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The theory of planned behavior

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... Social factors are subjective norms that refers to the social pressure to perform or not to perform a behavior. In the TPB model, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are the level of ease or difficulty in performing a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Ajzen (1991) also notes that these three determinants of intentions symbolize the influence over their actions by individuals. ...
... In the TPB model, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are the level of ease or difficulty in performing a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Ajzen (1991) also notes that these three determinants of intentions symbolize the influence over their actions by individuals. With the requisite tools and opportunities, combined with intentions, the desired behaviour may be carried out effectively (Ajzen, 1991). ...
... Ajzen (1991) also notes that these three determinants of intentions symbolize the influence over their actions by individuals. With the requisite tools and opportunities, combined with intentions, the desired behaviour may be carried out effectively (Ajzen, 1991). Hofstede (2010) describes collectivism as the degree to which persons are incorporated into communities in a society. ...
Article
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The study purposes to investigate the factors that influence Muslim consumers’ purchase behaviour on halal food products in Turkey. Based on the extended TPB model; halal food awareness among Muslim consumers, their religious level, social factors, intention to purchase and actual behaviour towards halal food products are investigated. 152 valid responses were obtained using online survey method. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to ensure reliability and content validity. A structural equation modelling technique was performed to test the hypotheses among variables. It has been understood that the intention to purchase halal food has an effect on the behavioral intention of consumers. Besides, it was understood that the awareness of halal food was not affected by the level of religiosity, and that social factors were effective in awareness of halal food. First, some respondents were unwilling to respond to survey due to the sensitivity of religious issues. Secondly, the sample of the research was limited to Turkey. A comparative study would be desirable between other Muslim countries. This study contributes to the literature and sectoral inferences can be made.
... Therefore, to address these critical needs, we developed the first theory-based survey, the Perceptions of ASD Genetic Testing Survey (POAGTS). The development of the POAGTS was guided by an integrated theoretical framework based on three social and behavioral theories: the Health Belief Model (HBM) [25,26], the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) [27], and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) [28]. A theory-based survey can assist healthcare providers to better understand what motivates and discourages parents in the pursuit of genetic testing for their children with ASD. ...
... In previous research on factors associated with genetic testing decision-making [29][30][31][32][33][34][35], three health behavior models/theories have been well represented: HBM [25,26], TPB [27], and SCT [28]. Yet, these three models/theories have often been used and applied separately. ...
... Intention in Pursuing Genetic Testing for Children with ASD Scale. As indicated in the TPB [27], intention is an important predictor of one's motivation to perform a particular behavior. In this study, we examined parental intention to pursue genetic testing for their children with ASD. ...
Article
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Due to the increased prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), more children with ASD may be referred for genetic testing. It is important to develop a tool to help parents consider the benefits and drawbacks of genetic testing for ASD before pursuing genetic testing for children with ASD. We developed the first theory-based survey—Perceptions of ASD Genetic Testing Survey (POAGTS), as a tool to assist healthcare providers to better understand parents’ perceptions and concerns regarding ASD genetic testing. The psychometric properties of POAGTS were first pre-tested and then formally tested with 308 parents of children with ASD who had not decided whether to pursue genetic testing for their children diagnosed with ASD. Findings suggest that the eight scales of the POAGTS were psychometrically sound, and had acceptable data reliability and validity. Additional research with various samples, such as parents of children with ASD who belong to diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups, is warranted in the future to determine whether the POAGTS is applicable to these particular groups. Condensing and refining this tool to a shorter, more user-friendly version is also recommended for future research.
... In this study, peer attitudes were conceptually understood through the lens of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB). TPB is a psychological framework designed to examine the relationship between beliefs and behaviours (Ajzen, 1991). According to TPB, attitudes are one of three belief-related variables, along with subjective normative beliefs and perceived behavioural control, that can strengthen or weaken one's intention to engage in a behaviour. ...
... According to TPB, attitudes are one of three belief-related variables, along with subjective normative beliefs and perceived behavioural control, that can strengthen or weaken one's intention to engage in a behaviour. Attitudes are defined as general appraisals of behaviour and may be favourable or unfavourable (Ajzen, 1991). In the current study, when peers perceive the inclusion of students with disabilities favourably, they are more likely to intend to engage in activities with them. ...
... This example was accompanied by a vignette with a brief explanation of the most important characteristics of this peer with a disability. The questionnaire included a total of 15 items related to the three dimensions of the TPB (Ajzen, 1991). The first subscale, behavioural beliefs, was evaluated by five items (e.g. ...
Article
This study aimed to examine: (1) the influence of a disability awareness programme, designed and implemented by attendees of the Incluye-T programme and implemented in real educational settings , on the attitudes of their students toward the inclusion of peers with disabilities; (2) the differential effects of the disability awareness activities between classes in which physical impairment , visual impairment, or multi-impairment programmes were implemented; and (3) the influence of personal demographic variables on participants' attitudes toward the inclusion of peers with disabilities before and after the implementation of the disability awareness physical education (PE) sessions. A sample of 1105 PE students (13.1 + 2.2 years) from 56 Spanish public educational centres took part. After the training programme on self-efficacy toward inclusion, physical educators designed and implemented awareness interventions at their schools. Physical educators implemented physical-only (23.2%), visual-only (42.9%), and combined activities for both
... Social factors are subjective norms that refers to the social pressure to perform or not to perform a behavior. In the TPB model, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are the level of ease or difficulty in performing a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Ajzen (1991) also notes that these three determinants of intentions symbolize the influence over their actions by individuals. ...
... In the TPB model, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are the level of ease or difficulty in performing a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Ajzen (1991) also notes that these three determinants of intentions symbolize the influence over their actions by individuals. With the requisite tools and opportunities, combined with intentions, the desired behaviour may be carried out effectively (Ajzen, 1991). ...
... Ajzen (1991) also notes that these three determinants of intentions symbolize the influence over their actions by individuals. With the requisite tools and opportunities, combined with intentions, the desired behaviour may be carried out effectively (Ajzen, 1991). Hofstede (2010) describes collectivism as the degree to which persons are incorporated into communities in a society. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study purposes to investigate the factors that influence Muslim consumers’ purchase behaviour on halal food products in Turkey. Based on the extended TPB model; halal food awareness among Muslim consumers, their religious level, social factors, intention to purchase and actual behaviour towards halal food products are investigated. 152 valid responses were obtained using online survey method. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to ensure reliability and content validity. A structural equation modelling technique was performed to test the hypotheses among variables. It has been understood that the intention to purchase halal food has an effect on the behavioral intention of consumers. Besides, it was understood that the awareness of halal food was not affected by the level of religiosity, and that social factors were effective in awareness of halal food. First, some respondents were unwilling to respond to survey due to the sensitivity of religious issues. Secondly, the sample of the research was limited to Turkey. A comparative study would be desirable between other Muslim countries. This study contributes to the literature and sectoral inferences can be made.
... Given the importance of environmental behaviors and the need to encourage people to protect and conserve the environment, researchers have focused on a deeper understanding of the root causes of unusual behaviors of humans towards the environment and providing solutions to address this problem in recent years. Various theories have also been developed for environmental behaviors (Abdul Rashid & Mohammd, 2012), most notably the "value-belief-norm" model by Stern et al., (1995), the "normal activation" model by Schwartz, (1970), the theory of planned behavior by Ajzen (1991), the theory of "reasoned action" by Fishbein and Ajzen, (1988). In this respect, the theory of planned behavior, the most popular theory of behavior in social psychology, has been used as a solution to changing and modifying behavior in many studies (Cook et al., Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
... Social norms are considered to reflect perceived social pressures about performing/not performing a particular behavior (Zhang et al., 2018). Perceived behavioral control is defined as an individual's perception of his or her ability to perform a particular behavior (Ajzen, 1991). The TPB is increasingly applied in a broad range of fields, and more specifically it has great applicability in farmers' intention and behavior such as e-waste recycling behavior (Aboelmaged, 2021), social marketing behavior (Ayikwa et al., 2020), safe pesticide handling (Bagheri et al., 2021), adoption of mixed cropping (Bonke & Musshoff, 2020), smoking behavior (Lareyre et al., 2021), using desalinated water (Lili et al., 2021), purchase wellbeing food (Lim & An, 2021), adoption of organic production (Imani et al., 2020;Nguyen & Nguyen, 2020), domestic waste sorting intentions (Shen et al., 2020), intention towards conservation agriculture (Tama et al., 2020), wastewater treatment behavior (Wang & Lin, 2020), climate change mitigation and adaptation behaviors , and participation in non-point source pollution control of cultivated land (Zhu et al., 2020). ...
... Briefly, Ajzen (1991) expresses in TPB that the more optimal an individual's attitudes toward a particular behavior is and the greater the social norms and perceived behavioral control are towards that behavior, the higher the motivation and the intention of the individual will be to perform that behavior (Kaplan et al., 2015;Warsame & Ireri, 2016). By adding a new component (perceived behavioral control), Ajzen attempted to show how one perceives external and internal pressures in one's behavior and accordingly performs a specific behavior. ...
Article
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Despite widespread economic growth and increasing quality of life in the last century, there are concerns that human activities have had a significant negative impact on the environment and these effects have reduced the power and sustainability of socio-economic systems. This study aimed to investigate the role of social norms, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control on pro-environmental behavior among farmers producing organic products (green poultry) based on the theory of planned behavior. The research was a quantitative, causal-relational, and descriptive-correlational study that was conducted through a survey. The research population included farmers participating in the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in Hamedan province, Iran who were trained for green rural businesses. The sample was composed of 420 farmers taken by the multi-stage cluster sampling technique. The results showed that personal norms, social norms, and perceived behavioral control had a significant effect on the pro-environmental behaviors of the farmers. Also, social norms had the greatest impact on the farmers’ pro-environmental behaviors. It also influenced their behavior through perceived behavioral control indirectly. Some religious doctrines, public media, and educational activities can be effective in modifying the attitude and promoting people’s awareness and perception of the environment. It can be concluded that farmers’ pro-environmental behavior can be associated with their dependence on the rural community and the tendency towards behaviors that are consistent with other farmers. The research can provide practical and theoretical implications to assist researchers, policymakers, planners, green business owners, and other business owners.
... We employed the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to identify and predict conservation professionals' intentions to engage in LFF behaviors (Fig. 1). The TPB is a widely used theory positing a relationship between beliefs, intentions, and behavior, with the most proximal determinant of behavior being intention (Ajzen, 1985(Ajzen, , 1991. Intentions comprise three independent direct antecedents: 1) attitudes, the degree to which a person has a positive or negative appraisal of a target behavior; 2) subjective norms, the perceived level of social pressure to perform the behavior; and 3) perceived behavioral control (PBC), a person's perception of their ability to perform a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). ...
