teaching approach since in this way students learn by designing agame. The experience is argued to increase the engagement and interaction of playerswith the game, and combine the roles of player and designer. However, using gamemodding to teach the DT mindset remains poorly researched. This paper discusses theoutcomes of a pilot study developed in the scope of the in-progress Erasmus+ KA2project ‘T-CREPE’ (Textile Engineering for Co-Creation Paradigms in Education). Thisstudy investigates the influence of game modding on students’ adoption of the DTmindset through the use of an online learning platform that enables a game moddingexperience. This platform includes games that students can play, modify, and/or designtheir own in the process of developing a project. Students (n = 240) and teachers (n =9) from three higher education institutions in Belgium and Greece participated in thisstudy. The quantitative and qualitative data collected has provided information ontheir experiences of game modding while cultivating a DT mindset. The findings of thestudy indicate that game modding enables students to practise critical questioning,constructionism and co-creation, which are core elements of the DT mindset.
... However, superpositions of binary states need to be formulated, in order to model these using qubits. This means that there are opportunities for exploring real world design phenomena such as the co-evolution of problem solution space [2,28], or stuckness [29], through a new lens of quantum entanglement. ...
Conference Paper
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Quantum Mechanics could have fundamental impact on design models and measurement. Quantum mechanics allows us to fill in the blanks of classical models of design, through its ability to explain ambiguous states of design. An ambiguous state is where design exists in between two binary states, as a superposition. Designers are most likely to be unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, as well as the subject of quantum mechanics being complex and sometimes contradictory to human scale mechanics. By discussing the opportunities of quantum mechanics for design, we are proposing a framework to model and measure ambiguous dimensions of design through quantum superpositions. The proposed framework includes the dimensions for the directionality of design (convergence or divergence), the degree of design embodiment (from low to high) and the decision-making of the designer (yes to no). Once the designer attempts the measurement of a superposition, a binary state can be distilled. For the act of designing, filling in the blanks is equal to sculpting away superposed states. In this philosophy, to design is to measure. This early stage research raises areas of opportunities and suggests further research directions for quantum mechanics and design.
... More and more literature and practice therefore recommend involving the public right from the early stages of the policy cycle, i.e. issue identification, definition of the policy objectives and policy design ( Fig.1) (Floc'Hlay and Plottu 1998;Barbier 2005). This integration of "users" at a very early stage is one of the core principles of design theory (Buchanan 1992;Rowe 1998;Dorst and Cross 2001;Liedtka et al. 2013). Design theory focuses on "users", as "the people who will use the final product or artifact to accomplish a task or goal" (Abras et al. 2004). ...
Article
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More and more literature and practice recommend involving the public at the early stages of the policy cycle, i.e. issue identification, definition of the policy objectives and policy design. Policy design involves, among others, identifying solutions, ideas or alternatives which may address the policy objectives. Three main arguments are often put forward to advocate for the involvement of stakeholders, or the public, in policy design: a “user-centered” argument (i.e. for the policy to better meet people's priorities), an innovation argument (i.e. to conceive new solutions) and a collective argument (i.e. to identify collective actions and better tackle environmental problems). However, in both research and practice these arguments have been challenged. Research has insufficiently generated evidence of the influence of large-scale participation in policy design on resulting proposed actions. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether a large-scale participatory process leads to action proposals that fit people's priorities and that are innovative and collective. It draws from a land management and rural development policy design experiment conducted in six vulnerable areas of Tunisia. 4,300 direct participants were involved and 11,583 action proposals were collected. Our results highlight the influence of the local circumstances on innovation and the interest towards collective actions. Our results also show that whether policy design is made individually or in group influences the outcomes. The results also suggest that appropriate facilitation can help fostering more collective and innovative actions. We conclude the paper by opening up the idea of hybridizing policy design methods with methods from political and agricultural sciences in order to better understand the drivers and rationalities behind participants’ action proposals.
... Since the publication of the first book (Simon, 1969) conceptualizing what has later been called "design thinking" (Rowe, 1987), the interest in design practice as a way of thinking and learning has grown both inside and outside the field (Buchanan, 1992;Kimbell, 2011;Luka, 2014). ...
... Building on Rittel and Webber (1973), who claim design problems to be "wicked" in nature and embedded in a web of complexity that makes its formulation in simple terms impossible, Buchanan (1992) rather sees proposing a solution to a problem as an act through which the designer "must discover or invent a particular subject out of the problems and issues of specific circumstances", therefore making "any solution proposed (...) as much an argument for its own applicability as it is a logical solution to the problem, implying a rhetorical rather than a logical relation" (Beckett 2017). ...
