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Examination of the neural substrates activated in memories of experiences with resonant and dissonant leaders

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Abstract

Given the relevance of leadership in organizational life, we designed an exploratory study to assess the neural mechanisms involved in memories of interactions with resonant and dissonant leaders (a follower-centric study). Subjects in advanced professional roles were asked about previous incidents with both types of leaders, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were then conducted with cues developed from these recollections. Recalling experiences with resonant leaders activated neural areas such as the bilateral insula, right inferior parietal lobe, and left superior temporal gyrus; regions associated with the mirror neuron system, default mode or social network, and positive affect. Recalling experiences with dissonant leaders negatively activated the right anterior cingulate cortex and activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral posterior region of the inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/insula; regions associated with the mirror neuron system and related to avoidance, narrowed attention, decreased compassion, and negative emotions.

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... What do the results of neuroimaging and physiology-based research methods tell us about the practice of decision-making? Some scholars tell us that OCN theory may have implications for practice (Boyatzis et al., 2012), whilst others, are much more circumspect (Lindebaum and Zundel, 2013). This article takes a middle line. ...
... Knutson et al.'s (2007) research has ethical implications when issues such as marketing managers seeking to maximise consumer overspending and undersaving are raised. Boyatzis et al. (2012) combine both of the above answers provided by Tabibnia et al. (2008) and Knutson et al. (2007), in that Boyatzis et al. (2012) actively suggest what can be implemented and what cannot be implemented in the context of leadership and organization development. They argue the case for resonance in leadership, and against dissonance, which has clear implications for organization development. ...
... Knutson et al.'s (2007) research has ethical implications when issues such as marketing managers seeking to maximise consumer overspending and undersaving are raised. Boyatzis et al. (2012) combine both of the above answers provided by Tabibnia et al. (2008) and Knutson et al. (2007), in that Boyatzis et al. (2012) actively suggest what can be implemented and what cannot be implemented in the context of leadership and organization development. They argue the case for resonance in leadership, and against dissonance, which has clear implications for organization development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To highlight the potential implications and non-implications for leadership and organization development of a recent systematic review of empirical developments in organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN). Design/methodology/approach: Butler et al.'s (2015) systematic review of forty empirical articles related to OCN is re-interpreted in terms of its potential to reveal (non-) implications for practice. OCN is critically discussed, then related to the research findings from studies with two methodological designs. Findings: At this stage of OCN's emergence, it appears that neuroimaging and physiology-based research methods have equal potential in their implications for practice, though hormonal data poses ethical public interest dilemmas. Both methods cannot be reduced to specific forms of application to practice, but they set an aspirational direction for the future development of leadership and organizations. Practical implications: There appear to be two paces of translational activity – practitioners are moving more quickly than academics in applying OCN to practice. It is suggested that a meeting of minds may be needed to ensure that any risks associated with applying OCN to practice are minimised or eliminated. Social implications: Inter-disciplinary research, like OCN, requires a social consensus about how basic research in cognitive neuroscience can be applied to organizations. A think tank will provide opportunities for deeper engagement and co-production between academics and practitioners. Page 3 of 28 Originality/value: Critically exploring the potential implications of OCN for practice, by basing the discussion on a systematic review of empirical developments.
... What do the results of neuroimaging and physiology-based research methods tell us about the practice of decision-making? Some scholars tell us that OCN theory may have implications for practice (Boyatzis et al., 2012), whilst others, are much more circumspect (Lindebaum and Zundel, 2013). This article takes a middle line. ...
... Knutson et al.'s (2007) research has ethical implications when issues such as marketing managers seeking to maximise consumer overspending and undersaving are raised. Boyatzis et al. (2012) combine both of the above answers provided by Tabibnia et al. (2008) and Knutson et al. (2007), in that Boyatzis et al. (2012) actively suggest what can be implemented and what cannot be implemented in the context of leadership and organization development. They argue the case for resonance in leadership, and against dissonance, which has clear implications for organization development. ...
... Knutson et al.'s (2007) research has ethical implications when issues such as marketing managers seeking to maximise consumer overspending and undersaving are raised. Boyatzis et al. (2012) combine both of the above answers provided by Tabibnia et al. (2008) and Knutson et al. (2007), in that Boyatzis et al. (2012) actively suggest what can be implemented and what cannot be implemented in the context of leadership and organization development. They argue the case for resonance in leadership, and against dissonance, which has clear implications for organization development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential implications and non-implications for leadership and organization development of a recent systematic review of empirical developments in organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN). Design/methodology/approach Butler et al. ’s (2016) systematic review of 40 empirical articles related to OCN is re-interpreted in terms of its potential to reveal (non-) implications for practice. OCN is critically discussed, then related to the research findings from studies with two methodological designs. Findings At this stage of OCN’s emergence, it appears that neuroimaging and physiology-based research methods have equal potential in their implications for practice, though hormonal data poses ethical public interest dilemmas. Both methods cannot be reduced to specific forms of application to practice, but they set an aspirational direction for the future development of leadership and organizations. Practical implications There appear to be two paces of translational activity – practitioners are moving more quickly than academics in applying OCN to practice. It is suggested that a meeting of minds may be needed to ensure that any risks associated with applying OCN to practice are minimized or eliminated. Social implications Inter-disciplinary research, like OCN, requires a social consensus about how basic research in cognitive neuroscience can be applied to organizations. A think tank will provide opportunities for deeper engagement and co-production between academics and practitioners. Originality/value Critically exploring the potential implications of OCN for practice, by basing the discussion on a systematic review of empirical developments.
... This is what is referred to as a random-effects (or mixed-effects) analysis, which allows for formal inference about the population from which participants have been drawn. Boyatzis et al. (2012) report that only a fixed-effects analysis has been conducted on their fMRI data. Fixedeffects analyses account only for within-subject variability, and for this reason, inferences from such analyses are only relevant to the participants included in that specific fMRI study. ...
... Fixedeffects analyses account only for within-subject variability, and for this reason, inferences from such analyses are only relevant to the participants included in that specific fMRI study. In this case, inferences therefore only describe the eight participants recruited in Boyatzis et al. (2012). Because between-participant variance is much larger than within-participant variance, fixedeffects analyses will typically yield smaller p values that overestimate the significance of effects. ...
... The results of fixed-effects analyses are useful if a researcher is interested in the specific participants included in a sample (e.g., a case study), or if it can be justified that the sample represents the entire population of interest. However, because Boyatzis et al. (2012) conducted only a fixed-effects analysis, this means it would be uncertain if the same pattern of activations would be observed if an additional participant were to be included in the study, or if a replication were to be performed. Indeed, the authors report that the exclusion of the single female participant rendered eight regions of interest non-significant, demonstrating the instability of their reported effects and the strong influence of outliers when using fixed-effects analyses. ...
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Note: this manuscript has been peer reviewed and is published in Meta-Psychology. Please cite as: Prochilo, G. A., Louis, W. R., Bode, S., Zacher, H., & Molenberghs, P. (2019). An Extended Commentary on Post-publication Peer Review in Organizational Neuroscience. Meta-Psychology, 3. https://doi.org/10.15626/MP.2018.935 | While considerable progress has been made in organizational neuroscience over the past decade, we argue that critical evaluations of published empirical works are not being conducted carefully and consistently. In this extended commentary we take as an example Waldman and colleagues (2017): a major review work that evaluates the state-of-the-art of organizational neuroscience. In what should be an evaluation of the field’s empirical work, the authors uncritically summarize a series of studies that: (1) provide insufficient transparency to be clearly understood, evaluated, or replicated, and/or (2) which misuse inferential tests that lead to misleading conclusions, among other concerns. These concerns have been ignored across multiple major reviews and citing articles. We therefore provide a post-publication review (in two parts) of one-third of all studies evaluated in Waldman and colleague’s major review work. In Part I, we systematically evaluate the field’s two seminal works with respect to their methods, analytic strategy, results, and interpretation of findings. And in Part II, we provide focused reviews of secondary works that each center on a specific concern we suggest should be a point of discussion as the field moves forward. In doing so, we identify a series of practices we recommend will improve the state of the literature. This includes: (1) evaluating the transparency and completeness of an empirical article before accepting its claims, (2) becoming familiar with common misuses or misconceptions of statistical testing, and (3) interpreting results with an explicit reference to effect size magnitude, precision, and accuracy, among other recommendations. We suggest that adopting these practices will motivate the development of a more replicable, reliable, and trustworthy field of organizational neuroscience moving forward.
