Article

Phytochemical and antioxidant characterization of mamey ( Pouteria sapota Jacq. H.E. Moore & Stearn) fruit

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Abstract

Phytochemical compounds in fruits and vegetables have gained great importance in the last few years because of the increasing evidence suggesting their antioxidant and prevention of chronic diseases. Carotenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins E and C, are among these phytochemicals. Several fruits have been characterized so far for their antioxidant and health properties but there is still limited information on fruits from the tropic. Therefore, the objective of this study was the characterization of mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota Jacq. H. E. Moore & Stearn) with regard to their antioxidant capacity and phytochemical profile. Phenolics, carotenoids and δ-tocopherol were quantified and identified by HPLC–DAD–Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS), and DPPH and FRAP assays were used to evaluate antioxidant capacity. Hydrophilic extracts of mamey fruit showed higher antioxidant capacity than the lipophilic portion. Total soluble phenols content was 28.5mg GAE/100g fw, being p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the main phenolic that was identified. Total carotenoid content was 1127.9μg β-carotene/100g fw with β-carotene being the main contributor, in addition to lutein, and violoxanthin. Concentration of δ-tocopherol was 360.0μg/100g fw. Results of this study suggest that mamey fruit is a good source of carotenoids and its inclusion in the diet is recommended.

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... Gallic acid, dihydromyricetin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin were among the most predominant polyphenols found. A further study also identified the presence of high concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (484 mg/100 g dry weight -DW), along with the previously described polyphenols (Yahia et al., 2011). The main phenolics are listed in Table 31.2. ...
... Early analyses of carotenoid content attributed the orange flesh colour to the presence of αand β-carotene (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007). Lutein and violaxanthin are carotenoids additionally reported that do not contribute to this colour (Yahia et al., 2011). More recent studies have revealed the presence of keto-carotenoids, like sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin, as the main pigments responsible for the red colouration (Murillo et al., 2011. ...
... Besides the potential that the fruit has to become a relevant source of vitamin A, vitamin E activity, in form of δ(delta)tocopherol, has been reported as well, and its contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the pulp and derived products has been postulated (Yahia et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
Pouteria sapota, commonly known in some countries as mamey sapote, is a member of the Sapotaceae family native to the Mesoamerican region. Awareness about this tree and consumption of its fruit have been mostly restricted to producing countries (Mexico and Central America), with only a few reports outside the American continent. In this chapter, we will discuss features related to botany and cultivation of the plant, as well as characteristics of the fruit, considering chemical composition, nutritional properties and health potential. Special emphasis is given to the main bioactive compounds present in the fruit, which include volatiles, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the latter. Traditional uses, development of processed products and innovative processing alternatives are also among the issues reviewed. Usually, the fruit is harvested when the pulp begins to change colour to its characteristic orange/salmon hue due to the carotenoid profile. Once harvested, the fruit has a postharvest shelf life of three to seven days, depending on the degree of maturity and storage temperature. Postharvest fruit shelf life has only been slightly extended by reducing storage temperature due to damage caused by chilling injury; therefore, other alternatives to improve shelf life are described in this chapter. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh or processed in ice cream, smoothies and jam, among others, due to its sweet flavour. Mamey sapote fruit contains nutritionally important constituents, such as carotenoids, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium and iron. The presence of nutritionally valuable carotenoids in mamey sapote fruit has recently drawn attention due to rarely occurring keto-carotenoids, namely sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin. Potassium is the main mineral, in terms of quantity, present in the fruit pulp. Mamey sapote is also a fruit rich in polyphenols, gallic acid being one of the main compounds found. Volatiles are also relevant because of the sensory properties they confer to the fruit. Although the fruit are traded and consumed mostly fresh, their commercialization in the form of frozen pulp is becoming popular, especially for export. Because of fruit deterioration due to enzymatic browning reactions , alternatives for processing have been evaluated as well. Since traditional thermal blanching has shown negative effects on texture, and is detrimental for the nutritional and sensory properties, non-thermal processing technologies, such as the use of microwave technologies, to ensure the safety of the processed pulp, have been studied. Other innovative tools, such as high hydrostatic pressure processing, are also being considered as promising and innovative alternatives for the preservation of the mamey sapote pulp without affecting its sensory and nutritional quality. Pouteria sapota has the potential to expand out of the current traditional and ethnic markets to a wider and international context, especially if the pulp can be included as an ingredient in fruit mixtures and juice formulations. *Corresponding author: victor. jimenez@ ucr. ac. cr 456 V.M. Jiménez et al.