Chapter
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System space is introduced as a conceptual design space and as a distinct space from that traditionally addressed by most design processes. The paper intends to address the increasing complexity deriving from the ongoing blend of physical and digital in a postdigital culture and contribute to the current understanding of the effect of “systemic” ways of thinking in design disciplines. We argue that a systemic perspective cannot simply be “added” to the design process and that addressing postdigital complexity, that is, producing solutions to contemporary design problems, requires instead its own conceptualization, in its own space, to be acknowledged, practiced, and formalized as a different way of thinking. We propose that system space lives in a dialectical relationship with design space within the space of the experience and that it provides a way to escape the cognitive traps in design space. We posit that the relationships between system space and design space can be apprehended by means of an exo-process adapted from systems thinking, and that the exo-process provides a supporting structure for the intentional and necessary movement between the different spaces, scales, and modes of thinking required by contemporary design work. We then illustrate such a dialectical relationship through the analysis of three different cases and draw final considerations.
... To articulate this, Buchanan introduced four orders of design, which scaffold the responses that designers can take in responding to a problem across four levels [17,18]. As the designer analyses the context through each level, the degree of complexity and perspective needed increases, as is demonstrated in Figure 1. ...
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The role and responsibilities of our creative Higher Education are evolving in our ever-changing society. Systemic design thinking equips our design students with the means to promote sustainable development objectives via engagement, community building and discourse. This study reflects on interdisciplinary resource recovery projects for the City of Adelaide (CoA) during a final-year systemic design course in the Product Design programme at the University of South Australia. Since 2015, the core design team has collaborated with external partners outside of HE sectors, including NGOs, local councils, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) government and the South Australia (SA) government, to promote social innovation towards sustainability. Systemic design is one of the core courses of the Bachelor of Design, Product Design programme within the faculty of Creative, University of South Australia. In this course, system thinking combined with project-based learning (PBL) was adapted and illustrated to demonstrate good systemic design practice for social innovation. This study was focussed on how we can collaborate on a variety of interdisciplinary projects to contribute to the realisation of the United Nations’ (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from a human-centred systemic design perspective.
... TD considers it essential to understand systems-level problems through the framing of wicked problems (Transition Design Seminar, 2021a) This concept and problem framing predates TD, but design as a field has long engaged the terminology (Buchanan, 1992). Moreover, wicked problems have been described as "social system problems which are ill-formulated, where the information is confusing, where there are many clients and decision makers with conflicting values, and where the ramifications in the whole system are thoroughly confusing" (Churchman, 1967). ...
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The transition design (TD) framework calls for integrating theories of change when designing for systems-level shifts. Meanwhile, a theory of change describes the relationship between actions taken and outcomes yielded in the process of initiating change.
... The models were based on theories from business management, resource management, project management, marketing, and strategy. Starting with Peter Grove's Design Implementation Matrix from 1987, Four Orders of Design (Buchanan, 1992) paved the way for the service design method, the Design Ladder (Ramlau, 2003) and Designence (Mozota, 2006). The "Design Management Staircase" (Kootstra, 2009) examines different levels of design assimilation in small and medium-sized businesses in Europe, through a matrix based on the "Design Ladder" with five managerial factors. ...
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Designers are perceived as critical contributors who are needed to address climate change mitigation and solve sustainable development's wicked problems. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the complexity and scale of climate and sustainability challenges and the professional competencies currently taught in most design education programs. This study linked design education and education for sustainability and evaluated the gap between learning outcomes and the competencies needed to face complex sustainability challenges. The study aimed to enrich theoretical and empirical knowledge in higher education for sustainable design and to propose new teaching objectives that would integrate design management models with sustainability models. The research was based on a mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative research that included open interviews and semi-structured interviews, with quantitative research comprised of online questionnaires. The paper's implications for the theory and practice of sustainable design focus on the six competencies required for sustainable development. The study found that graduates of design higher education significantly demonstrated more 'future thinking', 'normative thinking' and 'problem-solving' than graduates from non-design higher education. These findings and others lead to education policy and pedagogical recommendations for the assimilation of sustainability as an integral part of design higher education.