... The TPB is a widely used theory positing a relationship between beliefs, intentions, and behavior, with the most proximal determinant of behavior being intention (Ajzen, 1985(Ajzen, , 1991. Intentions comprise three independent direct antecedents: 1) attitudes, the degree to which a person has a positive or negative appraisal of a target behavior; 2) subjective norms, the perceived level of social pressure to perform the behavior; and 3) perceived behavioral control (PBC), a person's perception of their ability to perform a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Attitudes, subjective norms, and PBC are based on a cognitive foundation comprising underlying beliefs, namely: attitudes resulting from behavioral beliefs about the likely consequences of a behavior, subjective norms arising from normative beliefs about others' expectations regarding a behavior, and PBC generated by control beliefs regarding factors affecting the performance of a behavior (Ajzen, 2002a). ...
... The TPB has been successfully applied to predict intentions across a range of situations (Armitage and Conner, 2001;Miller, 2017), including predicting employee behaviors in workplaces (Dawkins and Frass, 2005;Jimmieson et al., 2009;Xie, 2009); understanding intentions regarding nature and soil conservation activities (Mathijs et al., 2009;López-Mosquera et al., 2014;Rex et al., 2015); exploring human- Fig. 1. The research framework depicting the cognitive foundation of beliefs underlying attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, with psychological safety hypothesized as a moderator between the Theory of Planned Behavior variables and behavioral intentions to engage in learning from failure behaviors (adapted from Ajzen, 1991). Grey boxes, for example labeled (H1), represent hypotheses tested during this study. ...
Article
Despite abundant literature from beyond the conservation sector on learning from failure, few studies examine conservation professionals, their teams, and their organizations. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate the drivers of conservation professionals' intentions to engage in learning from failure behaviors, we found that conservation professionals who intend to participate in learning from failure activities are influenced by perceptions of social norms. Higher levels of psychological safety were found to strengthen the positive relationship between self-efficacy and intentions to engage in learning from failure behaviors with a higher degree of interpersonal risk, whereas lower levels of psychological safety undermined high levels of self-efficacy. Organizations seeking to empower those who are confident they can learn from failure must recognize the key role that psychological safety plays in supporting such individuals, implement team training to foster psychological safety, and ensure leaders promote, by their own example, learning from failure as an opportunity to more effectively, cost-efficiently, and equitably deliver conservation outcomes.
... Gotts et al., 2003), assuming for instance that the decision maker has aspiration and stop it search for better options as soon as an option meets its aspiration. There is also a rich body of psychological approaches of which a prominent one is the Theory of Planned Action (TPA), also called the Theory of Planned Behavior, developed by Ajzen (1985Ajzen ( , 1991. TPA considers that decision-makers perceive the ease or difficulty of performing the behavior reflecting past experiences as well as anticipated obstacles (e.g. ...
... Also, the plan construction process is not detailed and the flexibility of the plan depends on the ability to foresee all possible situations that the actor might encounter during the operational phase. A rich body of psychological approaches dealing with plans has emerged from behaviorists such as the Theory of Activity (TA; Leont'ev, 1978, Vygotsky, 1930, the TPA (Ajzen, 1991) or the Theory of Reasoned Actions (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1977). In such approach, decision-makers act under subjective norms (i.e. ...
... Machina, 2008). The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by Ajzen (1985Ajzen ( , 1991 assumes that actors are decision-makers perceiving the ease or difficulty of performing the behavior reflecting past experiences as well as anticipated obstacles (e.g. Schwartz and Ernst, 2009). ...
Thesis
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In a context of global change, management of water resources between actors with sometimes conflicting objectives should be revisited. Modeling and simulation tools, dedicated to prospective analysis, are being developed at Irstea, in partnership with stakehoders of water management. Hydrological processes are rather well know and modeling and simulation platforms are available for their simulation. However, before they can produce relevant prospective scenarios, several improvments are required, in particular accounting for feedbacks loops between social and physical dynamics. Distributed hydrological modeling enables the simulation of hydrological dynamics considering spatial heterogeneity of the catchments and consequently gives the opportunity to imagine local feedback loops related to human activites. The objectives of the thesis is to couple an existing distributed hydrological model to an agent based model representing social dynamics and driving the local feedback loops related to human activities. We propose to use the theory of situed action (providing a framework to describe individual actions and decisions) and the concept of stigmergy (providing a framework to describe indirect interactions amongst actors) to build the agent based model. In this context, the decision making process of one or several agents is based on the set of actions that he can possibly realize at each moment. this implies to put the focus on the variables of interest of the agent (perceived variables and control variables, including hydrological variables) that are most of the time local variables. Hence, the exercice of coupling the agent model and the hydrological model will consist mainly in defining agents's variables of interest and to relate them to state variables or outputs of the hydrological model. This link will enable to specify local feedback loops related to human activities and furthermore to get spatial simulation outputs matching stakeholders' variables of interest. The scope of the PhD thesis is limited to the main sectors of activity of the two chosen sub-catchments of the Durance river. We will iteratively measure the impact of the implemented local feedback loops on the outputs computed at the scale of the sub-catchment. The impacts of local and sectoral adaptations (mainly from the irrigated agriculture sector constituting the main water use), on the global behavior oh the hydrosystem, under constraints of management strategies specified at the scale of the sub-catchment (incentives, regulations,..).
... Empirical studies on various research fields, including entrepreneurship, emphasize that intention is a very effective variable to predict a particular behavior (Armitage & Conner, 2001;Kautonen et al., 2013). Liñán (2008) also states that the correlation between intention and behavior is very high -from 0.9 to 0.96 (Ajzen, 1991). ...
... Thus, the decision to start a business is considered planned behavior and can be explained by intention models (Zhao et al., 2005). Kolvereid (1996a) also confirmed that the theory of planned behavior, which is proposed by Ajzen (1991), is the most appropriate model to explain and predict entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, Liñán (2008) also argued that the entrepreneurial decision is seen as a complex one, and it requires an intentional cognitive process. ...
... However, questions related to the moderating influences of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the relationships between these components and entrepreneurial intention in the theory of planned behavior still do not explain it clearly (Tsai et al., 2014). Moreover, personal beliefs regarding the ability to perform a specific behavior have impacts on attitude towards behavior, perceived behavioral control, and intention (Ajzen, 1991). So, entrepreneurial self-efficacy can moderate the links between attitude towards entrepreneurship, perceived behavioral control, and entrepreneurial intention. ...
Article
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Purpose: This study investigates the moderating role of self-efficacy on the cognitive process of entrepreneurship among Vietnamese students. Specifically, this study explores the moderating effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the relationships between attitude towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to become entrepreneurs. Methodology: By adapting the theory of planned behavior and using data collected from 2218 students in Vietnam, the author utilizes a meta-analytic path analysis in order to show that entrepreneurial intention is strongly influenced by attitude towards entrepreneurship, followed by self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control. Particularly, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the model fit and hypothesis. Findings: The study indicates that subjective norms have both direct and indirect effects on entrepreneurship intention. Moreover, although the moderating impacts of self-efficacy on the relationships between subjective norms and perceived behavioral control is insignificant, the research study indicates that self-efficacy moderates the correlation between attitude towards entrepreneurship and start-up intention. Implications for theory and practice: Besides its contributions to entrepreneurship literature, this study also contributes to practices and implications at universities in Vietnam. Originality and value: These findings also illustrate that the theory of planned behavior can be appropriately implemented in the research context of emerging economies such as Vietnam. In addition, the study shows that the relationship between attitude towards entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention is moderated by entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Keywords: entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intention, the theory of planned behavior, attitude towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control.
... The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was developed by Ajzen (1991) to overcome the limitation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) that was previously developed by Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980). TRA explained the volitional characteristics present in attitude and subjective norm toward behaviour. ...
... Subjective norms or also known as social norms is the second determinant identified in TPB. Subjective norms is the pressure from the surrounding including that of people, whether to perform or not the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991;Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Basically, such social pressure comes from various sources including that of peers, spouse, officemates or family. ...
... Perceived Behavioural Control is the third determinant in TPB. Ajzen (1991) explained perceived behavioural control as the controllable actions by people in performing the behaviour. Although a person may have positive attitude and have the encouragement from the surrounding, the intention to purchase is lower if he/she is not equipped with sufficient resources (Madden & Ajzen, 1992). ...
... Existing literatures suggest that customers buying behavior, intention and attitudes are explained through different established and popular theories and models namely Hierarchy of Effect Model-HEM (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961), Theory of Reasoned Action-TRA (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980), Theory of Planned Behaviour-TPB (Ajzen, 1991), Consumer Decision Model-CDM (Howard, 1989), The Theory of Buyer Behavior (Howard and Sheth, 1969) and so on. Organic food purchase attitude, intention and behavior are also explained through Hierarchy of Effect Model-HEM (Lee and Goudeau, 2014;Lian and Yoong, 2019) and Theory of Planned Behaviour-TPB (Al-Swidi et al., 2014;Teng and Wang, 2015;Ashraf, Joarder and Ratan, 2018;Bagher, Salati and Ghaffari, 2018;Curvelo, Watanabe and Alfinito, 2019;Wang et al., 2019). ...
... The major components of the TPB theory are subjective norms, attitudes, perceived behavior control, intention and behavior. TPB explains people's actual behavior which is framed by their intention (Ajzen, 1991). The intention of people are formed through attitudes, subjective norms (beliefs) and perceived behavior control. ...
... The intention of people are formed through attitudes, subjective norms (beliefs) and perceived behavior control. Thus, actual behavior of peoples is influenced by their attitudes and beliefs and perceived behavior control through intention (Ajzen, 1991(Ajzen, , 2008. The dimensions Subjective norms (influences of references groups/society), attitudes (favorable or unfavorable evaluation), perceived behavior control (purchasing power, knowledge and resources), intention (willingness to purchase) and behavior (actual purchase decision) are used in explaining the customers buying behavior in case of organic food (Al-Swidi et al., 2014;Ashraf, Joarder and Ratan, 2018;Curvelo, Watanabe and Alfinito, 2019). ...
Article
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In Bangladesh, the inclination to consume organic food is rising in response to issues such as conventional agricultural practices, food safety, human health and environmental sustainability. This study aims to identify the factors that influence the young consumers to purchase organic food and also investigate the effects of those factors on their buying intention. A survey was conducted through a structured questionnaire which was randomly distributed among the students of Islamic University, Bangladesh and collected data from 165 respondents; whereas 150 completed questionnaires were considered for the final study. All reliability and validity measurements have been tested. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been applied to test the proposed hypotheses of this study with the help of AMOS (Version-24). Findings of the study reveal that health consciousness, perceived value and food safety have direct positive influences on young consumers purchase intention in case of buying organic foods. The study findings will help the organic food marketers to design effective marketing strategies to gain the potential benefits from the markets. This study is geographically focused and limited to small sample size.
