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Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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Abstract and Figures

Há poucos estudos sobre a fauna de serpentes em ilhas costeiras do Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil e um baixo número de espécies depositadas em coleções zoológicas. No Brasil, pela primeira vez, foi realizado um inventário em 18 ilhas do litoral paulista a partir de pesquisa de registros nas coleções herpetológicas do Sudeste do Brasil. Também foram realizadas coletas de campo em onze ilhas. Trinta e seis espécies de quatro famílias foram registradas: uma espécie de Boidae, trinta de Colubridae, uma de Elapidae e quatro de Viperidae. Os dados de campo apresentaram treze ocorrências novas de espécies sem registro nas coleções. Para estimar a raridade das espécies utilizaram-se categorias de abundância relativa: comum, não-freqüente e rara. Das espécies amostradas, 44,4% foram consideradas raras. As espécies mais comuns foram Micrurus corallinus, presente em doze ilhas; Bothrops jararaca e Liophis miliaris, presentes em onze ilhas, B. jararacussu e Chironius bicarinatus, presentes em 10 ilhas. Foram efetuados sete novos registros para a Ilha do Cardoso (25° 05’ S e 47° 59’ W): C. bicarinatus, C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus e Xenodon neuwiedii; três para Ilha Comprida (24° 54’ S e 47° 48’ W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus e H. carinicaudus; um para Ilha Anchieta (23° 32’ S e 45° 03’ W): Spilotes pullatus; um para a Ilha das Couves (23° 25’ S e 44° 52’ W): L. miliaris; um para a Ilha dos Porcos (23° 23’ S e 44° 54’ W): B. jararaca. B. alcatraz e B. insularis, endêmicos à Ilha de Alcatrazes e à Ilha da Queimada Grande, respectivamente, são considerados criticamente em perigo segundo IUCN. Foi registrada a extinção da fauna de serpentes na Ilha Monte de Trigo. Os ecossistemas insulares, mais vulneráveis que os continentais, carecem de uma proteção mais efetiva. A maioria destas espécies (cerca de 52%) preda anfíbios, reforçando a necessidade de conservação das florestas.
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Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil
Paulo José Pyles Cicchi1,4, Marco Aurélio de Sena2, Denise Maria Peccinini-Seale2, Marcelo Ribeiro Duarte3
Biota Neotropica v7 (n2) – http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n2/pt/abstract?inventory+bn03907022007
Recebido em 19/06/06
Versão Reformulada recebida em 08/05/07
Publicado em 05/07/07
1Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Zoologia,
Laboratório de Herpetologia, Campus Botucatu, Rubião Junior, sn, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu, SP, Brasil
2Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, IBUSP
3Laboratório de Herpetologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil
4Autor para correspondência: Paulo José Pyles Cicchi, e-mail: paulocicchi@yahoo.com.br
Abstract
Cicchi, P.J.P.; De Sena, M.A. Peccinini-Seale, D.M. and Duarte, M.R. Snakes from coastal
islands of State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotrop. May/Aug 2007 vol. 7, no. 2.
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n2/pt/abstract?inventory+bn03907012007. ISSN 1676-0603.
There are relatively few studies on snake fauna from coastal islands of the State of São Paulo (SSP),
Southeastern Brazil and the number of species housed in Brazilian institutional zoological collections is relatively
limited. In Brazil, for the first time, a snake inventory for eighteen islands of coastal SSP is presented. Here we
record data from sampling on eleven islands as well information on vouchered species in the main herpetological
collections. Thirty-six species from four families: one Boidae, thirty Colubridae, one Elapidae and four Viperidae
from eighteen islands are listed as well as the thirteen new island records for snakes. Relative abundance categories
were used for species rarity: common, infrequent and rare; 44.4% of the snakes with voucher specimens were
considered rare. The most common species in twelve of the eighteen islands was Micrurus corallinus; in eleven of
the eighteen islands were Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris; in ten of the eighteen islands were B. jararacussu
and Chironius bicarinatus. The most common snake species on coastal islands were Micrurus corallinus which
was found in twelve of the eighteen islands, followed by Bothrops jararaca and Liophis miliaris found on eleven
of the eighteen islands and B. jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatus which were found in ten of the eighteen
islands studied. There are seven new records of snake species for Cardoso Island (25° 05’ S and 047° 59’ W): C.
bicarinatus, C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus
and Xenodon neuwiedii; three new records for Comprida Island (24° 54’ S and 47° 48’ W): B. jararacussu, C.
bicarinatus and H. carinicaudus; one for Anchieta Island (23° 32’ S and 045° 03’ W): Spilotes pullatus; one
for Couves Island (23° 25’ S and 44° 52’ W): L. miliaris; one for Porcos Island (23° 23’ S and 44° 54’ W), B.
jararaca. The endemic species B. alcatraz from Alcatrazes Island and B. insularis from Queimada Grande Island
are considered endangered species by IUCN. Snake fauna on Monte de Trigo Island are extinct. The fragility of
insular snake fauna needs more attention for environmental conservation, since 52.0% of snake species preys on
amphibians, highlighting the importance of forest conservation.
Keywords: snakes, coastal islands, inventory, conservation, diversity.
Resumo
Cicchi, P.J.P.; De Sena, M.A. Peccinini-Seale, D.M. and Duarte, M.R. Serpentes das ilhas
costeiras do Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotrop. May/Aug 2007 vol. 7, no. 2.
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n2/pt/abstract?inventory+bn03907012007. ISSN 1676-0603.
Há poucos estudos sobre a fauna de serpentes em ilhas costeiras do Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil e
um baixo número de espécies depositadas em coleções zoológicas. No Brasil, pela primeira vez, foi realizado um
inventário em 18 ilhas do litoral paulista a partir de pesquisa de registros nas coleções herpetológicas do Sudeste
do Brasil. Também foram realizadas coletas de campo em onze ilhas. Trinta e seis espécies de quatro famílias
foram registradas: uma espécie de Boidae, trinta de Colubridae, uma de Elapidae e quatro de Viperidae. Os dados
de campo apresentaram treze ocorrências novas de espécies sem registro nas coleções. Para estimar a raridade das
espécies utilizaram-se categorias de abundância relativa: comum, não-freqüente e rara. Das espécies amostradas,
44,4% foram consideradas raras. As espécies mais comuns foram Micrurus corallinus, presente em doze ilhas;
Bothrops jararaca e Liophis miliaris, presentes em onze ilhas, B. jararacussu e Chironius bicarinatus, presentes
em 10 ilhas. Foram efetuados sete novos registros para a Ilha do Cardoso (25° 05’ S e 47° 59’ W): C. bicarinatus,
C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus e Xenodon
neuwiedii; três para Ilha Comprida (24° 54’ S e 47° 48’ W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus e H. carinicaudus; um
para Ilha Anchieta (23° 32’ S e 45° 03’ W): Spilotes pullatus; um para a Ilha das Couves (23° 25’ S e 44° 52’ W):
L. miliaris; um para a Ilha dos Porcos (23° 23’ S e 44° 54’ W): B. jararaca. B. alcatraz e B. insularis, endêmicos
à Ilha de Alcatrazes e à Ilha da Queimada Grande, respectivamente, são considerados criticamente em perigo
2Cicchi, PJP et al. - Biota Neotropica, v7 (n2) - bn03907022007
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segundo IUCN. Foi registrada a extinção da fauna de serpentes na Ilha Monte de Trigo. Os ecossistemas insulares,
mais vulneráveis que os continentais, carecem de uma proteção mais efetiva. A maioria destas espécies (cerca de
52%) preda anfíbios, reforçando a necessidade de conservação das florestas.
Palavras-chave: serpentes, ilhas, inventário, diversidade, conservação.
Introduction
Studies on island herpetological fauna are relevant since there is
a significant human impact on these threatened environments, mainly
by mismanagement of natural resources and predatory tourism. Few
islands are unaltered by human action, and often anthropogenic altera-
tions have taken place on a scale even greater than in most continental
systems (Vitousek et al. 1995).
The coastal area of the State of São Paulo (SSP), southeastern
Brazil, encompasses 106 islands isolated from the mainland by
distances which vary from a few meters up to 38 km (Ângelo 1989),
with a wide range of anthropogenic alterations.
