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The Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI): Development and empirical tests

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Abstract

This paper presents the development and preliminary validation of a new measure of authentic leadership, the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI). It also assesses the recently developed Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ). Results indicate some concerns with the ALQ but support the content validity, reliability, factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, concurrent validity, and freedom from impression management response bias of the ALI. Confirmatory factor analyses also do not support treating authentic or transformational leadership as universally global constructs. Instead, it is argued that future research would better be served by using separate authentic and transformational dimensions (rather than aggregate or global measures) to understand the unique aspects of both leadership constructs.

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... Prior empirical research (Leroy et al., 2015) has shown a positive relationship between authentic leadership and follower task performance and OCB. First, the self-awareness of authentic leaders theoretically enables them to recognize personal deficiencies that could otherwise impede follower performance (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Walumbwa et al., 2008). Similarly, relational transparency from authentic leaders theoretically enables followers to clearly understand their expectations (Avolio & Gardner, 2005), and avoid attributions of favoritism in work relationships (Ferris et al., 1995;Ferris et al., 2008). ...
... Third, the moral perspective of authentic leaders focuses them on making ethical judgments that benefit workers. Finally, the balanced processing of authentic leaders enables them to make decisions that benefit follower performance by relying on as much evidence as possible (Lin et al., 2009;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). Ultimately, authentic leadership provides clarity and stability for followers regarding role expectations, and is valueoriented and evidence-based regarding outcomes of interest at work. ...
... Authentic Leadership. We incorporated the complete 14-item Authentic Leadership Inventory from Neider and Schriesheim (2011). Example items from each of the four dimensions include, "My leader clearly states what he/she means" (Relational Transparency), "My leader encourages others to voice opposing points of view" (Balanced Processing), "My leader is clearly aware of the impact he/she has on others" (Self-awareness), and "My leader uses his/her core beliefs to make decisions" (Internalized Moral Perspective). ...
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The authentic leadership paradigm has been widely advocated as an effective leadership approach for organizations interested in promoting positive and ethical leader – member relations. Despite accumulating evidence concerning the positive follower effects of authentic leadership, research examining potential boundary conditions remains limited. The political influence theoretical perspective promises to shed new light on the effects of authentic leadership by proposing that authentic leadership may be less effective in political contexts, bounding its positive operation on followers. Specifically, we anticipate that organizational politics will erode the motivational power of authentic leaders on followers, reducing their ability to engender positive performance contributions in followers. We also predict that organizational politics will weaken the positive relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction by reducing the ability of employees to realize their goals at work. To explore these theoretical assertions, we incorporated a two-study functional replication (n1=265; n2= 175) to ascertain how authentic leadership and organizational politics impact follower job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and task performance. We find that organizational politics consistently weaken the positive effects of authentic leadership on follower OCB across two studies. Furthermore, in Study 2, our findings suggest that organizational politics attenuate the positive impact of authentic leadership on follower job satisfaction and task performance. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
... Authenticity has been touted as the potential antidote to unethical behaviors by many authors (Owusu-Bempah et al. 2014;Neider and Schriesheim 2011;Gardner et al. 2011;Beddoes-Jones and Swailes 2015;Walumbwa et al. 2008). As such most studies on authenticity refer to ethical scandals and corruption happening in organization such as WorldCom and Enron (Owusu-Bempah et al. 2014;Neider and Schriesheim 2011;Gardner et al. 2011;Beddoes-Jones and Swailes 2015). ...
... Authenticity has been touted as the potential antidote to unethical behaviors by many authors (Owusu-Bempah et al. 2014;Neider and Schriesheim 2011;Gardner et al. 2011;Beddoes-Jones and Swailes 2015;Walumbwa et al. 2008). As such most studies on authenticity refer to ethical scandals and corruption happening in organization such as WorldCom and Enron (Owusu-Bempah et al. 2014;Neider and Schriesheim 2011;Gardner et al. 2011;Beddoes-Jones and Swailes 2015). These allusions make it imperative for organizations to hire leaders who possess the integrity or moral uprightness, selfawareness, relational transparency, and balance processing to minimize these numerous scandals (Walumbwa et al. 2008). ...
... From Fig. 1 scholars make authenticity sound so easy to the extent that, it is assumed that once a firm recruit an authentic leader the behaviors of the subordinates might change overnight by imitating the leader's behavior. Interestingly, this belief is shared by some leading scholars of authenticity (see Ilies et al. 2005;Walumbwa et al. 2008;Wassenaar et al. 2015;Neider and Schriesheim 2011;Wang et al. 2014). The entry argues that if scholars consider authenticity as a linear process, then they may ignore an essential factor such as the potential of subordinates to influence the authenticity of the leader. ...
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The chapter presents compelling arguments on the need to measure authenticity collectively by including the subordinates. Most studies on authentic leadership assess authenticity from the leaders perspective without measuring the authenticity of the subordinates. The paper argued for authenticity to be measured from both supervisor (leader)-subordinates perspectives since both the leader and the subordinates have the potential to influence each other.
... The followers will be rating their current leader using the ALI and their own organizational behaviors utilizing the OCB-C. The instruments that were selected for an analysis of variance of ratings in this study are commonly known as the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI), (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011) ...
... A variety of models of leadership exist and many conceptual models also have instruments that attempt to measure the constructs of the leadership practices. This study will use the, Authentic Leadership Inventory as developed by Neider & Schriesheim, (2011) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, instruments by Spector & Fox, (2011) to measure the relationship between of the follower self-rating perceptions of authentic leadership and those of their own citizenship behaviors. ...
... Participants in this research study completed an on-line version of the research instruments. Participants voluntarily completed the electronic version of the research instruments were first taken online to an adult informed consent form to read and click agree or disagree, before they continued with the research containing an adult informed consent form, then to an electronic page to collect follower demographics, then participants utilized the (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011) Authentic Leadership Instrument (ALI) to rate their current or previous leaders' Authentic Leadership behaviors then they rated their own self-rated citizenship behaviors by utilizing the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB-C) instrument by Spector and Fox (2011). ...
... It has even been argued that conceptually, authentic leadership intersects with some other forms of positive leadership behaviours . However, in spite of the dissenting opinions that persist, most scholars have noted and accepted authentic leadership and its four dimensions as a distinct, separate leadership construct (Gardner, Cogliser, Davis, & Dickens, 2011;Johnson, 2019;Klenke, 2007;Kotzé & Nel, 2019;Yammarino, Dionne, Schriesheim, & Dansereau, 2008), with some researchers engaged in refining its theoretical models (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005;Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahrgang, 2005), some in redeveloping its measures of assessment (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008) and others preoccupied with testing for antecedents, consequences, mediators and moderators (Alok, 2014;Gardner et al., 2011). Furthermore, Avolio and Gardner (2005) stated that authentic leadership behaviours form the basis and act as a solid foundation on which sincere transformational leadership behaviours can be constructed. ...
... As a sequel to the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) by Walumbwa et al. (2008), the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) was developed by Neider and Schriesheim (2011). The authors developed the ALI on the basis of the four-dimensional instrument, which was operationalised and conceptualised by Walumbwa et al. (2008). ...
... It is against these underpinning discussions that this study sought to test the psychometric properties of the ALI in a Nigerian sample. This study therefore tests the reliability and construct validity of the ALI so as to determine whether the original factor structure developed in the United States by Neider and Schriesheim (2011) can be confirmed on a Nigerian sample. ...
Article
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Orientation: Authentic leadership has been identified as one of the competencies for effective leaders. Research purpose: The primary goal of the present study was to test, on a Nigerian sample, the psychometric properties of the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) developed by Neider and Schriesheim. Motivation for the study: Various instruments have been developed to measure authentic leadership, with the ALI being one of the widely used questionnaires. There is a need to assess the reliability and construct validity of the ALI on a Nigerian sample owing to paucity of studies on its psychometric properties in this setting. Research approach/design and method: A non-probability sample consisting of 213 bank employees working in Nigeria was studied. The ALI was used to measure authentic leadership, and its reliability was evaluated using SPSS, while construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factory analyses in the Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) programme. Main findings: Moderate levels of reliability were found for the subscales of the ALI. Reasonable model fit with the data was found for the first- and second-order as well as the bi-factor and single-factor measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Practical/managerial implications: Although the ALI demonstrated reasonable model fit for the CFA models tested in this study, the reliability coefficients of the relational transparency and internalised moral perspective subscales were below the 0.70 threshold. In addition, the discriminant validity of the self-awareness and the internalised moral perspective subscales was not achieved. Contribution/value-add: The study promotes the use of reliable and valid instruments in Nigeria by confirming the psychometric properties of the ALI.
... Balanced processing means that authentic leaders analyse related information from multiple sources and consider all perspectives from multiple stakeholders prior to making decisions. Also, under this component, leaders solicit similar and opposing viewpoints and comments from their followers (Gardner et al., 2005b;Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). ...
... The Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) was the instrument used to assess followers' awareness of their leaders' authenticity (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). The ALI is a 14-item instrument with four components including self-awareness (three items), balanced processing (four items), relational transparency (three items) and internalised moral perspective (four items). ...
... These items are measured on a five-point Likert scale as follow: 1 (strongly disagree), 2 (disagree), 3 (neutral), 4 (agree) and 5 (strongly agree). The ALI demonstrated acceptable coefficient alpha reliability of about 0.90 (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). In another study by Men and Stacks (2014), acceptable reliability alpha coefficients for each component were as follow: self-awareness (α = 0.87), balanced processing (α = 0.90), relational transparency (α = 0.89) and internalised moral perspective (α = 0.89). ...
Article
The study is an assessment of the level of authentic leadership among a random sample of 124 faculty members from one state university in Jordan. The instrument of the study is the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI), a valid measure with four components. The results of the study showed that authentic leadership is highly practiced in the university setting based on the perceptions of faculty members. Two components (self-awareness and relational transparency) exhibited high levels of practice while internalised moral perspective and balanced processing exhibited moderate level of practice. Further, results indicated that gender and experience had no impact on the level of authentic leadership, faculty members from science colleges had higher levels of relational transparency, and professors had higher levels of internal moral standards than did associate professors. The study provided a number of recommendations for theory and practice.
... According to its characteristics, authentic leadership is also appropriate for encouraging creativeness and innovation ( Cerne et al., 2013). Authentic leaders have a well-developed dimension of self-awareness and thereby learn from themselves and use this for the progress of their followers (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). According to Zhou et al. (2014), leaders with a higher level of self-awareness, value, and develop creative and innovative behaviours. ...
... Authentic leadership. Authentic leadership was accessed by using the measure of Ali (Authentic Leadership Inventory), developed by Neider and Schriesheim (2011), consisting of 16 items. It follows the Aviolo et al. (2009) who summarize four key factors of authentic leadership. ...