... To understand precisely the formation and behavior of tourists" decisions, theoretical mechanisms of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) are often used when forming new constructs (Hsu & Huang, 2010;Kim & Han, 2010). As suggested by Ajzen (1991), the TPB is open to "modification by adding more predictors" if it can be shown that all these modifications are capable of capturing a larger proportion of variance in intention/behavior after taking into account the original TPB construct. ...
... In short, given a sufficient degree of actual control over their behavior, people are likely to carry out their intentions when the opportunity arises. Some argue that human behavior is guided by different subjective probabilities which means beliefs about the consequences of behavior, beliefs about the normative expectations of others and beliefs about the presence of factors can facilitate or hinder behavioral performance (Ajzen, 1991). ...
... Attitude towards behavior, according to TPB, refers to the extent to which individuals have a like or dislike evaluation of a particular behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Usually, a positive evaluation can help individuals to perform these behaviors. ...
Article
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The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been employed in numerous studies to understand a wide range of intentions and behaviors in various fields. However, a little has investigated and extended the theory to explain tourists‟ intention to experience volunteer tourism and behavior, by including destination attachment and risk perception. Data from a survey of 286 volunteer tourists in Indonesia, who at least participated once in a volunteer activity, was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. The findings from the structural equation modeling showed that efficacy is a significantly stronger predictor of intentions if mediated by attitude.
... Social norms are typically described as either injunctive or descriptive (Cialdini et al., 1990;1991). Injuctive norms indicate individuals' perceptions of what behavior is typically approved or disapproved. ...
... For example, when the musicians finish playing, and everyone stands up and starts clapping, you will most likely stand up and clap too because everyone is doing so. Basically, injuctive norms tell us what we "ought" to do, while descriptive norms indicate what others are actually doing (Cialdini et al., 1990;1991). ...
... Attitude represents an individual's positive or negative evaluation of performing a behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Behavioral intention refers to the likelihood an individual will perform a behavior (Ajzen, 1991;de Groot & Steg, 2009;Atombo et al., 2016). ...
Article
With the rapid global expansion of dockless shared bicycles, disorderly parking has not only generated convenience to users but also negative consequences to enterprises and urban management. We proposed an integrated model and recruited 1722 participants from diverse professions and geographic locations in China, examining the influence of individual and social environmental factors on orderly parking behavior. It was shown that descriptive social norms played an important role in shaping user's attitudes toward orderly parking directly and indirectly via personal norms, and thus influence the behavioral intention of orderly parking. Cultural tightness-looseness further moderated the effect of descriptive social norms. At the individual level, antecedents of personal norms (moral awareness, awareness of consequences, and ascrip-tion of responsibility) were investigated based on Norm Activation Model. This study indicates that descriptive social norms can act as a complimentary policy and regulations of dockless bike-sharing, which provides valuable insights on urban operation and policy making concerning shared bicycles.
... Figure 1. Two-stage of adoption behaviour (Ram and Sheth, 1989;Ajzen, 1991) SA is a personal intention towards technology, and various factors influence it. This is a necessary amendment once a behaviour is measured, as a consumer may have a very favourable attitude towards a product, but not towards the act of purchasing it (Solomon, 2006). ...
... The main critical content is to choose our hypotheses in order to identify which variables will play the role of the target, covariate, moderator and mediator variables of SA and WTP. In order to identify the role for each variable, we use the idea of cognitivism that an individual is viewed as an 'information processor' making a decision based on intrapersonal causation (Ajzen, 1991). The recognised problem will be the target variable, which indicates the origin of the demand for residential PV. ...
... It is used to research customer behaviour during the product development process, especially in the new-born market. We use the two widely used methods, which is the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to measure SA with direct questions to discover people's perception of a product (Ajzen, 1991), and the Choice-Based Conjoint analysis (CBC) to measure WTP with indirect surveys (Schmidt and Bijmolt, 2019). Aware of the fact that these methods could evoke the hypothetical bias, and therefore extant evidence is mixed, we conduct factor analyses to check the possibility of common bias. ...
Preprint
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Photovoltaic has not yet well adopted by household customers in developing countries. There is lacking evidence to understand residential PV adoption behaviour, which this study addresses with empirical research. Although a variety of models can be used to explain social acceptance (SA) and willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable energy, they partly overlook the connection between SA and WTP in a decision-maker’s final adoption decision. Based on a survey of SA and WTP within the same observation sample of 2039 Vietnamese residents, this study introduces well-established models that are used to distinguish the roles of different input variables on SA and WTP. The innovation lies in linking psychological and economic aspects to measure multiple outcomes involving residential PV behaviours. The suggested models demonstrate no direct link between SA and WTP. However, some factors promote SA also contribute to driving WTP. Specifically, environmental interest has the largest predictive power for SA and WTP. PV knowledge drives SA, but not WTP. Attitude and perceived behavioural control directly affect and mediate other effects on SA and WTP. Since environmental interest and PV knowledge in Vietnam are still modest, an intensified environmental interest in society offers the greatest lever regarding a PV adoption decision.
... Similarly, 57.3% of creators mentioned as their motivation for creating the desire to use the experience they had previously acquired on their own account (Ouédraogo, 1999). Entrepreneurial self-efficiency, a concept that can be equated with perceived feasibility (Shapero and Sokol, 1982) or perceived behavioural control (Ajzen, 1991) is very important in explaining entrepreneurial intent (Barbosa et al, 2007;Zhao et al, 2005). Several works (Kolveired, 1996 In the context of this work, the perception of competences refers to the knowledge, skills and experience deemed sufficient by an individual to start a business. ...
... The higher their level of education, the more women choose modality -1 with reference to modality 1. Then, the higher their level of education, the less they choose 0 with reference to (1). Otherwise, the higher their level of education, the more women say they do not know if they intend to start a business compared to the choice to have the intention. ...
Article
In Burkina Faso, women make up nearly 52% of the population, but they account for less than 20% of business start-ups. This paper seeks to identify factors that explain the entrepreneurial intent of Burkinabe women. It is based on socio-cognitive career theory and a quantitative approach involving a sample of 935 women. The results of the multinomial logistic regression show that five variables (perception of skills, fear of failure, education level, household size and household income level) explain womens intention to start a business with as a reference modality (1: having the intention). The main contribution is of a methodological nature, and through the choice of reference modalities allows for greater precision on the influence of the variables and the categories or sub-groups of women influenced.
... The theory of planned behavior was introduced by Ajzen. This theory elaborates that entrepreneurial behavior is required to start a new business with the help of an entrepreneurial attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 1991). This theory tries to predict the entrepreneurial intention of actual entrepreneurial behavior. ...
... This study provides certain theoretical implications: the significant influence of creativity on entrepreneurial intention has been highlighted; the mediation effect of entrepreneurial passion in the relationship between creativity and entrepreneurial intention was introduced through the theory of planned behavior (Campos, 2016;Hu et al., 2018;Khedhaouria et al., 2015); the role of Ajzen's theory among these important indicators to better predict the entrepreneurial intention of students (Ajzen, 1991;Biraglia & Kadile, 2017) has also been explored. There exist few investigations which have explored the relationship of creativity, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial intention in the Pakistani context. ...
Article
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This article aims to identify the impact of creativity on entrepreneurial intention with the mediating role of entrepreneurial passion. This study applied the SEM-structural equation modeling technique to test the hypotheses on a sample of 390 university students from Pakistan. The findings of the study revealed that creativity positively and significantly influenced entrepreneurial intention. The results also indicated that entrepreneurial passion partially mediates in the relationship between creativity and entrepreneurial intention. The results of the study made an innovative contribution to Pakistan’s higher education sector, researchers, and policymakers to unlock the hidden potential of its youth and further contribute to designing the relevant practical implications.
... According to Rachwal (2010), entrepreneurship education is not only crucial in developing entrepreneurial attitudes, but in stimulating entrepreneurship in general (Wach & Wojciechowski, 2016) [2]. To understand what mechanisms govern individual entrepreneurial intention, the majority of researchers made use of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior [3]. According to this theory, entrepreneurial intention depends on three antecedent variables, namely attitude, subjective norms/social norms, and perceived behavioral control/feasibility. ...
... According to this theory, entrepreneurial intention depends on three antecedent variables, namely attitude, subjective norms/social norms, and perceived behavioral control/feasibility. To see how much Entrepreneurial Intention of SNA (Singapore National Academy) students who are joining CCA Enterprising and who are not joining CCA Enterprising, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) by Ajzen (1991), which identified three independent conceptual determinants of entrepreneurial intention namely Personal Attitude (PA), Subjective Norms (SN), and Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), was used. ...
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The Indonesian government provides an incentive to develop entrepreneurship to boost economic growth and to prepare for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the entrepreneurial intentions of the Indonesian people. One way to develop entrepreneurial intentions is to apply entrepreneurship education early on. The Singapore National Academy (SNA) is an international school that offers the Business subject from grades 9 - 12. SNA also offers another form of entrepreneurship education, which is the Enterprising co-curricular activity (CCA) that is more focused on projectbased learning. This study was conducted in SNA, which has students of various ethnic groups who mostly have parents with an entrepreneurial background. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether personal attitude (PA), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) affect the intention of entrepreneurship of students who are joining CCA Enterprising and students who are not joining CCA Enterprising in SNA. The sample consisted of 60 respondents, including 30 students of CCA Enterprising and 30 students who were not in CCA Enterprising, who were recruited using a saturated sampling technique. Based on the results of the discriminant analysis with the stepwise method, all variables (subjective norm, personal attitude and perceived behavioral control) affected the entrepreneurial intention of students who were joining CCA Enterprising compared with students who were not joining CCA Enterprising. There was a significant difference between the entrepreneurship intentions of those in CCA Enterprising compared with those who were not. Keywords: entrepreneurship education, personal attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, entrepreneurial intention
... Social cognition theories, such as the theory of planned behavior [24], suggest that attitudes predict behavior, something that has been explored in the pedestrian behavior contexts across a number of high-income countries [25]. Papadimitriou et al., for example, studied 19 European countries and showed a strong link between attitudes and pedestrian behaviors [26]. ...
... People who had a more internal locus of control over important life events reported to performing fewer risky behaviors. This concept is closely related to the idea of perceived behavioral control [24]; those who believe they have control over something are more likely to perform a behavior to that end. In a safety context, if an individual believes they have the power to protect themselves, they will do so. ...
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Road safety has become a worldwide public health concern. Although many factors contribute to collisions, pedestrian behaviors can strongly influence road safety outcomes. This paper presents results of a survey investigating the effects of age, gender, attitudes towards road safety, fatalistic beliefs and risk perceptions on self-reported pedestrian behaviors in a Chinese example. The study was carried out on 543 participants (229 men and 314 women) from 20 provinces across China. Pedestrian behaviors were assessed by four factors: errors, violations, aggressions, and lapses. Younger people reported performing riskier pedestrian behaviors compared to older people. Gender was not an influential factor. Of the factors explored, attitudes towards road safety explained the most amount of variance in self-reported behaviors. Significant additional variance in risky pedestrian behaviors was explained by the addition of fatalistic beliefs. The differences among the effects, and the implications for road safety intervention design, are discussed. In particular, traffic managers can provide road safety education and related training activities to influence pedestrian behaviors positively.