... The highest concentration of phenolic acids is found in mamey and the lowest in lychee, with the most representative compounds being p-hydroxybenzoic acid in mamey (484 mg/100 g dw), gallic acid in açaí (6.87 mg/100 g dw) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid in jackfruit (3.42 mg/100 g dw) [10,11,20,[56][57][58][59][60][61]. ...
... Gallocatechin-3-gallate is found in mamey and açaí pulp, while gallocatechin and catechin-3-O-gallate is found in mamey pulp. A total flavanol content of 50.65 mg/100 g dw have been reported in açaí pulp [56][57][58]60,63,64]. ...
... Mamey PP: 0.47 mg/100 g fw [56]; 1.92 mg/100 g dw [57]; 170.91 ± 0.53 ppm fw [63] Açaí PP:6.87 ± 0.28 mg/100 g dw [60] Lychee: cv Qingke: 0.1055, cv Baila: 0.063, cv Jizui: 0.048 mg/100 g fw [58] p-hydroxybenzoic acid Mamey PP: 484 mg/100 g dw [63] Açaí PP: 1.0 ± 0.8 mg/100 g dw [10] Passion fruit: 0.0124 ± 0.0011 mg/100 g fw [11] Jackfruit PP: 19.978 ± 1.66 mg/g dw [75] Protocatechuic acid Açaí PP: 0.717 ± 0.054 mg/100 g [59]; PP: 1.7 ± 0.4 mg/100 g dw [10] Protocatechuic acid hexoside PP: 0.9 ± 0.6 mg/100 g dw [10] Chlorogenic acid ...
Article
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Açaí, lychee, mamey, passion fruit and jackfruit are some lesser-consumed tropical fruits due to their low commercial production. In 2018, approximately 6.8 million tons of these fruits were harvested, representing about 6.35% of the total world production of tropical fruits. The present work reviews the nutritional content, profile of bioactive compounds, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of these fruits and their by-products, and their ability to modulate oxidative stress due to the content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and dietary fiber. Açaí pulp is an excellent source of anthocyanins (587 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, dw), mamey pulp is rich in carotenoids (36.12 mg β-carotene/100 g fresh weight, fw), passion fruit peel is rich in dietary fiber (61.16 g/100 dw). At the same time, jackfruit contains unique compounds such as moracin C, artocarpesin, norartocarpetin and oxyresveratrol. These molecules play an important role in the regulation of inflammation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (including p38, ERK and JNK) and nuclear factor κB pathways. The properties of the bioactive compounds found in these fruits make them a good source for use as food ingredients for nutritional purposes or alternative therapies. Research is needed to confirm their health benefits that can increase their marketability, which can benefit the primary producers, processing industries (particularly smaller ones) and the final consumer, while an integral use of their by-products will allow their incorporation into the circular bioeconomy.
... Carotenoids are a group of natural pigments responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors in fruits and vegetables, which have been associated with the prevention of diseases because of their functions as vitamin A precursors, antioxidant compounds, and modulators of physiological processes, such as the regulation of immune system, cell development, proliferation, communication, and maintenance, gene expression, hematopoiesis, and apoptosis [1,2]. ...
... The largest intake of carotenoids in the human diet comes from fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, tomatoes, spinach, and oranges [16,17]; however, those are not the only source of carotenoids. In this regard, Alia-Tejacal et al. [18] and Yahia et al. [2] identified the mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) fruit as an alternative source of carotenoids. Mamey is a tropical fruit native from Mexico and Central America, and it is valued for its sensory characteristics and high nutritional value (carbohydrates, fiber, minerals, vitamins A, C, and E, and antioxidant compounds) [2,19,20]. ...
... In this regard, Alia-Tejacal et al. [18] and Yahia et al. [2] identified the mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) fruit as an alternative source of carotenoids. Mamey is a tropical fruit native from Mexico and Central America, and it is valued for its sensory characteristics and high nutritional value (carbohydrates, fiber, minerals, vitamins A, C, and E, and antioxidant compounds) [2,19,20]. Mamey is well known for its salmon-red pulp, smooth texture, and sweet flavor, often used as an ingredient in jam, sorbet, ice pop, gelatin, yogurt, desserts and bakery [18]. ...