... The correlation coefficients among the variables measured were mostly weak or moderately positive, ranging between 0.2 and 0.4. The authors stressed the strong positive correlation between the authentic and transformational leadership (0.85 at a level of significance of p < 0.01) by which they join the discussions in the academic sphere on the overlapping of the authentic and transformational leadership theories (Anderson and Sun, 2015b;Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the moderating role of psychological empowerment on the relationships between authentic leadership and innovative work behaviour, as well as transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour. Design/methodology/approach We have applied the mixed-method research on the selected case study. The quantitative field study was conducted on a sample of 126 employees in a multinational technological company. A series of paired sample t -tests were followed by a hierarchical regression analysis to test the hypotheses. The qualitative study consists of a content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with four leaders. Findings The research provides further confirmation of the positive relationship between leadership and innovative work behaviour. Specifically, the results showed that psychological empowerment moderates the relationship between leadership (authentic as well as transformational leadership) and innovative work behaviour. Originality/value This paper contributed to leadership and innovation literature and provided insights in studying the boundary conditions on the relationship between authentic leadership, as well as transformational leadership, in stimulating innovative work behaviour through the moderating role of psychological empowerment. The added value is expanded by introducing the comparison of the two leadership theories.
... Through exhibiting transparency, authentic leaders are inclined to develop sound, trusting relationships with followers (McAuliffe et al., 2019). The type of relationship which exists between leader and follower is essential to AL, as the authentic leader will be inclined to motivate and inspire followers (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). Employees would also feel increasingly empowered, in the event where their leaders' behaviors are viewed as positive (Laschinger et al., 2014) and AL is a form of positive leadership (Laschinger et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2018). ...
... For the purpose of measuring the construct of AL -the AL inventory (ALI) developed by Neider and Schriesheim (2011) was utilized. The ALI was adapted from the original work of Walumbwa et al. (2008). ...
... AL is also a valuable resource in creating dedicated, energized subordinates that are absorbed in their work. AL is a form of positive leadership (Laschinger et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2018) that will build trusting relationships (McAuliffe et al., 2019) leading to motivated followers (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). ...
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Employees in the mining sector are faced with a demanding work environment due to external challenges impacting on the organization. Optimizing their engagement is vital in weathering a demanding environment. The aim of this study was to (a) position authentic leadership (AL) and psychological empowerment (PE) as enablers of work engagement (WE); (b) to investigate the processes (i.e., PE) through which AL exerts its effect on WE, and (c) to determine whether contextual factors [i.e., role clarity (RC)] influenced this process. A cross-sectional research design was employed to collect data from 236 employees employed by a coal-mining organization within South Africa. The AL inventory, PE questionnaire, measures of role conflict and ambiguity questionnaire, and UWES-9 was administered to collect data. A moderated-mediation investigation was employed to test the hypotheses. Results supported the value of AL to enhance WE, both directly and indirectly via PE. Results also concluded that AL exerts its influence on WE through PE, regardless of employees’ levels of RC. AL literature is limited, not only in the South African context but also in the mining sector. The study not only extends AL literature by investigating its outcomes in a South African mining organization, but it also does so by investigating the boundary conditions under which AL exerts its influence. The boundaries (i.e., moderation) within which leadership-subordinate relationships (i.e. mediation) function are often neglected in favor of simplified investigations of mediation processes only.
... Intrapersonal competencies make it possible to understand the true self and act according to one's own values and beliefs (Wassenaar, Dillon & Manz, 2015). In accordance with the literature, we will use three competences: 1) Self-Awareness suggested by Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing and Peterson (2008), Neider and Schriesheim (2011) and Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015); 2) Ethical Regulation, which is a combination of the Internalized Moral Perspective from Walumbwa et al. (2008) and Neider and Schriesheim (2011) and Ethics from Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015); and 3) Self-Regulation suggested by Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015). Self-regulation is an important competency for military leaders because they are carrying out their duties in uncertain conditions and stressful situations. ...
... Intrapersonal competencies make it possible to understand the true self and act according to one's own values and beliefs (Wassenaar, Dillon & Manz, 2015). In accordance with the literature, we will use three competences: 1) Self-Awareness suggested by Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing and Peterson (2008), Neider and Schriesheim (2011) and Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015); 2) Ethical Regulation, which is a combination of the Internalized Moral Perspective from Walumbwa et al. (2008) and Neider and Schriesheim (2011) and Ethics from Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015); and 3) Self-Regulation suggested by Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015). Self-regulation is an important competency for military leaders because they are carrying out their duties in uncertain conditions and stressful situations. ...
... Interpersonal competencies include open communication and fair decision-making, which promote a positive climate with the subordinates (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May & Walumbwa, 2005). Only a few scholars have defined interpersonal competencies and divided them into Relational Transparency and Balanced Processing (Walumbwa et al., 2008;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). Finally, from intrapersonal competences we use Self-Awareness, Ethical Regulation, Self-Regulation and from interpersonal competencies, Balanced Processing and Relational Transparency (see Table 2). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the quality of the leadership competencies of first-level military leaders according to three behavioural dimensions: task, change and relational competencies. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted in the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF) among first-level commanders ( N = 89), whose leadership competencies were assessed by their subordinates ( N = 1,655). The Leader Reward and Punishment Questionnaire was used to assess task competencies, the Transformational Leadership Behaviour Inventory was used to assess change competencies and the Extended Authentic Leadership Measure was used to assess relational competencies. Cluster analyses were conducted to identify the level of leadership competencies in the sample and to determine the commanders' leadership profile. Findings The study reveals that in terms of leadership competencies, only two competencies from task, two from change and none from the relational dimension are sufficient. In addition, the results highlight that the relational competencies of leadership are connected to each other, while task and change leadership competencies are not. Practical implications The study results make it possible to work out the main principles for a leadership development programme for first-level commanders. In addition, the developed methodology makes it possible to assess the leadership competencies of individual commanders using the three-dimensional framework. Originality/value This paper demonstrates how quality of the leadership competencies and profiles of first-level EDF commanders are determined within three behavioural dimensions: task, change and relational competencies.
... A growing number of investigations into PAL have revealed its links to a variety of positive employee outcomes (Kiersch andByrne, 2015, Gardner et al., 2011;Neider and Schriesheim, 2011). These employee outcomes include trust in leadership (Gardner et al., 2011), job satisfaction (Azanza et al., 2013), work engagement (Bird et al., 2012), as well as employee creativity and related work-flow (Zubair and Kamal, 2015). ...
... Indeed, the ALQ is one of the most widely used measures of PAL (Gardner, et al., 2011). Although Neider and Schriesheim (2011) indicate some concerns with the ALQ, they did use some ALQ items to suggest an alternative inventory to assess authentic leadership (ALI). To limit the length of the questionnaire, the current study adopted the item selection approach (Gillespie and Mann, 2004) for building a short-version scale of PAL. ...
... To limit the length of the questionnaire, the current study adopted the item selection approach (Gillespie and Mann, 2004) for building a short-version scale of PAL. One item with the highest factor-loading on each dimension of the original ALQ (Walumbwa et al., 2008), and that included in ALI (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011), was chosen to build a 4-item short form; a sample item being: 'My principal demonstrates beliefs consistent with their actions'. The current sample of this 4-item version of the ALQ recorded a Cronbach's alpha of a ¼ 0.91. ...
Scholars have asserted that a school principal's authentic leadership can raise the engagement of teachers under their charge. This paper delves into this consideration, within the context of Kuwaiti educational reform, by investigating the extent to which principal authentic leadership (PAL) affects teacher engagement (TE) by enhancing their occupational self-efficacy (OSE). The study used a non-experimental, predictive survey design, obtaining data from 333 teachers in 25 primary schools in Kuwait. The study tested a set of hypotheses drawn from a conceptualized model developed from previous research studies using structural equation modelling (SEM). Results indicated the validation of this model describing how PAL affects teacher OSE and TE. Data analysis from this study indicated that PAL has a significant, positive effect upon TE, as does OSE. Furthermore, OSE mediates the relationship between PAL and TE. These findings contribute to our understanding for the effects of authentic leadership in Kuwait. As such, this study offers insight into how Kuwaiti policymakers may improve and support school leadership practices to realize the aims of the nation's educational reform goals. Additionally, this study builds upon, and extends, the foundations established in earlier research endeavours regarding school principal leadership within centralized education systems and outside Western society.
... Organizational failure has often been seen as a failure of leadership (Copeland, 2014;Kelly, 2013), which has prompted calls for research to identify ethical and authentic behavioral consistency (Gardner et al., 2011;Yukl, 2012). Central to these calls is the role of authenticity in leadership that incorporates sound working relationships (Copeland, 2014;Kelly, 2013;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). ...
... Given its conceptual link to Rogers (1951) person-centered theory and tripartite personality, together with the reliability instrument for the present study. Authentic Leadership was measured by the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI; Neider & Schriesheim, 2011), which is a 14-item Likert-style scale producing interval data from four sub-scales, a) self-awareness, b) relational transparency, c) completed by followers who assess their supervisors aware of his/her impact on others" (self-awareness) ALI differs from trait authenticity in that the 14 items behavior in the work context and so emphasize doing authentic acts as opposed to being authentic. ...
... Together, the AS with its focus on authenticity and the ALI with its focus on leader authenticity conceptually relate to both parts of the HVP and will be explored using multiple regression predicts authentic leadership. The ALI tested for >.80 (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). ...
Article
Research in value-behavior relations has yet to explore the role of value judgment in predicting authentic trait and behaviors. This study explored how individual value orientation and judgment relate to psychological maturity in the development of an authentic and congruent personality. A regression analysis with 346 working professionals examined if value judgment predicts psychological congruence and authenticity in personal and professional contexts. In addition, the relationship between value judgment and trait authenticity in 157 working adults and 83 supervisors from education, health, and non-profit organizations in the U.S was explored. Value judgment was measured by two profiles of the Hartman Value Profile (HVP), a judgment profiling instrument delineating the thinking, evaluation, problem-solving patterns, and orientation in 52 indices in personal (HVPII) and social domains (HVPI). Trait authenticity was measured with the Authenticity Scale (AS) comprising of three subscales measuring authentic living, self-alienation, and capacity to resist external influence. Support was found for all hypotheses testing for associations between value judgment and authenticity, and if value judgment predicted psychological congruence and authentic leadership and further identifies the type of value judgment used in the constructs of congruence and authenticity.
... 94) Authentic leadership is a higher-order construct that consists of four lower-order dimensions. Balanced processing constitutes a leader's objectivity when analysing information for decision-making (Walumbwa et al., 2008), whereas possessing an internalised moral perspective is regulating one's thoughts and actions through the guidance of one's moral standards and values against other external factors (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). Relational transparency relates to a leader's openness and transparency during interactions with others (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). ...
