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Abstract

There are a number of theories that describe the necessary improvements in global envi- ronmental performance in order to maintain status quo in our ecosystem (1, 2). These theo- ries are far reaching in their ambitions, and it is not immediately apparent as to how we should be able to achieve, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental per- formance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical artefact and instead pro- vides what the customer really wants - the actual functionality from the product. This en- ables a series of potential improvements to the product's performance throughout its lifecy- cle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups - customer, company and society - benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us the design degrees of freedom necessary to create radical innovation. The article draws upon existing product development and PSS theory and models and ex- periences from projects carried out with both industrialists and students.
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...  Receive greater diversity of choices in market, including variety of products, services, payment schemes, lifestyle, flexibility etc. (Mont, 2002;McAloone & Andreasen, 2002;Baines et al., 2007;Beuren et al. 2013);  Obtain customized offerings with higher quality (Mont, 2002;Baines et al., 2007;Beuren et al. 2013);  Release from the responsibility of owing a product (Mont, 2002);  Learn about more features about environmental features and contribute more to minimizing environmental impacts (Mont, 2002).  Product data collected during use in order to improve the products in different life stages ( Beuren et al. 2013). ...
...  To attach additional value to a product, for example, financial schemes or refurbishing or upgrading (Mont, 2002);  To base a growth strategy on innovation in a mature industry (Mont, 2002;Baines et al., 2007);  New markets, great market share and a redefinition of core-activities can be achieved (McAloone & Andreasen, 2002);  To improve relationships with consumers because of increased closer contact and flow of information about consumers' preferences (Mont, 2002;McAloone & Andreasen, 2002);  To improve the total value for the customer because of increased servicing and service components, which include activities and schemes that make the existing product last longer, extend its function (upgrading and Recommended PSS definition (Vezzoli et al., 2015): ...
...  To attach additional value to a product, for example, financial schemes or refurbishing or upgrading (Mont, 2002);  To base a growth strategy on innovation in a mature industry (Mont, 2002;Baines et al., 2007);  New markets, great market share and a redefinition of core-activities can be achieved (McAloone & Andreasen, 2002);  To improve relationships with consumers because of increased closer contact and flow of information about consumers' preferences (Mont, 2002;McAloone & Andreasen, 2002);  To improve the total value for the customer because of increased servicing and service components, which include activities and schemes that make the existing product last longer, extend its function (upgrading and Recommended PSS definition (Vezzoli et al., 2015): ...
Thesis
The world industrial economy has been witnessing to step into service economyduring last two decades. Evidence can be easily found to prove it, such as the shift ofmore and more manufacturers from traditional product centric logic intoservice oriented logic, sharing economy’s growth in popularity over the last severalyears, changing their business model and renting the usage of the p roduct theymanufacture, etc. Product Service Systems (PSS), under this context, are seen as onesolution to help companies to address the servitization process. PSS captures a lot ofpractitioners and researchers’ attention because of its potential to sat isfy customers’requirements of more economical, more c ustomized and more sustainable services inthe modern service economy context. However, in the current marketplace, most PSSsolutions are pushed by providers based on their own capabilities and their internalpotential for innovations and unfortunately, they most of the time ignore real usagesand values for beneficiaries. In this context, functions of offerings (different scenariosof combinations of products and services) are sometimes useless and ov erlapped and alarge amount of waste is being produced when producing and implementing this kindof solution....
... Specifically, Baines et al. (2007); Beuren et al. (2013) and Sakao et al. (2009) examine how the literature characterizes the concept of product-service systems (PSS) in terms of scope and content. Baines et al. (2009) hybrid value creation (respectively) according to the key themes they address. ...
... With regard to the co-citation network created, the works with a closeness index above 77.3 are those by Vandermerwe and Rada (1988), Vargo and Lusch (2004a), Wise and Baumgartner (1999), Baines et al. (2007), , . Special mention should be made of the fact these authors featured in various factors in the periods analyzed previously, and this highlights the consolidation of their contributions to servitization. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to identify the changes in the intellectual structure of research on servitization between 1980 and 2015 by using a proven methodology such as bibliometric technique. The results show that the provision of services in any organization is taking on greater strategic importance. This paper contributes to understand how this topic has evolved thus completing the investigation carried out by other authors. It also highlights the research lines that have been developed until now and the future directions for servitization research.