... Which leadership traits are required to effectively lead organizations has received considerable critical attention in research and been the subject of increasing discussion (Avolio, Gardner, Walumbwa, Luthans, & May, 2004;Boyatzis et al., 2012;Cuddy, Kohut, & Neffinger, 2013;Dasborough, 2006;Einarsen, Aasland, & Skogstad, 2007;Johnson, 2002;McKee & Massimilian, 2006). In addition, the academic literature on effective formal leadership and management traits has revealed the emergence of the importance of leaders and leadership in improving the governance, learning, teaching, relevance and success of higher education institutions (Bolden, Petrov, Gosling, & Bryman, 2009;Bryman, 2007, Middlehurst, 2008Parrish, 2013;Ramsden, 1998;Scott, Coates, & Anderson, 2008). ...
... Specifically, senior-level, and mid-level academic leaders have critical influence and power over teaching workloads to distribute, change and reward (Bryman, 2007;Hofmeyer et al., 2015). Instead of traditional leadercentric approaches, our findings in the literature call for more distributed or collaborative models among less hierarchical forms of leadership in higher education (Jones et al., 2012), with a capacity to unite people and influence their development towards change, integrity, and collective goal achievement (Avolio et al., 2004;Boyatzis et al., 2012). Being associated with Bryman's (2007) study, the results essentially affirm that building agreement through a young leader's efforts is crucial at universities. ...
... In particular, every academic leader at each level might be expected to possess these essential capabilities (Dinh et al., 2020). Furthermore, the results revealed that young academic leaders may promote change and bring people together in higher education institutions through their perspective and their strength at addressing the issue (Boyatzis et al., 2012). ...
... This is what is referred to as a random-effects (or mixed-effects) analysis, which allows for formal inference about the population from which participants have been drawn. Boyatzis et al. (2012) report that only a fixed-effects analysis has been conducted on their fMRI data. Fixedeffects analyses account only for within-subject variability, and for this reason, inferences from such analyses are only relevant to the participants included in that specific fMRI study. ...
... Fixedeffects analyses account only for within-subject variability, and for this reason, inferences from such analyses are only relevant to the participants included in that specific fMRI study. In this case, inferences therefore only describe the eight participants recruited in Boyatzis et al. (2012). Because between-participant variance is much larger than within-participant variance, fixedeffects analyses will typically yield smaller p values that overestimate the significance of effects. ...
... The results of fixed-effects analyses are useful if a researcher is interested in the specific participants included in a sample (e.g., a case study), or if it can be justified that the sample represents the entire population of interest. However, because Boyatzis et al. (2012) conducted only a fixed-effects analysis, this means it would be uncertain if the same pattern of activations would be observed if an additional participant were to be included in the study, or if a replication were to be performed. Indeed, the authors report that the exclusion of the single female participant rendered eight regions of interest non-significant, demonstrating the instability of their reported effects and the strong influence of outliers when using fixed-effects analyses. ...
Article
Full-text available
While considerable progress has been made in organizational neuroscience over the past decade, we argue that critical evaluations of published empirical works are not being conducted carefully and consistently. In this extended commentary we take as an example Waldman and colleagues (2017): a major review work that evaluates the state-of-the-art of organizational neuroscience. In what should be an evaluation of the field’s empirical work, the authors uncritically summarize a series of studies that: (1) provide insufficient transparency to be clearly understood, evaluated, or replicated, and/or (2) which misuse inferential tests that lead to misleading conclusions, among other concerns. These concerns have been ignored across multiple major reviews and citing articles. We therefore provide a post-publication review (in two parts) of one-third of all studies evaluated in Waldman and colleague’s major review work. In Part I, we systematically evaluate the field’s two seminal works with respect to their methods, analytic strategy, results, and interpretation of findings. And in Part II, we provide focused reviews of secondary works that each center on a specific concern we suggest should be a point of discussion as the field moves forward. In doing so, we identify a series of practices we recommend will improve the state of the literature. This includes: (1) evaluating the transparency and completeness of an empirical article before accepting its claims, (2) becoming familiar with common misuses or misconceptions of statistical testing, and (3) interpreting results with an explicit reference to effect size magnitude, precision, and accuracy, among other recommendations. We suggest that adopting these practices will motivate the development of a more replicable, reliable, and trustworthy field of organizational neuroscience moving forward.
... Through a multidisciplinary approach, some studies show that a greater understanding of tacit knowledge can be achieved by integrating neuroscience, evolutionary biology and psychology (Waldman et al., 2011a, b). For example, by integrating affective neuroscience and biology, some authors offer a more holistic approach to leadership development, showing how leaders should emphasize coaching as a fundamental part of their role and behavioral habits (Boyatzis et al., 2006(Boyatzis et al., , 2012. Other studies use neuroscience to investigate the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities (Pech and Cameron, 2006). ...
... Studies within this cluster emphasize the applications of neuroscience to the study of premature leadership (Lindebaum et al., 2013), the differences between resonant and dissonant leaders (Boyatzis et al., 2012) and encourage interaction with neuroscience for a Greater understanding of international affairs (Tenzer et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose This study focuses on the role of individuals in the innovation management process, by concentrating on leaders and associated behaviors. Specifically, Entrepreneurial Leadership (EL) represent one of the most important fields of innovation management that has become increasingly multifaceted and interdisciplinary with its evolution. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine a newly emerging research trend with a new lens that is “neuroscience”. Design/methodology/approach This paper finds an evidence-based roadmap by reviewing the literature with a quantitative Bibliometric Analysis (BA) employing Co-Citation (Co-C) and bibliographic coupling analysis (BcA) to find linkages between the leadership and entrepreneurship literature and the neuroscience literature. Findings This study identifies five promising groups of research areas such as the organizational approach, the biological approach, the cognitive approach, the emotional approach and it identify five future research topics such as dynamic skills in innovation exploitation process, the human aspect of leadership, the building process of leadership, the biological perspective of leadership and the application of neuroscience in the ecosystem. Moreover, we find an evidence-based roadmap for stimulating focused EL within the broad topic of innovation management research, to move the field forward. Originality/value Although the past few years have observed the necessity of review studies on the subsets of biological factors, no reviews have sought to bring those different subsets together into a broader biological perspective. This study provides important indications on the interdisciplinary developments between the neuroscience aspects and EL, as a new emerging paradigm within the broad field of innovation management.
... Although there are different categorizations of leadership (25,(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58)(59)(60), the majority of classifications systems include some aspects of Goal-oriented leadership which emphasizes the accomplishment of task objectives (11,12). Therefore, the current task was specifically designed to assess the goal-oriented aspect of leadership. ...
... Finally, the key estimate of the probability of leading generated from our combined PT and optimal categorization model correlated with activity in the Anterior Insula (aIns), a well-established integration hub proposed to combine internal and external states, together with estimated option values, to inform choice (60,61,(115)(116)(117)(118)(119). ...
Article
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Leaders must take responsibility for others and thus affect the well-being of individuals, organizations, and nations. We identify the effects of responsibility on leaders' choices at the behavioral and neurobiological levels and document the widespread existence of responsibility aversion, that is, a reduced willingness to make decisions if the welfare of others is at stake. In mechanistic terms, basic preferences toward risk, loss, and ambiguity do not explain responsibility aversion, which, instead, is driven by a second-order cognitive process reflecting an increased demand for certainty about the best choice when others' welfare is affected. Finally, models estimating levels of information flow between brain regions that process separate choice components provide the first step in understanding the neurobiological basis of individual variability in responsibility aversion and leadership scores.