... For example, by measuring thoughts and feelings arising from partaking in a single event, and assessing how these link to short-term outcomes, such as nature-related behavior intentions and short-term behaviors. This is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), whereby attitudes, norms, and perceived control shape behavioral intention, which in turn predicts behavior. Although the well-documented intentionbehavior gap (e.g., Kaiser et al., 1999;Sheeran and Webb, 2016) shows that intention does not necessarily translate into behavior, conservation behavioral intention has been shown to be a key predictor of conservation behavior (Bamberg and Möser, 2007;Mackay and Schmitt, 2019). ...
... We used logistic regressions (binomial GLMs for proportional data; Thomas et al., 2017) to predict the proportion of selfreported nature-related behaviors completed after 1 month. A simple logistic regression showed that BI was a significant predictor of behavior (Hosmer-Lemeshow R 2 = 0.31, b = 0.90, z = 8.50, and p < 0.001), further supporting the link between behavioral intention and behavior (Ajzen, 1991;Bamberg and Möser, 2007). The significant positive correlation between ENACT score and behavior after 1 month [r s (130) = 0.37, p < 0.001] demonstrates reasonable predictive validity (Cohen, 1992;Robinson, 2018). ...
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Nature Connection (NC) is considered an important driver of conservation behavior. Consequently, conservation organizations run many activities aiming to increase NC among participants. However, little is known about which activities are most effective at doing this and why. This study developed the Evaluating Nature Activities for Connection Tool (ENACT), to evaluate the effectiveness of activities for increasing participants’ NC and nature-related intentions. ENACT comprises 11 activity aspects identified through two research phases. In Phase 1, a literature search, focus group and interviews identified desired, short-term behavioral outcomes of nature activities, and variables that might promote these. In Phase 2, 241 adults completed a pilot survey immediately post-nature activity, with 1-month follow-up ( N = 145), to evaluate the impact of participation on NC, nature-related behavioral intentions and behaviors. ENACT correlated with NC measures and offered incremental validity in predicting nature-related behavioral intentions and self-reported behaviors after 1 month.
... From the past decades, entrepreneurial intention had been assessed to be important for the explanation of entrepreneurship development and many famous entrepreneurial intention models have been tendered . Among the most popular entrepreneurial intention models frequently used and tested by previous researches include the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the model of Entrepreneurial Event (Shapero, 1975) and the Structural Model of Entrepreneurial Intent (Luthje and Franke, 2003).Despite concrete correlation findings of the relationships between numerous variables measuring intent (or orientation) entrepreneurship performances (or entrepreneurship successes or misgivings), there is a general consensus on the utility of these models, with varying opinions on the degrees of efficacy of the theoretical underpinnings that do not dissuade generations of researchers on the subject from their popular usage depending on their study objectives and questions asked (San et al., 2020; Sandhu, Sidique and Raiz, 2011). ...
... In other words, entrepreneurial intention refers to the intention of an individual to create a new business or organization. From the past decades, entrepreneurial intention had been widely recognized to be important for the explanation of entrepreneurship and many famous entrepreneurial intention models have been developed such as Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the model of Entrepreneurial Event (Shapero, 1975) and structural model of entrepreneurial intent (Luthje and Franke, 2003).According to Krueger, Reilly, and Carsrud (2000), it has been proven that intention is the best predictor of any planned behavior, especially when the behavior is rare, difficult to observe or involves unpredictable time lags. Entrepreneurship could be viewed as a type of planned behavior as setting up a new business venture is not an overnight task. ...
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The significant contribution of entrepreneurship towards the economic development and wealth creation of a nation is undeniable. Invariably so, the Government of Malaysia has been promoting entrepreneurship to encourage Malaysians to venture into the business world. A significant part of this effort is manifested in the existence of numerous small medium industries throughout the country, following the implementation of policy imperatives such as the past New Economic Policy (NEP) and other government-aided menu of entrepreneurship programs that include a horde of petty-trading hawkers and novice „entrepreneurs‟ competing to survive and grow their variety of new or reinvented initiatives. However, the focus mainly has been on younger Malaysians who are job-seeking and unemployed graduates and women, particularly in the Bumiputera community to correct the so-called race-based inequitable distribution of economic wealth and gender-based imbalance of job-business opportunities. The senior citizens particularly the pre-retiree cohort of Malaysians has been overlooked and neglected despite the work knowledge and life experiences they have undergone. Studies focusing on this group of people have reached different conclusions about them but there is a general consensus that this senior cohort (referred here as “pre-retirees”) has various agerelated advantages to initiate new start-up ventures. This study raises an urgent need to investigate what and how pre-retirees with intent-entrepreneurship orientation can be encouraged to develop their potential and contribute to value-adding initiatives that can develop and grow into value-creating enterprises for both individual welfare sustainability and national understand of the determinants that influence the senior cohort‟s entrepreneurial intention is economic wealth development too. To promote senior entrepreneurship in Malaysia therefore this study examines the relationship between Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) and Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) among Malaysian pre-retirees between 45 to 59 years old in the State of Selangor and the Federal Territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) Kuala Lumpur. In addition, a comparison insight into ethnic-bias intent is conducted to assess its influence on the variable-dimensions of IEO: risk taking, innovativeness and proactive readiness. A total of 596 samples, using purposive sampling, has revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between IEO and entrepreneurial intention and, among others, the ethnic-bias differences found highlighted the values of „innovativeness‟ and „proactive readiness‟ but not „risk taking‟. It is therefore suggested, more so now in the context of learning curve during the new normal of COVID-19 pandemic era, that various supporting mechanisms by the government and volunteer-aided organizations be specially designed and customized to tap the potentials of intent entrepreneurship-driven pre-retirees who represent a mature-experience cohort of human capital whose talent would otherwise would be wasteful resources. In other words, by promoting, encouraging and nurturing a shorter gestation period of senior entrepreneurship, it not only helps Malaysian citizens to achieve a sustainable useful retirement life but, in turn, this will also generate positive country impact on new vistas of economic development and national prosperity.
... The theory of planned behavior considers the rational evaluation of consequences as the main determinant of attitudes, intentions, and behaviors, including both hedonic and gain perspectives and taking into consideration the perceived behavioral control. Such a theoretical framework was proposed in 1985 [2], and it is currently used to explain a wide range of pro-environmental behaviors, for example actions for climate change mitigation (i.e., use of public transportation or energyefficient devices and purchasing of energy-saving appliances) [3][4][5]. More recently, other researchers have proposed various theories and hypotheses of pro-environmental behavior. ...
... This finding was sometimes confirmed by the literature, while in other cases environmental behaviors were aligned to attitudes at the various degrees of correspondence [19,20]. The reasons of this contradiction could be found in the complexity of determinants for pro-environmental behaviors, that different psychological or sociological models have tried to explain [2,[6][7][8]. ...
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The awareness of citizens concerning the health risks caused by environmental pollution is growing, but studies on determinants of pro-environmental behaviors have rarely examined health-related aspects. In this study, we investigated these determinants using data from a large survey among Italian university students (15 Universities: 4778 filled questionnaires). Besides the health-related aspects, represented by environmental health risk perception and functional health literacy, we considered social and demographic characteristics (gender, area of residence, sources of information, trust in institutional and non-institutional subjects, and students’ capacity of positive actions, indicated as internal locus of control). The attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviors were positive for more than 70% of students and positively related with health risk perception, internal locus of control, and health literacy. The correspondence between the positive attitudes towards pro-environmental behaviors and the real adoption of such behaviors was approximately 20% for most behaviors, except for the separate collection of waste (60%). Such a discrepancy can be attributable to external obstacles (i.e., lack of time, costs, lack of support). The health-related aspects were linked to the pro-environmental attitudes, but to a lesser extent to pro-environmental behaviors, owing to the complexity of their determinants. However, they should be taken in account in planning education interventions.
... Eligible participants were invited to complete a 5-question, pre-test survey on Amazon Mechanical Turk, assessing Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) construct response (Supplemental eFigure 1) and were compensated $0.10 for their time [9]. These questions assessed: individual attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding COVID-19 self-isolation and protective behaviors. ...
... (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. and perceived behavioral control were adapted from a number of survey studies since no validated questionnaires specific to COVID-19 were available during the survey development period [9,[18][19]. Because construct covariates had excellent internal consistency (a=0.83), ...
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Background: Little information exists on how COVID-19 testing availability influences intentions to engage in risky behavior. Understanding the behavioral effects of testing availability may provide insight into the role of adequate testing on controlling viral transmission. Objective: To evaluate the impact of testing availability on behavioral intention to self-isolate in a simulated scenario with participants who have been clinically diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 1400 participants were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) through a national, online, opt-in survey. Participants were randomized to one of three hypothetical scenarios. Each scenario asked participants to imagine having symptoms consistent with COVID-19 along with a clinical diagnosis from their physician. However, scenarios differed in their testing result: testing unavailable, positive test, or negative test. The primary outcome was intention to engage in high-risk COVID-19 behaviors, measured using an 11-item mean score (range 1-7) that was pre-registered prior to data collection. The randomized survey was conducted between July 23rd to July 29th, 2020. Results: Out of 1194 respondents (41.6% male, 58.4% female) with a median age of 38.5 years, participants who had no testing available in their clinical scenario showed significantly greater intentions to engage in behavior facilitating COVID-19 transmission compared to those who received a positive confirmatory test result scenario (difference (SE): 0.14 (0.06), P=0.016), equating to an 11.1% increase in mean score risky behavior intentions. Intention to engage in behaviors that can spread COVID-19 were also positively associated with male gender, poor health status, and Republican party affiliation. Conclusion: Testing availability appears to play an independent role in influencing behaviors facilitating COVID-19 transmission. Such findings shed light on the possible negative externalities of testing unavailability.
... One of the popular theories that explain behavioral intention is the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Based on the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls are formed as predictors of intention [7]. Many firms use purchase intention in forecasting new product sales, and repurchase an existing product, or forming marketing strategies [8,9]. ...
... That range explained the respondents were in average income category. In fact, consumer resources such as money may act as consumer control in performing the behavior [7]. In Malaysia, car prices are expensive due to the high duties and taxes levied. ...