... Relational transparency relates to a leader's openness and transparency during interactions with others (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Finally, self-awareness refers to the self-knowledge of leaders and the extent to which they are aware of their characteristics (including strengths and areas of development) (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Walumbwa et al., 2008). In the current study, the extent to which leaders display AL behaviours was measured from the subordinates' perspectives. ...
... Authentic leadership was measured by using the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011) in PsyCap, psychological capital. ...
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ORIENTATION: The orientation of the study was towards psychological capital (PsyCap) as a mediator of the influence authentic leadership (AL) has on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and intention to leave. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of AL on OCB and intention to leave through PsyCap amongst public healthcare employees in South Africa. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: South African public healthcare needs effective leadership that is value based, transparent, supportive and exemplary in behaviour to be efficient and to provide quality service. By exploring the impact of AL and the process through which such a leader influences followers, the study sought to demonstrate that AL may be effective in achieving valued outcomes in the healthcare sector. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey was used. A sample of 633 public healthcare employees was included in the study. Measuring instruments included the Authentic Leadership Inventory, a shortened version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale and the PSYCONES' Intention to Leave Scale. Structural equation modelling was performed to evaluate the hypothesised measurement and structural models by using Mplus. MAIN FINDINGS: Results indicated that employees' perceptions of their leaders as authentic has an effect on OCB and intention to leave through PsyCap. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations should implement leadership development programmes that are relationally focussed and should strive to develop employees' PsyCap. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Providing more insight into the influence of authentic leadership on follower organisational citizenship behaviour and intent to leave as well as the role that psychological capital plays in these relationships.
... Mumford (2003) suggested that future studies should explore late-cycle abilities such as the implementation of creative ideas. In addition to that, Neider and Schriesheim (2011) proposed further research aimed at reinforcing the structural validity of the AL measures. The present study aims to fill this gap in the literature concerning the AL theory by connecting it with the service innovative behavior (SIB) of front-line employees (FLEs) at the individual level in the banking sector in North Cyprus. ...
... As described in the literature, the many results of AL's beneficial influence on followers include creativity (Rego et al., 2012), work satisfaction (Černe, Dimovski et al., 2013), knowledge sharing (Edu-Valsania et al., 2016), process and product innovation (Elrehail et al., 2018), proactive behavior (Zhang et al., 2018), employee organizational citizenship behavior (Walumbwa et al., 2010), organizational commitment (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Petan, 2016), and innovative behavior (Garg & Dhar, 2017). ...
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The present research aims to examine the effect of authentic leadership (AL) on service innovative behaviour (SIB) of employees as well as to identify whether proactive personality (PP) mediates this connection at an individual level. A quantitative cross-sectional study design was used to gather information from a study sample which consisted of 428 front-line employees (FLE) working at banks located in North Cyprus. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilised to evaluate the data and structural equation modelling (SEM) and bootstrapping methods were implemented to test the proposed hypotheses. Results indicated that PP had a more significant positive effect than AL on the SIB. It was also seen that AL influenced PP. Results also supported the hypothesis that PP partially mediated the relationship between AL and SIB. The results of the study determined that authenticity and proactivity in the banking sector in North Cyprus play a critical role in fostering the innovative behaviours of FLE. The study also discusses the practical and managerial implications, as well as the future scope.
... The overlap is understandable because AL is theorized as the «root construct» underlying all forms of positive leadership . However, research has demonstrated its uniqueness (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). Besides, some studies have shown its preeminence over transformational leadership on selected outcomes (Banks et al., 2016). ...
... The autonomous motivation was assessed using a six-item multidimensional work motivation scale (MWMS), α=0.94 (Gagne et al., 2015). Authentic leadership as a higher-order construct with four dimensions was measured using a fourteen-items scale Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI), α=0.87 (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). ...
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The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creative behaviour and to reveal two different mediating mechanisms (i.e., job complexity and autonomous motivation) through which authentic leadership influences employee creative behaviour. This study is based on self-determination theory. A total of (N = 354) respondents were asked to rate themselves on creative behaviour and their leader on authentic leadership style. The research used the internet-based survey tools in a cross-sectional. The study population was employees (mainly Software Developers) of software houses (software companies) working in Pakistan. Methodological tools of the research were partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) for measuring the relationship between the variables. The results of the study show that authentic leadership positively influences employee creative behaviour directly as well as through two competing mechanisms of job complexity and autonomous motivation. Job complexity and autonomous motivation were tested as mediators between authentic leadership and employee creative behaviour independently and comparatively. Both the mediators successfully mediated the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creative behaviour with variable strength. The mediation path of job complexity was stronger in comparison with the mediation path of autonomous motivation. Further examination revealed that job complexity and autonomous motivation both mediate the relationship between authentic leadership and employee creative behaviour in a sequential manner. The results of the study are useful for both practitioners and researchers equally. For practitioners, the authors laid out the process through which managers can foster the creative behaviour of their employees using an authentic leadership style (i.e., by giving increased opportunities to indulge in complex work). Furthermore, for researchers, this study revealed the mechanisms through which authentic leadership influences and predicts creative behaviour. The findings of the study would benefit the authentic leadership theory for further development as a predictor of positive employee outcomes as this study confirmed a relatively complex mechanism through which it influences the creative behaviour of his followers.
... We measured relational transparency at T1 using five items from Neider andSchriesheim (2011) andNorthouse (2016). A sample item is "My supervisor lets others know who he/she truly is as a person" (1=never or almost never to 7=always or almost always). ...
... We measured relational transparency at T1 using five items from Neider andSchriesheim (2011) andNorthouse (2016). A sample item is "My supervisor lets others know who he/she truly is as a person" (1=never or almost never to 7=always or almost always). ...
Article
This research helps to integrate the metacognitive concept of evaluation certainty into the trust literature by demonstrating that certainty can amplify the effects of trustworthiness evaluations and stabilize trustworthiness evaluations over time. Across an experimental study (Study 1) and a multi‐wave survey of employees (Study 2), we show that trustworthiness evaluations exert a stronger influence on individuals’ trust at higher levels of certainty and that trust transmits the multiplicative effects of trustworthiness evaluations and certainty on key indicators of employee risk‐taking including reliance and disclosure behavior. Further, in Study 2, we show that certainty can help predict change in trustworthiness evaluations over time. Finally, in a two‐wave field survey (Study 3), we examine factors that influence evaluation certainty and show that relational transparency and leader prototypicality (LP) have interactive effects on employees’ certainty such that the influence of relational transparency on certainty will be more positive at higher levels of LP. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... The first instrument developed in this field of research was the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), since then, studies and debates involving the psychometric qualities of the instrument, as well as the nature of AL as a first -or secondorder construct have been frequent (Campos & Rueda, 2018a). Neider and Schriesheim (2011), for example, criticized the processes used by Walumbwa et al. (2008) to evidence the content validity and internal structure of the ALQ and developed the Authentic Leadership Inventory -ALI. They stated that the ALI presented psychometric qualities more adequate than those of the ALQ, but concluded that AL was shown as a first-order or second-order construct, depending on the leader under evaluation. ...
... ALQ and ALI are Likert scales that measure AL based on the perceptions that followers have on the leaders' behavior. For Neider & Schriesheim (2011) this is the correct strategy, since leadership attributes are clearly perceptual and therefore should be evaluated by observers. However, for Weiss, Razinskas, Backmann, and Hoegl (2017), while several aspects of leadership can and should be evaluated by followers, this should not be the case for AL, since external perspectives could not ensure that a leader acts consistently with their own thoughts (values and beliefs) and feelings (emotions), which would imply acting in accordance with the core attributes of AL. ...
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This study describes the development and the search for initial validity evidence (content and internal structure) of the Authentic Leadership Rating Scale (ALRS), a situational judgment test. The initial scale consisted of 16 items presenting challenges in leadership situations. It was evaluated by ten specialists, after which 13 items obtained Fleiss' kappa indices that were considered good. Internal structure validity evidence was obtained through the application of Cognitive Diagnosis Models on data collected from 532 Brazilian professionals. Good fit indices were obtained for the Generalized Deterministic-input, Noisy-and-gate Model (G-DINA). We concluded that the ALRS is promising for the continuity of Authentic Leadership investigation and presented suggestions for a research agenda. Resumo: Este estudo descreve o desenvolvimento e as buscas de evidências de validade inicial (conteúdo e estrutura interna) da Escala de Avaliação do Líder Autêntico-EALA. Trata-se de um teste de julgamen-to situacional. A escala inicial contou com 16 itens expondo desafios em situações de liderança. Foi avaliada por dez especialistas, restando 13 itens que obtiveram índices Kappa de Fleiss considerados bons. As evidências de validade da estrutura interna foram obtidas com da-dos coletados de 532 profissionais brasileiros e por meio da aplica-ção de Cognitive Diagnosis Models. Foram obtidos bons índices de adequação para o Generalized Deterministic-input, Noisy-and-gate Model (GDINA). Concluiu-se que a EALA mostra-se promissora para a continuidade de pesquisas no campo da Liderança Autênti-ca e apresentaram-se sugestões para o prosseguimento das pesquisas.
... As mudanças sociais têm demonstrado a necessidade de se buscar um novo conceito de liderança, voltado a relações mais positivas, a liderança autêntica. Pesquisadores do tema associam o interesse no construto à crise ética das últimas décadas, à corrupção, à gestão do desperdício e ao declínio dos valores sociais, e defendem a emergência de um estilo de liderança baseado em capacidades psicológicas positivas, como esperança, confiança, otimismo e resiliência (Avolio, Gardner, Walumbwa, Luthans, & May, 2004;Cooper, Scandura, & Schriesheim, 2005;Gardner & Schermerhorn, 2004;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). ...
... Essa teoria nasce no seio da liderança transformacional, assumindo maior relevância a partir da edição especial do periódico Leadership Quarterly de 2005, no qual foram publicados os principais trabalhos na área desde o artigo de Bass e Steidlmeier (1999), trabalho inspirador para as primeiras discussões sobre o tema. Essa associação da liderança autêntica com a liderança transformacional se confirma nos estudos sobre ferramentas de mensuração da liderança autêntica, nos quais são apresentadas as validades discriminantes de ambos os construtos (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008 Líderes autênticos são plenamente conscientes de seu comportamento e, portanto, se importam com a impressão que passam aos outros, tendo sempre a preocupação de transmitir exatamente aquilo em que acreditam por meio de suas ações. No entanto, o desenvolvimento do conceito de liderança autêntica pressupõe um nível de autoconhecimento considerado por Reed, Vidaver-Cohen e Colwell (2011) quase que inatingível, o que faz que os líderes passem a gerenciar as impressões causadas, forçando relações cada vez mais transparentes para alcançar a autenticidade. ...