... Indeed, a potential avenue for future research could be the identification of specific neuroanatomical networks and neurotransmitters associated with various social-cognitive models. Personality neuroscience holds considerable promise in this regard, for example, in examining the neurobiological systems associated with organizational leadership (e.g., Boyatzis et al., 2012;Hannah, Balthazard, Waldman, Jennings, & Thatcher, 2013). ...
Article
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Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). In contrast to static trait-based personality models like the B5, RST provides a more plausible basis for a personality process model, namely, one that explains how emotions and behavior arise from the dynamic interaction between contextual factors and within-person mental mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the evolution of a neurobiologically based personality process model based on RST, the response modulation model and the context-appropriate balanced attention model. They argue that by integrating this complex literature, and by incorporating evidence from personality neuroscience, one can meaningfully explain personality at both the within- and between-person levels. This approach achieves a domain-general architecture based on RST and self-regulation that can be used to align within-person mental mechanisms, neurobiological systems and between-person measurement models.
... Since coaching provided by the supervisor is aligned to social exchange theory (SET). Coaching can be considered as developmental activity introduced by management for well-being of employees to achieve their personal and organizational objectives (Boyatzis et al., 2012). It might assist employee extra role performance as a favor of exchange. ...
Article
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This research aims to explore the association among managerial coaching and employees' workplace in-role behaviors and extra-role behaviors. This study also attempts to analyze the role of power distance as a moderator between managerial coaching and employee role behaviors. The data were collected by using self-designed questionnaire the sales representatives working in three different pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. The results indicated that managerial coaching positively influenced employee in-role behaviors and extra-role behaviors. The results also indicated that association of managerial coaching with role behaviors was moderated by power distance. Limitation, future directions, and practical implications of this research are also discussed.
... 3 1987); the contingency approach (Fiedler, 1995); the path-goal theory (Evans, 1996;House, 1996) to the more recent leader-member exchange (LMX) theory (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995;Schriesheim, Castro, & Cogliser, 1999;Harris, Li, & Kirkman, 2014;Wilson, Sin, & Conlon, 2010) and its two variations, i.e., the multidimensional leader-follower exchange (LMD-MDM) and the leader-member social exchange (LMSX) as advanced by Boyatzis et al.,(2012) as well as the implicit theories of leadership (Junker & Van Dick, 2014). ...
... As an area of the brain becomes active, oxygen-rich blood flows to that region of the brain to fuel the neurons, and the fMRI maps changes in oxygen-rich blood flows in each area of the brain. As examples of recent organizational behavior research, Boyatzis, Passarelli, Koenig, Lowe, Mathew, Stoller, and Phillips (2012) examined employee memories of previous resonant and dissonant leaders by means of the fMRI. Also, Bagozzi, Verbeke, Dietvorst, Belschak, van den Berg, and Rietdijk (2013) used fMRI to study the roles of perspective taking and emotional sharing in order to better understanding Machiavellian behavior. ...
... Today's workplace is experiencing rapid and disruptive changes that require individuals to function effectively in a greater variety of situations and roles over their lifetime than past generations. Individuals who do not believe that they can succeed may experience negative emotions when encountering difficulty, which can inhibit initiative and innovative behavior by narrowing their focus to whatever is measured (Boyatzis et al., 2012). Self-efficacy is critical to develop for several of the competencies identified in the PPLA model, including analytical reasoning, critical thinking, deeper learning, managing complexity, self-directed learning, and innovation. ...
Article
The Problem Employers view today’s science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) program graduates as deficient in interpersonal skills that are essential for team and organizational performance. However, STEM programs continue to effectively engage in interpersonal skills development in college level, instead placing the responsibility of such development on employers. The Solution A competency modeling framework should inform the design of such education programs, and this article describes such a framework and an educational program that used the framework to identify needed interpersonal skills and successfully develop them in STEM students. The framework will help HRD (human resource development) professionals take an active role in identifying the competencies needed for STEM program graduate success. The Stakeholders The article provides HRD academics with a framework to identify competencies needed for workplace success in a given academic field. As education programs such as described here are developed, STEM organizations may receive workers who are more productive and less in need of leadership development expenditure.
... In a series of fMRI studies, Boyatzis, Jack, Cesaro, Passarelli, and Khawaja (2010) showed that resonant leaders activate specific neural pathways in their employees' brains that encourage engagement and positive working relationships. In another fMRI study, Boyatzis et al. (2012) interviewed senior executives and asked them to recall their critical past incidences and associated interaction with resonant and dissonant leaders. After few weeks, brain mapping of these executives was done through fMRI. ...
Article
Human resource management (HRM) has evolved over the years and is constantly adapting to the advanced technologies and research endeavours to address the complexities of the corporate environment and aspirations of the stakeholders. In this article, the authors explain the relevance of neuroscientific research for HRM practices. Interdisciplinary nature and landmarks of social neuroscience and newly evolved discipline of organisational cognitive neuroscience are discussed. The nexus of Neuro–HR has phenomenal research and application opportunities to progress and enhance the quality of HRM for effective organisations leading to a healthier society. A significant use of neuroscience in HRM appears to be an interesting journey full of opportunities and challenges ahead.
... For instance, research on resting-state fMRI has recently allowed researchers to define the so-called Default Mode Network (DMN), which is a distinctive network of 355 brain regions whose activities are highly correlated with one another (Buckner et al., 2008). Functional integration has shown that the DMN can also be associated with aspects such as social cognition (Raichle & Snyder, 2007) and recall of experiences resonant (versus dissonant) with leaders (Boyatzis et al., 2012; see also Boyatzis, Rochford, & Jack, 2014 for the dynamics between 360 DMN and the inhibiting task-positive network in leadership research). fMRI data analysis fMRI data requires complex pre-and postprocessing steps performed with dedicated algorithms and procedures. ...
... In an fMRI study of executives' reflections on moments in their lives with resonant versus dissonant leaders, Boyatzis et al. (2012) found that resonant leaders invoked many elements of the DMN even years after an event in all of the resonant relationships. However, only about one-third of the dissonant relationships invoked the same brain regions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroscience can shed light on the underlying mechanisms of coaching and provide important insights to facilitate development. These insights provide guideposts for a more effective, interactive coaching process that is most successful when it remains fluid, responsive, and centered on the client. In this article we introduce our general model, intentional change theory (ICT), and review findings from an initial brain-imaging study that examines neural differences between 2 approaches to coaching: 1 called coaching with compassion (i.e., coaching to the positive emotional attractor—PEA); and the more typical approach to coaching, called coaching for compliance (i.e., coaching to the negative emotional attractor—NEA). This study showed that PEA coaching activates networks and regions of the brain that are associated with big-picture thinking, engagement, motivation, stress regulation, and parasympathetic modulation. Next we discuss research on the opposing domains hypothesis, showing that brain regions responsible for analytic thinking exist in tension with brain regions essential for socially and emotionally connecting with others and understanding ethical issues and being open to new ideas and learning. We extend these findings to explore how neuroscience explains different forms of empathy. In the next section we discuss neuroscience findings relevant to creating a culture of coaching in organizations. Finally, we discuss a further neuroscientific study of coaching that solidifies our understanding of the mechanisms by which coaching can help personal development. At the conclusion of each of the sections we discuss how these insights from neuroscience help inform effective approaches to coaching.
... Most recently, the field of affective neuroscience has begun examining the neural correlates of PEA and NEA. [100][101][102][103][104][105] Although not conclusive and not without substantive critique 106 as well as more hopeful and balanced caution 107 the results are promising. For instance, Jack et al. 108 used functional magnetic resonance imaging, to determine differential activation caused by coaching to the PEA vs. the NEA. ...
Article
This paper examines the proposed asymmetry that should occur between resonance and dissonance in physician-patient relationships in favour of resonance to facilitate an effective relationship. Resonance is represented by the positive emotional attractor, which comprises patients’ conscious preferred future or ideal self, and dissonance is expressed by the negative emotional attractor and consists of the gaps between patients’ ideal and real self or their fears, problems, and shortfalls. Intentional change theory is reviewed to optimise the physician-patient relationship. Concepts from complexity theory and recent research on emotions are used to explain positive and negative emotional attractors. The role of resonance and dissonance in physician-patient relationships is discussed along with how behaviour can be changed with positive and negative emotional attractors. This paper focuses on the quality and effectiveness of physician-patient relationships for physicians who create high versus low positive emotional attractor/negative emotional attractor ratios. Two theoretical propositions are offered and the research and practice implications are explained. © 2017, Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. All rights reserved.
