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Modern development in information technology helped the expansion of knowledge, and shaped the lifestyle of contemporary societies in various aspects, including arts, architecture, engineering, and agriculture and food industry. This paper aims to highlight the role of modern technology in food industry and the activities of enhancing, redesigning and upgrading the quality of the food; the paper analyzes the use of technology in determining permissibility of certain foods through and within the Islamic concept of halal food. It attempts also to highlight the concept of fiqh istihalah and its applications in food industry; however, the paper would focus on the issues related to alcohol and gelatine ingredients in food industry. Abstrak Perkembangan moden dalam teknologi informasi telah membantu pengembangan ilmu dan membentuk gaya hidup masyarakat semasa dalam pelbagai aspek seperti kesenian, seni bina, kejuruteraan, pertanian dan industri makanan. Kertas ini ditulis untuk menonjolkan peranan teknologi moden dalam industri makanan dan kegiatan meningkatkan, mereka bentuk semula dan menambah baik kualiti makanan. Kertas ini juga menganalisis penggunaan teknologi bagi menentukan keizinan makanan tertentu yang menepati konsep makanan halal dalam Islam. Usaha juga dilakukan untuk menggariskan konsep fiqh istihalah dan aplikasinya dalam industri makanan. Namun, kertas ini memberi tumpuan kepada isu yang berkaitan dengan alkohol dan bahan gelatin dalam industri makanan.
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Revelation and Science
Vol. 02, No.02 (1434H/2012) 117-123
Fiqh Istihalah: Integration of Science and Islamic Law
Mohammad Aizat Jamaludin
1
*, Mohd Anuar Ramli
2
, Dzulkifly Mat Hashim
1
and Suhaimi Ab Rahman
1
1
Halal Products Research Institute, University Putra Malaysia
2
Department of Fiqh and Usul, Academic of Islamic Studies, Universiti Malaya
Abstract
Modern development in information technology helped the expansion of knowledge, and shaped the lifestyle of
contemporary societies in various aspects, including arts, architecture, engineering, and agriculture and food
industry. This paper aims to highlight the role of modern technology in food industry and the activities of
enhancing, redesigning and upgrading the quality of the food; the paper analyzes the use of technology in
determining permissibility of certain foods through and within the Islamic concept of halal food. It attempts
also to highlight the concept of fiqh istihalah and its applications in food industry; however, the paper would
focus on the issues related to alcohol and gelatine ingredients in food industry.
Keywords: Fiqh, Istihalah, Science, Integration, Gelatine, Alcohol
Abstrak
Perkembangan moden dalam teknologi informasi telah membantu pengembangan ilmu dan membentuk gaya
hidup masyarakat semasa dalam pelbagai aspek seperti kesenian, seni bina, kejuruteraan, pertanian dan industri
makanan. Kertas ini ditulis untuk menonjolkan peranan teknologi moden dalam industri makanan dan kegiatan
meningkatkan, mereka bentuk semula dan menambah baik kualiti makanan. Kertas ini juga menganalisis
penggunaan teknologi bagi menentukan keizinan makanan tertentu yang menepati konsep makanan halal dalam
Islam. Usaha juga dilakukan untuk menggariskan konsep fiqh istihalah dan aplikasinya dalam industri
makanan. Namun, kertas ini memberi tumpuan kepada isu yang berkaitan dengan alkohol dan bahan gelatin
dalam industri makanan.
Kata kunci: Fiqh, Istihalah, Sains, Penyatuan, Gelatin, Alkohol
Introduction
Rapid development in food technology resulted in the
emergence of various new food products and food
ingredients in the market; this technology enables
players of the food industry to produce, and probably
reproduce food from different ingredients. However,
religious communities, including Muslims, have raised
some ethical concerns about some food production
activities, which are not in line with their religious
values. For instant, Muslims rejected those foods
which were derived from pork and its derivatives,
carrion, blood, wine and others. The reason is, the
consumptions of these items are prohibited by the
shari'ah of Islam, and thus any food derived from
these items is not permissible (haram); examples of
such ingredients are gelatine and the use of alcohol in
food products.