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Transportation is acknowledged as one of the major sources of greenhouse gasses and air pollution. Thus, promoting cars with high efficiency in fuel consumption and reduce emission is required to replace conventional cars. In that case, encouraging consumer to purchase green car by identifying factors that affect green car purchase intention among Malaysian is important. This study provides some preliminary evidence on determinants of hybrid cars purchase intentionin Malaysia and green product attachment as a mediator.Hence, the validity and reliability of instrument were examined via pretest and a pilot test. The data normality also waschecked by using SPSS version 21. The findings suggest that the Green Trust and Green Product Attachment are the most significant factors on the influence toward Green Purchase Intention of hybrid cars in terms of reliability score.
... Beberapa pendukung model perancangan ini juga terdapat dalam teori plan of behaviour & reasoned action [10]. Pada tahun 1988 terdapat penambahan sebuah kepercayaan individu dan persepsi individu tentang kontrol perilaku, yang artinya sebuah kepercayaan individu dapat melakukan sesuatu perilaku didasari oleh kemampuan untuk melakukannya [11]. ...
... Pengunjung bisa mendaftar melalui formulir elektronik, atau pihak pusat perbelanjaan/mal membuat aplikasi sendiri (App Store dan Google Play), dengan mengisi nama, plat mobil/sepeda motor (harus sesuai dengan yang dikendarai di pusat perbelanjaan/mal tersebut) dan jam kunjungan (yang dibatasi 90 menit/per satu kali kunjungan), yakni jam-jam yang sudah ditentukan oleh pihak pusat perbelanjaan/mal. Jadi misal pusat perbelanjaan/mal l buka jam 10 Penjabaran rekomendasi di atas tidak lepas dari kerja sama seluruh elemen masyarakat dan sosialisasi dari pengelola pusat perbelanjaan/mal, Pemkot Surabaya, Dinas Kesehatan Surabaya dan Kemenkes RI. Apabila rekomendasi ini diterapkan dan ditindaklanjuti oleh berbagai pihak, hal ini nantinya akan terbiasa dilakukan oleh pengunjung dan pengelola pusat perbelanjaan/mal agar sama-sama memperoleh kebutuhannya masing-masing secara psikis, dan perekonomian. ...
Article
p> Artikel ini mengkaji secara kritis mengenai kondisi masyarakat ditengah pandemi Covid-19 di Indonesia khususnya di Surabaya Jawa Timur. Tujuan dari tulisan ini menganalisis perilaku masyarakat saat pandemi berdasarkan psikologi pendidikan masyarakat. Manfaat yang diharapkan yakni membangun pemahaman mengenai dampak perilaku yang muncul di tengah pandemi serta penyusunan rekomendasi aktivitas dalam menghadapi New Normal di pusat perbelanjaan Surabaya. Temuan telaah kritis ini terdapat perubahan kebiasaan ( habit ) masyarakat saat mengunjungi pusat perbelanjaan terutama mal. Terdapat penurunan minat belanja masyarakat dikarenakan terdapat pembatasan-pembatasan yang diterapkan pemerintah serta norma-norma baru yang muncul saat pandemi, seperti kebiasaan mencuci tangan, memakai masker, dan menjaga jarak. Keberhasilan dari rekomendasi ini tidak lepas dari campur tangan seluruh masyarakat dan Pemkot Surabaya, agar perekonomian membaik dan kenyamanan pengunjung pusat perbelanjaan juga ditingkatkan. Dampak Covid-19 telah merubah beberapa perilaku yang muncul dan menjadi sorotan psikologi pendidikan masyarakat untuk menelaah lebih dalam dan mengaikatkan dengan beberapa literatur dalam psikologi pendidikan masyarakat. Kata Kunci - Habit, Covid-19, Pandemi, Psikologi Publik </p
... In line with behavioural theories, willingness to plan for multiple cycles of treatment was found to be underpinned by positive attitudes towards planning and the perception that important others, especially partners and clinicians, endorse the multi-cycle approach to planning (Ajzen, 1991). There appears to be a desire from patients to adhere to treatment plans developed with their doctors. ...
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STUDY QUESTION What is willingness, preference and decision-making about planning for the possibility of needing multiple cycles of IVF/ICSI treatment among patients consulting for a first or repeat stimulated IVF/ICSI cycle? SUMMARY ANSWER The majority of patients seem to value the opportunity to plan for multiple cycles of treatment while acknowledging both possible challenges and benefits of doing so and decisions that might need to be made in advance. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Patients have strong intentions to do treatment to achieve pregnancy and approximately 48–54% continue treatment when confronted with a failed cycle, undergoing at least three complete cycles of treatment. However, there is inconsistency between this apparent willingness to do multiple cycles of treatment and the way treatment is currently planned on a cycle-by-cycle basis with patients. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was of cross-sectional design, comprising a mixed-methods English online survey posted between November 2019 and March 2020. Eligibility criteria were being a patient who had had a consultation to start a stimulated cycle of IVF/ICSI for the first time or for a repeat stimulated cycle after an unsuccessful cycle in the eight weeks prior to survey completion. Individuals were also required to be aged 18 or older (upper age limit of 42 years for women) and able to respond in English. In total 881 clicked on the survey link, 118 did not consent, 41 were excluded after data screening, 57 did not meet the inclusion criteria, 331 started the survey but did not complete it, 28 had missing data on critical variables (e.g., age) and 306 completed the survey (40.1% completion, 57 men, 249 women). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Participants were allocated to either the willing or unwilling to plan for multiple cycles of treatment group based on their responses to three variables: willingness to plan for three complete cycles, whether they would choose to have another cycle of IVF and whether they would continue treatment after an unsuccessful cycle. Quantitative questions gathered data on preferences towards planning for multiple cycles (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control), challenges, benefits of planning for multiple cycles, decisional conflict experienced and treatment decisions involved in planning for multiple cycles. Demographic, fertility and fertility treatment information were also collected. Qualitative questions gathered textual data on other perceived benefits and challenges of planning for multiple cycles and solutions to the challenges. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used on quantitative data. Thematic analysis (inductive coding) was performed on the textual data. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Overall, 73.2% (n = 224) of participants had had a consultation to start a first cycle of IVF/ICSI. Participants were on average 33 years of age and had been trying to conceive for three years. A total of 63.07% (n = 193) were university educated. A total of 56% (n = 172) of participants were willing to plan for multiple cycles of IVF/ICSI in advance of treatment. Repeated measures ANOVA, t-tests and chi-square analysis showed the willing group to be significantly more likely to have been in a relationship for longer (p<.05), have higher education (p<.05) and be resident in the United Kingdom (p<.05). The willing group had positive attitudes towards planning for multiple cycles (p<.001) and stronger agreement with subjective norms (p<.001), perceived behavioural control (p<.001), benefits of planning for multiple cycles (p<.01) and felt able and attached more importance to making treatment decisions in advance of treatment (p<.05). Data saturation was achieved for the thematic analysis of textual data which revealed a total of four other challenges (e.g., less decisional freedom) and six other benefits (e.g., having a realistic view of treatment) to planning for multiple cycles. Qualitative analysis also revealed that most patients could anticipate and provide solutions for the nine challenges of planning for multiple cycles (e.g., using flexible working for the negative effect of treatment on work). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Limitations included the outcome measure being willingness to plan for multiple cycles rather than actual multi-cycle planning behaviour. The unwilling group represented a heterogeneous group with possibly unknown motivational coherence (e.g., definitely against planning, ambivalent about planning). Other limitations included the cross-sectional nature of the survey and the recruitment source. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Treatment consultations about undergoing fertility treatment could re-frame treatment to be a multi-cycle process in line with patient’s willingness, preference and decision-making. This multi-cycle approach could empower patients and clinicians to discuss treatment expectations realistically and formulate fully informed treatment plans that take account of the high likelihood of cycle failure in addition to the treatment decisions that may need to be made during treatment when a cycle fails. This multi-cycle approach could help us support patients in adhering to their treatment plans even when faced with challenges, and help ascertain the level of treatment engagement possible to achieve parenthood goals. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This project is funded by an Investigator-Sponsor Non-interventional Study from Merck Serono Ltd (MS200059_0010). Professor Boivin reports personal fees from Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, Merck AB an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt Germany, Theramex, Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S, grant from Merck Serono Ltd, outside the submitted work and that she is co-developer of Fertility Quality of Life (FertiQoL) and MediEmo app. Dr. Gameiro reports consultancy fees from Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S, Access Fertility and SONA-Pharm LLC, and grants from Merck Serono Ltd. Dr. Harrison declares no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER n/a
... The questionnaire used in this study was developed based on the Health Belief Model, which derived from several previous studies as shown in Table 1. [48][49][50] To make sure of the quality and content validity the questionnaire as it is an essential requirement during designing and developing the study's questionnaire [51], every single item of the questionnaire was assessed by several experts in the related area of research. Then the last version of the questionnaires has been adopted based on draft given back by experts with the proper suggestions. ...
Chapter
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At the beginning of the year 2020, massive fast spread Coronavirus or (COVID-19) pandemic caused a serious impact on the education system worldwide. This chapter aims to explore the students’ attitude to use social media as a learning tool during COVID-19 pandemic based on the view of the Health Belief Model (HBM). A total of 504 students in Malaysian universities were involved in this study. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-PM) has been employed to analyse the data collected in this study. The results indicated that perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, perceived (health) motivation, perceived benefits and self-efficacy were significant in predicting the students’ attitude to use social media as a learning tool during COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study has been contributed to the existing literature by validating HBM in the Malaysian context and provide theoretical contributions and practical implications to the theory, and practice.
... [45,46]), it is important to understand provider perceptions of TMH, as attitudes are likely to influence future utilization in important ways [26]. It is also interesting to consider how somewhat forced use of TMH during the COVID-19 Pandemic may contribute to shifts in provider attitudes, as perceived behavioral control is a known element of the theory of planned behavior [47]. Pre-Pandemic provider attitudes were somewhat mixed, with just over half of providers indicating generally positive feelings about TMH. ...
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The present study was designed to assess mental health provider attitudes and perceptions of telemental health (TMH) prior to and during the COVID-19 Pandemic, as well as the nature of their TMH utilization. The study aimed to gather information about positive and negative attitudes towards TMH, perceptions and correlates based on the modality of care, and beliefs about the overall effectiveness of TMH as compared to face-to-face care. The current study is part of a larger mixed methods project utilizing a repeated cross-sectional design. An online survey was administered to a sample of 1448 mental health providers and included demographic and professional information, experiences with and perceptions of TMH prior to and during the COVID-19 Pandemic, as well as a brief measure of pandemic-related stress. The COVID-19 Pandemic resulted in an increased use of TMH in the study sample. During COVID-19, providers reported increased agreement with TMH being necessary, important, and effective for care delivery. Providers who primarily used video, compared with telephone, reported that TMH was more useful, satisfying, and effective. While negative attitude towards TMH was predicted only by prior attitudes and belief in TMH effectiveness, positive attitude towards TMH was also predicted by female sex and current level of pandemic related stress. TMH use during the pandemic was predicted by primary use of video platform and previous TMH use. The 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic resulted in increased use of TMH and significantly increased positive perceptions about TMH among mental health providers.