... Theoretically, the organizational behavior cluster investigates themes similar to those of the economics and marketing clusters. For instance, emotions and decision-making are explored through the memories of experiences with resonant and dissonant leaders (Boyatzis et al., 2012). Boyatzis (2014, p. 302) reviews selected articles and their contributions to leadership and management development from neuroscience indicating that physiological and neuroscience studies are "creeping into print in AMJ, ASQ, JOM, and even Harvard Business Review. ...
Chapter
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This chapter argues that new venture team (NVT) processes are relatively ill-understood in the entrepreneurship literature, and describes various theoretical and empirical research avenues that may be pursued in order to improve our understanding of these processes. It then focuses on the widely established input-processes-outcome (IPO) framework. This framework has long been used within the field of organizational behavior as it seeks to understand group performance and other group-level outcomes as the consequence of the inputs and processes that precede them. Building upon the foundations of Entrepreneurial Theorizing, the chapter argues how and when specific theories such as faultline theory, creativity and imagination, and organizational and team justice may be instructive in studying NVT processes at the prefounding phase, and particularly the (self)-selection of individuals into (out of) the NVT through social interaction. Faultlines hold great potential for understanding NVT processes both in the prefounding and postfounding phases.
... In leadership, Waldman et al. (2011) found that the right frontal coherence is associated with the formation of a socialized visionary communication, which in turn builds followers' perceptions of the leader's inspirational capabilities. In another leadership study, Boyatzis et al. (2012) found that recalling experiences with resonant leaders was associated with the activation of regions such as the bilateral insula, right inferior parietal lobe, and left superior temporal gyrus, while recalling experiences with dissonant leaders limited the activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex and positively activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral posterior region of the inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/insula. Other quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) findings have shown that being exposed to an inspirational leader activates the bilateral rostral inferior parietal lobule, pars opercularis, and posterior midcingulate cortex, while being exposed to a noninspirational leader activates the medial prefrontal cortex (Molenberghs, Prochilo, Steffens, Zacher, & Haslam, 2015). ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the role that biology plays in entrepreneurship. It examines how genetics, hormones, physiology, and neuroscience may affect entrepreneurial phenotypes. Entrepreneurship researchers have investigated the influence of genetic factors in entrepreneurship. There are two main approaches that examine the influence of genetics on entrepreneurship: quantitative genetics and molecular genetics. Individual differences in hormones have also been linked to the tendency to engage in entrepreneurship. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are the most adopted neuroscience techniques in organizational studies. Fueled by recent evidence, the chapter also investigates how biological factors may interact and correlate with environmental factors to influence entrepreneurship. The research on the biological perspective has shown that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an asset that can stimulate entrepreneurial work environments. Finally, the chapter also discusses some future research avenues for entrepreneurship scholars interested in the biological perspective.
... When contrary statements are made, the CEO will have supporters to combat them. Boyatzis et al. (2006Boyatzis et al. ( , 2012 posits that focusing on developing others reduces both physiological and psychological stressors in us. ...
Article
This study examined the response of an organization's members to subversive leadership and the undermining of the CEO. When the top-management team is in conflict, there is a lack of leadership from the highest levels within the organization. The lack of leadership is likely to produce extraordinary stress throughout the firm, and become a health-risk factor for the organization's members, especially the CEO. After exposure to this undermining, we hypothesize that organizational members will lose trust in the leadership and will have lower job satisfaction, as well a higher intent to leave the organization. The findings indicated that individuals, within the subversive-leadership environment, have lower job satisfaction and higher intent-to-leave the organization. Furthermore, the individual's emotional intelligence level does mediate the relationship between trust in the leadership and job satisfaction, but does not mediate intent-to-leave.
... Organizational Research Methods XX(X) The first, Boyatzis et al. (2012), provides what we consider to be a selective and very limited consideration of the neuroscience literature. The authors do not make any reference to the neuroscience literature in the front end of their article with regard to expected neural activity. ...
Article
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The potential of neuroscience to be a viable framework for studying human behavior in organizations depends on scholars’ ability to evaluate, design, analyze, and accurately interpret neuroscientific research. Prior to the publishing of this special issue, relatively little guidance has been available in the management literature for scholars seeking to integrate neuroscience and organization science in a balanced, informative and methodologically rigorous manner. In response to this need, we address design logic and inferential issues involved in evaluating and conducting neuroscience research capable of informing organizational science. Specifically, neuroscience methods of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, lesion studies, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation are reviewed, with attention to how these methods might be combined to achieve convergent evidence. We then discuss strengths and limitations of various designs, highlighting the issue of reverse inference as precarious yet necessary for organizational neuroscience. We offer solutions for addressing limitations related to reverse inference, and propose features that allow stronger inferences to be made. The article concludes with a review of selected empirical work in organizational neuroscience in light of these critical design features.
... That is, the goal of this research has been to examine areas of the brain responding to various stimuli. In an exploratory fMRI study, Boyatzis et al. (2012) had executives recall past personal experiences with resonant and dissonant leaders. The results suggested that recalling resonant leaders did not produce widespread disengagement of the default mode network, which has been associated with such features as social awareness; self-projection into the future; and attempts to connect past, present, and future (see Waldman et al. 2016b). ...
Article
In this review, we consider the advent of neuroscience in management and organizational research. We organize our review around two general themes pertaining to how areas of the brain may be relevant to management and organizational behavior. First, intrinsic, at-rest activity in the brain provides trait-like information that can be used to better understand individuals in terms of cognition, emotions, and behaviors. Second, reflexive activity involves an understanding of the brain in terms of its state-like responses to stimuli. In our review, we identify several research challenges and opportunities, such as the need to consider the theoretical basis of neural concepts and measures and the use of team-based neuroscience technologies. In addition, although research in organizational neuroscience is relatively new, some interesting practical implications are raised here. We conclude with a consideration of key limitations, specifically the possibility of excessive reductionism, as well as ethical and professional issues.
... Common characteristics of resonant leaders include positivity, relational awareness, empathy, compassion, emotional intelligence, self-awareness, and trust. By comparison, dissonant leaders are negative, unpleasant, often burned out, aggressive, lack self-control, disconnected, and usually unaware or overwhelmed (Boyatzis et al., 2012). Resonant leadership allows for renewal through mindfulness, hope, and compassion (Boyatzis and McKee, 2005) which is often reported in the career journeys of emergent medical leaders (Quinn and White, 2019). ...
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Under-representation of women in leadership at Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) is a known challenge such that, in 2021, women made up only 28% of department chairs. AMCs are addressing the dearth of women leaders through targeted programming to create leadership pipelines of qualified women. The FLEX Leadership Development Program at the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine prepares women faculty for increased leadership opportunities. FLEX includes the opportunity to leverage executive coaching to accomplish individual goals. The FLEX program has the explicit goal of increasing the number of women in visible leadership positions in academic medicine and health sciences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 graduates from seven FLEX cohorts (2012–2018). Participants reflected diversity in academic rank, terminal degree, racial/ethnic background, years of employment, and institutional affiliation. Interviews consisted of eight questions with additional probes to elicit lived experiences. Analysis consisted of two-stage open- and axial-coding of interview transcripts to understand: What factors facilitated behavior change following FLEX training? The analysis revealed five overarching themes: (1) Communication skills; (2) Self-Efficacy; (3) Networking; (4) Situational Awareness; and (5) Visioning. FLEX graduates reported achieving both personal and professional growth by drawing upon peer networks to proactively seek new leadership opportunities. These results suggest that the enduring benefits of the FLEX Program include improved communication skills, expanded situational awareness and relational capacity, greater self-efficacy and self-confidence, improved networking with an understanding of the value of networking. All these factors led FLEX graduates to have greater visibility and to engage with their colleagues more effectively. Similarly, FLEX graduates could better advocate for themselves and for others as well as paying it forward to mentor and train the next generation of faculty. Finally, participants learned to re-evaluate their goals and their career vision to be able to envision themselves in greater leadership roles. The five factors that strongly influenced behavior change provide valuable constructs for other programs to examine following leadership development training. Ongoing studies include examining successful leadership position attainment, personal goal attainment, and measuring changes in leadership self-efficacy.