Article
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Carotenoids are natural pigments and antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables such as carrot, tomato, orange, mango, yellow corn, pumpkin, and mamey. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of mamey (Pouteria sapota) carotenoids and compared them to carrot (Daucus carota) carotenoids. The carotenoids were extracted from mamey and carrot, and their antioxidant capacity were determined via in vitro (ABTS method) and in vivo assays (resistance against oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans). The carotenoid contents in mamey and carrot were 4.42 ± 0.12 and 5.47 ± 0.04 mg β-carotene/100 g, respectively. Despite the differences between the carotenoid contents in both products (p < 0.05), the in vitro antioxidant capacity results showed no significant differences between the extracts (p > 0.05). The mamey and carrot carotenoid extracts decreased the oxidative damage in C. elegans by 20-30% and 30-40%, respectively. Both extracts increased the resistance and enhanced the survival of the nematodes, and showed better effects than pure β-carotene, probably owing to the complex mixture in the carotenoid extracts. These results suggest that mamey is a good alternative source of carotenoids and that it protects against oxidative stress in C. elegans. The protective effect of mamey carotenoids was similar to the effect of carrot carotenoids.
... In TSP fraction, flavanols as catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and catechin 3-O-gallate have been identified, in addition to gallic (Torres-Rodríguez et al., 2011;Ma et al., 2004), syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and p-coumaric acids (Yahia et al., 2011). ...
... In stage 2 the fruit was in horticultural maturity, according to that described by Watada et al. (1984). The fruit firmness profile was similar to that described by Alia-Tejacal et al. (2002) In this regard, it has been reported that the content of TSP in mamey sapote fruit is affected by temperature (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2002), ripeness degree (Saucedo-Veloz et al., 2001), geographical origin (Torres-Rodríguez et al., 2011;Ma et al., 2004), and the process of extraction and solvent used (Yahia et al., 2011). ...
... El compuesto (P6) fue tentativamente identificado como un dímero de epicatequina/catequina, de acuerdo con su espectro de UV y su tiempo de retención (26.5 min). Previamente, Yahia et al. (2011), mediante la técnica de espectroscopía de masas, identificaron un dímero de epicatequina en el fruto maduro de zapote mamey, el cual podría corresponder al compuesto P6 observado en el presente estudio. ...
Article
The fruit of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) has high content of soluble phenolic compounds that have not been characterized and some of these compounds are the substrate of enzymes related with flesh browning fruit. The objectives were: i) to study the proanthocyanidins in mamey sapote fruit, ii) to determine the activity of the polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, and iii) to evaluate their changes during the ripening process. The proanthocyanidins were quantified by butanol/HCl, DMAC (4 - (dimethylamino) cinnamaldehyde) and vanillin methods. The characterization was done by HPLC. Enzymatic activity was determined by spectrophotometry methods. The proanthocyanidin (PAs) content showed a reduction with fruit ripeness progress. With DMAC method the reduction was of 2.8 times from preclimacteric stage (CS) to horticultural maturity (HM); the content with vanillin method was reduced 1.6 times from CS to HM. At HM, PAs content was of 124.8 mg equivalent of catechin/100 fresh weight and of 322.4 mg equivalent of proanthocyanidin B2/100 g fresh weight, for DMAC and vanillin methods, respectively. The monomeric PAs (catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin-3 gallate) did not change (p>0.05) during the ripening process. The enzymatic activity of peroxidase increases at the end of ripening process and was related with flesh browning. The mamey sapote is an important source of oligomeric proanthocyanidins.
... Its juicy pulp is eaten fresh, and also used in desserts and drinks. Although its popularity in production regions, nutritional value, and significant potential for international commercialization, research on the phytochemicals of the fruit has been scarce [3]. Some earlier investigations reported the high content of polyphenols and carotenoids in this fruit [2][3][4]. ...
... Although its popularity in production regions, nutritional value, and significant potential for international commercialization, research on the phytochemicals of the fruit has been scarce [3]. Some earlier investigations reported the high content of polyphenols and carotenoids in this fruit [2][3][4]. p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, gallocatechin, catechin, epichatechin and myricetin are the main polyphenolic compounds detected in the pulp [2][3]. Murillo et al. [4] identified cryptocapsin, sapotexanthin and capsanthin 5,6-epoxide as the main carotenoids present in the pulp of red sapote mamey. ...