... During a design project, frames can be probed, tested, refined, nuanced or eliminated. This enables designers to make decisions and thus navigate and progress in the design process (Buchanan, 1992). This makes them complex units that specify Timely and timeless framing relevant issues and ultimately, the boundaries and criteria for evaluating the design situation (Hey et al., 2007;Sch€ on and Rein, 1994). ...
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This paper presents an exemplary case in the car industry: the design of the new MINI Cooper, released in 2001. Through a semi-structured interview with design expert Frank Stephenson and the use of secondary data, we examine how an expert designer considers time to design a car relevant across decades. We find that the framing of the new MINI Cooper integrates both timely and timeless aspects. In the process, Frank Stephenson draws values, frames and working principles from the present portfolio and competing products to create a succession of product generation. We use this case to argue for the centrality of framing time when striving to create seminal, long-lasting designs. The study identifies ‘the framing of time’ as a main expertise in the car industry. Therefore, this paper answers scholars' calls for more research on how outstanding designers work to consider time (Cross, 2004).
... Using our fabulous toolkits, designers were givers of enlightening fire to poor, oppressed, and marginalized people. We were also trained to address the wicked problems (Buchanan 1992, Irwin 2015. Nonetheless, some "wicked problems" social designers were addressing are manifestations of structural aspects of society (exclusion, oppression, assimilation, etc.) that were created by Design (or, at least, design helped shape them). ...
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This book is an outcome of the collective efforts of the Design Research Society (DRS) Special Interest Groups (SIGs) in Global Health, Pluriversal Design SIG, Sustainability SIG, SIGWELL and Education. We thank the DRS as well as all the members of our SIGs and all the contributing authors to this volume.
... Design is a field that can positively contribute to addressing ill-defined problems, as designers stimulate integrative action and synthesis of constraints allowing exploration and discovery of new possibilities (Buchanan 1992; Rittel and Webber 1973). Design problems are diverse, yet involve the convergence of human, technology and organisational considerations. ...
Article
Higher education (HE) students experience rates of depression and anxiety substantially higher than those found in the general population. Many psychological approaches to improving wellbeing and developing student resilience have been adopted by HE administrators and educators, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. This article aims to review literature regarding integration of resilience and wellbeing in HE. A subsequent aim is to scope toward developing foundations for an emerging discipline specific concept-designer resilience. A literature scoping review is applied to chart various conceptual, theoretical and operational applications of resilience and wellbeing in HE. Twenty-seven (27) articles are identified and analysed. The scoping review finds that two general approaches to implementing resilience and wellbeing training exist in HE. First, articles reacting to a decline in student mental health and remedying this decline through general extra-curricular resilience or wellbeing programmes. Second, articles opting for a curricula and discipline-specific approach by establishing why resilience will be needed by future graduates before developing and testing new learning experiences. The presence of cognitive flexibility, storytelling, reframing and reflection lie at the core of the practice of resilience and design and therefore offer preliminary opportunities to develop 'designer resilience' training. Future research opportunities are identified throughout the article.
... Climate change entangles with human politics to create fires, flooding, food shortages, and an array of current and future disasters. Human invented technologies proliferate at an ever-increasing rate, inspiring for some, the hope of solutions to our "wicked problems," and for others, the existential despair that technology has become the ultimate problem (Buchanan, 1992). ...
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Futures literacy is a concept that has gained increased currency over the last decade and has been taken up by, for example, organizations like UNESCO in global initiatives to improve our capacity to performatively imagine the future and alter the course of dominant narratives. Rather than thinking singularly about what may constitute futures literacy, this article performs a collaborative discussion, a relational exercise among scholars in the field to explore and excavate various meanings and activities that might contribute to an ongoing body of knowledge, simultaneously attempting to understand and reframe it through a series of inquiry questions. In a collective response to these inquiry questions, the authors suggest a critical union of these pluralities as futures literacies to create a generative and interdisciplinary space that has much to offer as pedagogies, narratives, difference, and posthumanist ontologies for how we transform these concepts and practices in educational contexts and beyond.
... Using our fabulous toolkits, designers were givers of enlightening fire to poor, oppressed, and marginalized people. We were also trained to address the wicked problems (Buchanan 1992, Irwin 2015. Nonetheless, some "wicked problems" social designers were addressing are manifestations of structural aspects of society (exclusion, oppression, assimilation, etc.) that were created by Design (or, at least, design helped shape them). ...