... We highlight two articles we believe did not do this well. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F o r P e e r R e v i e w The first, Boyatzis et al., (2012), provides what we consider to be an weak consideration of the neuroscience literature. The authors do not make any reference to the neuroscience literature in the front end of their paper with regard to expected neural activity. ...
... Leadership is a field of study that examines the characteristics of leaders (Judge and Bono, 2000;Zaccaro, 2007), behavioral (Podsakoff et al., 2006;Carson et al., 2007), intellectual functioning (Martinko et al., 2007;Lord and Shondrick, 2011), competence (Vera and Crossan, 2004), and biological sciences (Waldman et al., 2011;Boyatzis et al., 2012;Lee et al., 2012). As a result, the characteristics of leaders are used and integrated to determine the impact on the job, workplace satisfaction, and community well-being. ...
... In fact, emotions mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and people's motivation in organisations (Berkovich & Ori, 2017). Effective leaders are skillful in regulating their emotions, expressing their emotions in positive ways (Blasé & Blasé, 2004), resonating with their followers' emotions (Boyatzis et al., 2012), and motivating and inspiring others. Positive emotional expression, in turn, is integral to transformational leadership (Berkovich & Eyal, 2015). ...
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In this study, we examined the role of leadership styles and multi‐dimensional learner engagement in how students emerge as learning leaders in asynchronous online discussions. Grounded in the conceptual framework of two dominant leadership styles of transformational and transactional leadership, this study applies the two leadership styles—transformational leadership and transactional leadership—to the Leader Identification Method (LIM) which defines three types of leader roles (i.e., full, transactional and attractive facilitator) in online learning. We collected data from 20 students enrolled in a graduate‐level online course that required participation in 12‐week discussion activities. Results of the longitudinal data analyses show that person‐focused, transformational leadership and active participation in online discussions were significant factors that enabled students to emerge as learning leaders. Students are more likely to become leaders by exhibiting transformational leadership behaviour and productively interacting with one another in an online discussion community.
... Leaders vary in their implicit power motivation-an unconscious motivation to derive pleasure from having control over the behaviors and circumstances of others by reward-and punishment-related resources (e.g., deliver rewards such as job promotion or administer punishment such as job termination; Fiske, 1993;McClelland & Boyatzis, 1982). Paradoxically, to acquire power, people need to be emotionally resonant (Boyatzis et al., 2012) and express social emotions-such as empathy and compassion-by exhibiting eye contact while speaking and being agreeable. However, once people assume positions of power, they tend to have diminished empathy and compassion, demonstrating antisocial behaviors such as being aggressive, coercive, impulsive, and deceptive. ...
Article
Purpose: Emotions have a pervasive, predictable, sometimes deleterious but other times instrumental effect on decision making. Yet the influence of emotions on educational leaders’ decision making has been largely underexplored. To optimize educational leaders’ decision making, this article builds on the prevailing data-driven decision-making approach, and proposes an organizing framework of educational leaders’ emotions in decision making by drawing on converging empirical evidence from multiple disciplines (e.g., administrative science, psychology, behavioral economics, cognitive neuroscience, and neuroeconomics) intersecting emotions, decision making, and organizational behavior. Proposed Framework: The proposed organizing framework of educational leaders’ emotions in decision making includes four core propositions: (1) decisions are the outcomes of the interactions between emotions and cognition; (2) at the moment of decision making, emotions have a pervasive, predictable impact on decision making; (3) before making decisions, leaders’ individual differences (e.g., trait affect and power) and organizational contexts (e.g., organizational justice and emotional contagion) have a bearing on leaders’ emotions and decision making; and (4) postdecision behavioral responses trigger more emotions (e.g., regret, guilt, and shame) which, in turn, influence the next cycle of decision-making process. Implications: The proposed framework calls for not only an intensified scholarly inquiry into educational leaders’ emotions and decision making but also an adequate training on emotions in school leadership preparation programs and professional development.
... Avolio et al. (2004) defined leadership in terms of characteristics, traits, and behavior focused on a clear vision, action, ethical relationship, trustworthiness, modeling the way, congruence, and collaboration. The relationship nature of leaders with employees influences their job satisfaction, positive relationships, turnover, well being of followers, and overall organization's performance (Boyatzis et al., 2012). Unsurprisingly, leadership behavior triggers an emotional response in the employees who lead and affects their performance ultimately (Hofmeyer et al., 2015). ...
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The leadership and human resources are two major factors, which cannot be ignored in the substantial growth of higher education institutions. A person joins a higher education institution with motivation and certain intentions, which include job security, good income, and better prospects for professional and personal development in the future. It is the responsibility of the leadership of the institution to be familiar with these basic facts and to take such steps, which not only take the business to the next level, but it should also encourage the employees to push hard for their professional and personal growth. Nevertheless, it is not easy to achieve the objective of lacking proper administration and collective efforts of the workforce. The purpose of this review paper is to highlight the role of leadership, which directly or indirectly makes an impact on the efficiency of human resources to achieve a high level of job satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions.
... For instance, research on resting-state fMRI has recently allowed researchers to define the so-called Default Mode Network (DMN), which is a distinctive network of 355 brain regions whose activities are highly correlated with one another (Buckner et al., 2008). Functional integration has shown that the DMN can also be associated with aspects such as social cognition (Raichle & Snyder, 2007) and recall of experiences resonant (versus dissonant) with leaders (Boyatzis et al., 2012; see also Boyatzis, Rochford, & Jack, 2014 for the dynamics between 360 DMN and the inhibiting task-positive network in leadership research). fMRI data analysis fMRI data requires complex pre-and postprocessing steps performed with dedicated algorithms and procedures. ...
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This paper advances current understandings of why and how neuroimaging can enrich the study of entrepreneurship. We discuss the foundations of this cross-disciplinary research area and its evolving boundaries, focusing on explaining and providing actionable insights on how two of the most widely used brain-imaging methods can be leveraged for use in entrepreneurship research. We provide guidelines aimed to equip entrepreneurship scholars with the fundamentals needed to design and evaluate research involving these neuroscience instruments. In so doing, we delineate examples related to entrepreneurial cognition and propose several ways in which this domain of research can be enhanced with neuroimaging.
... Among the 23 papers in the sample, only three contributions (i.e., Krueger et al., 2009;Boyatzis et al., 2012;Hannah et al., 2013) are present also in the "organizational behavior cluster" of Butler et al. (2016), substantiating originality and novelty in the systematization we propose. The majority of the 23 papers in our sample are conceptual (12; 52%), then 9 empirical articles (39%) and 2 review works (9%) complete the sample. ...
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How do affect and cognition interact in managerial decision making? Over the last decades, scholars have investigated how managers make decisions. However, what remains largely unknown is the interplay of affective states and cognition during the decision-making process. We offer a systematization of the contributions produced on the role of affect and cognition in managerial decision making by considering the recent cross-fertilization of management studies with the neuroscience domain. We implement a Systematic Literature Review of 23 selected contributions dealing with the role of affect and cognition in managerial decisions that adopted neuroscience techniques/points of view. Collected papers have been analyzed by considering the so-called reflexive (X-) and reflective (C-) systems in social cognitive neuroscience and the type of decisions investigated in the literature. Results obtained help to support an emerging "unified" mind processing theory for which the two systems of our mind are not in conflict and for which affective states have a driving role toward cognition. A research agenda for future studies is provided to scholars who are interested in advancing the investigation of affect and cognition in managerial decision making, also through neuroscience techniques-with the consideration that these works should be at the service of the behavioral strategy field.
... According to Boyatzis et al. (2012), PO positively affect employees' job-related outcomes such as increased organizational citizenship behavior (Park et al., 2013), affective commitment and job satisfaction and decrease adverse outcomes such as turnover intention (Bernhard and O'Driscoll, 2011). PO shares a sense of positivity and striving for accomplishment and success (Avey et al., 2009), which can foster one's positive feelings in the workplace. ...