As commented by Ângelo (1989), less than 10% of the insular
environment in SSP has some official environmental protection. In
fact, the relatively low representation of island species in the lists of
threatened and endangered species around the world is emblematic
(Vitousek et al. 1995). In Brazil, snake inventories on this set of coastal
islands has still not been addressed, except for some studies made on
a relatively small number of coastal islands of SSP (Ihering 1897;
Amaral 1921; Luederwaldt 1923; Hoge 1950; Mertens 1955; Hoge
et al. 1959; Müller 1968; Vanzolini 1973; Duarte et al. 1995, Marques
et al. 2002; Centeno 2003; Cicchi 2004) which addressed specific bio-
logical aspects rather than snake inventories. As in Rodrigues (2005),
except for the Crocodylia, the richness of the Brazilian reptile fauna
is still underestimated because of insufficient inventories and too few
taxonomists. The study of these insular faunas, comparing the fauna
among themselves and with those from the adjacent mainland must,
therefore, afford insight into several evolutionary mechanisms that
have determined the formation of complex tropical biota (Vanzolini
1973). This study presents a first general approach for snakes living
on coastal islands of Sao Paulo, based on fieldwork on nine different
islands of SSP in Brazil and the lists of vouchered specimens of snake
species from eighteen islands in the main herpetological collections
of Brazilian Institutions. The fragility of insular snake fauna needs
more attention for environmental conservation.
Material and Methods
Our inventory of the snakes inhabiting coastal islands of the SSP
(between the latitudes 23° 20’ S to 25° 15’ and longitudes 44° 45’ W
to 48° 00’, Figure 1; Climatic data Figure 2) was based on literature,
SP
MG
44° 45' W48° 00' W
25° 15' S
23° 20' S
RJ
PR
Figure 1. Map of Study Area. Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.
Figura 1. Mapa da área de estudo. Costa do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.
360
180
0
M
Climate
MJ J S N
0
10
T (°C)
20
30
Rainfall (mm)
Ru Rc Tu Tc
Figure 2. The graph presents monthly average rainfall and temperature (1980-
1988) in extreme sites of the study area: north — Ubatuba and south — Ca-
nanéia. Ru: rainfall in Ubatuba, Rc: rainfall in Cananéia, Tu: temperature in
Ubatuba, Tc: temperature in Cananéia. Modified from Marques et al. 2000.
Figura 2. O gráfico apresenta a média mensal de temperatura e precipitação
(1980-1988) em locais extremos da área de estudo: norte – Ubatuba e Sul
Cananéia. Ru: precipitação em Ubatuba, Rc: precipitação em Cananéia,
Tu: temperatura em Ubatuba, Tc: temperatura em Cananéia. Modificado de
Marques et al. 2000.
Figure 3. Armação da Baleia, Bom Abrigo Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 3. Armação da Baleia, Ilha do Bom Abrigo. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
on field inventory on some costal islands and on recorded specimens
in the following institutional collections: Coleção Herpetológica “Al-
phonse Richard Hoge”, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil (IBSP);
Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), Museu
de História Natural “Prof. Dr. Adão José Cardoso” da Universidade
Estadual de Campinas, SP, Brazil (ZUEC), Museu Nacional, Rio de
Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (MNRJ) (Appendix 1). Fieldwork was conducted
between 2000 and 2005 by opportunistic visual search on the follow-
ing islands: Alcatrazes, Anchieta, Bom Abrigo, Buzios, Cananéia,
Cardoso, Comprida, Couves, Queimada Grande, São Sebastião
and Vitória (Figures 3-9). Snake specimens were also donated by
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Figure 6. Cardoso Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 6. Ilha do Cardoso. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 9. Queimada Grande Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 9. Ilha da Queimada Grande. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 5. Alcatrazes Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 5. Ilha de Alcatrazes. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 8. Vitória Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 8. Ilha de Vitória. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 4. Erosion, Bom Abrigo Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 4. Erosão. Ilha do Bom Abrigo. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 7. Búzios Island. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 7. Ilha de Búzios. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
island inhabitants. Relative abundance categories (RAC) were used
for species rarity: Common: occurrence on more than five islands;
Infrequent: occurrence on four distinct islands and Rare: occurrence
on three or less islands. The RAC for snake species were compared
with data from the SSP Atlantic Forest mainland available in the
literature. Supplementary information on species occurrence on the
islands was provided by experienced herpetologists.
Results
With the combined information obtained in the literature, speci-
mens housed in Institutional collections and from field collections by
the authors of the present study, a total of 36 species was recorded for
the eighteen studied islands: one Boidae, 30 Colubridae, one Elapidae
and four Viperidae (Table 1, Figures 10-40 and Appendix 1). An aster-
4Cicchi, PJP et al. - Biota Neotropica, v7 (n2) - bn03907022007
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Table 1. Thirty-six species of snakes from 18 islands from SSP (23° 20’ S to 25° 15’ and 44° 45’ W to 48° 00’) with an asterisk representing a new island
record. Species with an asterisk representing a new island record. Figures 3-9, some islands visited; Figures 11-41, some species collected.
Tabela 1. Trinta e seis espécies de serpentes em 18 ilhas no SSP (23° 20’ S até 25° 15’ e 44° 45’ W até 48° 00’). Espécies com asterisco representam novo
registro para a ilha. Figuras 3-9, algumas ilhas visitadas; Figuras 11-41, algumas espécies coletadas.
Species/Islands Alcatrazes Anchieta Barnabé Bom
Abrigo
Búzios Cananéia Cardoso Comprida Couves
Boidae
Corallus hortulanus
Colubridae
Chironius bicarinatus + + + +* +*
C. exoletus + + +
C. fuscus +
C. laevicollis + +
C. multiventris + +*
Clelia plumbea +
Dipsas albifrons +
D. alternans
D. petersi +*
D. neivai +
Echinanthera bilineata +*
E.cephalostriata +*
E. melanostigma
E. undulata +
Erythrolamprus aesculapii + +
Helicops carinicaudus + +* +*
Imantodes cenchoa +
Liophis miliaris + + + + + +*
L. poecilogyrus +
Oxyrhopus clathratus + +
Sibynomorphus neuwiedii + +
Siphlophis pulcher + + +
Sordellina punctata +
Spilotes pullatus +* + + +
Thamnodynastes cf. nattereri +
Tomodon dorsatus + +
Tropidodryas serra +
T. striaticeps +
Xenodon neuwiedii + +*
Waglerophis merremii
Elapidae
Micrurus corallinus + + + + + + +
Viperidae
Bothrops alcatraz +
B. insularis
B. jararaca + + + + +
B. jararacussu + + + + +*
isk marks each one of the 13 new records of snakes. There are seven
new records of snake species for Cardoso Island (25° 05’ S and 47°
59’ W): C. bicarinatus, C. multiventris, Dipsas petersi, Echinanthera
bilineata, E. cephalostriata, Helicops carinicaudus and Xenodon
neuwiedii; three new records for Comprida Island (24° 54’ S and 47°
48’ W): B. jararacussu, C. bicarinatus and H. carinicaudus; one for
Anchieta Island (23° 32’ S and 45° 03’ W): Spilotes pullatus; one for
Couves Island (23° 25’ S and 44° 52’ W): L. miliaris; one for Porcos
Island (23° 23’ S and 44° 54’ W), B. jararaca.