... Some earlier investigations reported the high content of polyphenols and carotenoids in this fruit [2][3][4]. p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, gallocatechin, catechin, epichatechin and myricetin are the main polyphenolic compounds detected in the pulp [2][3]. Murillo et al. [4] identified cryptocapsin, sapotexanthin and capsanthin 5,6-epoxide as the main carotenoids present in the pulp of red sapote mamey. ...
Article
The comparison of SPME fiber coatings, and optimization of temperature and time of extraction for headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in Pouteria sapota (sapote mamey) fruits is presented. The PDMS/DVB coating afforded the highest extraction efficiency. The extraction conditions were optimized by using Doehlert experimental design. By using the optimized HS-SPME method, 21 VOCs were identified, which include mainly terpenoids and esters, followed by aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. The most abundant compounds in Pouteria sapota pulp were cedrol (25.0%), azulene (7.3%), β-ionone (5.7%) naphthalene (5.6%), α-pinene (5.0%), and benzaldehyde (4.3%). Seventeen VOCs were identified for the first time in the fruit.
... Six mamey fruits (figure 1) were collected from three local markets (San Luis Potosi, S.L.P., Mexico). Each fruit was processed to obtain an aqueous extract following the methodology described previously (Dutok et al., 2015, Rodríguez Carpena et al., 2011, Yahia et al., 2011, with some modifications. In brief, the seed was separated, chopped into small pieces, and grinded with a mortar under a room temperature at 23 ºC. ...
... Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that the edible flesh of mamey sapote has antioxidant properties associated with a significant content of phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid compounds and thus, a potential beneficial effect over the health status (Moo Huchin et al. , Silva Cíntia et al. 2009, Torres-Rodríguez et al. 2011, Yahia et al. 2011). On the other hand, the seed of mamey sapote has been used for the elaboration of soap, perfume, and hair conditioner (Morton, 1987). ...
... However, the impact of these factors on the antioxidant capacity of the mamey extract was not determined. The antioxidant property in the mamey seed extract might be produced by the presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and phenolic acids, or carotenoid compounds as well as secondary metabolites (Khatun et al. 2016, Osukoya et al. 2016, Yahia et al. 2011. Antioxidants act in diverse ways, including the complexation of redox-catalytic metal ions, scavenging of free radicals, and decomposition of peroxides. ...
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Background: The pain management is a priority for human life as well as a public health problem. Currently, many patients suffer this disagreeable sensory, and then alternative analgesics are needed urgently. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential use of the seed obtained from mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) for antinociception in patients suffering postoperative pain. Materials and methods: The hypothesis suggests that the aqueous extract of the seed obtained from the mamey sapote could relieve the acute and chronic pain in patients after surgical procedures. The literature was reviewed and the antioxidant capacity of mamey seed was determined to support the hypothesis and the benefits for pain relief. Results: The antinociceptive effect of mamey seed extract could be produced by their substantial content of antioxidants that might act against the effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species alongside the flavonoid-related activation of serotonin and opioid receptors, which have a crucial role for the development and progress of acute and chronic nociception. Conclusions: This research provides the basis to establish an innovative, viable, and alternative therapy using the mamey seed for pain relief in patients experiencing postoperative nociception.
... Antioxidant capacity (AOC) was measured in the lipophilic (LPE) and hydrophilic extracts (HPE) which were obtained as reported (Wu et al., 2004;Yahia, Gutierrez-Orozco, & Arvizu-de León, 2011), with some modifications. Samples of 0.2 g of freeze-dried powder were homogenized in 10 mL of hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) using an Ultra Turrax model T25 Basic homogenizer (IKA Works, Willmington, NC, USA). ...
... 2.3.1. DPPH assay DPPH (2,2 0 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay was performed as previously reported (Kim, Lee, Lee, & Lee, 2002;Yahia et al., 2011), with some modifications, using a microplate reader. Aliquots of 280 lL of 100 lM DPPH/methanol solution per well were placed in a 96-well plate, and 20 lL of extracts, diluted to different concentrations, and were added to each well to complete 300 lL. ...
... For FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assay (Benzie & Strain, 1996;Yahia et al., 2011), aliquots of 280 lL of FRAP reagent were placed in 96-well plates, and 20 lL of extracts were added. The plates were incubated for 30 min in the dark and read at 630 nm in a MRX microplate reader (Dynex Technology). ...