Article
Purpose Workplace well-being has emerged as an important aspect in the field of health care. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the role of managerial coaching on nurses’ well-being through psychological ownership and organizational identity. Design/methodology/approach The authors approached 284 nurses working in both public and private hospitals (between December 2019 and February 2020) on convenience basis, and data were collected through an online questionnaire-based survey. Findings The data were analyzed using AMOS version 24 and structural equation modeling confirmed psychological ownership and organizational identity as explanatory variables between managerial coaching and well-being. Research limitations/implications The study used self-reported data using convenience sampling which may raise a question on causality. The findings suggest the management to consider the importance of managerial coaching in shaping positive workplace behaviors of employees. Originality/value Drawings on social exchange theory, this study extends past studies to examine the mediating roles of psychological ownership and organizational identification between managerial coaching and workplace well-being among nurses. The study has theoretical and practical implications.
... Another work found that there is a marked difference in the left prefrontal cortex of leaders who displayed confidence and optimism in comparison to those leaders who did not (Peterson et al., 2008). Finally, in recall of experiences with resonant versus dissonant leaders, memories of resonant leaders are shown to activate areas associated to the mirror neuron system (MNS) and the default mode network (DMN) (Boyatzis et al., 2012). The default mode network is generally related to social cognition and activated when people are interacting with others (Raichle & Snyder, 2007). ...
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Organizational neuroscience—a novel scholarly domain using neuroscience to inform management and organizational research, and vice versa—is flourishing. Still missing, however, is a comprehensive coverage of organizational neuroscience as a self-standing scientific field. A foundational account of the potential that neuroscience holds to advance management and organizational research is currently a gap. The gap can be addressed with a review of the main methods, systematizing the existing scholarly literature in the field including entrepreneurship, strategic management, and organizational behavior, among others.
... Those studies focus primarily on the personal level of analysis discussing cognitive and psychological aspects of HC (Foss and Pedersen, 2016). For example, Boyatzis et al. (2012) studied neural mechanisms involved in memories of interactions in different kind of leaders. However, examples can be found also in accounting studies. ...
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In this paper we review the main evolution of intellectual capital (IC) research after 20 years from the first article published by Leif Edvinsson on the topic. In developing the paper, we highlight the main concerns that were stimulating the debate at the time. The paper employs a conceptual review starting from the questions raised in one of the first papers about IC. While 20 years ago, the debate was about the starting of the knowledge economy, the search for increasing economic value and IC research was at the beginning. Today we face a different situation. The knowledge economy represents a consolidated concept, and a new paradigm is emerging based on an economy in which sustainability and worth represent the core values. Organisations are employing new business models to create value that also embraces a sustainable perspective. New research streams on IC are emerging.
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In this chapter, we offer a content analysis of top-tier management journals to examine the extent to which advocates of neuroscience in management pay heed to the ethical ramifications of their work. Based upon our analysis, we are able to robustly refute the claim by Butler and colleagues (Hum Relat 70:1171–1190, 2017) that Lindebaum’s (Hum Relat 69(3):537–50, 2016) concerns about the lack of ethical concerns in the proliferation and application of neuroscientific ideas and measurements are basically much ado about nothing. By way of this content analysis, we advance the debate on the ethical ramifications of applying neuroscience in management by demonstrating (1) which ethical issues are recognised and (2) which ones are not. Doing so has the potential to open up new directions in studying the ethical and practical ramifications of neuroscience in and around workplaces.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand how neuroscientific tools are used and discussed in ongoing research on strategy in organizations. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a bibliometric study of bibliographic pairing to answer the research question. They collected data from the Web of Science and Scopus databases using the keywords “neuroscience*,” “neurostrategy*” and “neuroscientific*.” Findings This study presents a framework that relates fundamental aspects discussed in current research using neuroscientific tools: Neuroscience and its research tools in organizations; emotions and information processing; interdisciplinary application of neuroscientific tools; and moral and ethical influences in the leaders' decision-making process. Research limitations/implications The inclusion of neuroscientific tools in Strategic Management research is still under development. There are criticisms and challenges related to the limitations and potential to support future research. Practical implications Despite recognizing the potential of neuroscientific tools in the mind and brain relationship, this study suggests that at this stage, because of criticisms and challenges, they should be used as support and in addition to other traditional research techniques to assess constructs and mechanisms related to strategic decisions and choices in organizations. Social implications Neuroscientific methods in organizational studies can provide insights into individual reactions to ethical issues and raise challenging normative questions about the nature of moral responsibility, autonomy, intention and free will, offering multiple perspectives in the field of business ethics. Originality/value In addition to presenting the potential and challenges of using scientific tools in strategic management studies, this study helps create methodological paths for studies in strategic management.
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Aim: To report a potential knowledge exchange between nursing studies and the results obtained from a study conducted into the attributes of embodied leadership. Background: Leadership theories have been applied to evaluate, improve and train nursing practitioners in several previous studies. However, leadership research has entered a new phase where the focus is to produce sustainable leaders through authenticity and compassion, the same two characteristics identified as being of most success in emergent nursing practice. There are few studies that have indicated a knowledge exchange between the latest developments in leadership studies and nursing. Design: An exploratory and qualitative study. Method: Between February 2012 - July 2012, a focused sample of 14 medical care professionals was interviewed across a chain of hospitals. The aim was to evaluate embodied leadership characteristics and understand the factors that contribute to the manifestation of these characteristics. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: Several factors that contribute to the characteristics of embodied leadership have been identified in the interviews as well as in subsequent literature searches on the characteristics and contributing factors found to be associated with nursing research. These could prompt a knowledge exchange. Conclusion: The results suggest common ground between nursing and contemporary leadership research in the exposition of behaviours; namely, being non-judgmental, listening actively, reflective practice and embracing uncertainty. Several implications can therefore be expected through the exchange of knowledge resulting from collaboration between researchers in the two disciplines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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In this article, we conduct a systematic review of the emerging literature on the biological perspective in management and investigate research spanning the areas of genetics, physiology, and neuroscience. We examine 291 papers published in 133 journals over an 85-year period as well as 10 conference/working papers and six books. On the basis of this analysis, we present an organizing framework of the area, explain the mechanisms through which biological factors relate to management, and discuss the implications of the biological perspective for the theory and the practice of management. Finally, we present an agenda highlighting avenues for future research in this field.
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In Higher Education, the role of the faculty is of vital importance in the teaching/ learning process. In the active learning approach, the faculty's main role is facilitating the process without deep intervention, so that the student would be able to take responsibility in his/ her education and shifting the role from the receiver to the strategic partner. In this paper, I am trying to share some of my humble experience within higher education probably it would help my fellow colleagues in one way or another.
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With the aim of extending the healthy physiological variability thesis to Leadership Studies, we examined the hypothesized links among leaders' within-person variability in physiological arousal, their task- and relations-oriented behaviors and their overall effectiveness. During regularly-held staff meetings, wristband skin sensors and video cameras captured synchronized physiological and fine-grained behavioral data of 36 leaders within one organization. Perceived leader effectiveness ratings were obtained from their followers. Multi-level log-linear analyses showed no elevated levels of arousal during the task-oriented behaviors of both the highly effective and the less effective leaders. The highly effective leaders showed a significantly greater likelihood of high levels of physiological arousal during positive and negative relations-oriented behaviors. We thus report a physiological correlate of relations-oriented leader behavior; especially among the most effective leaders, higher levels of arousal co-occurred with their positive and negative relations-oriented behavior in the meetings. Having used two high-resolution methods to advance insights about effective organizational leadership, this field study illuminates the importance of capturing the co-occurrence of within-person variability in leaders' bodily responses and their precisely measured behaviors over time in a functional social setting at work.