Data on the area of the islands of the SSP having voucher snake
species in institutional herpetological collections or in the literature,
distance of the island from the mainland, threats and category of
use are shown in Table 2. Comparative studies on island areas and
the number of snake species (Figure 41) showed a strong positive
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Species/Islands Mar Virado Monte de
Trigo1
Porchat2Porcos Queimada
Grande
Santo
Amaro
São
Sebastião
São
Vicente
Vitória
Boidae
Corallus hortulanus +
Colubridae
Chironius bicarinatus + + + + +
C. exoletus + + + +
C. fuscus + + +
C. laevicollis + +
C. multiventris + + +
Clelia plumbea + +
Dipsas albifrons + +
D. alternans +
D. petersi + + +
D. neivai +
Echinanthera bilineata
E.cephalostriata + + +
E. melanostigma + +
E. undulata +
Erythrolamprus aesculapii + +
Helicops carinicaudus + + +
Imantodes cenchoa
Liophis miliaris + + + + +
L. poecilogyrus + +
Oxyrhopus clathratus + +
Sibynomorphus neuwiedi + + +
Siphlophis pulcher + + +
Sordellina punctata
Spilotes pullatus + + + +
Thamnodynastes cf. nattereri +
Tomodon dorsatus + +
Tropidodryas serra +
T. striaticeps +
Xenodon neuwiedii + +
Waglerophis merremii +
Elapidae
Micrurus corallinus + + + + +
Viperidae
Bothrops alcatraz +
B. insularis +
B. jararaca + +* + + + +
B. jararacussu + + + + +
1Snake population of Monte de Trigo Island extirpated by locals (MFD Furtado, pers. communication); and 2Presumed Porchat Island (error; originally
vouchered Paranapuã Island, name of the continental beach beside Porchat Island).
1População de serpentes da Ilha do Monte de Trigo dizimada pela população humana local. (MFD Furtado, com. pess.); e 2Suposta Ilha Porchat (erro: origi-
nalmente tombada como Ilha de Pararnapuã, nome dado a uma praia continental próxima a Ilha Porchat).
Table 1. Continued...
correlation, (r = 0.72; p = 0.007; n =18). Data on distances from the
continent and snake species richness (Figure 42) showed a negative
correlation, (r = –0.39; p = 0.1; n =18).
From the total of snake species with voucher specimens depos-
ited in institutional collections, 44.4%were considered rare, 25.0%
were considered infrequent and 30.6% were considered common.
The fragility of insular snake fauna needs greater attention for
environmental conservation, since 52.0% of snake species preys
on amphibians, highlighting the importance of forest conservation.
(Table 3). Frequency of snake species in the SSP islands is shown in
6Cicchi, PJP et al. - Biota Neotropica, v7 (n2) - bn03907022007
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Figure 10. Corallus hortulanus, Family Boidae.
Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 10. Corallus hortulanus, Família Boidae.
Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 14. Chironius multiventris, Family Colu-
bridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 14. Chironius multiventris, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 18. Echinanthera bilineata, Family Co-
lubridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 18. Echinanthera bilineata, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 13. Chironius laevicollis, Family Colu-
bridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 13. Chironius laevicollis, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 17. Dipsas petersi, Family Colubridae.
Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 17. Dipsas petersi, Família Colubridae.
Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 21. Erythrolamprus aesculapii, Family
Colubridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 21. Erythrolamprus aesculapii, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 11. Chironius bicarinatus, Family Colu-
bridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 11. Chironius bicarinatus, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 15. Dipsas albifrons, Family Colubridae.
Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 15. Dipsas albifrons, Família Colubridae.
Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 19. Echinanthera cephalostriata, Family
Colubridae. Photo: Ricardo J. Sawaya.
Figura 19. Echinanthera cephalostriata, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Ricardo J. Sawaya.
Figure 20. Echinanthera undulata, Family Co-
lubridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 20. Echinanthera undulata, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 16. Dipsas neivai, Family Colubridae.
Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 16. Dipsas neivai, Família Colubridae.
Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 12. Chironius fuscus, Family Colubridae.
Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 12. Chironius fuscus, Família Colubridae.
Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
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Figure 24. Liophis miliaris, Family Colubridae.
Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 24. Liophis miliaris, Família Colubridae.
Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 28. Siphlophis pulcher, Family Colubri-
dae. Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 28. Siphlophis pulcher, Família Colubri-
dae. Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 32. Tropidodryas serra, Family Colubri-
dae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 32. Tropidodryas serra, Família Colubri-
dae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 22. Helicops carinicaudus, Family Co-
lubridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 22. Helicops carinicaudus, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 26. Oxyrhopus clathratus, Family Colu-
bridae. Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 26. Oxyrhopus clathratus, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 30. Spilotes pullatus, Family Colubridae.
Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 30. Spilotes pullatus, Família Colubridae.
Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 23. Imantodes cenchoa, Family Colubri-
dae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 23. Imantodes cenchoa, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 27. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi, Family
Colubridae. Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 27. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 31. Tomodon dorsatus, Family Colubri-
dae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 31. Tomodon dorsatus, Família Colubri-
dae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 25. Liophis poecilogyrus, Family Colu-
bridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 25. Liophis poecilogyrus, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 29. Sordellina punctata, Family Colubri-
dae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 29. Sordellina punctata, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 33. Tropidodryas striaticeps, Family
Colubridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 33. Tropidadryas striaticeps, Família
Colubridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
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Figure 34. Waglerophis merremii, Family Colu-
bridae. Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 34. Waglerophis merremii, Família Colu-
bridae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 35. Xenodon neuwiedii, Family Colubri-
dae. Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 35. Xenodon neuwiedii, Família Colubri-
dae. Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 36. Micrurus corallinus, Family Elapidae.
Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 36. Micrurus corallinus, Família Elapi-
dae. Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 37. Bothrops alcatraz, Family Viperidae.
Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 37. Bothrops alcatraz, Família Viperi-
dae. Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 38. Bothrops insularis, Family Viperidae.
Photo: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figura 38. Bothrops insularis, Família Viperidae.
Foto: Marcelo R. Duarte.
Figure 39. Bothrops jararaca, Family Viperidae.
Photo: Antônio Bordignon.
Figura 39. Bothrops jararaca, Família Viperidae.
Foto: Antônio Bordignon.
Figure 40. Bothrops jararacussu, Family Vi-
peridae. Photo: Luís Coelho.
Figura 40. Bothrops jararacussu, Família Vi-
peridae. Foto: Luís Coelho.
Figure 43. The most common species in twelve of the eighteen islands
was Micrurus corallinus; in eleven of the eighteen islands Bothrops
jararaca and Liophis miliaris were found; in ten of the eighteen B.
jararacussu and Chironius bicarinatus were found.
Field trips, number of collection, and sampling effort are shown
in Table 4. The islands which had a greater sampling effort were
Queimada Grande Island (2,260 total hours/sampling effort), with the
number of collectors in the crew varying from one to thirteen per trip;
Anchieta Island (1,870 total hours/sampling effort), with one to nine
collectors and Cardoso Island (1,516 total hours/sampling effort), with
one to six collectors. There was a small positive correlation among
sampling effort and the number of new records per island (r = 0.30;
p = 0.36; n = 11), (Figure 44).
9
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Table 2. Area of the islands of the SSP with vouchered snakes in herpetological collections or in the literature, distance from mainland (km), threats and
category of use.
Tabela 2. Área das ilhas no SSP com as espécies de serpentes tombadas nas coleções herpetológicas ou na literatura, distância das ilhas ao continente (Km),
ameaças e categoria de uso.
Island (number of species) Area (ha) Distance from
mainland (km)
Threats2Category of use
Alcatrazes (n = 4) 135 33.40 D Inhabited
Anchieta (n = 6) 828 0.49 E State Park
Barnabé (n = 2) 173.4 0.01 Wide
Bom Abrigo (n = 2) 154 3.55 A,B,C Populated
Búzios (n = 4) 755 24.09 A,B,C Populated
Cananéia (n = 15) 13.7 0.24 A,B,C,G Wide
Cardoso (n = 23) 22,500 0.08 A,B,F State Park
Comprida (n = 12) 20,000 0.31 A,B,C,G Wide
Couves (North) (n = 1) 64.5 2.53 A,B,C Populated
Mar Virado (n = 2) 119 2.00 B Populated
Monte de Trigo (*) 130 10.20 Populated
Porchat1 (n = 10) 15 0.23 Wide
Porcos (n = 1) 24.2 0.74 A,B Populated
Queimada Grande (n = 2) 430 34.80 A Inhabited
Santo Amaro (n = 21) 14,000 0.05 A,B,G Wide
São Sebastião (n = 20) 33,600 1.76 A,B,E,G State Park/Wide
São Vicente (n = 23) 6,000 0.12 Wide
Vitória (n = 4) 221.3 37.97 A,B Populated
1Presumed Porchat Island (error; originally voucher specimens recorded as from Paranapuã Island, name of the continental beach beside Porchat Island);
2Threat categories: A) Deforestation & Fire B) Domestic animals C) Erosion D) Military target E) Wild exotic fauna introduced F) Indians harvest G) Urban
expansion ) Extremely impacted; and *Snake population of Monte de Trigo Island extirpated by locals (MFD Furtado, pers. communication).