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And if you are in social design, we think you should be in an existential crisis right about now! If you’re not in an existential crisis as a designer in Social Change in 2021, you’re not doing it right! Depending on when you first became a designer, the profession you are currently in may look radically different from the profession that you entered. What has changed around you?
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This study is based on a workshop themed on Material-oriented Artefact Design (MAD) that 30 students majoring in Design from Chinese universities took part in. Through the methodology of Constructing Grounded Theory combined with the research methods of Participatory Observation, Semi-structured Interview and Questionnaire, we explored the distinctions between MAD and Problem-oriented Artefact Design (PAD), analyzed the advantages of MAD and further explained the reasons why MAD is worth refocusing on recently. The study demonstrates MAD is an effective way to break through the mode of PAD, exploring an active making route of materials as the starting point to advocate a new design language and material culture, so as to guide students to see materials as “new living species” that can interact and dialogue by continuous experiments. In this way, the relationship between designers and materials is subtly changing, from hierarchy to flat and equal relations, from passive acceptance to attentive care, which facilitates entering into the post-Anthropocene era for sustainability.
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Based on Thomas Kuhn's paradigm shift theory, this paper aims to think about how design research can show its value in the topics facing the future society, ask about the scientificity of design research, and put forward the topic of “design research facing the future society”. The speculative attribute of design thinking determines that designers can make up future scenes through imagination and graphical language. On the premise of the superposition of “complexity problem” and futurology, this paper takes social network theory as the perspective and speculative design as the method, turns the topic to “speculative research facing the weak relationship of future social network”, and deduces the hypothesis that design research will change from “people centered” to “relationship centered”. In the evaluation part, this paper advocates asking questions rather than answering questions. Based on the emphasis on uncertainty, the evaluation criteria evolve from “possible certainty” to “possible uncertainty”. At the same time, the scope of the subject continues to expand, and multi subjects give full play to the self-organization advantages of the subject through cooperation, so as to realize order in disorder.
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The article mainly discusses three issues. First of all, through the rethinking of design boundary and positioning, it points out the active design proposal rationality and possibility of existence. Secondly, consider the research category and core issues of active design from the perspective of design. According to research, active design is not a new thing. Looking back on history, ‘Specify the system of clothes, ruling the world with courtesy’ in China’s pre-Qin period is a model of active design under the Chinese agricultural civilized lifestyle. Finally, taking the political order system of “setting up officials and dividing duties” in the Tian Guan system of Zhou Li as an example, this paper verifies the logic and ultimate purpose of active design. The Zhou Li is an important document in the Confucian classics, and it is also a traceable text for research in various disciplines. It is no exception to the study of design, and it also provides a comprehensive description of active design.
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Taking rural revitalization as the background and context, this paper explores the possibilities and specific ways of design intervening in rural problems and driving rural innovation and change with the help of design theory and case studies, which illustrates the leading and constructive role of design in solving issues in local contexts such as rural revitalization, as well as the powerful ability to drive innovation. The article first expounds on rural revitalization in the local context, and points out the essence of the current local rural problems and the direction of the rejuvenation and development of local villages by combing the historical changes of Chinese rural areas. Subsequently, the article introduces and expounds two important design theory concepts: “Four Orders of Design” and “Active Design”, based on these two design concepts, the article further elaborates the specific ways of design intervening and driving rural revitalization through the description of some cases, and specifically introduces and analyzes the “Design Harvest” project, which validates and illuminates the driving role that design can play in the face of challenges in the local context.
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Social design has become a significant part of design education system. The paper takes transformation of design education as background and focuses on in-depth analysis of social design related degree programs, curriculums, methodologies, and intuitional influence of organizations towards social design education shift. The paper addresses that how social impact affects the development direction of related disciplines and its relationship, discusses its complexity and extension, and actively integrates social resources to develop new forms of design practice. The pedagogy for social design employs a collaborative, systems-oriented approach to design and social thought through emphasizing design-led research. It helps students understand their role, define their engagement, and develop creative practices to address emerging and complex challenges by considering social, economic, political, and environmental issues from multiple perspectives and scales to generate transformative multimedia strategies. The paper brings a new perspective for future social design learning and demonstrates the social impact in design education in a general framework, and which help emerging designers understand the role they play in design practice worldwide, as well as foster an understanding of civic engagement and contrasts it with the idea of design as service.