Article
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Purpose: This paper analyzes the publications on the “authentic leadership” construct, based on systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis techniques, and aims to identify and analyze data regarding the chronology of publications, the identification of the most prolific journals and authors, research approaches, and the existence of authentic leadership measurement/assessment tools and its applications, besides analyzing the construction of these tools. Originality/value: Of the 431 articles analyzed, those dealing with reviews of literature do not present bibliometric data associated with the analysis of the construct measurement instruments. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was performed systematically, using the query “authentic leadership” on the Academic Search Premier (Ebsco), Scopus, and Web of Science databases, with no starting date delimitation, with the deadline of December 2018, which resulted in the identification of 1390 articles. After eliminating duplicates and three filters, 431 documents remained for analysis. Findings: Three specific construct measurement/assessment tools were identified: the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI), and the Authentic Leadership Integrated Questionnaire (AL-IQ). There is a predominance of quantitative studies from 2008, with a wide application of ALQ. Instruments of quantitative measurement of authentic leadership did not emerge, only tools that evidence the presence of authenticity of leaders.
... Study after study in different knowledge domains have shown positive effects of Authentic Leadership on followers. While the debates regarding the fluidity of AL conceptual constructs are ongoing, however, AL theoretical constructs are deemed sound enough to be validated empirically (Walumba et al, 2008;Walumba et al, 2010;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Cronbach, 1984;Whitehead, 2009;Gardner et al, 2011). Despite the fact that more efforts are put forth, including qualitative and quantitative methods in validating the complex constructs of AL, the author is not aware of any study that may have benefitted from discernment of followers (or subordinates or employees) latent sequential patterns in survey data using an Artificial Neural Network tool called, Knowledge Digraph Contribution (KDC). ...
Article
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This article examines the impact of extra credit availability on students’ perceived stress. The study looks at two areas. First, what type of extra credit students prefer be made available. Second, how student academic stress is impacted by the availability of extra credit. Results show that undergraduate business students at a private university prefer merit based extra credit and that perceived academic stress is higher for students when extra credit is available. Stress is particularly high for higher-performing students.
... In other words, characteristics of charisma as conceptualized in the original TFL model support being transparent, humble, and authentic as important aspects of TFL. Measures of authentic leadership (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011;Walumbwa et al., 2008) have a relational transparency dimension (presenting one's authentic self to others) that correlates highly with the original TFL model (0.72; Banks et al., 2016;Banks et al., 2018). Although the qualitative data did not converge with the quantitative data in the current study around being authentic and transparent, pervious research has connected authenticity with increased feeling of inclusion (Boekhorst, 2015;Cottrill et al., 2014). ...
Article
Although inclusion is a promising approach for enhancing workplace outcomes, limited studies have examined how leaders create inclusive workplaces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transformational leadership (TFL) fosters a climate for inclusion. Mixed methods were used to triangulate quantitative and qualitative data from participants in an urban hospital. Data revealed that some TFL characteristics were helpful in fostering inclusion, whereas other TFL characteristics were not, thereby only partially supporting TFL as an inclusive leadership approach. New insights are uncovered around more and less inclusive leader behaviors, providing a foundation for future research in building inclusive leadership theory.
... Inventory (Neider and Schriesheim 2011). Since both constructs' items load clearly on one factor in an explorative factor analysis (eigenvalue of second factor=.73) ...
Book
Companies in a wide range of industries increasingly build corporate incubators to meet the growing challenge of exploration and innovation while remaining efficient and productive on existing products. Particularly important for these incubators is ensuring and maintaining the relationship with the hosting company without compromising the incubator’s exploration capabilities, which is a particular challenge, owing to the structural separation of the two entities. As a result, incubators try not only to achieve the highest possible benefit for the hosting company through a wide variety of objectives and strategies, but also through a combination of different activities, which has led to a myriad of different incubation concepts. In addition to the promotion of business model innovations and the maximization of revenues, the activities mainly serve the exchange of knowledge and values, as well as the promotion of innovation behavior and the hosting company’s innovation culture and climate. All these activities are of the greatest relevance for the success of corporate incubators, but they involve many risks, causing a large number of corporate incubators to shut down or restructure continuously. In particular, researchers have, thus far, hardly investigated the activities directly aimed at the hosting company, such as knowledge and value exchange, the stimulation of innovation behavior, and the improvement of the innovation culture and climate. Especially lacking is a comprehensive classification of corporate incubators according to their different goals and strategies, such that scholars can compare them from a research perspective. It is not clear how incubators can find and promote ideas and select those with the most potential. In this context, there has been insufficient research into innovation platforms in particular how to stimulate innovation behavior. Moreover, it is not clear how a cultural change in the hosting company could materialize if its supervisors do not support it. This dissertation contributes to close these research gaps by analyzing corporate incubators’ most essential activities from a postpositivist perspective. Using three different data sets on individual, group, and incubator level including platform, longitudinal, multi-level, as well as quantitative and qualitative data, this dissertation contributes to the understanding of, first, what constitutes corporate incubators and their performance, second, how corporate incubators affect employees’ motivational processes and their subsequent innovative behavior, third, how corporate incubators can support idea generation and reflective idea selection processes, and fourth, how corporate incubators contribute to a behavioral change of innovation climate. This dissertation’s overall findings, moreover, lead to a generic model of centralized incubation. Its effects on various other research areas with similar incubation processes are discussed.
... We make use of analytical dualism (Archer 1995) to further control for structural conditioning by means of leadership activities. Therefore we control for both transformational and authentic leadership by means of "MLQ form 5x-short items" for transformational (Bass and Avolio 2000) and a short version of the Authentic Leadership Inventory (Neider and Schriesheim 2011). Since both constructs' items load clearly on one factor in an explorative factor analysis (eigenvalue of second factor=0.73) ...
Conference Paper
The organizations' innovation climate is an indispensable means to promote innovation, as it can suppress any innovation or directly promote even the weakest ideas. This paper examines the influence of employees' behavioral changes on their department's innovation climate by participating in centralized innovation activities of corporate venture units. As a theoretical basis we use social realist theory, which-unlike the often invoked Lewinian Theory-assumes that employees and social systems can be analyzed separately with the help of analytical dualism. First and foremost, however, this theoretical rationale makes it possible to investigate the employees' impact on the innovation climate in a way that has not yet been analyzed before. We hypothesize that corporate venture units affect the participating individuals' knowledge and values by means of centralized activities such as workshops, trainings, and talks which indirectly affect the overall innovation climate of their department. To test our hypothesis, we use a longitudinal two-stage control function approach with 248 participants nested in 97 organizational units of a large, international science and technology company with several instrument variables to avoid selection-bias. Results show that the activities are capable of affecting the department's innovation climate by means of employees' behavior. This way, we contribute to the still unexplored field of climate and incubator research especially on innovation climate change through employee behavior. In addition, we contribute to broadening the perspective of social realist theory and expand research on corporate venture units by investigating further effects to influence the hosting company's innovativeness.
... They instill trust and have true followers (Silva, 2014). Authentic women leaders seek to gain feedback through interactions with others (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011) For this reason, it is necessary to further explore authentic women leaders and their characteristics (Brown, 2018). ...
Article
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Authentic leaders are people who are aware of themselves and own capabilities, who respect other people's opinions, perspectives and attitudes (about business and them as leaders), who are guided by high moral principles and practice transparency in business and communication with other employees. The aim of this research is to show are the women leaders in Serbia belong to the authentic type of leader and which of the characteristics of the authentic leader is the most common among them. In the research 113 women leaders from various activities from the territory of the Republic of Serbia participated. Of the total number of respondents, 31 results show an authentic leadership style, while only 3 results show a strong authentic style. Self-awareness is a dimension that stands out in relation to the other three and characterizes the largest number of women leaders. Further analysis showed that the greatest leadership potential in terms of authentic leadership has women who deal with services, have between 36-45 years and 10-15 years of work experience in the business in which they are engaged and have Bachelor's degree. The society in Serbia is such that it prefers male leaders, the goal of this research is to show that women are excellent leaders based on their characteristics and to have the predisposition to become great authentic leaders.
... Work Engagement Employee Trust Authentic Leadership Questionnaire. Authentic leadership inventory questionnaire developed by (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011) was adapted to measure the four components of authentic leadership, i.e., self-awareness relational transparency, balanced processing and internalized moral perspective. Employee Trust. ...
... Perceived authentic leadership was assessed using Neider and Schriesheim's (2011) 16-item Authentic Leadership Inventory. This scale contained four subdimensions of authentic leadership: self-awareness (α = 0.78; a sample item of four items is "She/he clearly knows his/her likes and dislikes"), relational transparency (α = 0.83; a sample item of four items is "She/he shares his/her feelings with others"), internalized moral perspective (α = 0.84; a sample item of four item is " She/he is guided in his/her actions by internal moral standards"), and balanced processing (α = 0.89; a sample item of four items is "She/he asks for ideas that challenge his/her core beliefs"). ...
Article
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Drawing on implicit leadership theory and the mindfulness literature, we propose that perceived authentic leadership mediates the relationship between follower mindfulness and follower well-being. Leader mindfulness plays a moderating role in this process. We validated these hypotheses with the two-wave data from 56 leaders and 275 followers in two private enterprises located in China. We used Mplus 8.0 to test our hypotheses. Consistent with our hypotheses, the results showed that perceived authentic leadership mediated the positive relationship between follower mindfulness and follower well-being. Higher leader mindfulness enhanced the effect of follower mindfulness on perceived authentic leadership and also strengthened the indirect effect of follower mindfulness on follower well-being via perceived authentic leadership. The theoretical and managerial implications are further discussed in the light of these findings.
... Many researchers have indicated the possibility of distinguishing between them through confirmatory factor analytical analysis. [10][11] Likewise, by looking at whether authentic leadership can add things to the transformative leadership. Especially about the inability to control the transformative leadership variable in the researches of transformative leadership. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Authentic Leadership (AL) and performance with mediating role of organizational learning (OL) in pharmaceutical companies in Jordan. As for the research sample, the researcher relied on the intentional sample because this type of samples serves the objectives of the research, A total of 235 questionnaires have been sent out to officials at their various administrative levels (top management, middle management and supervisory management) in the areas of manufacturing, marketing, sales, purchases and stores, human resources, finance, accounts and others in in the companies. The results showed that There is an impact of the authentic leadership with its dimensions (internal moral perspective, balanced operation, self-awareness) on performance, while transparency of relationships has no impact, and also There is a partial impact of the organizational learning; therefore, there is an impact at the level (0.05) of Authentic Leadership through the moderator variable (organizational learning) on Performance of Pharmaceutical Companies in Jordan.
... The Cronbach's a for the scale in the current article was 0.90. Authentic leadership was rated using a 14-item scale developed by Neider and Schriesheim (2011). A sample item was 'My supervisor asks for ideas that challenge his/her beliefs'. ...