Discussion
In fact, the SSP coast was one of the gateways to continental
explorations since the beginning of the 15th century (Dean 1996).
Deforestation and fire are commonplace on several islands both for
25
20
15
Species richness
5
10
0
0 10
Distance continent (km)
20 30 40
Figure 42. The graph shows a negative correlation between the distance
island-mainland and the number of species.
Figura 42. O gráfico demonstra a correlação negativa entre a distância ilha-
continente e o número de espécies.
Figure 41. The graph shows a positive correlation between island areas and
the number of species collected.
Figura 41. O gráfico demonstra a correlação positiva entre a área das ilhas e
o número de espécies coletadas.
25
20
15
Species richness
5
10
0
0 10000 20000
Area (ha)
30000 40000
occupation and survival by local population, including natives (Olmos
et al. 2004) or due to an economy based on tourism. An associated
tenet for conservation on both the SSP and several Brazilian coastal
islands was the dependence on the unchanging mind set of the owner
whether favorable or unfavorable for conservation of the native veg-
10 Cicchi, PJP et al. - Biota Neotropica, v7 (n2) - bn03907022007
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Table 3. SSP Islands species, habitat, preys, and relative abundance categories.
Tabela 3. Espécies das ilhas do SSP, hábitats, presas e categorias de abundância relativa.
Species Habitat Preys* Relative abundance
(SSP Islands)
Relative abundance
(SSP Shore)*
Boidae
Corallus hortulanus Arboreal Rodents and birds Rare Rare
Colubridae
Chironius bicarinatus Arboreal Amphibians Common Common
C. exoletus Arboreal Amphibians Common Common
C. fuscus Arboreal Amphibians Infrequent Common
C. laevicollis Arboreal Amphibians Infrequent Infrequent
C. multiventris Arboreal Amphibians Common Infrequent
Clelia plumbea Terrestrial Lizards & Snakes Rare Rare
Dipsas albifrons Terr/Arb Snails Infrequent Absent
D. alternans Arboreal Snails Rare Rare
D. petersi Arboreal Snails Infrequent Rare
D. neivai Arboreal Snails Rare Rare
Echinanthera bilineata Terrestrial Amphibians Rare Rare
E. cephalostriata Terrestrial Amphibians Infrequent Rare
E. melanostigma Terrestrial Amphibians Rare Rare
E. undulata Terrestrial Amphibians Rare Common
Erythrolamprus aesculapii Terrestrial Snakes Infrequent Common
Helicops carinicaudus Aquatic Amphibians & Fishes Common Common
Imantodes cenchoa Arboreal Lizards & Amphibians Rare Rare
Liophis miliaris Aqua/Terr Amphibians & Fishes Common Common
L. poecilogyrus Terrestrial Amphibians Rare Common
Oxyrhopus clathratus Terrestrial Rodents & Lizards Infrequent Common
Sibynomorphus neuwiedi Terrestrial Snails Common Common
Siphlophis pulcher Arboreal Lizards & Snakes Common Rare
Sordellina punctata Aqua/Terr Earthworms Rare Rare
Spilotes pullatus Arboreal Rodents, Birds, Eggs, Bats Common Common
Thamnodynastes cf. nattereri Terrestrial Rodents & Amphibians? Rare Rare
Tomodon dorsatus Terrestrial Snails Infrequent Common
Tropidodryas serra Arboreal Rodents & Lizards Rare Infrequent
T. striaticeps Arboreal Rodents & Lizards Rare Infrequent
Xenodon neuwiedii Terrestrial Amphibians Infrequent Common
Waglerophis merremii Terrestrial Amphibians Rare Rare
Elapidae
Micrurus corallinus Fossorial Amphisbaenians & Snakes Common Common
Viperidae
Bothrops alcatraz Terrestrial Centipedes & Amphibians Rare/Endemic Absent
B. insularis Arboreal Birds & Amphibians Rare/Endemic Absent
B. jararaca Terrestrial Rodents Common Common
B. jararacussu Terrestrial Rodents & Amphibians? Common Common
Marques et al., 2001; Marques & Sazima, 2003.
etation. Probably the only exception is where snake fauna extinction
is definitive (e.g., Monte de Trigo Island) and where several wild
carnivore predators were deliberately introduced and probably caused
extinction of some representative species (e.g., Anchieta Island).
Studies of global extinctions of reptiles during the last
10,000 years demonstrate two clear patterns: the majority of extinc-
tions occurred on islands and usually are associated with anthropic
disturbances (Case et al. 1992). Whittaker (1998) presents four main
problems resulting in island species being threatened by human
action. The first is direct predation which in Table 2 corresponds
to threat category F and G. The second threat is the introduction of
non-native species; categories B and D. The third is contact with new
diseases and parasites of exotic species ( for example, the gekkonid
lizard Hemidactylus mabouia) which is widely distributed along the
11
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Table 4. Sample effort.
Tabela 4. Esforço amostral.
Islands Trips Work
Group
Days in
field
Total hours
in the field
Alcatrazes 1 4 people 4 36
Anchieta 12 1-9 people 62 1877
Bom Abrigo 5 1-4 people 9 104
Búzios 2 4-5 people 5 146
Cananéia 30 3-6 people 39 1386
Cardoso 15 1-6 people 110 1516
Comprida 27 3-6 people 27 768
Couves 1 5 people 4 40
Ilhabela 2 3-6 people 7 386
Queimada Grande 29 3-13 people 50 2260
Vitória 1 5 people 1 20
Figure 44. Positive correlation between total sampling effort, hours of field-
work, and the number of the new records of species.
Figura 44. correlação positiva entre esforço amostral total, horas de trabalho
de campo e número de novos registros de espécies.
Species (n = 36)
Number of islands (n = 18)
Mcor
Lmil
Bjar
Bjus
Cbic
Cexo
Hcar
Sipu
Clae
Cmul
Sneu
Cfus
Dpet
Ecep
Eesc
Ochl
Tdor
Xneu
Cplu
Dalb
Lpoe
Dnei
Emel
Eund
Tnat
Tser
Tstr
Balc
Bins
Chor
Dalt
Ebil
Icen
Spun
Wme
Spul
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Figure 43. Frequency of 36 snakes species on the eighteen islands of
the state of São Paulo. Mcor = Micrurus corallinus; Lmil = Liophis mil-
iaris; Bjar = Bothrops jararaca; Bjus = Bothrops jararacussu; Cbic =
Chironius bicarinatus; Spul = Spilotes pullatus; Cexo = Chironius exoletus;
Hcar = Helicops carinicaudus; Sipu = Siphlophs pulcher; Clae = Chironius
laevicollis; Cmul = Chironius multiventris; Sneu = Sibynomorphus neuwiedii;
Cfus = Chironius fuscus; Dpet = Dipsas petersi; Ecep = Echinanthera cepha-
lostriata; Eesc = Erythrolamprus aesculapii; Ochl = Oxyrhopus clathratus;
Tdor = Tomodon dorsatus; Xneu = Xenodon neuwiedii; Cplu = Clelia
plumbea; Dalb = Dipsas albifrons; Lpoe = Liophis poecilogyrus; Dnei =
Dipsas neivai; Emel = Echinanthera melanostigma; Eund = Echinanthera
undulata; Tnat = Thamnodynastes cf. nattereri; Tser = Tropidodryas serra;
Tstr = Tropidodryas striaticeps; Balc = Bothrops alcatraz; Bins = Bothrops
insularis; Chor = Corallus hortulanus; Dalt = Dipsas alternans; Ebil =
Echinanthera bilineata; Icen = Imantodes cenchoa; Spun = Sordellina
punctata; Wme = Waglerophis merremii.
Figura 43. Freqüência das 36 espécies nas 18 ilhas no Estado de São Paulo.