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Designing for one is a form of design participation in which a designer works together with one individual. The result of this interaction is a bespoke design that is responsive to the needs, abilities, preferences and situation of the individual. Applied with design education, this research sought to understand the ways this approach impacted a) student learning, b) the generation of empathy and c) the traditional design educational space. This study involved six methods of inquiry for examining the impact of designing for one on the student experience: four Student Module Cases Studies, one expert design educator workshop with 21 participants, 28 student interviews, seven expert design educator interviews and included mapping (a method used within the workshop), observations and post analysis thick descriptions. In terms of student learning, the study identified seven key learning experiences that students had when designing for one, with the most prevalent being: Process (the students developed knowledge about the design process, research methodology and the act of designing), Design Skills (they learned about and applied specific skills related to their discipline), Soft-Design Skills (they developed understanding regarding using and incorporate soft-skills into their design process) and Interaction (they identified the value of the interaction between themselves and their participant). Regarding empathy, the study identified 11 factors that influence the forming of an empathetic relationship between designer and participant, resulting in a set of empathy factors that can be referred to when seeking to build relationships within design participation. In terms of impacting the routine design space, the study identified 11 variables that design educators can use to disrupt a traditional educational setup with the most important variables identified being participation with real users (bringing students in contact with real users) and the location of the module situation (taking the ‘classroom’ off site into a situation of use). By purposefully placing students within these individual situations of an ‘other’, the result is a form of design participation that emerges from the orchestrated relationship and the exchange. The result of this thesis, then, is the offering of designing for one as pedagogical approach that increases levels of complexity, planning, research and collaboration serving to complement existing design educational practice.
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There is a growing interest in framing sound-related areas of research such as sonification, sonic interaction design and product sound design in terms of design methodologies. Sound designers are seeking to structure a field traditionally characterized by tacit knowledge in terms of explicit design processes, tools and methods, to increase the reach and impact of the field. In this paper, we describe the first two stages of a commercial sonification project for the design of sounds for Electric Vehicles. The project was developed applying a design methodology that integrates a specific tool (the sonification canvas), which we describe in detail. We approach the creation of sounds for Electric Vehicles as a designerly endeavor with the goal of contributing to the transition of sound design from a heterogenous, practice-based field to a structured discipline that can enrich the creation of fulfilling experiences.
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Designers face challenges stemming from the complexity and uncertainty in sustainable design. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of dialectics and design process, we argue that a dialectical process of framing design issues and approaching design challenges can be an important but less explored element in the process of designing sustainable products. In the research setting of designers from five new sustainable design ventures, we explicated three sets of dialectics across the dimensions of social value, temporality, and development space. We further identified different synthesis strategies employed by participating designers for resolving design challenges. On the basis of empirical findings, we propose a framework for dialectical thinking and synthesis modes. We argue that the conceptual prompts provided by the proposed models can help designers articulate the process of problem framing and explore the various recombination and possibilities that emerge during synthesis.
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Inspired by Herbert Simon's insights on the sciences of the artificial, there is now an effort within the entrepreneurship discipline to view entrepreneurship from a design perspective. Entrepreneurship as design draws attention to the pursuit of unfolding goals by entrepreneurs through the design of artifacts serving at the interface of a venture's external and internal environments. In this paper, I apply a performative perspective on entrepreneurship as design to further clarify what a design turn in entrepreneurship entails.
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The Future of Government 2030+: A Citizen Centric Perspective on New Government Models project brings citizens to the centre of the scene. The objective of this project is to explore the emerging societal challenges, analyse trends in a rapidly changing digital world and launch an EU-wide debate on the possible future government models. To address this, citizen engagement, foresight and design are combined, with recent literature from the field of digital politics and media as a framework. The main research question of the project is: How will citizens, together with other actors, shape governments, policies and democracy in 2030 and beyond? Throughout the highly participatory process, more than 150 citizens, together with CSO, think tank, business and public sector representatives, as well as 100 design students participated in the creation of future scenarios and concepts. Four scenarios have been created using the 20 stories emerged from citizen workshops. They served as an inspiration for design students to develop 40 FuturGov concepts. Through the FuturGov Engagement Game, the project's ambition is to trigger and launch a debate with citizens, businesses, civil society organizations, policy-makers and civil servants in Europe.