Alcohol is mainly used as a food carrier in food
products. Its has been used as flavour enhancer,
especially in cooking, chocolate, ice cream, biscuits
and other products. Furthermore, alcohol by-products
such as vinegar and marmite have been popularly
consumed by consumers, including Muslims without
assuring the source of origin of the products (Mian &
Chaudry 2004). Meanwhile, gelatine is widely used as
an ingredient to improve the quality of food products.
Generally, most of Muslim jurists agreed that gelatine
derived from slaughtered and permitted animals is
permissible (halal). However, there is disagreement
among the Muslim jurists on the permissibility of the
gelatine derived from pork and carrion. Some of them
agreed that gelatine extracted from the prohibited
sources is not permissible (haram), while others are of
the opinion that gelatine from non-permissible
(haram) sources is halal because it has undergone
istihalah process (Nazih 2004).
In their discussion about the process of transforming
certain items or products from one form to another,
Muslim jurists tend to use terms like istihalah
(transformation) or inqilab (changes), (Wahbah 1997).
Istihalah is an Arabic word which is derived from the
root word (! " #) that means change (Ibn Manzur
1990; Wehr 1974); it is synonymous with the word
(!$#) or ichanges (%!&'$) and transformation ((ّ*+,)
*Corresponding author: Mohammad Aizat Jamaludin
Halal Products Research Institute, University Putra
Malaysia, 43400 Universiti Putra Malausia (UPM)
Serdang
E-mail:
Fiqh Istihalah: Integration of Science and Islamic Law / Jamaludin M.A
!
118!|"Revelation and Science | Vol. 02, No.02 (1434H/2012) !
(al-Razi 1997), thus istihalah literally means
transformation and conversion (Wahbah 1997).
According to Qal’ahji in Mu’jam Lughah al-Fuqaha’,
istihalah of a substance from one form to another
without the possibility of return to the original forms
(Qal’ahji 1996). This viewpoint is in line with Sa‘di
Abu Jayyib’s opinion where istihalah is said to hold
when a substance has undergone complete changes
(Abu Jayyib 1988). For example, the seeds grow and
changes to a tree or a transformation of filth becomes a
dust (Al-‘Ayid n.d.).
Conceptually, Muslim jurists provided various
definitions of the term istihalah; however, the
common ground of these definitions is transformation
of one material into another (Muhammad 1996).
Wahbah (1997) also defined istihalah as conversion of
the composition and properties such as the conversion
of filthy (najs) materials into pure (al-tahir) materials.
Nazih (2004) adds that istihalah, in this perspective, is
basically a transformation of filthy (haram) materials
into another material; such changes include physical
appearance and properties such as name, odor, taste,
colour and nature. Therefore, istihalah can be defined
as a complete transformation of a product, physically
and chemically (Aizat & Radzi 2009).
Istihalah includes three aspects of transformation
such as, the transformation of physical characteristics;
second, the transformation of chemical substances, and
thirdly, the transformation of both physical and
chemical changes (Aizat & Radzi 2009). Physical
transformation includes odour, taste and colour, whilst
chemical transformation is the change of chemical
substances in the product (Wahbah 1997). In the case
of transformation of both physical and chemical
characteristics, a substance undergoes complete
changes and transformed into a new material (Nazih
2004). Common examples of physical transformations
are animal skins, except dogs and pigs, which are
being transformed into hides through the tanning
process (Fayyumi 1985). An example of chemical
transformation is the change of wine to vinegar
through a fermentation process (Wahbah 1997). In the
latter example, both wine and vinegar are still in liquid
forms, but they are different in terms of chemical
properties.
i
Fiqh is an Arabic word, which literally means deep
understanding, full comprehension and gaining
knowledge of the religion in general (Ibn Manzur
1990). Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh asknowledge of
the divine rules which pertains to the actions of
individuals (af’alul al-ibad), who are expected to
respect the demand of the divine law, including the
required (wajib), forbidden (haram), recommended
(mandub), disapproved (makruh) or merely permitted
(mubah)’ (Levy 1957). With more specific terms, fiqh
is understood as: knowledge of practical rulings
extracted from detailed evidence of the shari’ah (al-
‘Ilmu bi Ahkam al-Shari‘iyyah al-‘Amaliyyah min
Adillataha al-Tafsiliyyah) (Abu Zahra 1958).