Mcor = Micrurus corallinus; Lmil = Liophis miliaris; Bjar = Bothrops jara-
raca; Bjus = Bothrops jararacussu; Cbic = Chironius bicarinatus; Spul =
Spilotes pullatus; Cexo = Chironius exoletus; Hcar = Helicops carinicaudus;
Sipu = Siphlophs pulcher; Clae = Chironius laevicollis; Cmul = Chironius
multiventris; Sneu = Sibynomorphus neuwiedii; Cfus = Chironius fuscus; Dpet
= Dipsas petersi; Ecep = Echinanthera cephalostriata; Eesc = Erythrolam-
prus aesculapii; Ochl = Oxyrhopus clathratus; Tdor = Tomodon dorsatus;
Xneu = Xenodon neuwiedii; Cplu = Clélia plumbea; Dalb = Dipsas albifrons;
Lpoe = Liophis poecilogyrus; Dnei = Dipsas neivai; Emel = Echinanthera
melanostigma; Eund = Echinanthera undulata; Tnat = Thamnodynastes cf.
nattereri; Tser = Tropidodryas serra; Tstr = Tropidodryas striaticeps; Balc
= Bothrops alcatraz; Bins = Bothrops insularis; Chor = Corallus hortulanus;
Dalt = Dipsas alternans; Ebil = Echinanthera bilineata; Icen = Imantodes
cenchoa; Spun = Sordellina punctata; Wme = Waglerophis merremii.
coast and is a host for some protozoarians (Lainson & Paperna 1999),
helminths (Anjos et al. 2005) and mites (Rivera et al. 2003) (category
E). There are cases of parasite transport from reptiles to the islands
(Goldberg & Bursey 2000; Rocha & Vrcibradic 2003). And finally
there is the loss or degradation of habitat corresponding to categories
A, C, D of Table 2. Corke (1987) documented the local extinction of
Clelia clelia and Liophis ornatus in the Lesser Antilles.
As expected from the classical theory of island biogeography
(MacArthur & Wilson 1967), coastal islands of São Paulo State with
a larger area tend to have a larger number of species. However, the
data showed that the number of snake species decreased significantly
with the distance of the island from mainland.
Thirteen species of snakes given as new records were sampled
during the exiguous period, eventhough the capture effort has not been
homogeneous for eleven of the field surveyed islands. Many other
snake species are likely to exist and our findings should be considered
preliminary, since during the brief fieldwork period we vouchered a
specimen of Bothrops jararacussu from Bom Abrigo Island in the
IBSP collection forty three years after the last specimen was recorded.
Five of the six more common species of the eighteen islands had a
wide range of distribution on the continent also. At the present time
two insular species are endemic and threatened, Bothrops alcatraz
(Marques et al. 2002) and Bothrops insularis (Duarte et al. 1995).
An interesting disjunct distribution occurs for Dipsas albifrons
which is present on Alcatrazes, São Sebastião and Queimada Grande
Island. The known distribution of D. albifrons includes a large gap
along most of the continental portion of the State of São Paulo.
Considering that São Paulo State has one of the largest populations
in Brazil and that the Instituto Butantan has been receiving constant
from São Paulo for more than a hundred years, it is likely that the
disjunct distribution is not an artifact of poor sampling (Passos et al.
2005). Porto & Fernandes (1996) found the same pattern for Dipsas
neivai, and suggested that natural events that caused regional extinc-
tions, were caused by transgression of the sea level in the Quaternary
(cf. Müller 1969; Vanzolini 1973).
Similarly, two voucher specimens of Waglerophis merremii
were recorded in two different herpetological collections (IBSP and
0
New records
500 1000 1500
Hours/people
2000 2500
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
12 Cicchi, PJP et al. - Biota Neotropica, v7 (n2) - bn03907022007
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MZUSP) from Santo Amaro Island during the 1930´s. This colubrid
snake is typical of open areas, but cannot be found in this kind of
landscape along the southeastern coast of Brazil. This is not the case
for some open area species along the coast of Bahia State, northeastern
Brazil that inhabits areas close to the seashore (Crotalus durissus
cascavella from Itaparica Island), Boa constrictor constrictor (Argôlo
2004; MRDuarte, pers. observation) and Waglerophis merremii.
A single specimen of Boidae (Corallus hortulanus) was recorded
for SSP islands. Conversely, Corallus hortulanus and Boa constric-
tor are species commonly found on Ilha Grande (Grande Island) in
Rio de Janeiro State (Soares et al. 1987). Two voucher specimens of
Boa constrictor from Santos (São Vicente Island) (IBSP 8.641 and
17.428) in 1934 and 1958 respectively, were excluded because they
were collected in the neighborhood of the largest harbor of South
America and passive transportation must be considered.
The integrity and preservation of SSP island herpetofauna is
limited since, with few exceptions (e.g., Queimada Grande and
Alcatrazes Islands), many of these island environments are under
uncontrolled human occupation and few of them are under legal
protection (see Table 2). A striking appeal for SSP island preserva-
tion is the fact that 52% of the voucher specimens of snake species
inhabiting these islands preys on amphibians that are sensitive to
environmental disturbance.
Acknowledgments
We thank FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado
de São Paulo) Programa BIOTA (Proc. 99/08291-5); IBAMA-RAN,
Proc. 02027.004018/01-26; Instituto Florestal, Proc. 40.128. Antonio
Bordignon, Luís Coelho and Ricardo J. Sawaya for photographies.
Hussam Zaher, MZUSP; Francisco Luis Franco, IBSP, for the acc-
cess to herpetological collections and Lígia Pizzato, ZUEC, for the
ZUEC research. People of Cananéia: family Pedro Cardoso; Roberto
Cardoso; family Rafael Xavier; family Carlos Lacerda Nunes, Cláudio
e Selmo Bernardo; people Ilha Comprida: South, Santino Cardoso,
Sítio Trincheira; “Paraíba”, do restaurante Morretinho; Juan Carlos
Machado, “Rambo”; Glauco e Maurício do Boqueirão Norte. Directors
of PEIA, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta, and PEIC, Parque Estadual
da Ilha do Cardoso, Viviane Buchianeri and Marcos Campolim respec-
tively. Staff of PEIC, Romeu Mário Rodrigues, Ilso Neves, Nanqui,
Sr. Roberto, Lair; IO-USP,Base Cananéia, for colaboration. Valmir
Augusto from Instituto de Biociências da USP; Elaine Cardoso de Sá;
Antonio Bordignon, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Eduardo Nakano, Luís Coelho,
Paulo Sérgio Garrubo, Fernanda da Cruz Centeno and Herbert Serafim
de Freitas for help with fieldwork. Wayne Seale, IF-USP, for help in
english version. Comunities of Itacuruçá, family Junior Neves and fam-
ily João Cardoso, Comunity Foles,Gelson and Comunities Cambriú,
Marujá, Pontal do Leste, Enseada da Baleia from Ilha do Cardoso.
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BOIDAE
1. Corallus hortulanus Santo Amaro Island IBSP 62926
COLUBRIDAE
Chironius bicarinatus: Anchieta Island IBSP 16023. Búzios
Island IBSP 56236, 56951. MZUSP 3941-44, 4831-75. Cananéia
Island IBSP Field no. 2791. *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 1873.
*Comprida Island IBSP 70529 IBSP Field no. 2740. Mar Virado
Island (Vieitas, 1995). Porchat Island1 IBSP 14265, 14435. Santo
Amaro Island IBSP 22250, 68184. São Sebastião Island IBSP 56009,
58723. São Vicente Island IBSP 15850, 18761.
Chironius exoletus: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0671. Car-
doso Island IBSP 55876, 70748, 72186, 72187 IBSP Field no. 1873,
0095-96, 1247. Comprida Island IBSP 11472-73, 11479, 31887. Mar
Virado Island (Vieitas, 1995). Porchat Island1. IBSP 14436, 14439,
14544-46. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22386, 22392, 28106, 29519,
29542, 29691. MZUSP 5611. São Vicente Island IBSP 704, 13934-
35, 18135, 22090-91, 22249, 22571, 37375, 57389, 58363, 70043.