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Despite progress in recent decades, many crucial challenges to the eradication of extreme poverty remain intractable. Development interventions often fail to deliver sustained, transformational outcomes to households and communities. The field of design has demonstrated its capacity to deliver designed artifacts that enhance the livelihoods and well-being of people living in resource poor communities, but it remains unclear how its tools can contribute to interventions seeking multidimensional and transformational development outcomes. We present insights from two case studies, conducted in Kenya and Uganda, where a service design approach was applied to the design of two development interventions: a clean cookstove and fuel system, and an innovative insurance product to help farmers cope with climate variability. In both cases, experience mapping, archetype construction, and prototyping served to reveal individual needs, capacities, and values, and enabled the translation of this information into design features for the interventions. Using Amartya Sen’s capabilities approach as an ex post analytical frame, we show how these devices could guide designers seeking to deliver transformational development outcomes when co-designing services that aim for environmental sustainability and social well-being among low-income communities.
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Climate and ecosystem changes, economic and policy imperatives, food system pressures, and multiple societal expectations pose complex challenges for sustainable farming. A key problem is determining an effective and efficient approach to enable innovation in complex, multi‐stakeholder settings. One approach currently receiving much policy attention and investment in the EU is ‘Living Labs’ which bring together public and private stakeholders to co‐create, validate, and test new services, business ideas, markets and technologies. However, the analysis, monitoring and evaluation of Living Labs and their effectiveness and policy value in different contexts is limited. The AgriLink Living Labs were undertaken between 2018 and 2021 in Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, Romania and Spain to co‐create innovation support for improving agricultural sustainability. Our evaluation suggests that four inter‐related critical conditions are needed for the success of Living Labs. These relate to the complexity of the challenge, the enabling environment, the proficient facilitation and the energy to move. These conditions influence the functioning of the Living Lab and we discuss the implications for policymakers and practitioners for the deployment of Living Labs in agricultural settings. Les changements climatiques et écosystémiques, les impératifs économiques et d’action publique, les pressions sur le système alimentaire et les multiples attentes sociétales posent des défis complexes pour une agriculture durable. Un problème clé consiste à déterminer une approche efficace et efficiente pour permettre l'innovation dans des contextes complexes et multipartites. Une approche qui reçoit actuellement beaucoup d'attention de la part des pouvoirs publics et d'investissements dans l'Union européenne est celle des ‘Laboratoires vivants’ qui rassemblent des acteurs publics et privés pour co‐créer, valider et tester de nouveaux services, idées commerciales, marchés et technologies. Cependant, il existe peu d'analyses, de suivi et d'évaluation des Laboratoires vivants ainsi que de leur efficacité et leur valeur en matière de politique dans différents contextes. Les laboratoires vivants AgriLink ont débuté entre 2018 et 2021 en Italie, en Lettonie, aux Pays‐Bas, en Norvège, en Roumanie et en Espagne afin de co‐créer un soutien à l'innovation pour améliorer la durabilité de l’agriculture. Notre évaluation suggère que quatre conditions critiques interdépendantes sont nécessaires au succès des Laboratoires vivants. Celles‐ci sont liées à la complexité du défi, aux conditions propices de l’environnement institutionnel, à la présence d’une facilitation compétente et à l'énergie pour le changement. Ces conditions influencent le fonctionnement du Laboratoire vivant et nous discutons des implications pour les décideurs des politiques et les praticiens du déploiement des Laboratoires vivants en milieu agricole. Klima‐ und Ökosystemveränderungen, wirtschaftliche und politische Zwänge, Druck auf das Ernährungssystem und vielfältige gesellschaftliche Erwartungen stellen komplexe Herausforderungen für eine nachhaltige Landwirtschaft dar. Ein zentrales Problem besteht darin, einen effektiven und effizienten Ansatz zu finden, der Innovationen in einem komplexen Umfeld mit vielen Interessengruppen ermöglicht. Ein Ansatz, der derzeit in der EU viel politische Aufmerksamkeit und Investitionen erhält, sind die ‘Living Labs’. Diese bringen öffentliche und private Akteure zusammen, um gemeinsam neue Dienstleistungen, Geschäftsideen, Märkte und Technologien zu entwickeln, zu validieren und zu testen. Die Analyse, Überwachung und Bewertung von Living Labs und ihrer Wirksamkeit und ihres politischen Nutzens in verschiedenen Kontexten ist jedoch begrenzt. Die AgriLink Living Labs wurden zwischen 2018 und 2021 in Italien, Lettland, den Niederlanden, Norwegen, Rumänien und Spanien durchgeführt, um gemeinsam Innovationsförderung zu entwickeln, die der Verbesserung der landwirtschaftlichen Nachhaltigkeit dient. Unsere Bewertung legt nahe, dass für den Erfolg der Living Labs vier miteinander verbundene kritische Bedingungen erforderlich sind. Diese beziehen sich auf die Komplexität der Herausforderung, das fördernde Umfeld, die kompetente Durchführung und die Energie, etwas zu bewegen. Diese Bedingungen beeinflussen das Funktionieren des Living Labs. Wir diskutieren die Folgen für Personen mit politischer Entscheidungsbefugnis und solchen aus der Praxis für den Einsatz von Living Labs in der Landwirtschaft.
