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This paper takes as its starting point the difficulties inherent in listening in a second language. It argues that self-efficacy, broadly defined as the belief in one’s ability to carry out specific tasks successfully, is crucial to the development of effective listening skills, and that listening strategy instruction has the potential to boost self-efficacy. The degree of control over the process of listening that learners can gain through listening strategy instruction is an important factor in this process. Reviewing studies that have integrated strategy instruction with measures to address learners’ sense of control and self-efficacy for listening, it concludes by arguing that in an EAP context, such a heightened sense of confidence can help learners cope more effectively with authentic oral input.
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... In this way, teachers should not focus on the product of listening (listen to learn), meaning the correct answer but on teaching their students how to listen (learn to listen) by using certain strategies (Goh, 2002). The strategy use, which should be explicitly taught (Duffy, 2002), would help learners, even the younger and less proficient ones, to compensate for the insufficiencies in the target language (Macaro, 2006), improve their listening performance and become strategic and confident listeners (Graham, 2011;Graham et al., 2008). While there is limited research on the effect of strategy use on the improvement of EFL listening skills, it was shown that strategy training helped L2 students improve their listening performance, acquire metacognitive knowledge and become more motivated to listen to more difficult texts in their free time (Graham et al., 2008;Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari, 2010;Yeldham, 2015). ...
...  Based on L2 research (Cohen et al., 1996;Graham, 2011;Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari, 2010;Weyers, 2010;Yeldham, 2015), it was assumed that the use of listening and speaking strategies would enhance Greek EFL learners' listening and speaking skills. ...
... Simultaneously, the explicit strategy instruction including extensive practice taught the students not only what strategies to use but also when and how to use the appropriate strategies while listening and speaking helping them obtain declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge (Coskun, 2010;Duffy, 2002;Oxford, 2013), consolidate strategy use and improve their listening (Graham, 2011;Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari, 2010;Weyers, 2010;Yeldham, 2015) and speaking performance (Cohen et al., 1996). Though it should be mentioned that the learners found it difficult at first to work using strategies, since it was a new approach to EFL, the fact that the strategies were used through songs made most of the students enjoy the whole teaching process. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper reports on the 1st case study performed in the 1st cycle of a design research aiming at designing a learning environment based on philosophical theories of concept formation (i.e. categorization). Here, we will present the 1st version of our learning environment which supports primary school students in constructing the biological concepts of fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal, and enhancing their categorization skills. Philosophers have provided theories that suggest different mechanisms of categorization. Family resemblance-inspired theories suggest that we classify, e.g., individual birds under the concept bird by intuitively relying on examples of birds and/or on lists of their shared features. Moreover, classical theory suggests that we classify, e.g., individual birds under the concept bird by articulating bird-definitions. Considering the above theories, we developed a three-part, collaborative learning environment within the theoretical framework of constructivism. Our learning environment consists of 7 teaching-learning activities that aim at helping students to actively engage with the vertebrate animals classification while using different types of reasoning. More specifically, students are expected to collaborate in small groups in order to classify vertebrate animals into their classes, by (a) observing different examples of each vertebrate class, (b) making lists of the features the members of each class share (‘shared features list’), (c) deducing some ‘key features’ of each class from the corresponding ‘shared features list’, and (d) using these ‘key features’ to articulate definition-like reasoning strands about vertebrates. The learning environment will be thoroughly discussed in the paper, along with some preliminary results of its implementation. Analyzing the pre/post responses of the 19 conveniently selected fifth-graders who took part in this case study, showed an improvement in their reasoning about the target biological concepts.
... Researchers assert that self-efficacy, like many other constructs in educational psychology, can be applied to the field of second/foreign language education (Tseng et al., 2006). Studies demonstrate a positive correlation between self-efficacy and language skills, including writing (Golparvar & Khafi, 2021;Rayner et al., 2016;Wang & Bai, 2017;Woodrow, 2011), listening (Graham, 2011;Mills et al., 2008), reading (Ghonsooly & Majid, 2010;Wang & Pape, 2007), speaking (Aregu, 2013), and language proficiency in general (Bai et al., 2019;Diseth, 2011;Liem et al., 2020;Wang & Sun, 2020). However, research on self-efficacy in language learning is under-developed, especially in the context of Vietnam (e.g., Hoang, 2020;Hoang & Wyatt, 2021;Nguyen & Phan, 2020;Phan & Locke, 2016;Truong & Wang, 2019). ...