Chironius fuscus: Cardoso Island IBSP 43488, 43626, 70749,
71393, 71711, 72188 IBSP Field no. 1873, 3693, 0098. Porchat
Island1 IBSP 14437-38. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 8285, 21488,
23977, 26309, 40870, 42456, 43632, 44125, 44334. MZUSP 3177.
São Vicente Island IBSP 2588, 13932, 13936, 15481, 23847, 27990,
30960, 32671.
Chironius laevicollis: Cardoso Island IBSP 56135, 71001 IBSP
Field no. 2454, 1247. MZUSP 8866. Comprida Island IBSP 11468-
69, 55973. São Sebastião Island IBSP 54190, 57433. ZUEC 1061.
São Vicente Island IBSP 63635.
Chironius multiventris: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 4458,
0671. *Cardoso Island IBSP 71710, 71855, 72185, 72190 IBSP
Field no. 3692, 0093-94. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22042-43, 22106,
22387, 22571, 24326-28, 24590, 25349, 40870, 42707, 45115, 45913,
58409. São Sebastião Island IBSP 54190, 57096, 57353. ZUEC 1062.
São Vicente Island IBSP 8069, 22089, 29085, 33459.
Clelia plumbea: Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 955. São Se-
bastião Island IBSP 20420, 21696, 26977, 43981, 56932. São Vicente
Island IBSP 21996, 22497, 29852.
Dipsas albifrons: Alcatrazes Island IBSP 13029, 62175. Quei-
mada Grande Island IBSP 11488, 15808, 15809, 17151, 17213,
18426-27, 29727, 30088-90, 30092, 30094-95, 52670, 55723. São
Sebastião Island IBSP 60345.
Dipsas alternans: São Sebastião Island IBSP 55951.
Dipsas petersi: *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 3171. Santo
Amaro Island IBSP 24165, 24478-80, 24636, 25934, 26040, 26091,
42458, 43999, 49231, 57302, 64909. São Sebastião Island IBSP
53647, 57090. São Vicente Island IBSP 9244, 10391, 13938-40,
25934, 41093, 55345, 55946-47.
Dipsas neivai: Cananéia Island IBSP 41999. São Sebastião Island
IBSP 41027, 55877, 56628.
Echinanthera bilineata: *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 1247.
Echinanthera cephalostriata: *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no.
2103. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22572, 44127. São Sebastião Island
IBSP 56933, 57089. São Vicente Island IBSP 22251, 54814.
Echinanthera melanostigma: Santo Amaro Island IBSP 42336.
São Vicente Island IBSP 22572.
Echinanthera undulata: Comprida Island IBSP 52204. São
Vicente Island IBSP 56343.
Erythrolamprus aesculapii: Barnabé Island IBSP 28268. Ca-
nanéia Island IBSP Field no. 3367. São Sebastião Island IBSP 12902,
13584. São Vicente Island IBSP 22215, 28968, 30043.
Helicops carinicaudus: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2726,
2021, 2531. *Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 3371. *Comprida Island
IBSP Field no. 0670. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14267. Santo Amaro
Island IBSP 43013, 45160, 63032, 67814, 68295. São Vicente Island
IBSP 800, 14267, 22094, 30965, 32484-86, 34095, 66996, 68118,
68307.
Imantodes cenchoa: Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 152.
Liophis miliaris: Anchieta Island IBSP 15818-21. Bom Abrigo
Island 22723-24. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0260, 0671, 1863,
1869, 2531, 2677, 2796, 3106. Cardoso Island IBSP 56129, 71020
IBSP Field no. 2454, 2521, 3171. MZUSP data missing. Comprida
Island IBSP 11477-78, 71175, 71313 IBSP Field no. 2740, 3035,
3171. *Couves Island (North coast) IBSP 70127. Porchat Island1
IBSP 14263, 14337-40, 14422-34, 14548, 59220. Santo Amaro
Island IBSP 18287, 20856, 23992, 28001, 30234, 67349, 68401.
MZUSP data missing. São Sebastião Island IBSP 11611, 27541.
Appendix 1
14 Cicchi, PJP et al. - Biota Neotropica, v7 (n2) - bn03907022007
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br
São Vicente Island IBSP 2607, 13933, 14263-64, 14337-40, 14422-
35, 14548-49, 19723, 22072-73, 22076-78, 61395, 68306, 69189.
MZUSP 4072; 4155-56, 4594-95, 4597, 4570-71, 788-9. Vitória
Island IBSP 15822-26.
Liophis poecilogyrus: Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 955. Santo
Amaro Island IBSP 5304, 73190. São Vicente Island IBSP 7284.
MZUSP 4596.
Oxyrhopus clathratus: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 3265,
1877. Cardoso Island IBSP 62463 IBSP Field no. 3171. São Sebastião
Island IBSP 10064, 26877, 57724, 68430, 69919. São Vicente Island
IBSP 5778.
Sibynomorphus neuwiedi: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2781,
4246, 4458, 0258, 2793, 2799. Cardoso Island IBSP 56134 IBSP
Field no. 3371. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 18288, 22044, 70108. São
Sebastião Island IBSP 31157, 56245, 56440, 55950, 67857, 69129.
São Vicente Island IBSP 19029, 43235.
Siphlophis pulcher: Alcatrazes Island IBSP 13030. Búzios Island
MZUSP 3945-46. ZUEC 2226. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no.
2799. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 22398, 22465, 33119, 51902, 56637,
63235. São Sebastião Island IBSP 58492, 58621, 62854. São Vicente
Island IBSP 10449, 13937, 41222, 45793.
Sordellina punctata: Comprida Island IBSP 40851.
Spilotes pullatus: *Anchieta Island IBSP 74439, 74440. Cananéia
Island IBSP Field no. 2025, 2041. Cardoso Island IBSP 29199 IBSP
Field no. 1259, 1131, 2454, 3171, 0099. MZUSP 10254. Comprida
Island IBSP 11470-71, 67752-53 IBSP Field no. 3266. Porchat
Island1 IBSP 14460-61. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 8492, 19660.
São Sebastião Island IBSP 12237, 57535. São Vicente Island IBSP
13260, 13942, 13962-63, 14907, 15416, 15418, 30905.
Thamnodynastes cf. nattereri: Comprida Island IBSP 45873,
52203, 69182. São Sebastião Island IBSP 23677,40921,40926,
40927, 42945, 44776, 44778, 53736, 54215, 55118, 57092, 57494,
57725, 62020, 64084, 68482, 70741.
Tomodon dorsatus: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0673. Car-
doso Island IBSP Field no. 1143. Porchat Island1 IBSP 14440-48.
São Vicente Island IBSP 7892, 14342, 14460-61, 15686, 18425,
22095-96, 56208, 67558.
Tropidodryas serra: Cardoso Island IBSP 56209, 56521, 57423,
59463 IBSP Field no. 3171, 4228. MZUSP 10240. Santo Amaro
Island IBSP 27126, 28226, 31943, 42240, 47052, 47103.
Tropidodryas striaticeps: Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 3643.
Santo Amaro Island IBSP 18650.
Xenodon neuwiedii: Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0263, 0671.
*Cardoso Island IBSP Field no. 0699. Santo Amaro Island IBSP
68620. São Sebastião Island MZUSP 2607.
Waglerophis merremii: Santo Amaro Island IBSP 8644. MZUSP
3594.
ELAPIDAE
Micrurus corallinus: Alcatrazes Island IBSP 62274-75. Anchieta
Island IBSP 417-18, 2653. Barnabé Island IBSP 29684. Búzios Island
IBSP 56223. MZUSP 3935-39. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 2454.
Cardoso Island IBSP 70752 IBSP Field no. 1873, 1844. MZUSP
9970, 10239. Comprida Island IBSP 7184, 8468, 11476, 31891, 41697,
42212, 42302, 42306, 42352, 42602, 42608, 42688, 42891, 42987,
43010, 43266, 43769, 43936, 45879, 46250, 46317, 49256, 50498,
71151 IBSP Field no. 1691, 0250. MZUSP 8209, 12404. Porchat Is-
land1 IBSP 14268, 14464-65. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 21329, 24396,
31892, 41831, 42174, 45435, 46379, 46557, 49484, 51563. MZUSP
3539, 10499-500, 11591. São Sebastião Island IBSP 12219, 12455,
12789-90, 12811, 12901, 13589, 14221, 25044, 42568, 45307, 49722,
56309, 57404, 60871, 61106, 62825, 68481. São Vicente Island IBSP
11312, 14268, 14341, 14464-65, 14614, 15415, 22498, 22526, 23654,
23831, 24164, 29444, 30948, 30979, 32260, 32974, 37322, 40263,
40400, 42359, 42373, 42985, 44261, 45983, 47674, 50697, 53394,
53402, 55725, 62383, 62434, 68684. Vitória Island MZUSP 3947.