Article
Wild mushrooms are important for the diet of some communities in Mexico. However, limited information exists on their chemical composition, contribution to the diet, and health effects. We characterized seventeen wild mushroom species growing in the state of Queretaro in Central Mexico. Most species analyzed were edible, but also included nonedible, medicinal, poisonous and toxic specimens. Whole mushrooms (caps and stipes) were characterized for water content, color, and total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In vitro antioxidant capacity was measured by FRAP and DPPH assays. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. All species analyzed were found to possess antioxidant activity in vitro and a wide range of phenolic and organic compounds were identified. Our results add to the limited information available on the composition and potential nutritional and health value of wild mushrooms. Further analyses of their bioactivities are warranted.
... Extraction and measurement of total soluble phenolic: The methodology described by Yahia et al. (2010) was followed to prepare the sample extract and measure total soluble phenolic. The determination of total soluble phenolic was performed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay. ...
... Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds: This was done using HP 1100 series HPLC (Hewlett-Packa GmbH, Waldbronn, Germany) equipped with a diode-array detector DAD under the conditions and following the methodology described by Yahia et al. (2010). The phenolic compounds of interest in this study were gallic acid, phydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids); caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid and sinapic acids (hydroxycinnamic acids); kaempferol and quercetin (flavonols) and catechin and epicatechin (flavan-3ols). ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to survey the natural forest resources of Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan State, Sudan for their ethno-botanical values and contribution to family income. Information was gathered from four localities in South Kordofan State through a rapid rural appraisal method. Data was quantified using importance value index to identify the culturally most significant species and use categories. High importance values (> 0.95) were measured for furniture, building and fencing materials, firewood and charcoal. Tamarindus indica, Ziziphus spina-christi, Balanites aegyptiaca and Adansonia digitata had the highest importance values. Out of the total forests’ contribution to household income, firewood and charcoal were found to contribute by 29.3 %. Forest fruits, gums and fencing materials contributed by 18.7, 12.9 and 12.2 %, respectively. Non-wood forest products, in particular, have a high potential to secure regular provision of alternative sources of income and hence improve the livelihood of local communities. A sustainable management of forest resources is needed to enhance its cultural and environmental role.
... Extraction and measurement of total soluble phenolic: The methodology described by Yahia et al. (2010) was followed to prepare the sample extract and measure total soluble phenolic. The determination of total soluble phenolic was performed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay. ...
... Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds: This was done using HP 1100 series HPLC (Hewlett-Packa GmbH, Waldbronn, Germany) equipped with a diode-array detector DAD under the conditions and following the methodology described by Yahia et al. (2010). The phenolic compounds of interest in this study were gallic acid, phydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids); caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid and sinapic acids (hydroxycinnamic acids); kaempferol and quercetin (flavonols) and catechin and epicatechin (flavan-3ols). ...
Article
Seeds of vitex (Vitex doniana Sweet) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) collected from Eastern Nuba Mountains, Sudan, were investigated for their total soluble phenolic, phenolic constituents and fatty acids compositions. Vitex and baobab seeds exhibited content of total soluble phenolic amounting to 641 and 668 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The paramount phenolic acid in vitex was protocatechuic acid which made 102 mg/100g DW whereas cinnamic with concentration reached 72 mg/100g DW was the major phenolic acid in baobab. The detected fatty acids were stearic acid (51 %), oleic acid (37.7 %) and palmitic acid (11%) in vitex. The paramount fatty acids in baobab seed were oleic (42.5%), linoleic (28%) and palmitic (22%). These characterizations might qualify the seeds for a number of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications in addition to the traditional use of the roasted seeds as a coffee substitute.
... Hasta el momento se han realizado diversos estudios en el tomate, la zanahoria y la naranja (Ben-Shaul y Shimon, 1965;Thomson, 1966;Harris y Spurr, 1969;Pupin et al., 1999;Bramley, 2002;Bugianesi et al., 2004;Fielding et al., 2005;Hornero-Méndez y Mínguez-Mosquera, 2007;Meléndez-Martínez et al., 2007;Lemmens et al., 2009;Fratianni et al., 2010;Kim et al., 2010;Meléndez-Martínez et al., 2011;Knockaert et al., 2012;Schweiggert et al., 2012), no obstante todavía existen un sin número de frutos disponibles que no han sido estudiados. Recientes investigaciones han encontrado concentraciones importantes en el mango (Vásquez-Caicedo et al., 2006), pitanga (Bagetti et al., 2011, papaya o lechosa (Schweiggert et al., 2011a) y zapote mamey (Yahia et al., 2011), entre otros . La identificación de estos compuestos, así como su concentración, localización y biodisponibilidad resultan importantes para conocer su potencial y aplicabilidad en el sector industrial o de salud. ...