Moreover, fiqh in Islam includes al-Ibadah (worship),
al-Muamalat (dealing & transaction) , al-Munakahat
(marriage), al-Mawarith (inheritance), fiqh al-At‘imah
(foods) and so on (Syarbini 1994).
Therefore, this paper aims to elucidate fiqh
Istihalah,
ii
and present it as an alternative verification
method, through which the permissibility (halal) of the
food, or otherwise, is determined. In this paper, fiqh
Istihalah is the concept of understanding the process
of physical and chemical transformation or conversion
of materials which affect the halal and haram status of
a product.
Structure of Istihalah
In the process of transforming food products in the
concept of istihalah, as shown in Figure 1,
transformation includes three main elements, namely
the raw materials, the conversion agents and finished
products. The process of combining occurred as a
result of the interaction between raw materials and
conversion agent, naturally or artificially. The finished
product after having undergone the conversion
process will be different, physically and chemically
from the original material.
Gelatine
Gelatine is a protein which is derived from partially
hydrolyzed collagen obtained mainly from skin and
bones of vertebrates (Karim and Rajeev 2008).
Collagen consists of tertiary, secondary and primary
structure. Partially hydrolyzed collagen could mean
the cleavage of tertiary and secondary structures into
smaller molecules. Meanwhile, primary structure of
gelatin consists of amino acid (Figure 2) which is the
smallest molecule found in gelatin. According to
Schrieber & Gareis (2007), the composition of
collagen encompasses all 20 amino acids. Glycine,
proline and hydroxyproline are the largest numbers of
amino acid that exist in gelatine.
Fiqh Istihalah: Integration of Science and Islamic Law / Jamaludin M.A
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Revelation and Science | Vol. 02, No.02 (1434H/2012) |"119"!
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Figure 2: General structure of amino acid
Gelatine is a very important ingredient as value-
added properties in food products. It is widely used as
a texture stabilizer, foaming agent, emulsifying agent,
thickener and others. Gelatine can be found in various
food products such as ice-cream, yogurt, jelly,
puddings, beverages and meat products. Table 2 shows
the usage of gelatine in various products. The wide
usage of gelatine in food products led to loss of
confidence and continuous controversy among Muslim
consumers because of its questionable sources. The
Gelatine Manufacturers in Europe (2011) declared that
the main source of edible gelatine is extracted from
pigskin (80%), cattle hide split (15%) and the
remaining 5% comes from pig and cattle bones,
poultry and fish.
Alcohol
Alcohol is obtained from fermentation of fruits or
grains with the existence of yeast, sugar or starch. It is
colourless, flammable and has been broadly accepted
as one of the most popular beverages all over the
world. It is also used in other products in its pure or
denatured form as a solvent in drugs, perfumes, and
explosives, cleaning solution, bakery products and
cooking.
Alcohol is classified according to the relationship
between the carbon atoms in it. The most commonly
used primary alcohols are methanol and ethanol
(Figure 3) with ethane backbone. The simplest
secondary alcohol is iso-propanol, while butanol is a
simple tertiary alcohol
!
Finished Product!
Natural
Conversion Agent!
Artificial
Conversion Process!
!
Conversion Process!
Mixing Process
Mixing Process
Figure 1: Ipfoc and R2
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Table 1: Application of gelatine in consumer products
No.
Products
Gelatine Application
1.
Food Products
- Fruit gummies, marshmallow, candy bar
filling and jelly.
- Cheese, yogurt, cultured milk, ice-cream
and sandwich spread.
- Chewiness and gumminess, foaming
agent and water holding capacity.
- Emulsifier, foaming and stabilizing agent,
and texture stabilizer.
2.
Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
- Hard capsules and soft capsules.
- Capsules rebuilding.
3.
Cosmetics
- Skin care products, cosmetics surgery and
hair care products.
- Increase flexibility and smoothness.
- Decrease wrinkles.
4.
Detergent and Cleaning agent
- Surfactant.
Figure 3: Chemical structure of ethanol
Production of ethanol needs to undergo the fermentation process (Figure 4). During fermentation, yeast breaks
sugar down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The process is without air, and once completed; the carbon dioxide
gas bubbles out into the air, leaving ethanol and water behind.