Article
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Purpose: The current article aims to develop and validate the strengths-based leadership (SBL) scale and to explore the association of SBL with task performance and the roles of work-related well-being (WWB) and work pressure in the relationship.Design/methodology/approach: The exploratory factor and the confirmatory factor analyses were applied to assess the validity and reliability of the SBL scale. A total of 342 employees (female = 54.1%; mean age = 30.37 years, standard deviation [SD] = 5.90 years) from various Chinese enterprises were used to test the association of SBL with task performance.Findings/results: The results revealed that the two-dimensional SBL scale shows appropriate validity and reliability, and SBL is positively correlated with task performance. In addition, we also found that WWB acts as a mediator in the SBL-task performance linkage, and work pressure can enhance the direct association of SBL with WWB and the indirect association of SBL with task performance via WWB.Practical implication: Our findings have some significant managerial implications in promoting employees’ task performance and research on SBL provides a new insight into leadership development.Originality/value: This article provides a useful tool to measure the SBL construct and is the first to empirically examine the effects of SBL.
... Second, authentic leadership, with its foundation in leaders' self-awareness and being true to themselves, also contains a moral component (Gardner et al., 2011). Specifically, authentic leaders are thought to be guided by strong personal moral values, instead of external pressures (Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). Third, servant leadership has a moral underpinning in that it frames the leadership process around a genuine other-serving orientation (Eva et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
With the proliferation of ethical scandals in business and other societal sectors, leadership researchers have become increasingly interested in the moral dimension of leadership (Brown & Mitchell, 2010; Eisenbeiss, 2012; Lemoine et al., 2018; Peus et al., 2010). Consistent with much prior research in the field of organizational behavior and leadership, we use the terms moral and ethical synonymously in this chapter. Broadly described, moral leadership is how leaders use visible moral traits and actions to lead followers towards a purposeful and ethical direction and, thereby, to shape ethical organizations (Cropanzano & Walumbwa, 2010). Against this backdrop, a perennial question asked by researchers and practitioners is: How can we effectively develop moral leaders? To answer this question, it is important to have a thorough understanding of what moral leaders actually do and how underlying moral decision processes occur. While the influence of intuition is well established in the field of organizational decision-making more generally (Akinci & Sadler-Smith, 2011; Hodgkinson & Sadler-Smith, 2018), research on the role of moral intuition for moral leadership is just beginning to emerge (Weaver et al., 2014). Accordingly, current concepts of moral leadership and related notions of moral leader development have a strong focus on rational deliberation, while largely neglecting the potential influence of moral intuition in the leadership process (Egorov et al., 2019b; Weaver et al., 2014). This chapter explores how moral intuition can enhance our understanding of effective moral leader development. It is suggested that moral intuition complements existing common rational deliberation approaches to moral leader development, and thus offers development opportunities that were formerly unavailable or less adequately considered.
... Xiu ji da ren can be connected to modeling by leaders, specifically with regard to moral behavior and conscientiousness (Reed et al., 2011;Sparks and Schenk, 2001). Zhi xing he yi is similar to the internalized moral dimension of authentic leadership (Neider and Schriesheim, 2011), which refers to consistency between one's actions and beliefs. Finally, yun zhi jue zhong reflects paradoxical leadership, which involves maintaining decision control while allowing autonomy (Li et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Purpose Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context. Design/methodology/approach The authors use case studies of three exemplary humanistic leaders and the companies they lead to describe their leadership practices and influence on others and their companies. Findings The authors identify three common elements that connect their observations to an emerging scholarly conceptualization of humanistic leadership and develop a framework of Confucian humanistic leadership consisting of five attributes. The cases the authors studied suggest that the five attributes should be understood as being mutually reinforcing and acting in concert, rather than each acting independently of the others. The authors found that there is inherent consistency and connection between the core values of Confucianism and humanistic leadership. Originality/value The research contributes to the leadership literature, specifically the emerging literature on humanistic leadership, by introducing a framework for Confucian humanistic leadership. While much of the extant literature on humanistic leadership has been conceptual, the study shows how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context by drawing on the foundation provided by Confucian humanistic philosophy. The findings also contribute to humanistic leadership research by providing important insights into specific capabilities that can help put the principles of humanistic leadership into practice, but that have not been considered to date.
... Authentic Leadership: Authentic leadership was rated by employees using a 14-item scale developed by Neider and Schriesheim (2011). Sample items include the following: "My department leader carefully listens to alternative perspectives before reaching a conclusion" and "My department leader shows that he/she understands his/her strengths and weaknesses." ...
Article
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Although substantive research has devoted increasing attention to variability in human resource practices at the organization, group, and individual levels, the critical role of line managers’ leadership in predicting this variability in the human resource management delivery and implementation process has been overlooked. Drawing from social information processing theory and human resource (HR) attributions theory, this study proposes that authentic leadership moderates the positive relationship between department-level high-performance work systems and employee-perceived high-performance work systems. Moreover, employee-perceived high-performance work systems can enhance employees’ thriving at work through commitment-focused HR attributions (well-being and performance). Analyzing the matched data from 145 departments and 834 employees, we found that the extent to which department-level high-performance work systems are positively related to employee-perceived high-performance work systems depends on authentic leadership within departments. We also found that employee-perceived high-performance work systems will result in commitment-focused HR attributions (well-being and performance), which in turn motivate employees to thrive at work. This study sheds light on whether and how line managers’ leadership influences the HR management process.
... Authentic leadership of supervisors, as rated by employees, was captured using 16-item authentic leadership inventory (ALI) by Neider and Schriesheim (2011). Sample scale item includes "My leader shows consistency between his/her beliefs and actions". ...
Article
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This study aims to examine how authentic leadership (a source external to the individual) and self-efficacy (an internal resource) shape experiences of meaning in work. In addition to examining the individual impact of the above factors on work meaningfulness, the study examines the role of self-efficacy as a mediator and a moderator of the relationship between authentic leadership and work meaningfulness. The sample comprised 350 employees from public and private sector manufacturing firms in India. Process (Hayes 2013) was used to test the hypotheses with the aid of SPSS 24. Self-efficacy and authentic leadership proved to be important predictors of employees’ perceived sense of meaningfulness in work. In addition to the direct pathway, authentic leadership was found to infuse meaning in work indirectly through self-efficacy. Further, self-efficacy moderated the influence of authentic leadership on work meaningfulness in a way that the effect strengthened with decreasing values of self-efficacy. By accommodating multiple sources and mechanisms, representing both situational and personal factors, the study contributes to comprehensive understanding of how and under what conditions work meaningfulness can be increased. Identifying, selecting, and developing employees with authentic leadership qualities is likely to benefit organizations in terms of fostering positive psychological capacities of employees and improving perceived meaningfulness of work. However, leadership goes unnoticed for the employees with high self-efficacy.
... Taken by gender, 18.9% of the managers were female while 81.1% of them were male. We employed an authentic leadership questionnaire designed by Walumbwa et al. (2008), Neider and Schriesheim (2011) and Beddoes-Jones and Swailes (2015) to measure authentic leadership competences. In total, 27 items were combined from the questionnaires designed by the authors above. ...
Article
Full-text available
The world of business has become complex and, therefore, it is important for organisations to employ leaders with authentic principles. With this in mind, we explored how authentic leadership internal and external competences together with positional favouritism influence positive organisational effectiveness (job satisfaction and perceived organisational performance) and negative organisational effectiveness (turnover intentions and organisational politics). The sample consisted of 997 subordinates and 127 managers surveyed from public and private banks across Ghana. Second order confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression were used to analyse the data. We found that authentic leadership, internal and external competences increase positive organisational effectiveness while negative organisational effectiveness is decreased. Positional favouritism increases negative organisational effectiveness while positive organisational effectiveness is decreased. Authentic leadership internal competence together with positional favouritism had a negative influence on positive organisational effectiveness. Positional favouritism together with authentic leadership internal and external competences had a positive influence on turnover intentions. The discussion, implications, limitations and future research are discussed.
... The Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) is designed to assess nurses' opinion about their leaders' characteristics. This tool was created by Neider & Schriesheim, [16]. It is a self-administered questionnaire of 14 descriptive items. ...
... All the statements in the questionnaire were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5(strongly agree). Authentic Leadership was measured using 10-item authentic leadership inventory (ALI) by Neider and Schriesheim (2011). Sample scale item include "My immediate supervisor let others know who truly he/she as a person". ...
Article
Full-text available
To mobilize an engaged workplace, leadership becomes the key driver as effective superiors are able to shape employees’ work attitudes and behaviours. In a monocultural context, authentic and servant leadership brings about positive organisational outcomes and vice versa for destructive leadership. Thus, it is valuable to evaluate the role of authentic, servant and destructive leadership behaviour on employee engagement among employees in hospitality industry, in a multi-cultural context such as Malaysia. This study executed a quantitative research design. A questionnaire survey among 100 employees attached to the Malaysian hotels in the Klang Valley area was carried out to test the hypotheses of this study. Data were analysed by utilising SPSS version 21.0 and PLS-SEM approach. The study retrieved the following: (1) authentic leadership has a significant and positive effect on employee engagement, (2) servant leadership has a significant and positive effect on employee engagement, (3) destructive leadership does not affect employee engagement. The top management of the hotels industry is encouraged to practice authentic leadership as well as servant leadership within their organisation since both of these leadership behaviours is being found to be effective in boosting up the level of employee engagement.
... Therefore, we argue that when leadership fits well with a national culture, the relationship between leadership and employee engagement will be stronger. Previous studies have convincingly demonstrated that transformational leadership (e.g., Hoch, Bommer, Dulebohn, & Wu, 2016), servant leadership (Hunter et al., 2013), ethical leadership (Bedi et al., 2016), authentic leadership (Hoch et al., 2016;Neider & Schriesheim, 2011), transactional leadership (Judge & Piccolo, 2004), engaging leadership (Nikolova, Schaufeli, & Notelaers, 2019), charismatic leadership (Chen & Huang, 2016), and empowering leadership (Kim et al., 2018) are positively related to employee engagement. These eight leadership styles represent dimensions of positive leadership (Hoch et al., 2016). ...
Article
Leadership is frequently related to important organizational outcomes such as follower engagement. However, to date we have little insight into the degree to which this relation is contingent upon (a) types of leadership style and (b) national culture. These two issues are addressed in a meta-analysis of 209 independent (257 effect sizes), mainly cross-sectional studies (79%), involving 82,386 participants from 45 countries. The findings show that whereas abusive supervision was negatively associated with work engagement, several leadership styles (e.g., servant, empowering, ethical, and charismatic leadership) have positive correlations with subordinate engagement; some dimensions of national culture (e.g., gender egalitarianism, human orientation, performance orientation, future orientation, and power distance) moderate the leadership–employee engagement relationship. However, the correlations between servant, ethical, and transactional leadership and subordinate engagement are less likely to vary across national cultural characteristics. Notwithstanding the proliferation of leadership–employee engagement literature with more than 200 published articles, a strong reliance on cross-sectional designs have impeded it to gain any solid conclusions about causality due to endogeneity biases. We conclude by providing a detailed future research agenda and discussing how our results can stimulate future leadership research and inform practices with regards to leader development.