... Es un fruto con pulpa de color rojo-anaranjado en el cual recientemente se ha descrito la presencia de cetocarotenoides, incluyendo un nuevo carotenoide nombrado sapotexantina (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007;Murillo et al., 2010;2011;2012). Otros estudios describen de una manera preliminar otros carotenoides presentes en el fruto, sin embargo no se cuenta con una completa caracterización (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2005;Yahia et al., 2011;Murillo et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Carotenoids are synthetized from isopentenyl diphosphate and are present in a large variety of fruits. These pigments are of particular interest due to their benefits in health and applications in the food industry. There are several factors, such as, cultivation conditions, post-harvest management and food processing that may have an impact on carotenoid concentration in the fruits and their bioavailability. Carotenoid studies on different tropical fruits like acerola (Malpighia sp.), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), mango (Mangifera indica), naranjilla (Solanum quitoense), papaya (Carica papaya), cayenne cherry (Eugenia uniflora), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), Barbados gooseberry (Pereskia aculeata) and mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) were reviewed in this work in order to present the state of art and recommend relevant aspects for future investigations in this field.
... Studies have shown evidence of their role in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, macular degeneration and cataract formation [2]. Carotenoids are involved in immune system modulation and cell communication, embryonic development, hematopoiesis and apoptosis, and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antiproliferative properties [3,4]. ...
Article
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Carotenoids are natural lipophilic pigments and antioxidants that are present in many fruits and vegetables. The consumption of carotenoids is correlated with positive health effects and a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, γ-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) are essential for the development and maintenance of sight. β-carotene, α-carotene, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene have high antioxidant activity and promote free radical scavenging, which helps protect against chronic diseases. However, carotenoids are chemically unstable and prone to oxidation in the presence of light, heat, oxygen, acids, and metal ions. The use of carotenoids in the food industry is limited due to their poor solubility in water, bioavailability and quick release. Encapsulation techniques, such as microencapsulation, nanoencapsulation and supercritical encapsulation, are used to overcome these problems. The objective of this paper is to describe the characteristics and potential health benefits of carotenoids and advances in encapsulation techniques for protecting and enhancing their solubility or bioavailability.
... There has been an increasing pattern of prevalence of pathologies such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several studies exhibited that there has been an association between utilization of vegetables and fruits and the progression of such ailments (Yahia et al., 2011). Epidemiological investigations disclosed that fruits and vegetables contain antioxidant compounds which can eliminate a free radical chain reaction. ...
Article
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Capsicum has been an important part of diet since centuries and has been widely used traditionally for ailments. The objective of the present analysis was to determine the diuretic and antidiarrheal potentials of four variations of Capsicum annum L. fruits available in local market of Karachi, Pakistan. It belongs to family Solanaceae and extracts were prepared in 95% ethanol and was given in doses of 200 and 400mg/kg and the activity was correlated with commonly used diuretics and anti-diarrheal further reinforcing its conventional use. Fruits extracts were evaluated for anti-diarrheal properties in castor-oil induced diarrhea to confirm its activity. The diuretic activity of the 95% ethanolic extracts of Capsicum annum L. was assessed based on diuresis of 24 hr. collected through metabolic cage. Urinary excretion of water and electrolytes (Na+ and K+) is significantly increased by the standard diuretic drug furosemide, which is comparable with the extract. The anti-diarrheal effects of 95% ethanolic extracts of Capsicum annum L. were examined by castor oil induced diarrhea and all varieties of Capsicum annum L. significantly inhibited the number of defecations.
... Mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota H.E. Moore & Stearn) is a tropical fruit from the Sapotaceae family [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. This fruit presents good sensory characteristics and high nutritional value (it contains vitamins A, C, and E, minerals, fiber, carbohydrates, and some carotenoids) [9][10][11][12]. ...