Various sources of sugar are used in these processes,
resulting in different forms of alcohol. The sugar from
crushed grapes is used to make wine; malted barley is
used to make beer; sugar cane or molasses makes rum;
grain, potatoes, beets, molasses, and a variety of other
plants are used to make vodka. Below is a list of
several types of alcoholic beverages and their alcohol
contents. See the following table 1.
Alcohol consumption in large doses can cause acute
respiratory failure or death and in chronic cases have a
lot of medical repercussions. In normal consumption,
about 20 percent of alcohol is absorbed by the stomach
and 80 percent by the small intestine. The alcohol then
enters the bloodstream and dissolves in the blood.
Eventually, the blood circulates the alcohol throughout
the body, leading to intoxication.
Application of Istihalah in Gelatine and Alcohol
Products
In the food production chain today, gelatine are
extracted from pigskin, cattle bones and hides.
Therefore, clearly gelatine can be derived from both
permissible (halal) and non-permissible (haram)
sources. Gelatine or collagen are processed along with
other ingredients, mixed together and made to undergo
various processing methods, including extreme heat
treatment, enzymatic reaction, pasteurization and
others. These extreme conditions can physically and/or
chemically modify the matrix structure of collagen, in
order to produce good gelatine.
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ Zymase 2C
2
H
5
OH + 2CO
2
(sugar) (enzyme) (ethanol) (carbon dioxide gas)
Figure 4: Ethanol fermentation process
!
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Table 2: Several types of alcoholic beverages and their alcohol contents
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
Beverages
Type
Alcohol Content (%)
Brandy
Fruit juices
40 50
Whisky
Cereal grains
40 55
Rum
Molasses/sugarcane
40 55
Wines
Grapes/other fruits
10 - 22
Beer
Cereals
4 - 8
Arrack
Paddy/wheat
50-60
Toddy
Flowers of coconut and palm tree
5-10
In the application of istihalah, raw materials are
mixed with other substances to produce another new
material (Figure 1). The transformation of raw
materials into other products could happen physically
(by observation) or chemically. Basically, the physical
appearance of raw materials (pigskin, cattle bones and
hides) has been transformed into gelatine. In the
process of producing gelatine, the raw materials were
mixed with other substances for its complete
transformation.
However, it is proven that the chemical composition
of gelatine remained unchanged. It is suggested that
the amino acid in food products still remained intact
and did not undergo any chemical transformation,
although the production process involved the extreme
conditions. Denaturation of protein (which involves
heat treatment or alcohol or acid and alkali or heavy
metals) could only disrupt the tertiary and secondary
structure of protein and do not break the peptide bonds
with amino acids (Figure 2). Furthermore, Hoque et al.
(2009) suggested that excessive heating could degrade
the gelatine; meanwhile lower heat treatment could
only influence the stretching and unfolding of gelatine
strands. In Figure 5: Conversion process of gelatine
this regards, the amino acid molecules in gelatine are
not affected by extreme physical or chemical
treatments
Determination of halal and haram status of food
products that contain alcohol depends on the source of
the alcohol added (or naturally occurred). In food and
beverages products, ethanol occurred naturally in
fermentation process. According to Fatwa Committee
National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs
Malaysia, natural occurrences of ethanol in food
products are acceptable, if ethanol contents are less
than 1% in beverages, and whilst it is 0.5% for
Mixing Process!
Conversion
Process
Raw materials+Gelatin
(Gelatin form as triple
helix)
Physical/chemical
treatment
(Degradation of gelatin)
(Conversion agent)!
Finish Products
-Amino acid in
finish products
remains intact
Figure 5 : Conversion process of gelatine
Raw materials
Alcohol content ethanol
Natural condition
(Conversion agent)!
Finished Products
Vinegar
Fermentation
Process!
Conversion
Process
Figure 7: Conversion process of vinegar
C
2
H
5
OH + O
2
CH
3
COOH + H
2
O
(ethanol) (acetic acid)
!
Figure 6: Fermentation process of ethanol to acetic acid
!
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122!|"Revelation and Science | Vol. 02, No.02 (1434H/2012) !
flavoring or coloring substances for the purpose of
stabilization (e-fatwa).