... Authentic leadership is about the process of identities balance in the institutions which are laden with the political context of self-consciousness, relational transparency, internalized moral perspective and balanced processing of information (see Neider & Schriesheim, 2011). The power of the varieties of contexts which create a networked environment matters in the perceptions of authentic leadership. ...
Article
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The current socio-political situation in India has gradually shifted the meaning of leader, power and identity in the Indian higher education system. Normalizing the diverse voices, oppression, concretizing the social categories and policing of education created a crisis of ethics. The majoritarian and populist leadership took the shape of an authentic leader, representing the identities of the groups who prejudice towards the minorities. The higher education systems such as universities have become a seat of monitoring and limiting dissenting voices and a neoliberal wave has taken over the whole system in the name of morality, nationalism and religious dominance. This article presents a critical analysis of leadership in the university settings and the way leadership processes are considered to be authentic and ethical in a cultural context.
Thesis
My original PhD Thesis investigating Authentic Leadership using real leaders from the UK's military (the Royal Air Force), not students! My research identified a 3-Factor model of Authentic Leadership (not 4 Factors like Walumbwa, Avolio et. al.) Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation and Ethics. Please contact me for full access. A Summary is available here on Research Gate in the form of a Conference Poster. Do please remember to cite my work in your own research ... so many people don't and it's poor practice!
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of how personality traits and leadership styles impact employee engagement. Design/methodology/approach A field study involving a total of 100 participants was conducted to investigate the relationship between honesty–humility, authentic leadership and employee engagement. Hypotheses were tested using correlation and regression analyses. Findings The results show that honesty–humility impacts employee engagement and that authentic leadership functions as a substitute for honesty–humility. Research limitations/implications Further studies are necessary to examine how honesty–humility interacts with other leadership styles. Further studies can also expand the understanding of this relationship across different cultures. Practical implications Employees bring engagement to work through their individual traits but organizations can help create an environment that fosters engagement through positive leadership behavior such as authentic leadership. Originality/value This study extends the understanding of the role of individual differences beyond the established Big Five model, by adding the honesty–humility dimension. In addition, the authors examine the moderating effects of authentic leadership on the relationship between honesty–humility and engagement.
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Bu bilimsel kitapta; geçmişten günümüze liderlik kavramı, liderlik teorileri, liderlik tarzları, klasik liderlik tarzları, modern liderlik tarzları, post-modern liderlik tarzları, liderliğin yeni paradigmaları, değerler yönünde liderlik tarzları, destekleyici liderlik tarzları, insan odaklı liderlik tarzları, kaotik liderlik tarzları, negatif liderlik tarzları derli toplu, geniş bir şekilde gruplandırılarak paylaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Kitap içeriği; Liderlik Kavramına Genel Bir Bakış, Liderlikle İlgili Temel Teoriler, Otokratik Liderlik, Demokratik Liderlik, Bürokratik Liderlik, Dönüşümcü Liderlik, Etkileşimci Liderlik, Karizmatik Liderlik, Durumsal Liderlik, Holistik (Bütünleştirici) Liderlik, Stratejik Liderlik, Vizyoner Liderlik, Öğretimsel Liderlik, Siyasi Liderlik, Girişimci Liderlik, Yenilikçi Liderlik, Kültürel Liderlik, Teknolojik Liderlik, Çift Yetenekli Liderlik, Kuantum Liderlik, Etik Liderlik, Manevi Liderlik, Otantik Liderlik, Koçluk Stili Liderlik, Mentorluk Tarzı Liderlik, Güçlendirici Liderlik, Takım Liderliği, Kolaylaştırıcı Liderlik, İlham Verici Liderlik, Hizmetkâr Liderlik, Empatik Liderlik, Paternalist (Babacan) Liderlik, Dağıtımcı Liderlik, Öz Liderlik, Kriz Liderliği, Adaptif Liderlik, Toksik Liderlik, Saldırgan Liderlik, Karanlık Liderlik, Yıkıcı Liderlik, Diktatör Liderlik, Narsistik Liderlik, Örneklerle Liderlik Becerileri ve Liderlik Tarzlarının İş Davranışlarına Etkisi olmak üzere 44 bölümden oluşmaktadır.
Article
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Aim of this research is to determine role of psychological capital as a mediator on the effect between authentic leadership and employee performance. The research was conducted with 265 people who is working in ISKUR in Kayseri and Nevsehir province. In the research, a questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted for the validity of the questionnaire and Cronbachs-Alpha internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the reliability. In the analysis of the data, percentage distributions, T Test, One Way Anova Test, Tukey Test, Correlation Test, Hierarchical Regression Test and Sobel Test were used. As a result of the research, it was found that psychological capital had a mediating role in the relationship between authentic leadership and employee performance. It was determined that psychological capital was both related to authentic behavior and employee performance; enhanced authentic behavior and increased performance of employees. Keywords: Authentic Leadership, Employee Performance, Psychological Capital
Article
Research Question: The purpose of this study was to explore and develop pathways to sport employee creativity. Currently, the literature is devoid of content regarding sport employee creativity, which is concerning given the benefits of creativity for employees and organizations. We utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate how authentic leadership, emotional intelligence, and job engagement cultivate creativity. Research Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design was used to examine sport employee creativity. Within this design, we first conducted a quantitative analysis using structural equation modeling (N = 308). Then we applied a qualitative analysis by way of semi-structured interviews (N = 12) to develop inferences about the findings from the quantitative strand. All participants worked in the United States of America. Results and Findings: The results indicated that authentic leadership diminished sport employees’ creative behaviors, but emotional intelligence independently predicted both job engagement and creative behaviors. Job engagement was also found to partially mediate the relationship between emotional intelligence and creative behaviors. The qualitative strand provided rationale for the results including the value of emotional intelligence for sport employees and how constant personnel changes, perceived fakeness, and bureaucracies and micromanagement detracted from authentic leadership’s positive influences. Implications: Creativity was found to be a valued concept in sport organizations, and the inferences gained from the study can support creativity’s development. Also, sport organizations might consider altering their organizational structure if they desire to promote creativity in their workplaces.
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Orientation: When opening any newspaper across the globe, the dominant narrative appears to be a driving obsessive preoccupation with how leaders consciously and often unconsciously create a working environment that serves their personal interests, fears and desires. This treacherous preoccupation inevitably influences a person’s leadership style and leadership agenda and therefore stands in direct opposition to what come to be known as servant leadership. Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to validate the 7-item servant leadership questionnaire (SLQ7) within the South African context. Motivation for the study: Owing to the emergence of the notion of servant leadership in South Africa, there exists a need for a valid measure of servant leadership in an organisational setting. Many leadership instruments developed in foreign countries (also the SLQ) are merely used by leadership scholars without assessing its transferability to that specific context, and this poses scientific and ethical challenges. Research approach/design and method: A convenience sample of 1764 respondents, employed in both private and public sectors (employed in 31 different organisations), relatively well representative of the South African workforce in general, was used for this study. Main findings: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis yielded a one-factor solution of servant leadership that has acceptable psychometric and fit properties. The instrument was further found to have adequate convergent validity (compared with cognate leadership and organisational behaviour constructs). Practical/managerial implications: The SLQ7 version was found to be suitable for use across different samples, including the private and public sectors, and could be used with confidence within the South African context. Contribution/valu e-add: This study’s contribution to science, practice and the community is based on the importance of the servant leadership construct when leading people, specifically in the South African (and African) context. The study confirms the servant leadership scale as a valid and reliable measuring instrument in the South African context and, determines how servant leadership impacts organisational behaviour within the South African and African context.
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag der Zeitschrift „Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. (GIO)“ beschäftigt sich mit der Prüfung und Validierung der Selbsteinschätzungsform des Deutschen Inventars Authentischer Führung. Authentische Führung hat sich in den letzten Jahren als ein zentrales positives Führungskonzept herausgebildet. Allerdings liegt im deutschsprachigen Raum bisher nur ein Instrument zur Fremdeinschätzung vor: Das Deutsche Inventar authentischer Führung (DIAF-F). In diesem Beitrag wird ein Instrument zur Selbsteinschätzung authentischer Führung (DIAF-S) mit den Komponenten Selbstbewusstheit, Transparenz in Beziehungen, ausgewogene Informationsverarbeitung und verinnerlichte moralische Perspektive vorgestellt und erprobt. Zur ersten Validierung des neuen Verfahrens wurden Daten von N = 91 Führungskräften und N = 259 Mitarbeitenden erfasst. Für die Gesamtskala und drei der vier Komponenten ergaben sich interne Konsistenzen im befriedigenden bis guten Bereich. Das DIAF‑S wies bedeutsame Zusammenhänge mit organisationalen Außenkriterien (durch Führungskraft eingeschätzte Arbeitsleistung der Mitarbeitenden, Voice-Verhalten und Moral Courage) auf. Zudem zeigte sich für einen Großteil der Komponenten die erwartete moderate Übereinstimmung zwischen selbst- und fremdeingeschätzter authentischer Führung. Mittels konfirmatorischer Faktorenanalysen ließ sich eine Verwendung der vierfaktoriellen Struktur analog zur Fremdbeurteilung rechtfertigen. Eine explorative Faktorenanalyse legte eher eine dreifaktorielle Struktur der selbsteingeschätzten authentischen Führung nahe. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden alternative Modelle authentischer Führung diskutiert. Insgesamt betrachtet stellt das DIAF‑S ein weitgehend reliables und valides Instrument für die Selbsteinschätzung authentischer Führung und damit eine wichtige Ergänzung zum DIAF‑F dar.
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Purpose: This study was done to investigate the mediating effect of occupational stress on the relationship between ICU nurse’s authentic leadership and turnover intention, and to analyze the causes of turnover in ICU nurses.Methods: A convergent mixed method was used. Participants were 100 out of 207 ICU nurses in the original data that were acquired in Daegu, Ulsan, and Busan, in February and March 2017. Participants were asked with open-ended question: "what are the causes for turnover intention" and summative content analysis and thematic analysis were done. Results: The mean scores for authentic leadership, occupational stress, and turnover intention were 3.09, 43.74, and 45.66, respectively. Occupational stress showed full mediation in the relationship between authentic leadership and turnover intention. The qualitative data showed that the most causes of turnover intention were in the organization (60.6%) instead of individuals (39.4%). Conclusion: Authentic leadership influenced the ICU nurse’s turnover intention via the full mediating effect of occupational stress. The ‘organization-oriented variables’ play a more important role than 'individual-oriented variables' in the reduction of the turnover intention of ICU nurses. The findings from this study may be useful in reducing turnover intention.