... do proprietária do produto, ela é motivada a maximizar o uso do produto, estendendo sua vida e a dos materiais utilizados para a produção e fornecimento do serviço. As vantagens desta categoria incluem a maximização do uso para atender à demanda, bem como para estender a vida do produto e dos materiais utilizados para produzir e fornecer o serviço (BAINES et. al., 2007). ...
... Concepts of integrated product and service offerings are known as Product-Service Systems [1]. According to [2] Product-Service System (PSS) can be thought of as a market proposition that extends the traditional functionality of a product by incorporating additional services. When developing a PSS, in the early phase of a product development process, each product planner faces the problem that many decisions regarding the future product direction have to be made. ...
Chapter
During the early phase of the product development process of future Product-Service System (PSS) portfolios, the planning phase, solutions ideas are generated and within a decision process the best ones are selected. In this phase, the designer faces the challenge of making decisions under great uncertainty, because many of these decisions have a great impact on the rest of the product development but still with small knowledge of the product. In this paper we present a method for depicting and evaluating the possible uncertainties as a decision support for companies. By analyzing the interconnections between impact factors, decision criteria and PSS-elements and their stability, the uncertainty of each decision criterion related to a PSS-element can be calculated. This way, the designer can get a general idea of the existing uncertainties and their relevance. As a basis for the method, the important criteria regarding uncertainties in the early phase of the product planning were analyzed by means of a literature research. This was followed by a preliminary definition of the approach for evaluating decision uncertainties occurring throughout the planning phase of Product-Service Systems. Finally, the approach was evaluated by the application of the method in two case studies.
... Since years many research projects all over the globe concentrate on the integration of products and services from engineering, economic or social viewpoints [7]. Furthermore, PSS have been linked tightly to sustainable development or eco-design [8,9]. ...
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Thesis
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Recently, product-service systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developing measures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failure analysis in PSS design called PSS failure mode and effect analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends the framework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product and service aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.
Chapter
Die in den vergangenen Jahren stark gestiegene wirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Dienstleistungen (Hildebrandt und Klostermann 2007) begünstigt auch eine zunehmende Konvergenz von Produkten und Dienstleistungen. Der darauf basierende Ansatz, Produkte und Dienstleistungen in sogenannten Product-Service Systems (PSS) zu verbinden (Morelli 2002) und gebündelt anzubieten, hat daher in der Vergangenheit verstärkt an Relevanz gewonnen (Mont 2002; Stille 2003; Knackstedt et al. 2008). Treiber dafür sind beispielsweise eine Fokusverschiebung vom Erwerb einzelner Produkte bzw.
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Within the Delft University of Technology's DfS (design for sustainability) program, more than a hundred industrial ecodesign case studies have been executed during the period 1993-1998, both through graduate and PhD students as well as staff members of this program at the Subfaculty of Industrial Design Engineering. In the ecodesign approach of the Delft program several types of lifecycle thinking are advocated. This refers both to the selection of attention fields, to the creativity phase (finding green options) as well as to the environmental validation of the design improvement proposals. This approach is embodied both in manuals and in tools. The lifecycle thinking analysis methodology has a pivotal position in the ecodesign processes and tool applications as we operate them. Particularly in selection of attention fields and in the validation stage, LCA utilization is substantial. To a lesser extent this also holds for the creativity phase itself. In this paper, the Delft experiences with LCA in the practical ecodesign projects executed within industry are evaluated. This evaluation leads to the identification of both limitations and opportunities and directions for action and research efforts to enhance LCA. The paper discussee: LCA from the problem solving perspective; methodology issues; data issues; LCA from the business perspective; LCA as tool for communication to stakeholders; standardization; and future of LCA
Green products for today's markets
  • C Grüner
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  • H Birkhofer
Grüner C., Dannheim F. and Birkhofer H., "Green products for today's markets", in Tomaska & Vizi (eds.): Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference on Environmental Engineering, Veszprem, Hungary, 1999. Contact person: T. C. McAloone Section of Engineering Design & Product Development Department of Mechanical Engineering Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Building 358, Akademivej 2800 Lyngby, Denmark Tel: +45 4525 6270 Fax: +45 4588 1451
Integrated product policy -change and challenge
  • K Feldmann
Feldmann K., (ed.), "Integrated product policy -change and challenge", in Proceedings of 9 th International Seminar on Life Cycle Engineering, Erlangen, 2002.