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Previous studies have established that venture capitalists (VCs) adjust their investment decisions according to the economic outcome of their cooperation with entrepreneurs. However, investment decisions made by VCs are embedded in social interaction and influenced by information from third parties. Therefore, research studies on interpersonal trust in the disciplines of economics, psychology and neuroscience were integrated in this paper to explore how the trust cognition of VCs in entrepreneurs’ behavior consistency affects their investment decision-making. First, behavioral consistency is the criterion used by VCs to assess the credibility of entrepreneurs. Second, a trust game was designed for VCs and entrepreneurs, during which EEG (electroencephalogram) of the VCs was recorded. Finally, a learning model was developed on each participant’s behavior and showed the process of investment decision-making. The results indicated that investment decisions of VCs are significantly affected by trust cognition and rewards of cooperation, VCsʼ investment decisions are guided by their trust cognition in the behavioral consistency of entrepreneurs and investment experiences have a significant impact on investment decisions when VCs are cooperating with entrepreneurs with a moderate level of behavioral consistency. One explanation for these findings may be a result of the fact that the neutral information is ambiguous and uncertain; thus, VCs preferred to rely on the outcome of cooperation to adjust their investment decisions.
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In this chapter, the authors introduce the first element of their Leadership OS model, trust. They describe four components that contribute to trust in the workplace: care, reliability, psychological trust and fairness. Using both their own and previous research, they describe the social and neural underpinnings of trust and the functions it plays in a leaders’ Operating System—how it affects people’s performance. They introduce a case study that highlights the role and importance of trust in leadership (Jose Mourinho at Manchester United), and finally, they describe practical approach leaders can use to increase the degree to which their OS enables and supports trust.
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Advances in neuroimaging methods have changed the way that psychologists study human behavior and cognition. These techniques are not, however, without statistical pitfalls. This chapter surveys some recent studies on the psychology of social connection and leadership, with a particular emphasis on methodological caveats.
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The present paper discusses the application of organizational neuroscience in management research in Africa. In so doing, the paper draws from the field of neuroscience, organizational neuroscience, and cultural neuroscience to explore the extent to which topics, such as corruption, tribal identity, and nepotism could be analyzed through the lens of organizational neuroscience. The paper’s implications for further research and management practice are discussed.
Thesis
ABSTRACT Organizational cognitive neuroscience is defined as appling neuroscientific methods to analyze and understand human behaviour within the applied setting of organizations (Butler and Senior, 2007a: 8). Over the years, the tendency to benefit from developing neuroscientific research strategies is increasing in the analysis of organizational processes. In Turkey, there is very few published study on organizational cognitive neuroscience literature and there are no study considering literature survey and discovering a new field. This thesis study hopes to be an academic guide to the management researchers who desire to include the organizational cognitive neuroscience into their studies. Additonally, it aims to describe the organizational cognitive neuroscience which is a brand new branch in management and to answer the questions of how organizational cognitive neuroscience is defined, what the topics, contributions and methods are. In this study, the contents of 51 English-published articles about organizational cognitive neuroscience are analysed by using the qualitative content analysis. Thoroughly examined articles are gathered around three themes representing the research questions: “Theory and Method”, “Organizational Behaviour”, “Leadership.” The effort for a field definition and different research topics take a large part in the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience in which there is a big divergence about the boundaries. In the theoretical framework, this study provides a synthesis of management literature by exploring the field of organizational cognitive neuroscience that focuses on the underlying causes of human behaviour in the organization. In the practical framework, it points out to management researchers new issues about how to apply neuroscientific knowledge into the work environment.
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The concept of empathy is vital in human-agent systems as it contributes to mutual understanding, problem-solving and sustained relationships. Despite the increasing adoption of conversational systems as one of the most significant events in the recent decade, the emotional aspects require considerable improvements, particularly in effectively displaying empathy. This paper provides a critical review of this rapidly growing field by examining the current advances in four dimensions: (i) conceptual empathy models and frameworks, (ii) the adopted empathy-related concepts, (iii) the datasets and algorithmic techniques developed, and (iv) the evaluation strategies. The review findings show that the most studies centred on the use of the EMPATHETICDIALOGUES dataset, and the text-based modality dominated research in this field. Moreover, studies have focused mainly on extracting features from the messages of both users and the conversational systems, with minimal emphasis on user modelling and profiling. For implementation in variegated real-world domain settings, we recommend that future studies address the gaps in detecting and authenticating emotions at the entity level, handling multimodal inputs, displaying more nuanced empathetic behaviours, and encompassing additional dialogue system features.
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Employees develop exchange relationships both with organizations and immediate superiors, as evidenced by research on perceived organizational support (POS) and leader-member exchange (LMX), respectively. Despite conceptual similarities between these two constructs, theoretical development and research has proceeded independently. In an attempt to integrate these literatures, we developed and tested a model of the antecedents and consequences of POS and LMX, based on social exchange theory. Results indicated that POS and LMX have unique antecedents and are differentially related to outcome variables, providing support for the importance of both types of exchanges.
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The leader–member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader–member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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By integrating recent findings in affective neuroscience and biology with well- documented research on leadership and stress, we offer a more holistic approach to leadership development. We argue here that leader sustainability is adversely affected by the psychological and physiological effects of chronic power stress associated with the performance of the leadership role. We further contend, however, that when leaders experience compassion through coaching the development of others, they experience psychophysiological effects that restore the body's natural healing and growth processes, thus enhancing their sustainability. We thus suggest that to sustain their effectiveness, leaders should emphasize coaching as a key part of their role and behavioral habits. Implications for future research on leadership and leadership development are discussed, as well as implications for the practice of leadership development and education.
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A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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On the basis of the current theories of charismatic leadership, several possible follower effects were identified. It is hypothesized that followers of charismatic leaders could be distinguished by their greater reverence, trust, and satisfaction with their leader and by a heightened sense of collective identity, perceived group task performance, and feelings of empowerment. Using the Conger–Kanungo charismatic leadership scale and measures of the hypothesized follower effects, an empirical study was conducted on a sample of 252 managers using structural equation modelling. The results show a strong relationship between follower reverence and charismatic leadership. Follower trust and satisfaction, however, are mediated through leader reverence. Followers' sense of collective identity and perceived group task performance are affected by charismatic leadership. Feelings of empowerment are mediated through the followers' sense of collective identity and perceived group task performance. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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UI - 22758841DA - 20030723IS - 0959-4965LA - engPT - Journal ArticleSB - IM
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Whether Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) is a unidimensional or a multidimensional construct was assesed through the development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Item analysis involving 302 working students, followed by construct and criterion-related validation using 249 employees representing two organizations resulted in a multidimensional LMX scale. The results provided support for the affect, loyalty, and contribution dimensions identified by Dienesch and Liden (1986), as well as a fourth dimension, professional respect.
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Two studies are reported in which the behaviours of four infant class teachers and their respective classes were observed and recorded. The aim of the studies was to examine the effects of contingent teacher touch behaviour upon children's classroom behaviour. Baseline data were collected using an existing classroom observation schedule adapted to include systematic observation and recording of teacher touch behaviour as well as other relevant teacher behaviours and class behaviour. Following the collection of baseline data, teachers were instructed to attempt to restrict their touch behaviour to occasions when they were praising children's classroom behaviour (i.e. to use touch positively and contingently). Observations then continued as before. This intervention resulted in greatly increased contingent touch behaviour by all teachers. The effects on children's behaviour in all cases were to increase on‐task behaviour and (where measured) to decrease disruptive behaviour. Reversals to pre‐intervention baseline conditions were not attempted, but in the second of the two studies a multiple baseline design across classes was employed which effectively demonstrated experimental control.
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The evidence on universals in facial expression of emotion, renewed controversy about that evidence, and new findings on cultural differences are reviewed. New findings on the capability for voluntarily made facial expressions to generate changes in both autonomic and central nervous system activity are discussed, and possible mechanisms by which this could occur are outlined. Finally, new work which has identified how to distinguish the smile of enjoyment from other types of smiling is described.
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While affect and emotion have been theoretically linked to leadership for decades, only recently has this relationship come under empirical scrutiny. The current research examines the effects of emotional contagion on follower affect at work and examines the outcomes of follower affect at work in a field setting. Leader positive and negative affect at work related to follower positive affect at work via emotional contagion. Follower positive and negative affect at work related to perceptions of charismatic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Follower perceptions of charismatic leadership related to organizational citizenship behavior.