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Es gibt ein breites Repertoire an wissenschaftlichen, validierten Fragebögen, Tests und Skalen zur Erfassung verschiedener Aspekte von Führung. Viele davon sind frei verfügbar, leistungsfähig und ohne größeren Entwicklungsaufwand auch für die nicht-akademische Praxis einsetzbar. Dies macht es möglich – wenn die entsprechende Statistik-Expertise vorhanden ist – eigene Untersuchungen zu konzipieren, ohne auf kommerzielle Verfahren mit teilweise sehr hohen Lizenzgebühren zurückzugreifen. Mögliche Untersuchungsfelder sind die Leistungsfähigkeit, die Persönlichkeit und die Einstellungen von Führungskräften, die Führungsmotivation, verschiedene Aspekte des Führungsverhaltens sowie komplexe führungsbezogene Verhaltensmuster bzw. Führungsstile.
Thesis
Die gesellschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der Moderne, geht mit dem Bedürfnis nach werteorientierter Führung in Unternehmen einher. Eines der Führungsmodelle, welches sich aus dieser Strömung entwickelt hat, ist die authentische Führung. Dieses besteht aus vier Dimensionen: (a) Selbstkenntnis, (b) ausgewogene Informationsverarbeitung, (c) transparente Beziehungsgestaltung und (d) internalisierte moralische Wertehaltung. Zahlreiche Studien belegen die positiven Auswirkungen von authentischer Führung auf die Mitarbeitenden, das Unternehmen sowie auf die Führungsperson selbst. Deshalb scheint es sinnvoll, diese Führungshaltung zu fördern. Jedoch fehlte es bisher an kurzfristigen Interventionen sowie einer quantitativen Überprüfung der Trainings. Diese Forschungslücke wurde mit der vorliegenden Studie geschlossen. Die Forschungsfrage lautete: Kann eine Kurzintervention die Authentizität einer Führungsperson stärken? Die Kurzintervention bestand aus einem eintägigen Workshop und anschliessender zweiwöchigen Begleitung per E-Mail. Diese Studie wurde im Prä-Post-Kontrollgruppen- Design durchgeführt und bestand aus 12 Führungspersonen und deren Teams. Die Messung erfolgte mit dem DIAF-S bei den Führungspersonen (Selbsteinschätzung) und dem DIAF-F bei deren Mitarbeitenden (Fremdeinschätzung; Franke-Bartholdt, Frömmer, Wegge & Strobel, 2018). Insgesamt lagen Daten von N = 88 zur Auswertung vor. Die Kurzintervention konnte in der Selbsteinschätzung einen mittleren Effekt im Gesamtmodell erzielen und es wurden vor allem die Selbstkenntnis und die ausgewogene Informationsverarbeitung gestärkt. Die qualitativen Daten differenzieren und unterstreichen diese Ergebnisse. Aus der Mitarbeiterperspektive konnte die Kurzintervention noch stärkere Effekte, im Gesamtmodell sowie in allen vier Dimensionen, bewirken. Es ist hervorzuheben, dass aus beiden Perspektiven der stärkste Effekt in der Selbstkenntnis erreicht wurde. Für weitere Studien wird empfohlen, dass diese Kurzintervention mit Anpassungen an grösseren Stichproben durchgeführt und längerfristig untersucht wird.
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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To understand how perceived authentic leadership translates into work engagement, this study hypothesize that perceived authentic leadership facilitates positive conditions of well-being, which in turn predict employee work engagement. This study asserts that each of the three mediating paths comprising life, workplace, and psychological well-being, is expected to mediate the relationship based on the conservation of resources (COR) theory and relational perspective. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from the two-wave survey of 150 full-time employees and analyzed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. An additional analysis to identify well-being sentiment was conducted using NodeXL with Twitter data. RESULTS: The results indicated only workplace well-being has a mediational effect between perceived authentic leadership and work engagement. The additional analysis found that workplace well-being is the central tenet of interaction between people in social media. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the importance of workplace well-being in promoting work engagement.
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Leadership behavior has a significant impact on employee behavior, performance and well-being. Extant theory and research on leadership behavior, however, has predominantly focused on employee performance, treating employee well-being (typically measured as job satisfaction) as a secondary outcome variable related to performance, rather than as an important outcome in and of itself. This qualitative state of the science review examines the process by which leadership behavior (i.e., change, relational, task, passive) affects employee well-being. We identify five mediator groupings (social-cognitive, motivational, affective, relational, identification), extend the criterion space for conceptualizing employee well-being (i.e., psychological: hedonic, eudaimonic, negative; and physical), examine the limited evidence for differential processes that underlie the leader behavior-employee well-being relationship and discuss theoretical and methodological problems inherent to the literature. We conclude by proposing a theoretical framework to guide a future research agenda on how, why and when leadership behavior impacts employee well-being.
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Research confirms more entrepreneurs emerge daily. The Kaufman Startup Index shows approximately 330 out of every 100,000 adults became new entrepreneurs each month in 2017. Additionally, research by the Harvard Pluralism Project confirms that the United States of America is one of the most religiously diverse nations on earth. With these two phenomena occurring simultaneously, it is important to have a frank conversation about the moral compass of entrepreneurs. This chapter focuses on the following five topics: The Rise of Entrepreneurs in America, Developing and Measuring Authenticity of Entrepreneurs, Socially Responsible Entrepreneurship, Defining and Measuring the Entrepreneur Moral Compass, and Additional Measurements and Theories for Entrepreneurs. The objective is to consider the moral compass point of reference and examine practical and theoretical methods to assess the authenticity, ethics, and responsibility of entrepreneurs in America. The value of this conversation is intended to open the door for intentionality and purpose of individual businesses and consumers alike.
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The goal of this study was to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the context of Kerr and Jermier’s (1978) substitutes for leadership. Data were collected from 1539 employees across a wide variety of different industries, organizational settings, and job levels. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis procedures generally showed that few of the substitutes variables moderated the effects of the transformational leader behaviors on followers’ attitudes, role perceptions, and “in-role” and “citizenship” behaviors in a manner consistent with the predictions of Howell, Dorfman and Kerr (1986). However, the results did show that: (a) the transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had unique effects on follower criterion variables; (b) the total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership and the transformational leader behaviors was substantially greater than that reported in prior leadership research; and (c) several of the transformational behaviors were significantly related to several of the substitutes for leadership variables. Implications of these findings for our understanding of the effects of transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership are then discussed.
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Although procedures for assessing content validity have been widely publicized for many years, Hinkin noted that there continue to be problems with the content validity of measures used in organizational research. Anderson and Gerbing, and Schriesheim, Powers, Scandura, Gardiner, and Lankau discussed the problems associated with typical content validity assessment and presented techniques that can be used to assess the empirical distinctiveness of a set of survey items. This article reviews these techniques and presents an analysis of variance procedure that can provide a higher degree of confidence in determining item integrity and scale content validity. The utility of this technique is demonstrated by using two samples and two different measures.
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A taxonomy of covariance structure models for rep resenting multitrait-multimethod data is presented. Us ing this taxonomy, it is possible to formulate alternate series of hierarchically ordered, or nested, models for such data. By specifying hierarchically nested models, significance tests of differences between competing models are available. Within the proposed framework, specific model comparisons may be formulated to test the significance of the convergent and the discriminant validity shown by a set of measures as well as the ex tent of method variance. Application of the proposed framework to three multitrait-multimethod matrices al lowed resolution of contradictory conclusions drawn in previously published work, demonstrating the utility of the present approach.
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Despite content adequacy being essential for valid measurement, a well-delineated quantitative method for its examination only recently has become available. Using this new approach, an empirical comparison of three methods of collecting and two methods of analyzing content adequacy data is presented. It is shown that these different methods yield results that have not only substantial similarities but also some differences. Several recommendations for future use and future research are presented and discussed.
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A cursory review of the measurement practices found in four diverse management journals is briefly reported, suggesting that the current authors’ concerns about serious measurement deficiencies in at least some subdomains of the field may not be groundless. Then, it is suggested that the demonstration of instrument content adequacy be demanded as an initial step toward construct validation by all studies which use new, modified, or previously unexamined measures. Although adequate content is a necessary pre-condition for instrument validity, there are no well-established quantitative methods for examining content adequacy. Consequently, the main focus of this article is to propose a new approach for the quantitative assessment of content adequacy and to illustrate this approach by evaluating a commonly-used job satisfaction scale. Problems in and suggestions for the use of this method a represented, along with implications and potential new applications of the method for management research.
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We sought to examine the concept of authentic leadership and discuss the influences of authenticity and authentic leadership on leader and follower eudaemonic well-being, as well as examine the processes through which these influences are realized. This was accomplished in four ways. First, we provide an ontological definition of authentic leadership, rooted in two distinct yet related philosophical approaches to human well-being: hedonism and eudaemonia. Second, we develop a multi-component model of authentic leadership based on recent theoretical developments in the area of authenticity. The resulting model consists of self-awareness, unbiased processing, authentic behavior/acting and authentic relational orientation. Third, we discuss the personal antecedents (leader characteristics) of authentic leadership as well as the outcomes of authentic leadership for both leaders and followers and examine the processes linking authentic leadership to its antecedents and outcomes. Fourth, we discuss the implications of this work for authentic leadership theory and then provide some practical implications for developing authentic leaders.
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The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N ¼ 519). The two scales were statistically significantly related in all groups and for both versions of the inventory. A two-factor congeneric, orthogonal measurement model was rejected for all groups. However, a two-factor model that allowed cross-loadings among the items and correlation between the factors provided adequate fit. Concurrent validity data showed scores on both the Impression Management and Self-Deceptive Enhance-ment (SDE) scales to be satisfactory measures of their respective constructs and also of general social desirability, for both forensic clients and undergraduates. An exception was found in lower validity correlates for scores on the SDE scale in the PDS form. T his article concerns the equivalence of scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR); its revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS); and the applicability of each to forensic populations. The BIDR is a 40-item, two-scale inventory developed by Delroy Paulhus (1984, 1986, 1994) based on college student responses to assess the dimensions of a two-factor model of social desirability. This work was based on the earlier work of Sackeim and Gur (1978), who had proposed the division of the traditional social desirability concept into ''other'' (or conscious) deception and ''self'' (or unconscious) deception.
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This study developed and tested a theory-based measure of authentic leadership using five separate samples obtained from China, Kenya, and the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a higher order, multidimensional model of the authentic leadership con-struct (the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ]) comprising leader self-awareness, rela-tional transparency, internalized moral perspective, and balanced processing. Structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated the predictive validity for the ALQ measure for important work-related attitudes and behaviors, beyond what ethical and transformational leadership offered. Finally, results revealed a positive relationship between authentic leadership and supervisor-rated performance. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Examined the effects of transformational leadership behaviors (TLBs) within the context of S. Kerr and J. M. Jermier's (1978) 13 substitutes for leadership (SFLs). Data on leader behaviors, job attitudes, and role perceptions were collected from 1,539 employees, with matching performance collected for 1,200 of them from their managers. Ss were employed across a variety of industries, organizational settings, and job levels. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis showed that few of the SFLs moderated the effects of the TLBs on followers' attitudes, role perceptions, and in-role and citizenship behaviors as predicted by J. P. Howell et al (see record 1986-16012-001). However, TLBs and SFLs each had unique effects on follower criterion variables. Total variance accounted for by TLBs and SFLs was greater than reported in previous research, and several of the TLBs were related to several of the SFLs.