... Researchers in multiple branches of psychology have come to a similar conclusion: the central problem is that the positive consequences of sustainable options tend to be distant in time and space and impersonal, while sustainable options often incur minor but immediate and personal negative consequences for the individual (e.g. Ajzen, 1991;Gärling et al., 2002;Kahneman, 2003;Kahneman et al., 1993;Nyborg et al., 2016;Ostrom, 2000;Sörqvist & Langeborg, 2019;Thaler & Sunstein, 2009;Van Lange & Joireman, 2008 desired behaviour option the easier choice, and on mitigating the obstacles (cf. e.g. ...
Technical Report
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This report was produced by PBM Sweden AB, and commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It was directed by an April 2020 brief from the One Planet network, called Nudging for Oceans: Reduced plastic litter and microplastics. | Mismanaged plastics are a growing environmental challenge of global concern. Large quantities accumulate in our oceans, threatening our marine ecosystems, as well as in our air, soil and freshwater. To overcome one aspect of the plastics problem – plastic litter – and mitigate environmental pollution of land and sea, there is a need for further action and cooperation, both nationally, within the EU and globally. The habit of grabbing a coffee or other beverage on‑the‑go has grown significantly over the past decades, and this has led to a substantial increase in the consumption of single‑use disposable cups. Plastic cups and lids are among the top 10 items collected on the beaches globally. | In this report nudging is explored as a complement to traditional policies to reduce the use of single use plastics, such as regulation, economic incentives and information campaigns. Behavioural insights are used to develop different options to nudge consumer preferences from single‑use cups to more sustainable alternatives. Based on careful reviews and analysis of previous nudging projects, three green nudges are proposed to catalyze this shift. Once the COVID‑19 pandemic is largely behind us, we hope to be able to test the effectiveness of these nudges in real life by introducing pilot projects at coffee shops in several countries. | The project is part of the ongoing cooperation on behavioural insights for policy‑making within the UN One Planet network multistakeholder programme on Sustainable Lifestyles and Education. The nudging project was kicked off in Stockholm in February 2020 with a workshop on the practice of behavioural economics as an environmental policy instrument. Since 2018 the Swedish Government has assigned the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to strengthen national and international cooperation for the circular and sustainable use of plastics. This project is one the projects funded under this initiative to date. | As members of the UN One Planet network and other roles, we foresee further cooperation and sharing of knowledge and experiences to accelerate the shift to sustainable consumption and production, according to the goals of Agenda 2030. By working together, we can make a global change and protect our ecosystems.
... The theory of planned behaviour [14,15] postulates three conceptually independent determinants of intention: attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The theory of planned behavior was developed by Ajzen [16] moving from the earlier theory of reasoned action [17]. Both theories assume that people's behaviors rely upon deliberative bases (for instance, the contemplation of the outcomes of a certain action), but theory of planned behavior (TPB) also adds a component able to take into account both real and perceived difficulties that a person may experience in relation to the act of performing (or not performing) a certain behavior. ...
Article
Rooted in this study are the important principles of enterprise and entrepreneurship, which raise important questions about how entrepreneurship education should be positioned institutionally. These questions address theoretical and philosophical challenges, strategic choices and institutional capacities. One of the programs of the Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI) of the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, which is aimed at all state universities and several selected private universities, is the independent entrepreneurship program. This has been implemented in higher education to foster the entrepreneurial spirit and culture of Indonesian students. Participants in this study were students who had attended entrepreneurship training or were taking entrepreneurship courses at the Papua University Campus and at Dian Nuswantoro University, Semarang. The sampling method in this study was non-probability sampling with purposive sampling. The data collection was carried out by a survey. The data analysis was conducted using multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the instrumentation readiness variable had a positive effect on entrepreneurial intentions, while the need for achievement and self-efficacy variables had no effect. Keywords: need for achievement, self-efficacy, instrumental readiness, entrepreneurial intentions
... In this study, we highlight two issues that will require further examination. First, literature mainly examined m-payment adoption intention [1,2,20,21,29,33,50], continuous usage [53] by applying theories such as Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) [15], Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) [46], and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) [3]. However, a comprehensive study of why consumers switch between cash and PMP has yet to be conducted. ...
Article
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The emergence of proximity mobile payment technology is beginning to replace the circulation of cash, checks, and credit cards. Nevertheless, few studies have explored why consumers switch between cash and proximity mobile payment. In applying the push-pull-mooring framework, this study investigates consumers' switching intention between cash and proximity mobile payment by exploring the enablers (push factors and pull factors) and inhibitors (mooring factors). The results showed that push factors, mainly dissatisfaction with cash payment, drive consumers away from using cash. Meanwhile, the pull factors, including utilitarian value and hedonic value, attract consumers to use proximity mobile payment. Mooring effects, in terms of inertia and security concerns, negatively affect consumers' switching intention. However, this study found that nowadays, the social value is less likely to be the primary reason that attracts consumers to use mobile payment. Such understanding fills the gaps in the current literature under the mobile payment context. Prior studies have mainly paid attention to the adoption phase and the continuous usage phase but have neglected mobile payment switching. This study also assists mobile payment service providers in understanding con-sumers' switching behaviors and implementing appropriate strategies for different user groups.
... One of the main concerns for individuals was the effect that any such information might have on their mental state [12]. People generally tend to speculate on the possible outcomes of any action on their part, and only when the outcome is considered to be favorable for them will they actually take action [13]. ...
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Aims: To measure the degree to which the Ha'il community is willing to test for COVID-19 and assess the possible factors that may influence their decision. Study Design: Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ḥaʼil Community. And the data was collected from October to November of 2020. Methodology: Participants comprised of both Saudi and non-Saudi males and females who were 18 years or older and living within the Ha'il region. Participants were recruited via convenience sampling by distributing the electronic questionnaire throughout various social media platforms. Results: Of the 664 participants, 80.9% reported their willingness to test for COVID-19 if they had olfactory dysfunction with, 80.3% reporting their willingness to test if they had difficulty breathing. However, only 61.7% of participants said that they would be willing to be tested if they had been in contact with someone who had tested positive, whilst they themselves were asymptomatic. More than half of the participants reported that they were confident in the results (81%). Bio-demographic Original Research Article Khalifa et al.; JPRI, 33(13): 44-53, 2021; Article no.JPRI.66700 45 factors that influence the degree of public trust were as follows; females (83.8%); living with others (81.8%); history of not gathering with more than 10 people outside their household (87.9%). Conclusion: Our finding revealed that the vast majority of the Ha'il community are willing to test for COVID-19, with a high proportion of females, participants who are living with others and participants who do not usually mix with more than 10 people at the same time showing a greater degree of trust in the results of the COVID-19 test. Furthermore, when participants had experienced olfactory dysfunction or\and breathing difficulties themselves, they tended to exhibit greater trust in the COVID-19 test results.
... Therefore, according to (Kim and Ko, 2012), purchase intention is a combination of consumers' intention and purchase possibility towards a product and for this reason, it can be considered as a response variable to measure the contribution of consumers' future towards a brand. In a sequence of it, the theory of Planned Behaviour states that purchase intention is used to predict the actual behaviour because it is related to the response towards an object (Ajzen, 1991). Mentioning from Ashton and Scott (2011), they argue that purchase intention will lead the consumers to follow their experiences, references, and their external environment to collect the information, evaluate the alternatives, and determine the purchase intention. ...
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The growth of business in food & beverage makes the effort in this industry turn out to be more strictly competitive. Ice cream becomes one of the products which mayinterest new entrepreneurs in food & beverage. The newcomers put much effort tocreate the authenticity and difference from others in order to seize the attention of icecream lovers from the prior merchants. This research aims at investigating theinfluence of perceived authenticity towards people’s purchase intention from therestaurant image and positive emotion in Zangrandi Cafe on Yos Sudarso Street,Surabaya. The research took 150 customers as the samples who fulfilled therequirements such as not less than 17 years old, having tasted the ice cream inZangrandi Cafe on Yos Sudarso Street, Surabaya, having tried the ice cream inZangrandi Cafe on Yos Sudarso Street, Surabaya once in the last 3 months at least.The data gathering method used in this research is purposive sampling. Meanwhile,Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is employed as a data analyzing technique.The results show that (1) Perceived Authenticity positively and significantly bringsinfluence towards Restaurant Image, (2) Perceived Authenticity positively andsignificantly brings influence towards Positive Emotion, (3) Restaurant Imagepositively and significantly brings influence towards Positive Emotion, (4) RestaurantImage positively and significantly brings influence towards Purchase Intention, (5)Positive Emotion positively and significantly brings influence towards PurchaseIntention, (6) also Perceived Authenticity positively and significantly brings influencetowards Purchase Intention.
... Adanya perbedaaan hasil penelitian terdahulu dan maraknya praktik penggelapan pajak mendorong minat penulis untuk melakukan penelitian dengan faktor-faktor pemahaman perpajakan, pelayanan aparat pajak dan sanksi perpajakan terhadap persepsi wajib pajak atas perilaku penggelapan pajak. Ajzen (1991) dalam Krueger & Carsrud (1993) mengungkapkan bahwa Theory of Planned Behavior merupakan peningkatan dari Theory of Reasoned Action (1988) yang bertujuan memperlihatkan keterkaitan dari perilaku-perilaku yang dimunculkan oleh setiap individu untuk menanggapi sesuatu. Dalam Theory of Planned Behavior mempunyai variable kontrol keperilakuan yang tidak dimiliki oleh Theoy of Reasoned Action. ...
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This research aims to determine the influence of taxation, tax-service, and taxation sanctions on tax evasion. The population in this research is a registered taxpayer at KPP Pratama Jayapura. Sampling is done according to the proportions, so that the number of respondents are fulfilled by a certain characteristic of 100 respondents. The data analysis methods used in this study are validity, reliability, classical assumption test, hypothesized test and multiple linear regression. The results showed that partially understanding taxation positively affect tax evasion, while the tax authorities have no positive effect and the taxation sanctions have no positive effect on tax evasion In addition, the research has no simultaneous effect on tax evasion at KPP Pratama Jayapura. The implications of this study show that tax evasion is seen as unethical action to do. The Directorate General of Taxation needs to socialize the importance of taxation understanding to lower tax evasion rates.
... Motivational variables based on the Theory of Planned Behavior were assessed with single-item questions based on a five-point scale, with 5 indicating greatest agreement with the statement [51]. Cronbach's α cannot be calculated for these single-item scales; however, these single-item scales have been commonly used in PA and cancer survivor studies [38,[52][53][54][55][56][57]. ...