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In this study, aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) was evaluated during the process of obtaining oil from mamey sapote seed (OMSS). Viscozyme L enzyme complex was used at pH 4 and 50 °C during the optimization of the extraction process by central composite design and response surface methodology. Optimal conditions were: 3.5% (w/w) of enzyme (regarding the seed weight), 5.5 h of incubation time, 235 rpm of agitation rate, and 1:3.5 of solid-to-liquid ratio. These conditions enabled us to obtain an OMSS yield of 66%. No statistically significant differences were found in the fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties, such as the acid and iodine values and the percentage of free fatty acids, between the oil obtained by AEE or by the conventional solvent extraction (SE). However, the oxidative stability of the oil obtained by AEE (11 h) was higher than that obtained by SE (9.33 h), therefore, AEE, in addition to being an environmentally friendly method, produces a superior quality oil in terms of oxidative stability. Finally, the high oil content in mamey sapote seed, and the high percentage of oleic acid (around 50% of the total fatty acid) found in this oil, make it a useful edible vegetable oil.
... The free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was conducted following the method reported by Moore et al. (2011). ...
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Andean Berry (Vaccinium meridionale Sw.) is a South American fruit rich in phytochemicals with promising anti‐cancer properties as co‐adjuvants to nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs such as Aspirin. This study aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative potential of Andean Berry Juice (ABJ) in combination with Aspirin in human SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells. ABJ primarily contained 3,4‐dihydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. The combined treatment of ABJ (IC50: 30.0 ± 0.11%) and Aspirin (IC50: 20.0 ± 0.57) exhibited a higher (p < .01) antiproliferative effect than each counterpart. Moreover the same mixture displayed a lower reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) than the untreated cells. ABJ‐Aspirin combination induced late apoptosis stage without stimulating mitochondrial depolarization and prompted phosphatidylserine relocalization. These results emphasize the antiproliferative potential of bioactive compounds from ABJ and Aspirin combinations. Practical applications Natural products such as Andean Berry (V. meridionale Sw.) juice (ABJ) contains antioxidant polyphenols that could reduce the need to use non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, currently employed in cancer treatment, to prevent its side effects. The high abundance of polyphenols from this underutilized berry could stimulate the standardization of its production and industrial exploitation to be transformed into suitable food products delivering natural bioactive compounds with potential anti‐cancer effects in vitro.
... Mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) is a tropical fruit of high nutritional value, native from Mexico and Central America, recognized as an alternative source of carotenoids and vitamin A (Moo-Huchin et al. 2014;Murillo et al. 2013;Yahia et al. 2011). The mamey fruit is characterized by its smooth texture, sweet flavor, and salmonred pulp (Pinto et al. 2016). ...
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Background Carotenoids are natural pigments that are highly sensitive to light, heat, acids, oxygen, metals, and free radicals, which degrade the antioxidant activities of carotenoids. Microencapsulation techniques have been used to prevent carotenoid degradation and preserve their antioxidant activities. In this work, we aimed to encapsulate mamey ( Pouteria sapota ) and carrot ( Daucus carota ) carotenoids in mixtures of maltodextrin (10% w/v) and Arabic gum (5 or 10% w/v) by spray-drying. The obtained powders were stored at different temperatures (4 and 25 °C) with or without access to daylight, and changes in color, carotenoid content, and antioxidant activity were analyzed monthly for three months. Moreover, the in vivo antioxidant activities of spray-dried carotenoids were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans . Results The carotenoid and antioxidant activity losses of stored carotenoids were found in the following order: 25 °C in daylight > 25 °C without access to daylight > 4 °C without access to daylight. Moreover, the combination of maltodextrin and Arabic gum (10%) was more effective to prevent carotenoid loss compared to maltodextrin and Arabic gum (5%). In vivo antioxidant activity results showed that spray-dried carotenoids reduced approximately 30% of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in nematodes, even after three months of storage. Conclusions Mamey and carrot carotenoids were successfully encapsulated by the spray-drying technique. The spray-dried carotenoids effectively reduced the intracellular ROS levels and neutralized the oxidative stress damage in C. elegans , even after three months of storage. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of mamey carotenoids were equally effective as those of carrot carotenoids, meaning that mamey carotenoids could be seen as an alternative source of carotenoids.
... Fresh citrus fruits were purchased from the local markets of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from September 2012 to March 2013. The fruit samples (n = 54) were selected on the basis of colour, uniformity of size, freedom from defects, and ripeness (Yahia et al. 2011). The fruits were brought to the laboratory where after rinsing them with distilled water and removing the inedible portions, their edible portions were chopped into thin slices (Sharma et al. 2009;Yusuf et al. 2003). ...