As mentioned earlier, fermentation process occurred
in the presence of sugar and specific enzyme to
produce ethanol and carbon dioxide gas. Ethanol
produced from fermentation could be intoxicant and
are not allowed for Muslims. When the fermentation
continued in the presence of oxygen, the intoxicating
alcohol then changes to acetic acid or vinegar. Refer to
Figure 6.
In this process, ethanol has completely changed to
acetic acid/vinegar. The complete change from alcohol
to vinegar, chemically and physically (changes of
color, odor and taste) describes that istihalah can be
applied in this circumstance (Figure 7).
Hence, it is suggested that gelatin only transforms
physically, not chemically. Because of this reason,
istihalah method in gelatin cannot be fully applied.
Most Muslim scholars suggested that the application
of istihalah can only be applied when the complete
transformation (physical and chemical wise) occurred
during the process (Aizat & Radzi 2009). While,
istihalah concept can be applied for vinegar because,
the conversion of wine to vinegar undergoes complete
changes physically (odor, color and taste) and
chemically (chemical structure) (Ghananim 2008).
Conclusion
Fiqh istihalah addresses three different levels of
conversion; such as transformation of physical,
chemical or both chemical and physical. The matter of
istihalah in gelatine issues is not applicable in Islam,
because of the unchanging chemical composition even
after severe process in food production line. However,
complete conversion (physically and chemically)
occured in fermentation process of alcahol to vinegar.
Nevertheless, the information on current matter,
specifically in halal and haram status are still fewer.
In depth, laboratory works on specific issues related to
points of discussion are still needed in order to make
effective clarifcations. Finally, the concept of Istihalah
is one of the relevant tools that can be applied in
science and technology related issues in finding
solution and dealing with halal and haram in food
products for Muslim societies.
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Revelation and Science | Vol. 02, No.02 (1434H/2012) |"123"!
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Article History
Received: 07/11/2011
Accepted: 15/12/2012
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
i
!In the Islamic shari’ah, vinegar is permitted, while wine is
prohibited because of its intoxication effect.
ii
Basically, the main sources of verification of halal and
haram in food products are from the Qur’an, Sunnah
(prophetic traditions), Ijma‘ (consensus of legal opinion)
and Qiyas (analogy) (Nyazee 2000). While, secondary
sources of these verifications include, al-Maslahah (public
interest), al-‘Uruf (custom), al-Istihsan (juridical
preference), Sad al-Dhari’ah (blocking the means), al-
Istishab (presumption of continuity) and others (Audah
2010). The paper consults the relevant sources of the
Islamic shari’ah, as well as the available scientific data
related to this subject. A comparative analysis of Muslim
jurists on this subject would also be presented.
... Istihalah means transformation and conversion or can be said a transformation of filthy (haram) materials into another material; such changes include physical appearance and properties such as name, odour, taste, colour and nature (Mohammad Aizat Jamaludin, Ramli, Hashim, & Rahman, 2012). Istihalah is a legal maxim that extensively used by School of Maliki and Hanbali while being abandoned by the school of Syafie and Hanafi, as they see it to be impure and only applicable to limited issues (Jahangir, Mehmood, Saifullah, Mehboob, & Ali, 2016). ...
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Half-Title page1807-2007 Knowledge for GenerationsTitle pageCopyright pageContentsGelatine - An Element of Our Life
Article
Food and pharmaceutical industries all over the world are witnessing an increasing demand for collagen and gelatin. Mammalian gelatins (porcine and bovine), being the most popular and widely used, are subject to major constraints and skepticism among consumers due to socio-cultural and health-related concerns. Fish gelatin (especially from warm-water fish) reportedly possesses similar characteristics to porcine gelatin and may thus be considered as an alternative to mammalian gelatin for use in food products. Production and utilization of fish gelatin not only satisfies the needs of consumers, but also serves as a means to utilize some of the byproducts of the fishing industry. This review focuses on the unique features, advantages, constraints, and challenges involved in the production and utilization of fish gelatin in order to provide a comprehensive look and deeper insight on this important food ingredient, as well as prospects for its future commercial exploitation and directions for future studies.
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