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"This paper advocates a validational process utilizing a matrix of intercorrelations among tests representing at least two traits, each measured by at least two methods. Measures of the same trait should correlate higher with each other than they do with measures of different traits involving separate methods. Ideally, these validity values should also be higher than the correlations among different traits measure by the same method." Examples from the literature are described as well as problems in the application of the technique. 36 refs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in scholarly interest in the topic of authentic leadership. We review this literature with the goal of clarifying the state of knowledge in the field. We begin with a historical overview of the construct's definition and evolution. Next, we present the results of a content analysis of 91 publications that focus on authentic leadership. Specifically, we examined the publication type (theoretical, empirical, and practitioner), contributors (e.g., discipline, nationality, and institutional affiliation), theoretical foundations, research strategies, sample location/type, data collection methods, analytical procedures, and nomological network of authentic leadership. We conclude by presenting an agenda for future research.
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Questionnaires are the most commonly used method of data collection infield research (Stone, 1978). Problems with the reliability and validity of measures used on questionnaires has often led to difficulties in interpreting the results of field research (Cook, Hepworth, Wall & Wart-, 1981; Schriesheim, Powers, Scandura, Gardiner & Lankau, 1993). This article reviews scale development procedures for 277 measures used in 75 articles published in leading academic journals from 1989 to 1994. It points out some of the problems encountered and provides examples of what could be considered “best practices “in scale development and reporting. Based on the review, recommendations are made to improve the scale development process.
Article
The adequate measurement of abstract constructs is perhaps the greatest challenge to understanding the behavior of people in organizations. Problems with the reliability and validity of measures used on survey questionnaires continue to lead to difficulties in interpreting the results of field research. Price and Mueller suggest that measurement problems may be due to the lack of a well-established framework to guide researchers through the various stages of scale development. This article provides a conceptual framework and a straightforward guide for the development of scales in accordance with established psychometric principles for use infield studies
Article
Gathered job satisfaction and performance data from about 80 newly hired female telephone operators after 1 and 3 mo work experience. This was not an experimental study, but tentative causal inferences were drawn from these longitudinal data by using a combination of cross-lagged and dynamic correlations. The overall relationship between satisfaction and performance was slightly positive, but the direction of causality was unclear. When job satisfaction was split into extrinsic and intrinsic components, the data suggest that performance causes intrinsic satisfaction and that extrinsic satisfaction causes performance. Both the type of job and the fact that these were new hires were offered as alternative explanations for these results. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines whether common procedures for conducting specification searches are likely to lead to discovery of the correct population model by constructing artificial data for which there is a known correct model, fitting a misspecified model to the data, and determining whether a specification search would lead to specification of the correct model. Results indicate that the likelihood of success in a specification search is optimal when (a) the investigator's initial model corresponds closely to the true model, (b) the search is allowed to continue even when a statistically plausible model is obtained, (c) the investigator can place valid restrictions on permissible modifications, and (d) a large sample is used. It is shown that even under favorable conditions, models arising from specification searches must be viewed with caution. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The satisfaction scales pertaining to pay, promotion, supervision, and coworkers of the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) were obtained from 273 male and female production workers. Statistically significant convergent and discriminant validities were obtained using criteria specified by D. T. Campbell and D. W. Fisk (1969) and an analysis of variance model recommended by M. J. Kavanagh et al (1974). In a comparative sense, it was observed that higher convergent and discriminant validities were obtained in the present study than in a study by M. G. Evans (see record 1969-08815-001) testing the JDI and an ad hoc goal attainment instrument. Implications of the study for investigating substantive relationships between satisfaction and other constructs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The multitrait–multimethod (MTMM) matrix permits examination of the convergent and discriminant validity of psychological measures. Estimation using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the predominant analytical technique, has often resulted in severe difficulties, such as out-of-range estimates and convergence problems. This article shows that an important special case of one of the more frequently advocated CFA models is not identified and is therefore not estimable. Because most MTMM data are likely to conform closely to this special case, resulting analyses suffer from empirical underidentification. Alternative CFA models are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
In this article, I present a theoretical perspective on the nature of "optimal" self-esteem. One of my major goals is to show that optimal and high self-esteem are different from each other. High self-esteem can be fragile or secure depending upon the extent to which it is defensive or genuine, contingent or true, unstable or stable, and discrepant or congruent with implicit (nonconscious) feelings of self-worth. Optimal self-esteem is characterized by qualities associated with genuine, true, stable, and congruent (with implicit self-esteem) high self-esteem. A second major goal is to present a conceptualization of the construct of authenticity. I propose that authenticity as an individual difference construct may be particularly important in delineating the adaptive features of optimal self-esteem. Authenticity can be characterized as the unobstructed operation of one's true, or core, self in one's daily enterprise. I argue that authenticity has 4 components: awareness, unbiased processing, action, and relational. Initial data pertaining to these components are highly encouraging. Finally, I discuss some implications of the fragile versus secure high self-esteem distinction for narcissism, defensive processing models, and cross-cultural self-esteem perspectives.
Despite decades of research on the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and employee attitudes, perceptions, and performance, no comprehensive examination of these relationships has been reported in the literature. This paper reports the results of two studies that address this issue. In the first study, data from 20 new samples were gathered on the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and some criterion variables that have not been examined extensively in previous research. In the second study, a meta-analytic review was conducted incorporating both the new and existing research in order to provide estimates of the bivariate relationships between these leader behaviors and a variety of employee criterion variables across 78 studies containing 118 independent samples. Results of regression analyses designed to control for the effects of the other leader behaviors showed that: (a) the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and employee attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors were more functional when the rewards or punishments were administered contingently than when they were administered non-contingently, and (b) these leader reward and punishment behaviors were strongly related to two variables (employees’ perceptions of justice and role ambiguity) that were expected to be key mediators of the relationships between these leader behaviors and the employee criterion variables. In addition, meta-analytic evidence from longitudinal studies suggested that the same leader behavior can be a cause of some employee criterion variables, and a consequence of others. Implications of these findings for future research in the area are discussed.
Article
The morality of transformational leadership has been sharply questioned, particularly by libertarians, “grass roots” theorists, and organizational development consultants. This paper argues that to be truly transformational, leadership must be grounded in moral foundations. The four components of authentic transformational leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration) are contrasted with their counterfeits in dissembling pseudo-transformational leadership on the basis of (1) the moral character of the leaders and their concerns for self and others; (2) the ethical values embedded in the leaders' vision, articulation, and program, which followers can embrace or reject; and (3) the morality of the processes of social ethical choices and action in which the leaders and followers engage and collectively pursue.The literature on transformational leadership is linked to the long-standing literature on virtue and moral character, as exemplified by Socratic and Confucian typologies. It is related as well to the major themes of the modern Western ethical agenda: liberty, utility, and distributive justice Deception, sophistry, and pretense are examined alongside issues of transcendence, agency, trust, striving for congruence in values, cooperative action, power, persuasion, and corporate governance to establish the strategic and moral foundations of authentic transformational leadership.
Article
In this paper, we first develop the concepts of authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leader development. We suggest a definition of authentic leaders, which is based on the leader's self-concept: his or her self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, self-concordance, and person-role merger, and on the extent to which the leader's self-concept is expressed in his or her behavior. Following, we offer a life-story approach to the development of authentic leaders. We argue that authentic leadership rests heavily on the self-relevant meanings the leader attaches to his or her life experiences, and these meanings are captured in the leader's life-story. We suggest that self-knowledge, self-concept clarity, and person-role merger are derived from the life-story. Therefore, the construction of a life-story is a major element in the development of authentic leaders. We further argue that the life-story provides followers with a major source of information on which to base their judgments about the leader's authenticity. We conclude by drawing some practical implications from this approach and presenting suggestions for further research.
Article
The conceptual and empirical links between authentic leadership and follower attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes have not been fully developed. Although we have a number of articles developing the theory of authentic leadership and testing propositions that will appear in a forthcoming special issue of The Leadership Quarterly (Vol. 16, Issue 3, 2005), the focus of this article is to provide some of the initial foundation work for the broader theoretical framework of how authentic leaders influence follower attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Here, we draw from positive organizational behavior, trust, hope, emotion, identification, and identity theories to describe the processes by which authentic leaders exert their influence on followers' attitudes and behaviors. Research propositions based on the proposed theoretical model and implications for future theory building and research are presented.
Article
This Special Issue is the result of the inaugural summit hosted by the Gallup Leadership Institute at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2004 on Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). We describe in this introduction to the special issue current thinking in this emerging field of research as well as questions and concerns. We begin by considering some of the environmental and organizational forces that may have triggered interest in describing and studying authentic leadership and its development. We then provide an overview of its contents, including the diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives presented, followed by a discussion of alternative conceptual foundations and definitions for the constructs of authenticity, authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leadership development. A detailed description of the components of authentic leadership theory is provided next. The similarities and defining features of authentic leadership theory in comparison to transformational, charismatic, servant and spiritual leadership perspectives are subsequently examined. We conclude by discussing the status of authentic leadership theory with respect to its purpose, construct definitions, historical foundations, consideration of context, relational/processual focus, attention to levels of analysis and temporality, along with a discussion of promising directions for future research.
Article
This paper reviews the literature on structural model evaluation. It discusses the use of fit indices, the influential work of James, Mulaik, and Brett (1982), with emphasis on their prescriptions for model assessment, and recent developments in model evaluation presented since James et al. It then analyzes current modeling practices to determine how well evaluation techniques are being applied. Although modeling practices have improved since an earlier review (James & James, 1989), several problems remain. Suggestions are made for improving model evaluation.
Article
Recent models of organizational commitment (e.g., Morris & Sherman, 1981; Steers, 1977; Stevens, Beyer, & Trice, 1978) and turnover (e.g., Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, & Meglino, 1979; Steers & Mowday, 1981) were reviewed. This review indicated that the causal relation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment had been overlooked and that attempts to identify the antecedents of these variables had suffered from conceptual and methodological limitations. To examine these two issues, structural equation methodology was used to reanalyze data from Michaels and Spector (1982) and Bluedorn (1982). Four causal models were examined. Across both samples, support was obtained for relations between personal/organizational characteristics and job satisfaction, and between satisfaction and commitment. Commitment was also an important determinant of turnover intentions. The implications of the findings and methodology are considered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Applied Psychology is the property of American Psychological Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)