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PurposeThe first aim is to examine adherence to a lower versus higher intensity physical activity (PA) prescription in breast cancer survivors in the Breast Cancer & Physical Activity Level (BC-PAL) Trial. The second aim is to assess associations between baseline characteristics with mean PA adherence in both intervention groups combined.Methods Forty-five participants were randomized to a 12-week, home-based lower (300 min/week, 40-59% heart rate reserve (HRR)) or higher (150 min/week, 60-80% HRR) intensity PA intervention, or no intervention/control. Both intervention groups received Polar A360® trackers and were included in this analysis (n=30). Study outcomes assessed on a weekly basis with the Polar A360® activity tracker throughout the intervention included relative adherence to the prescribed PA interventions (% of PA prescription goal met), and the absolute amount of PA time ≥40% of HRR. Baseline predictors of adherence included demographic characteristics, cardiorespiratory fitness, habitual PA and sedentary time, quality of life measures, and motivational variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior. For our primary aim, a linear mixed model was used to assess the effects of randomization group, time (intervention weeks 1-12), and the interaction of these factors on the natural logarithm of PA adherence. For our secondary aim, the association between each baseline predictor with the natural logarithm of mean weekly PA adherence was assessed, with randomization group added as a covariate.ResultsHigher relative time within the prescribed HRR zone was noted in the lower versus higher intensity PA groups (eβ=3.12, 95% CI=1.97, 4.95). No differences in adherence across time were noted. Social support was inversely associated with relative PA time within the prescribed HRR zone (eβ=0.83, 95% CI=0.72, 0.97) and absolute PA time ≥40% of HRR (eβ= 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.93). Baseline VO2max was inversely associated with relative PA adherence (eβ=0.98, 95% CI=0.95, 0.99). No other baseline measures were associated with PA adherence.Conclusions There were no significant changes in absolute PA time ≥40% of HRR across time or between groups. However, the lower intensity PA group averaged over 3 times the relative amount of PA within the prescribed HRR zone compared to the higher intensity PA group. Finally, lower peer support and cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline were associated with higher PA adherence.Implications for Cancer SurvivorsThe recent rise in popularity of commercially available activity trackers provides new opportunities to promote PA participation remotely, and these devices can be used to continuously and objectively measure PA levels as an indicator of intervention adherence. Future studies are needed to explore baseline predictors, facilitators, and barriers to sustained activity tracker use to promote PA behavior change and intervention adherence in cancer survivors.Trial registrationThis study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT03564899) on June 21, 2018.
... In this case, motivation needs to be linked with factors/theoretical models that explain the consumption (intention to An International Interdisciplinary Journal behave or behaviour). As such, the Th eory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Th eory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) may be considered (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975;Ajzen, 1991). Even though this relation might be assumed and used in the extensions of the models in tourism research (Lam & Hsu, 2004;Hsu & Huang, 2010), these models do not directly link motivational factors with the intentions to travel (Wu & Cheng, 2018). ...
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Chernobyl is a very special case among the dark tourism destinations due to the combined technogenic and historical issues, drastic damages to the local nature and remaining elements of the potential danger to visitors in the exclusion zone. Because of this complexity, motivations to visit this destination deserve a thorough investigation from academic and managerial perspectives, as after the HBO miniseries launch in 2019 the interest of travellers keep on increasing. This study concentrates on analysis of internal (push) motivations of young travellers who were born after the event, but live in the distance of 500-700 km from Chernobyl and therefore are aware about it from their families and from public sources. Data is collected in Lithuania, where the additional awareness of Chernobyl was generated by HBO, filming most of the miniseries scenes in there. The analysis includes four types of motivations that appear to have very different influence on visiting intentions among male and female respondents. Female respondents seem to be driven by novelty-seeking and escape motivations; male by ego-enhancement and prestige. This adds to the academic knowledge on the dark tourism motivations and continues discussion regarding the gender-linked differences in tourist motivations. Having this explored, the study raises additional questions and outlines directions for future research.
... Research on determinants for accepting climate mitigation policies has generated numerous studies across various academic disciplines (4)(5)(6)(7)(8). This research has applied models proposing that policyspeci c beliefs, climate change beliefs, and psychological factors determine acceptance (9,10). Studies report that acceptance is linked to determinants such as perceived fairness, environmental concerns, and biospheric values (11)(12)(13). ...
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Public acceptance is a precondition for implementing climate change mitigation policies. What, then, determines acceptance of these policies? Based on 76 datasets from 34 countries, generating a total sample of 146,817 participants, we report a series of meta-analyses assessing the importance of 15 determinants for accepting climate change mitigation policies. Results show the following: (a) Among policy-specific beliefs, perceived fairness is the most important factor. (b) Among climate change beliefs, knowledge about climate change is weakly related to acceptance. Climate change beliefs, environmental concern, and perceived risk of and problems associated with climate change are all related to acceptance. (c) Among psychological factors, trust is most important. (d) Finally, demographic variables show weak or no relationship with acceptance. These results inform climate policy researchers as to which determinants of acceptance to include in future analyses and provide advice to policymakers about which sentiments they should consider when introducing and communicating intended climate policies.
... Although business students learn more than economics during their degree, other subjects also teachrational and/or self-interested models of human behavior, with the theory of planned behavior being one of the most relevant ones taught in management and marketing (Ajzen, 1991). On the other hand, the students receive considerable lessons in ethical and socially responsible education. ...
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The transparency of the data analysis process is one of the main criteria for the empirical reliability of qualitative biographical research based on the life history method (LHM). The aim of the paper is to examine the transparency of the data analysis process used in published scientific papers based on LHM. The results show that the data analysis process is not fully transparent. Two kinds of analysis process were mainly used in research with LHM: categorical content analysis and portrayal. Our aims in this paper were first to develop an overview of how empirical data had been analysed by other researchers using LHM, and second to examine and discuss the transparency of the process. We use LHM to investigate teachers’ values in relation to societal values in order to answer the question of how societal values affect teachers’ lives. The sample is comprised of teachers from Estonia, which has experienced a rapid change from an ideology- to a market-based society, providing us with a unique opportunity to analyse the relationship. Among other things, LHM enables us to examine the ‘hidden history’ of those whose story differs from recorded history.
... To understand, predict and change behavior, a number of social cognition models can be adopted. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) states the proximal determinant of behavior is a behavioral intention which represents a person's motivation to engage in the behavior. Intention is determined by three antecedent determinants: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). ...
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University students demonstrate high rates of gambling behavior, which can have negative health consequences. Mobile gambling has rapidly expanded, and most students own a device. It is therefore important to understand the key psychological factors underlying students’ mobile gambling. This information could be used to inform interventions. Psychological determinants and beliefs were identified using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA: Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). Study 1 identified the modal salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Thirty-five participants completed a questionnaire concerning each belief category. Content analysis identified 27 modal salient beliefs; Eleven behavioral, nine normative, and seven control. Study 2 assessed the predictive utility of the RAA and key beliefs using a cross-sectional design. Participants completed questionnaires assessing RAA determinants (N = 473) and mobile gambling behavior (N = 388). Constructs accounted for 66% and 56% of the variance in intention and behavior, respectively. Attitude (affective and instrumental) and injunctive norm significantly predicted intention, and intention and autonomy significantly predicted behavior. A number of key beliefs were identified including “Bonus offers and promotions” and “Access and availability of apps”. The studies provide important information regarding the psychology underlying students’ mobile gambling behavior. Interventions could target the identified key beliefs to change the behavior.
... As outlined before, within this study the UTAUT2 model is utilised to investigate user acceptance of ADVs. UTAUT2 is a theoretical synthesis of eight previous developed models that were used to investigate user acceptance (Venkatesh et al., 2003;Venkatesh et al., 2012) e.g., the Technology Acceptance Model by Davis et al. (1989) or the Theory of Planned Behaviour by Ajzen (1991). In doing so, Venkatesh et al. (2003) and Venkatesh et al. (2012) were able to summarise the current knowledge when it comes to technology acceptance. ...
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Covid-19 seriously impacts and endangers lives of millions worldwide. To fight the spread of the virus, governments have taken various restricting measures including stay at home orders. Ultimately, the home delivery volume increased significantly, which still bears the risk of human-human infection during the final delivery. From a logisticians perspective, autonomous delivery vehicles (ADVs), which are a contactless delivery solution, have the potential to radically change the way groceries are delivered to customer homes and help to stop the spread of the virus. However, to date, research on user acceptance of ADVs is rare. This paper theoretically extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) including gender as a moderator. The study is based on quantitative data collected in Germany through an online questionnaire (n=501). Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results indicate that trust in technology, price sensitivity, innovativeness, performance expectancy, hedonic motivation, social influence, and perceived risk determine behavioural intention. However, some constructs are only significant for women. The findings of this paper have theoretical, managerial and policy contributions and implications within the areas of last-mile delivery and technology acceptance.
... Previous research considers place/location of consumption or purchase as one of the most effective demarketing elements [48]. Restrictions on places of consumption constitute a significant barrier and should have a direct effect on intention to decrease or cease consumption [38,49]. Furthermore, restrictions on place of purchase should have a similar curbing effect due to opportunity costs (e.g., Refs. ...
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This paper assesses potential for reduction in electricity consumption in response to demarketing strategy, and moderating effects of key consumer characteristics predispositions in Gaza Strip (GS) of Palestine. Demarketing strategy comprises four elements; product (i.e., electricity), price (i.e. electricity price), place (i.e., supply network and alternative energy systems), and promotion (i.e., campaigns aimed at curbing electricity consumption). The moderators include three consumer latent predispositions; consumer awareness (of the importance of rationalizing consumption), consumer motivation (for rationalizing consumption), and consumer attitudes (toward the electricity supply company). The study was conducted using a questionnaire, administered in-person, on a stratified random sample of 359 inhabitants drawn across the GS. The results confirmed consistent positive effects of promotion, place, and product, on consumer intention to reduce electricity consumption. These effects were reinforced by higher consumer awareness, higher motivation, and more favorable attitudes toward the supply company. Furthermore, these effects are stronger for younger consumers, married, households whose head is a female, as well as lower education and income groups.
... We also included questions on circumcision, religion, childhood experience, relationship conflicts, and mood inventory. We applied the theory of planned behavior to design the survey (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980;Ajzen, 1985Ajzen, , 1991. In the sexual attitude and behavior sections, the participants were asked whether they ever had sexual intercourse, which was defined as a man's penis in a woman's vagina. ...
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A cross sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted to assess the feasibility of a health promotion programme implemented at the university. About 73 students participated in the survey and the discussion. We examined gender and cultural differences on sexual attitude and behaviour. There was a strong belief that unprotected sex can lead to pregnancy and STIs. Overall participants were not sure if condom use had any negative effects, although female respondents felt that condoms affect the pleasure of sexual intercourse. The results suggest that there is a need for health promotion programmes aimed at young adults, who attend university. The programme should improve general health knowledge, targeting health promotion and sexual risk behaviour among university students. Such a programme would have to consider gender, socio-economic circumstances as well as national and cultural background of the target population.