VIPERIDAE
Bothrops alcatraz (Endemic): Alcatrazes Island IBSP 584-88,
13031-32, 13126, 13135, 13183, 16211-12, 56133, 55124, 55578-
81, 55791, 57105, 57107, 62238, 62290, 62392. MZUSP 1453.
ZUEC 2224-25.
Bothrops insularis (Endemic): Queimada Grande Island IBSP n
> 500. ZUEC 1869-72.
Bothrops jararaca: Anchieta Island IBSP 417-18, 655. Búzios
Island IBSP 13133, 26160-63, 56256, 56952, 57253. MZUSP
3862, 3934. ZUEC 2713. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 3698-
99, 2016, 2054, 2799, 3366. Cardoso Island IBSP 56302, 56388,
57106, 57475 IBSP Field no. 1502, 2454, 3171, 3265. Comprida
Island IBSP 11474. *Porcos Island (Ricardo Janini Sawaya, per-
sonal communication). Porchat Island1 IBSP 14450-59, 14562-64.
Santo Amaro Island IBSP 55524, 55863-64, 57246, 64763, 69008.
MZUSP 3583-84. São Sebastião Island IBSP n > 200. São Vicente
Island IBSP 10459, 13922, 14262, 14450-59, 14562-64, 15840,
18722, 58322, 61373, 62316, 62765. Vitória Island IBSP 18866-82.
MZUSP 3949-52, 5577-85.
Bothrops jararacussu: Anchieta Island IBSP 16307-09, 62833,
64672, 64917-18. Bom Abrigo Island IBSP 22720-22 IBSP Field
no. 3370. Cananéia Island IBSP Field no. 0671, 0673, 2531, 2544,
2740, 3699. Cardoso Island IBSP 53807, 56210, 56429, 56472,
70750-51, 71225 IBSP Field no. 1259, 1845-46, 2017, 2031, 2788,
3371, 3908. *Comprida Island IBSP Field no. 2723. Porchat Island1
IBSP 14462-63. Santo Amaro Island IBSP 55536. São Sebastião
Island IBSP 10547, 12092, 12238, 12239, 12521, 12788, 13235,
54205, 55573, 57603, 61366, 61715-16, 61943, 64457. São Vicente
Island IBSP 2621-24, 13961, 14462-63, 15484, 15752, 22528, 23979,
52494, 52536, 52553, 63728. Vitória Island IBSP 18864-65.
Título: Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo,
Southeastern Brazil.
Autores: Cicchi, PJP et al.
Biota Neotropica, Vol. 7 (número 2): 2007
http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n2/pt/abstract?inventory+
bn03907012007
Recebido em 19/06/06 - Versão reformulada recebida em -
08/05/07 - Publicado em 05/07/07
ISSN 1676-0603
... We analyzed 17 coastal islands located in the Atlantic Forest domain in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (23°23'00'' to 25°19'13''S and 44°43'44'' to 48°06'00''W). Precipitation in the islands ranges from 90 to 330 mm/year, and the average temperatures ranges from 18 to 27°C (Cicchi, Sena, Peccinini-Seale, & Duarte, 2007). The climate is considered tropical by Peel, Finlayson, and McMahon (2007). ...
... The number of species was recorded from Cicchi et al. (2007), Centeno et al. (2008), Rocha et al. (2008), Cicchi et al. (2009), and Barbo et al. (2012). We considered, as a regional pool, 108 species with potential occurrence in the dense ombrophilous forests of the region (see Zaher et al., 2011), which makes them potential colonizers for studied islands. ...
... We considered, as a regional pool, 108 species with potential occurrence in the dense ombrophilous forests of the region (see Zaher et al., 2011), which makes them potential colonizers for studied islands. To characterize island areas and distance from the mainland, we extracted data from Cicchi et al. (2007) ( Table 1). We considered, as the local pool, the species composition of each island. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The Theory of Island Biogeography posits that ecological and evolutionary processes regulate species richness of isolated areas. We assessed the influences of an island area and distance from the mainland on species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and phylogenetic composition of snakes on coastal islands. Location Coastal islands of the megadiverse Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Methods We compiled the species composition of 17 coastal islands in southeastern Brazil. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity were calculated for each island. Phylogenetic composition was measured using principal coordinates of phylogenetic structure. We then employed generalized linear models to test the influence of area and distance from the mainland on the diversity metrics. Results We found a prominent influence of area on species richness, whereas phylogenetic diversity was more affected by distance from the mainland. Snake clades were distinctly associated with area and distance. The Boidae family was associated with nearer and larger islands, whereas Elapidae was broadly distributed. Distance from the mainland was associated with the distribution of Dipsadidae, whereas Colubridae was influenced by both the area and distance. The Viperidae family attained higher values of phylogenetic diversity in smaller and more remote islands. Main conclusions This island system conserved a considerable piece of snake richness from southeastern Brazil, including island endemic species. Area and distance from the mainland were important drivers of snake diversity in the Atlantic Forest coastal islands. However, these predictors affected the different components of diversity in different ways. Phylogenetic composition analysis enables us to understand how basal nodes contributed to high levels of phylogenetic diversity on smaller and farther islands regardless of the decrease in species richness.
... These features pose challenges to quantitative and comprehensive study of these populations. There have been several efforts to describe the ecology and natural history of snakes in Brazil (e.g., Amazon Forest: Cunha and Nascimento 1978, Martins and Oliveira 1998, Pantanal: Strüsmann and Sazima 1993, Cerrado: Nogueira 2001, Caatinga: Mesquita et al. 2013, Guedes et al. 2014Atlantic Forest: Marques 1998, Cicchi et al. 2007, Centeno 2008, Cicchi et al. 2009, Hartmann et al. 2009a, b, Trevine et al. 2014. Although these studies have advanced our understanding of snake fauna in various ecosystems, studies focusing on snake communities in high altitude areas and the Araucaria forests remain scarce. ...
... The specimens collected during this study were deposited in two zoological collections: Coleção Herpetológica Alphonse Richard Hoge of Instituto Butantan (IBSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil and in Museu de Zoologia João Moojen (MZUFV), Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Areas used for the analysis of similarity between snake assemblages.The following snake assemblages were included in the analyzes: São Paulo State: 1 Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (Araújo et al. 2010) 2 Ilha da Cananéia (Cicchi et al. 2007) 3 Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso 4 Fazenda Etá (Fiorillo 2016) 5 Ilha Comprida (Cicchi et al. 2007) 6 Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins (Marques and Sazima 2004) 7 Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (Forlani et al. 2010) 8 Municipalities of Tapiraí and Piedade (Condez et al. 2009) 9 São Sebastião (Centeno et al. 2008) 10 Ilhabela (Centeno et al. 2008) 11 Parque Municipal de Paranapiacaba (Trevine et al. 2014) 12 São Paulo (Barbo et al. 2011) 13 Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi (Sazima and Haddad 1992) 14 São Vicente Island (Cicchi et al. 2007) 15 Santo Amaro Island (Cicchi et al. 2007) (Silveira et al. 2010) 31 Estação Ambiental de Peti (Bertoluci et al. 2009). ...