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The P21 Framework for 21st Century Learning identifies collaboration as a key educational outcome as it prepares students for the real world problem solving and enhance their prospects for employment. Therefore, group assessments are becoming a commonplace in higher education, mainly to promote collaborative working environment and peer learning amongst students. In addition, group assessments are considered as an effective assessment strategy to manage large classes as it reduces the marking burden on academics. Despite the benefits, students resent group work particularly when a common group mark is awarded when there is a varying level of inputs from the members of the group. Especially, non- engaging students could possibly attain good grades without contributing to the group work or with minimal contribution. This problem of “free riders” disadvantages and discourages engaging students. There is a plethora of peer assessment methods used by academics to assess group works. However, there is a dearth of studies which explores why a particular method is preferred and the difference it makes on the final grades of students. Therefore, this paper explores different methods of peer assessments by reviewing recent literature and expands into comparing the final grades derived from two different methods of peer assessments adopted in the same module to study the end results. Finally, the correlation between the final individual grades and the peer marks given was unpacked which allows academics to make an informed decision.
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Die Gesellschaft ist mit unvorhersehbaren und oft chaotischen Zeiten konfrontiert. Zur Orientierung wenden sich die Autoren Calvinos (1988) sechs Memos für das neue Jahrtausend zu und reflektieren so die Rolle und den Auftrag der Institution Hochschule. Die Autoren zeigen auf, dass Hochschulen einen besonderen Ort für human-centered innovation im Umfeld von Staat, Zivilgesellschaft und Markt bieten. Um dieses Potenzial zu entfalten, wird empfohlen, dass alle Stakeholder Kompetenzen von Designer*innen erwerben. Das D3-Prisma der Innovationspraxis erweist sich dafür als geeignetes Instrument, da es die 3Ds, „Design“, „Digitalisierung“ und „Daten“ miteinander verbindet. Die dargelegte Fallstudie bezieht sich auf die Gestaltung von Richtlinien einer Hochschule und hebt damit hervor, welchen Beitrag Design Thinking im Kontext leisten kann. Anhand des Beispiels wird beschrieben, wie eine heterogene Gruppe aus Hochschulmitarbeitenden und Studierenden Design Thinking dafür nutzen, das Thema Plagiarismus im Setting der Hochschule gemeinsam zu bearbeiten. Abschließend werden fünf Erkenntnisse beschrieben: a) Die Wirksamkeit des Design Thinking Prozesses, das Mindset und der Raum für Kommunikation und Innovation; b) Das Interesse von Studierenden in Hinblick auf Gestaltung von Richtlinien mitzuwirken; c) Wie Design Thinking Neugier bei Mitarbeitenden und Studierenden gleichsam erweckt; d) Alle fünf Memos/Werte von Calvino waren der Fallstudie inhärent und e) der Nachweis der „Top 10 Skills“ des Weltwirtschaftsforums für eine erfolgreiche Karriere wurde erbracht. Hochschulen nehmen eine gesellschaftliche relevante Rolle ein, indem sie die Anwendung von Design Thinking unterstützen und so Innovationen fördern.
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This article presents the innovation methodology Design Thinking and provides a basic understanding of its specific characteristics, its iterative process and principles. The achieved understanding helps to contextualise and put it into practice.
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In our article, we discuss the question to what extent the Design Thinking method can also be used successfully in the context of entrepreneurship projects. To answer this question, we first look at the definition of the term “entrepreneurship education” in connection with the Design Thinking method. Then two concrete practical examples from the field of the Entrepreneurship Education will be presented, which refer explicitly to the concept of Design Thinking. Finally, it will be answered to what extent the method of Design Thinking makes a significant or even indispensable contribution to the realization of the goals regarding economic (general) education.
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