... Self-efficacy has not only been researched in the context of English as a first language, but also in the context of EFL (Wang & Sun, 2020). Studies indicate that self-efficacy is a contributing factor in predicting achievement in listening (e.g., Graham, 2011;Rahimi & Abedini, 2009), reading (e.g., Naseri & Zaferanieh, 2012Shang, 2010), speaking (e.g., Asakereh & Dehghannezhad, 2015;Zhang et al., 2020), andwriting (e.g., Yavuz Erkan &Iflazogl Saban, 2011;Schunk & Swartz, 1993). However, there is a lack of EFL selfefficacy scales, and scholars have sometimes not assessed self-efficacy appropriately (Bong, 2006). ...
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This study provides evidence of the validity and reliability of a self-efficacy questionnaire in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in a Vietnamese sample of university students. A total of 656 non-English-major students completed the questionnaire in an online format. SPSS version 24, SPSS AMOS, and SmartPLS 3 were employed to analyze the data. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the hypothesized structure model and several analyses such as composite reliability, Cronbach's alpha a, and rho_A were conducted to evaluate reliability. The results showed that the questionnaire had a high reliability and adequate validity. All the values were satisfactory, and the model was confirmed. Therefore, the adapted questionnaire in this study can be applied to measure self-efficacy in EFL contexts as it gives valuable feedback to teachers and students to improve the quality of language teaching and learning.
... This can be explained by the fact that learners are often in shortage of communicative contexts and interactions with the target language. On top of that, students often have a low sense of selfefficacy for listening (Graham, 2011). In fact, the motivation for learning a foreign language (English) is not the same as the one for mastering L1, which is more intuitive and less instrumental. ...
Conference Paper
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As a facilitator for the emergence of other language skills, listening has been considered a crucial skill for the development of language proficiency. Moreover, due to the intricacy as well as the inaccessibility of the listening process, the quest for effective ways to help learners overcome the external and internal factors affecting the listening process seems to be a daunting challenge for educators. In an attempt to assist learners to build their second language (L2) listening skills, the main goal of this paper is: (1) to demystify some common listening barriers supported by evidence-based research in related literature; (2) to provide some strategies for learners to strengthen their listening skills. The paper argues that understanding the nature of these problems and opting for the right mindset in approaching listening can help learners remove or minimize these obstacles to achieve better listening skills. Some pedagogical implications in EFL contexts are also discussed.
... In order to solve these problems, guidance is suggested that can be helpful in improving attention, focusing, effective listening and notetaking, coping with stress and motivation (Emiroğlu, 2013). This result coincides with the studies conducted on different target audiences and emphasizes the importance of listening strategies and self-efficacy for listening against problems encountered during the listening process (Graham, 2006;Graham & Macaro, 2008;Graham, 2011.). ...
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... The analysis disclosed that among 378 EFL students in Germany, self-efficacy could predict higher language proficiency while it was negatively impacted by students' use of learning strategies. To date, self-efficacy has been suggested to play a key role in EFL students' English proficiency (Saleem & Ab Rashid, 2018); not only does it influence English proficiency in general, but it can also affect students' proficiency in speaking (Zhang & Ardasheva, 2019), listening (Graham, 2011), reading (Ghabdian & Ghafournia, 2016) and writing (Woodrow, 2011). ...
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... 81). A limited number of studies (Graham, 2011;Graham et al., 2014;Siegel, 2014Siegel, , 2015 have investigated the role of the teacher in L2 listening instruction, highlighting teacher perspectives on L2 listening instruction and their priorities in the teaching of listening. Regarding perspectives, Graham et al. (2014) found that half of the 115 foreign language teacher participants felt they gave equal time to teaching listening compared to the other skills. ...
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The present study examines teachers' perceptions and practices about teaching listening in a pre-sessional English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme. The purpose of this study was to identify the activities that the teachers prioritised in their listening lessons and elicit why they made these decisions. Data were collected through interviews and classroom observations. The findings revealed that the three teachers at a pre-sessional department at a New Zealand university give equal time to teaching all four skills, although they find listening to be the most difficult skill to teach. The teachers are guided by a three-stage approach when using the listening textbook and supplementary materials. However, they find selecting supplementary materials time-consuming and problematic. The teachers also prioritised using product-based and vocabulary-based activities but expressed a need for more guidance in using perception activities (e.g., distinguishing word boundaries) in listening lessons. These findings indicate the teachers have some awareness of metacognitive instruction but further guidance in using process-based listening frameworks could help address learners' difficulties. Introduction For many teachers and learners, "listening to learn or learning to listen?" remains an ambiguous and unanswered question in the academic field (Vandergrift, 2004). In teaching, research highlights how some teachers lack sufficient guidance to teach listening (Graham, 2017). As listening instruction continues to evolve from traditional 'listen-and-repeat' and 'question-answer' approaches (Vandergrift, 2004) to include communicative and interactive tasks, these more recent teaching approaches warrant further investigation to fully understand how second language (L2) teachers teach listening.
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