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Subject motion present during the time course of functional activation studies is a pervasive problem in mapping the spatial and temporal characteristics of brain activity. In functional MRI (fMRI) studies, the observed signal changes are small. Therefore, it is crucial to reduce the effect of subject motion during the acquisition of image data in order to differentiate true brain activation from artifactual signal changes due to subject motion. We have adapted a technique for automatic motion detection and correction which is based on the ratio-variance minimization algorithm to the fMRI subject motion problem. This method was used for retrospective correction of subject motion in the acquired data and resulted in improved functional maps. In this paper we have designed and applied a series of tests to evaluate the performance of this technique which span the classes of image characteristics common to fMRI. These areas include tests of the accuracy and range of motion as well as measurement of the effect of image signal to noise ratio, focal activation, image resolution, and image coverage on the motion detection system. Also, we have evaluated the amount of residual motion remaining after motion correction, and the ability of this technique to reduce the motion-induced artifacts and restore regions of activation lost due to subject motion. In summary, this method performed well in the range of image characteristics common for fMRI experiments, reducing residual motion to under 0.5 mm, and removed significant motion-induced artifacts while restoring true regions of activation. Motion correction is expected to become a routine requirement in the analysis of fMRI experiments.
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In spite of feminist recognition that hierarchical organizations are an important location of male dominance, most feminists writing about organizations assume that organizational structure is gender neutral. This article argues that organizational structure is not gender neutral; on the contrary, assumptions about gender underlie the documents and contracts used to construct organizations and to provide the commonsense ground for theorizing about them. Their gendered nature is partly masked through obscuring the embodied nature of work. Abstract jobs and hierarchies, common concepts in organizational thinking, assume a disembodies and universal worker. This worker is actually a man; men's bodies, sexuality, and relationships to procreation and paid work are subsumed in the image of the worker. Images of men's bodies and masculinity pervade organizational processes, marginalizing women and contributing to the maintenance of gender segregation in organizations. The positing of gender-neutral and disembodied organizational structures and work relations is part of the larger strategy of control in industrial capitalist societies, which, at least partly, are built upon a deeply embedded substructure of gender difference.
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Human mimicry is ubiquitous, and often occurs without the awareness of the person mimicking or the person being mimicked. First, we briefly describe some of the major types of nonconscious mimicry—verbal, facial, emotional, and behavioral—and review the evidence for their automaticity. Next, we argue for the broad impact of mimicry and summarize the literature documenting its influence on the mimicry dyad and beyond. This review highlights the moderators of mimicry as well, including the social, motivational, and emotional conditions that foster or inhibit automatic mimicry. We interpret these findings in light of current theories of mimicry. First, we evaluate the evidence for and against mimicry as a communication tool. Second, we review neuropsychological research that sheds light on the question of how we mimic. What is the cognitive architecture that enables us to do what we perceive others do? We discuss a proposed system, the perception-behavior link, and the neurological evidence (i.e., the mirror system) supporting it. We will then review the debate on whether mimicry is innate and inevitable. We propose that the architecture enabling mimicry is innate, but that the behavioral mimicry response may actually be (partly) a product of learning or associations. Finally, we speculate on what the behavioral data on mimicry may imply for the evolution of mimicry.
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Although transformational leadership behavior (TLB) has been linked to a number of positive organizational outcomes, research regarding the antecedents of such behavior is limited. Guided by Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action [Psychological Bulletin 84 (1977) 888], we investigated two potentially relevant antecedents to performing TLB: cynicism about organizational change (CAOC) and the leader's social context--specifically peer leadership behavior. We hypothesized that CAOC would negatively predict TLB, while peer leadership behavior would positively predict TLB. Further, we expected that peer leadership behavior would have a positive moderating effect on leader CAOC. Data were gathered from 227 managers from multiple organizations and their 2247 subordinates. Findings supported the proposed hypotheses. Cynicism and peer leadership behavior explained nearly one quarter (24%) of the variance in TLB. Further, it appears that both CAOC and TLB may be malleable in organizational contexts. Implications for leadership research and practice are discussed.
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This book argues that the value women often attach to relationships is not misplaced: relationships are in fact the source of psychological health. The book points to ways of interacting in relationships—whether with family members, friends and colleagues, or therapists—that lead to successful growth and development. Through a series of stories based on observations of women's lives, the authors illustrate the process of empathetic listening and responding that takes place in day-to-day interactions, and they show how such moments of "connection" lead to empowerment and psychological growth. The authors show how women can learn to experience real connection and to overcome psychological problems. They also outline a new kind of psychotherapy in which the therapist is not a neutral figure, but a participant with emotional responses of her own. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Used measures of leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation to predict the consolidated-unit performance of 78 managers. Results reveal that 3 transformational-leadership measures were associated with a higher internal locus of control and significantly and positively predicted business-unit performance over a 1-yr interval. Transactional measures of leadership, including contingent reward and management by exception (active and passive), were each negatively related to business-unit performance. Causal relationships between the transformational-leadership behaviors and unit performance were moderated by the level of support for innovation in the business unit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recent empirical and theoretical work has advanced our understanding of charismatic leadership in organisations. Despite this progress, only a few studies have tested the hypothesis that charismatic leadership might be related to objective, organisationally relevant indicators. In order to address this research gap, the present study tested whether charismatic leadership was related to followers’ absenteeism, their training and development activities, as well as branch-level profit. Charismatic leadership was defined according to Conger and Kanungo's (1998) theory. It could be demonstrated that facets of charismatic leadership were negatively related to followers’ absenteeism, but positively related to their training and development activity. Moreover, charismatic leadership showed a positive relationship to profit. In sum, the results contribute to theory and practice of charismatic leadership. Un travail empirique et théorique récent a fait progresser notre compréhension du leadership charismatique dans les organisations. Malgré ce progrès, seules quelques études ont testé l’hypothèse selon laquelle un leadership charismatique serait liéà des facteurs objectifs et pertinents pour l’organisation. Pour une compréhension plus approfondie des effets du leadership chatismatique, la présente étude teste si ce style de leadership est lié aux suiveurs, à l’absentéisme, aux activités de formation et de développement ainsi qu’aux bénéfices au niveau de la branche. Le leadership charismatique est défini en accord avec la théorie de Conger et Kanungo (1998). On a pu démontrer que les facettes du leadership charismatique sont liées négativement aux suiveurs, à l’absentéisme et positivement à l’activité de formation et de dévelpppement. En outre, le leadership charismatique montre une relation positive au profit. En somme, les résultats contribuent à la théorie et à la pratique du leadership charismatique.
Article
On the basis of the current theories of charismatic leadership, several possible follower effects were identified. It is hypothesized that followers of charismatic leaders could be distinguished by their greater reverence, trust, and satisfaction with their leader and by a heightened sense of collective identity, perceived group task performance, and feelings of empowerment. Using the Conger–Kanungo charismatic leadership scale and measures of the hypothesized follower effects, an empirical study was conducted on a sample of 252 managers using structural equation modelling. The results show a strong relationship between follower reverence and charismatic leadership. Follower trust and satisfaction, however, are mediated through leader reverence. Followers' sense of collective identity and perceived group task performance are affected by charismatic leadership. Feelings of empowerment are mediated through the followers' sense of collective identity and perceived group task performance. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that charismatic leadership, characterized by nonverbal expressiveness and immediacy, would lead via emotional contagion to the imitation of the leader's nonverbal behavior. In Study I, charismatic leaders were college students whose performance of a simulated campaign speech included more smiles, more intense smiles, and longer and more frequent visual attention to the audience. Observers showed higher levels of all 4 relevant behaviors while watching charismatic leaders. In Study 2, college student participants watched more and less charismatic excerpts selected from President Clinton's and ex-President Bush's responses during their first 1992 televised debate. Comparing the same behaviors, there was a similar pattern to Study I for responses to the Clinton excerpts, and an almost reversed pattern for the Bush excerpts. The overall results support an emotional contagion effect of charismatic leadership when the leader exhibits truly charismatic behavior.
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A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.