... The specimens collected during this study were deposited in two zoological collections: Coleção Herpetológica Alphonse Richard Hoge of Instituto Butantan (IBSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil and in Museu de Zoologia João Moojen (MZUFV), Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Areas used for the analysis of similarity between snake assemblages.The following snake assemblages were included in the analyzes: São Paulo State: 1 Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (Araújo et al. 2010) 2 Ilha da Cananéia (Cicchi et al. 2007) 3 Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso 4 Fazenda Etá (Fiorillo 2016) 5 Ilha Comprida (Cicchi et al. 2007) 6 Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins (Marques and Sazima 2004) 7 Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (Forlani et al. 2010) 8 Municipalities of Tapiraí and Piedade (Condez et al. 2009) 9 São Sebastião (Centeno et al. 2008) 10 Ilhabela (Centeno et al. 2008) 11 Parque Municipal de Paranapiacaba (Trevine et al. 2014) 12 São Paulo (Barbo et al. 2011) 13 Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi (Sazima and Haddad 1992) 14 São Vicente Island (Cicchi et al. 2007) 15 Santo Amaro Island (Cicchi et al. 2007) (Silveira et al. 2010) 31 Estação Ambiental de Peti (Bertoluci et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Serra da Mantiqueira is one of the least inventoried physiographic areas of southeastern Brazil. There is great potential for detection of endemic species for which little or nothing is known about basic aspects of natural history. The Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio (PESP) within the Serra da Mantiqueira is an area of extreme biological importance because it houses mixed formations of grasslands, ombrophilous forests, and enclaves of Araucaria forests (mixed ombrophilous forest). Currently, the mixed ombrophilous forest covers less than 5% of its original range and areas occupied by this forest type, and associated ecosystems constitute refuges, housing several endemic, high altitude species. Between September 2015 and April 2016, field samplings were performed in the PESP using four distinct methods. The objective was to determine the composition and natural history of snakes from an isolated, high altitude area of the Serra da Mantiqueira. In PESP and surrounding areas, 80 individuals representing 24 species, 19 genera, and three families were recorded. Data are presented on abundance, habitat, daily activity, diet, reproduction, and defense. Comparison of the PESP snake assemblage with 30 other Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil indicate the Serra da Mantiqueira presents particular characteristics regarding snake composition.
... Most of the Brazilian continental islands are inhabited by species of Bothrops (Cicchi et al., 2007), venomous viperid snakes usually known as lanceheads. Bothrops represents one of the most diverse pitviper genera (Viperidae: Crotalinae) (Campbell & Lamar, 2004; Correspondence to: Felipe G. Grazziotin. ...
... The fourth and most recently described species, B. sazimai Barbo et al., 2016, is endemic to Ilha dos Franceses, in the Brazilian state of Esp ırito Santo. Although several other insular populations of lanceheads occur on different islands in southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, they are commonly considered as falling within the phenotypic range described for the mainland B. jararaca without proper analysis of morphological distinctiveness (Cicchi et al., 2007). ...
... Marques et al. 242 a maioria dos exemplares observados foi encontrada sob poleiros de aves marinhas em mata baixa 242 . Alimenta-se de lacraias e pequenos lagartos 76,242 . ...
... Bothrops jararaca Cicchi et al. 2007. ...
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Full-text available
A avaliação dos répteis brasileiros foi coordenada pelo Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Répteis e Anfíbios (RAN), que avaliou todas as espécies continentais de Testudines (tartarugas, cágados e jabutis - 31 espécies), Crocodylia (jacarés - 6 espécies) e Squamata (lagartos, serpentes e anfisbênias - 690 espécies), e pelo Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Tartarugas Marinhas e da Biodiversidade Marinha do Leste (TAMAR), que avaliou as cinco tartarugas marinhas. No total, foram sete oficinas de trabalho, que avaliaram o risco de extinção de 732 espécies (incluindo cinco serpentes avaliadas mas ainda não formalmente descritas). As oficinas contaram com a participação de 111 especialistas da comunidade científica...
... The new records we detail in this paper are preceded by asterisks ( * ). References are listed numerically, with integers representing publications as follows: 1 = this study, 2 = Argôlo (2004), 3 = Passos et al. (2005), 4 = Silva Soares et al. (2011), 5 = Ferreira and Silva-Soares (2012), 6 = Cicchi et al. (2007), 7 = Centeno et al. (2008), 8 = Sazima and Muscat (2016), 9 = Kunz and Guizoni-Junior (2009). ...
... The 1 new records we detail in this paper are preceded by asterisks ( * ). References are listed numerically, with 2 integers representing publications as follows: 1 = this study, 2 = Argôlo (2004), 3 = Passos et al. (2005), 4 3 = Silva Soares et al. (2011), 5 = Ferreira and Silva-Soares (2012), 6 = Cicchi et al. (2007), 7 = Centeno et ...
... In addition, other species with location information for São Sebastião and São Sebastião Island, in São Paulo, have not yet been registered in these locations. For example, B. alternatus (N = 4), Micrurus frontalis (N = 1) and Oxyrhopus petolarius (N = 1) col- lected in São Sebastião, and the species Philodryas aestiva (N = 1), Echinanthera melanostigma (N = 1) and Erythrolamprus almadensis (N = 1) collected on São Sebastião Island (see Cicchi et al. 2007;Centeno et al. 2008). The absence of records of these species for these locations can be explained by a variety of factors, such as the rarity of some species in the region or the preference of habitats of some species. ...
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Natural history collections are constituted of a wide variety of biological specimens preserved around the world.They represent a continuous source of knowledge and play a fundamental role in the synthesis on the diversity, composition, distribution, and conservation of species. Paul Müller (1940–2010) was a German zoologist who collected amphibians and reptiles in Brazil between 1964 and 1976, with the aim of increasing knowledge about the Brazilian fauna and understanding the general patterns of Neotropical biogeography. We examined and re-determined all snakes found in Paul Müller’s collection, deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK), and also reconstructed the itinerary of his journeys through Brazil. We identified 556 snake specimens belonging to 80 species from six families (Aniliidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae). Müller collected snake specimens from all regions of Brazil, although most are from the south (76% of the species) and southeast (14% of the species). This relevant material can contribute to historical, biogeographic and conservation studies of the Brazilian snake fauna.
... All recorded reptiles are common and widely distributed in the Atlantic Forest, and seven species are considered endemic (Marques et al., 2001;Cicchi et al., 2007;Tozetti et al., 2017). Ophiodes sp. was the only species that was not identified at the species level given the advanced stage of decomposition when we found it. ...
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We present herpetological survey results from a low altitude secondary Atlantic Forest fragment in Itanhaém municipality, southeastern Brazil. Field expeditions were conducted over 21 months, at Estação Ambiental São Camilo. We recorded 22 species of amphibians and 18 species of reptiles using three different sampling methods, pitfall traps, visual encounter survey and occasional encounter. None of the observed species are listed in the São Paulo and Brazilian list of endangered species, or in the IUCN red list. This secondary-forest fragment harbours common species for Atlantic Forest, and the endemism rate for Amphibians is 81,8%, which means these “coldspots” are important to consider as an alternative for conservation in Atlantic Forest Domain.
... Islands inhabited by snakes in this region vary in size from tiny (0.2 km 2 on Franceses and Porcos islands) to enormous portions of Atlantic forest (347 and 676 km 2 on São Sebastião and Santa Catarina islands, respectively), with the smallest ones harboring a single species and the large ones harboring 21 species each. The snake communities found on these islands are a sample of the communities found on the mainland (Cicchi et al. 2007), although some populations are considered to have differentiated enough to be considered valid species Barbo et al. 2016; see the section titled Conservation and also Chapter 5, this volume). Furthermore, island size explains more than half of the variation in snake Figure 1.4 Relief maps of southern Australia and Tasmania depicting a putative scenario of how the snake fauna of land-bridge islands are originated. ...
... In the western Caribbean, two species inhabit islands, Micrurus nigrocintus in the Greater Corn Islands and Corn Islands, east of Nicaragua and M. ruatans is the islands of Roatán, off the coast of Honduras (Crother, 1999), both these islands were connected to the mainland during the Pleistocene (Petuch, 2013;Woodburne, 2010). In South America, M. corallinus inhabits several coastal Brazilian islets (Cicchi, Sena, Peccinini-Seale, & Duarte, 2007), which were connected to the mainland when sea level fell between 10-20 Kya (Bittencourt- Silva & Silva, 2014;Bueno, Schmidt Dias, & Stelle, 2013;Violante & Parker, 2004). Hence, New World coral snakes seem to lack the long-distance dispersal capabilities of other snakes (e.g. ...
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