... Attitude showed a low but positive relationship with customer's intention. It is considered reasonable as supported by Ajzen (1991). Religious obligation showed the insignificant result. ...
... Two of the most popular models employed to explain entrepreneurial behaviour, the Entrepreneurial Event Model (Shapero and Sokol, 1982) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), indicate that attitudes predict and influence the formation of EI. Intentions formation depends on attitudes toward the target behaviour which, in turn, reflect beliefs and perceptions (Krueger and Carsrud, 1993, p. 315). ...
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In this paper we explore creativity as an antecedent of entrepreneurial intentions. Drawing from social cognitive theory, we explain and empirically illustrate how creative self-efficacy encourages the development of entrepreneurial intentions. We also examine the mediating roles of attitudes and creative process engagement in the creative self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions relationship. Based on a pre-post-survey design, in seven entrepreneurship courses taught in three Canadian universities, our findings support the role of creativity as an antecedent to entrepre-neurship, but also hint towards some boundaries/limitations on attitudes as the primary focus of entrepreneurship education programs. We draw a number of implications for the theory and practice of entrepreneurship education.
... Finally, in the initiation model and sustenance model, the intention for behavior was measured instead of actual behavior which is justified based on previous work with this theory and theory of planned behavior. 43 Prospective studies addressing the above limitations can be designed to strengthen empirical evidence. ...
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Background Screen-time (ST) is the time spent on digital media. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the daily ST of less than an hour for preschoolers. However, increased ST among preschoolers is becoming a public health concern. Objective This study assessed the multi-theory model (MTM)'s applicability in explaining the ST behavior change among preschoolers through parents. Methods A quota sample of 72 parents was drawn from Northern India. Data were analyzed using multiple regression. Results Behavioral confidence (p < 0.001) and changes in the physical environment (p < 0.001) significantly predicted the initiation of reducing ST. The sustenance of limiting ST was significantly predicted by the emotional transformation (p < 0.001), practice for change (p < 0.001), and changes in the social environment (p = 0.001). Conclusions The study highlights the usability of the MTM model in designing and testing interventions for parents to limit ST among their children.
... If the moral course of action is anticipated to be extremely difficult or the individual has found that past experience with carrying out the moral decision was unsuccessful, the intention will unlikely result in action. Similarly, the reverse is also true: past success can lead to greater likelihood of perceived behavioral control (Ajzen, 1991). ...
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Despite a growing body of research by management scholars to understand and explain failures in ethical decision making (EDM), misconduct prevails. Scholars have identified character, founded in virtue ethics, as an important perspective that can help to address the gap in organizational misconduct. While character has been offered as a valid perspective in EDM, current theorizing on how it applies to EDM has not been well developed. We thus integrate character, founded in virtue ethics, into Rest’s (1986) EDM model to reveal how shifting attention to the nature of the moral agent provides critical insights into decision making more broadly and EDM specifically. Virtue ethics provides a perspective on EDM that acknowledges and anticipates uncertainties, considers its contextual constraints, and contemplates the development of the moral agent. We thus answer the call by many scholars to integrate character in EDM in order to advance the understanding of the field and suggest propositions for how to move forward. We conclude with implications of a character-infused approach to EDM for future research.
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The aim of this paper is to provide a research perspective for understanding omni-channel shopping value (Huré, Picot-Coupey, & Ackermann, 2017) from a customer point of view. As technology blurs the distinction between online and offline retailing, the age of omni-channel retailing (Brynjolfsson, Hu, & Rahman, 2013) has arrived. The omni-channel retailing phenomenon has created several interesting research issues. However, this new research area has mainly gained attention in academia from company perspectives, rather than consumer perspectives. Thus, this paper examines current omni-channel shopper research and the relationship and research gap in research areas such as mobile app adoption; showrooming & webrooming; buy online, pickup in store (BOPIS) behavior; and omni-channel shopping values. Finally, future research agendas will be discussed. 本稿の目的は,消費者視点からのオムニチャネル買物価値(Omni-Channel Shopping Value)(Huré, Picot-Coupey, & Ackermann, 2017)の理解に求められる視座を提供することにある。小売業におけるテクノロジー活用の進展により,オムニチャネル・リテイリング(Brynjolfsson, Hu, & Rahman, 2013)の実現が進んでいる。この流れを受け小売業におけるオムニチャネル戦略の研究が企業の視点から展開されているが,これらの買物体験を消費者の視点から検討する先行研究は少ない。本稿では,オムニチャネル・ショッパー研究の現状を示した上で,その消費者行動の理解に寄与すると考えられる3 つの研究領域についてレビューする。具体的には,技術受容モデルに基づくモバイルアプリ受容行動研究とショールーミング・ウェブルーミング行動研究,店頭受け取りサービス(Buy Online, Pick-Up In Store)研究の3 つである。最後に,オムニチャネル買物価値の理解に求められる今後の研究課題を提示する。
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This article explores the critical factors of consumption in Mexico, Ecuador, and Colombia, due to confinement and social distancing. Besides, which are the factors that influence the purchase decision. In the proposed model, we tested from quantitative research with a sample of 2,065 online consumers. We analyzed the following statistics: CFA, structural equations, invariance of measurement instruments, and multi-group analysis with the Smart Pls 3 and EQS 6.3 software. The study reveals that time, space, and place in the consumption process is more visible in the purchasing behavior with social distancing, healthy distance, and the commercial restriction caused by the health contingency. In addition to being a health and humanitarian crisis, the pandemic has severe economic consequences worldwide as 1) the increase in unemployment rates, 2) collapsed health systems, 3) education models overwhelmed by technology, 4) supply chains interrupted by the closure of borders, 5) international and domestic tourism suspended due to a lack of sanitary protocols,6) social coexistence curtailed by significantly increased infections and 7) a decreasing demand by consumers for the closure of companies. Despite being Latin American countries, cultural differences were not the priority of consumption in the crisis period due to Covid-19. They significantly change purchasing behaviors, and all have adapted to online and home delivery purchases by the social factor, local consumption, and consumers' attitude. The article presents several considerations on the main factors of consumption in Covid-19 in collectivist countries (North American and South America) such as Mexico, Colombia, and Ecuador and finds no substantial differences with consumers. There are practical implications for companies to adopt online channels and to create sales strategies in the face of the endemic pandemic.
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Background New Zealand’s Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) manages the “declare or dispose” biosecurity border compliance social marketing program. Its aim is to protect the country’s important horticulture and agriculture industries from imported pests and diseases, and its environment. The program encourages visitors to New Zealand to leave potential biosecurity risk items at home or dispose in specially marked bins on arrival. An important part of this is having New Zealand ethnic communities advocate on MPI’s behalf to friends and family overseas to follow the biosecurity rules. To fully engage the community to be advocates, it was felt that the community should be involved in the creation of this aspect of the program. Focus of the article The article is a case study explaining how MPI used co-design methodology to create an advocacy program with a local community to assist behavior change in overseas visitors. The article focusses on the process and planning (including following a six-step co-design model) from a practitioners’ perspective to develop a program co-created with the target audience, rather than the final interventions developed. Program design/approach The “declare or dispose” program had been solely “expert led” and designed by social marketers and researchers. The program is heavily influenced by a mix of quantitative and ethnographic research. These feed into customer journey mapping where interventions are inserted to influence audiences’ behavior. To assist in advocacy from the New Zealand Indian community to friends and family overseas, a customer led co-design process was developed to create community engagement and advocacy. Methods MPI ran three co-design sessions involving members of local Indian community groups. The sessions used a mixture of card sorting and open discussion within small groups. The card sorting was used to review, and rate current interventions used in the behavior change program (including interventions both overseas direct to visitors and locally to community members). The open discussion asked participants to generate new ideas for potential new interventions to reach visitors. Results Through the ranking of existing tools and participant suggestions of new ideas—MPI has developed an advocacy program that spans expert-led and user-led interventions. As hoped, the user-led suggestions were at a community-based level, resulting in a stronger buy-in from the community to deliver advocacy messages to overseas friends and family. Recommendations for practice The article is useful for practitioners by detailing how to not only use co-design for creating new ideas, but also to evaluate existing ones to create a program blending both expert- and user-led interventions. MPI followed a six-step co-design process to organize its co-design program. This ensured that the right preparation was followed, sessions were effective, and the desired results of the program were achieved.
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The purpose of this study is to check the adoption of online shopping in Pakistan. Many research papers explain the effect of different variables on online shopping intention. But there is no explanation in any paper the effect of these variables on online shopping intention i.e. attitude on both perceived ease of use ( PEOU) , perceived usefulness (PUF) and then such both (PEOU, PUF) on trust and finally the effect trust on privacy and responsiveness. We collected the 150 useable questioners in the city of Bahawalpur (Pakistan). We analyze such data in SPSS and find the result. This research paper revealed that attitude effect on online shopping intention, PEOU and PUF effect on attitude, trust is affected on such both (PEOU, PUF) and finally privacy, responsiveness both effect on trust. This study will help to increase the trend of online shopping if we focus on such factors i.e. privacy, responsiveness, trust, PEOU, PUF, and attitude.
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The recent global outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic crisis has posed a health and economic dual threat to countries and societies around the world, and before COVID-19 global spread, economic growth in almost all countries had slowed in the context of a tense trade war between the United States and China. In this spreading global pandemic, unemployment and stagnation of international trade have caused great economic pressures to many countries, especially China as a big exporter. This paper aimed at finding out the influence of entrepreneurship education on innovation capability among Chinese undergraduate students, the empirical research method is utilized in this study, 400 senior undergraduates from 3 universities in China are surveyed by questionnaires, all data collected will be analyzed by SPSS 20 and Amos 21. Many schools and universities around the world have adopted online education tools of the blended learning approach to mitigate this pandemic shock of the education industry. Nowadays, the competition among the big countries in the world is mainly focused on the technical barriers and innovation capability, according to the Triple Helix Model of Innovation that three main stakeholders in entrepreneurship ecosystem: government, university and industry is very important to the innovation. Finding indicated that the institutional environment and supporting infrastructure have a significant impact on student's innovation capability in the three dimensions of entrepreneurship education. Therefore, the Chinese universities should combine the innovation-driven entrepreneurship education program, strengthen the supporting of institutional environment and infrastructure that enhance the student's innovation practice ability with the human capital and social capital.
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Purpose: To examine factors associated with overall human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination status, completion of HPV vaccination, and intention to receive vaccination among nursing students. Design: A Cross-sectional, correlational study. Methods: Data from 86 students were analyzed using logistic and multiple regression. Findings: Among knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, and recommendation, more positive attitudes and beliefs were the only factors associated with initiation and/or completion of HPV vaccination and the intention to receive HPV vaccination. Conclusions: More positive attitudes and beliefs need to be enhanced for HPV vaccination. Clinical evidence: Changes in attitudes and beliefs can be important targets of interventions to increase HPV vaccination.
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