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Fruits are important components of human diet, and their contamination by environmental pollutants is an emerging challenge nowadays. The present study is based on the measurement of selected essential and toxic trace metals including Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Sr, Li, Ni, Pb, and Cd in commercially available citrus fruits from Pakistan. The samples were digested in HNO3 and HCLO4 mixture, and the metal contents were quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Highest concentration was found for Ca (609.0–3596 mg/kg), followed by relatively higher levels of K (277.6–682.1 mg/kg), Mg (53.65–123.4 mg/kg), Na (1.173–52.14 mg/kg), and Fe (0.236–10.57 mg/kg), while Li, Ni, and Cd showed the lowest contributions in most of the samples. In addition, antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, and phosphomolybdenum assay were also evaluated in the fruit samples. Considerably higher antioxidant activities were shown by grapefruit, mandarin, sweet lime, and tangerine. Most of the antioxidant assays were significantly correlated with Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Cu levels in the fruits. Human health risk was evaluated in terms of health risk index (HRI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and target cancer risk (TCR) which revealed insignificant health risks; thus, the consumption of these fruits can be considered as safe for human diet.
... There have been an increasing number of chronic degenerative disease such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Many studies showed that there is a relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the development of these disorders (Yahia et al., 2011). Epidemiological studies showed that antioxidant compounds in the fruits and vegetables can terminate a free radical chain reaction. ...
Thesis
This study investigated the effect of different drying methods, such as solar drying at 45oC and conventional drying at 60oC on the quality of red chili pepper for two varieties Serrano and Fresno. There were no significant difference between drying methods effects on chemical composition of the two varieties Serrano and Fresno with the exception of moisture which decreased in conventional dried samples more than solar. Meanwhile, the conventional drying method had the highest capsaicin content extracted by ethanol (2.74 and 1.28 %) for Serrano and Fresno varieties respectively. The antioxidant activity of fresh red chili pepper recorded the highest values (95.32 and 90.67 %). The effect of dried red chili pepper at 1 and 2% and the pure capsaicin at 0.015% were studied in experiments using male albino rats containing 20 % high fat diet (HFD) rendered diabetic with alloxan injection for 4 weeks. The lowest value of blood serum glucose was with G4 that fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin that recorded 160 mg/dl. Moreover, serum cholesterol as well as serum triglycerides for the diabetic groups G4 and also G6 “fed HFD + 2% Serrano red dried chili pepper” were significantly low. The HDL concentration for the groups G4 and G6 were significantly higher than the G3 diabetic rats fed with HFD. Feeding the groups of diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% dried red chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin, the LDL and VLDL levels as well as total lipids were significantly low as compared with control diabetic HFD “G3”. The histopathological examination of liver and pancreas show that G4 and G6 of diabetic rats fed HFD, either administerated with 0.015 % capsaicin or fed with diet containing 2% dried Serrano pepper had the best histological examination for liver or pancreas. The chemical composition of all prepared chicken patty samples were almost the same, meanwhile, the chicken patty samples containing 2 % Serrano pepper show the best results for all physical and microbiological examination as well as sensory evaluation. Keywords: Red chili, Capsicum annum, capsaicin, drying, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, high fat diet, chicken patties
... There have been an increasing number of chronic degenerative disease such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Many studies showed that there is a relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the development of these disorders (Yahia et al., 2011). Epidemiological studies showed that antioxidant compounds in the fruits and vegetables can terminate a free radical chain reaction. ...
Thesis
This study investigated the effect of different drying methods, such as solar drying at 45oC and conventional drying at 60oC on the quality of red chili pepper for two varieties Serrano and Fresno. There were no significant difference between drying methods effects on chemical composition of the two varieties Serrano and Fresno with the exception of moisture which decreased in conventional dried samples more than solar. Meanwhile, the conventional drying method had the highest capsaicin content extracted by ethanol (2.74 and 1.28 %) for Serrano and Fresno varieties respectively. The antioxidant activity of fresh red chili pepper recorded the highest values (95.32 and 90.67 %). The effect of dried red chili pepper at 1 and 2% and the pure capsaicin at 0.015% were studied in experiments using male albino rats containing 20 % high fat diet (HFD) rendered diabetic with alloxan injection for 4 weeks. The lowest value of blood serum glucose was with G4 that fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin that recorded 160 mg/dl. Moreover, serum cholesterol as well as serum triglycerides for the diabetic groups G4 and also G6 “fed HFD + 2% Serrano red dried chili pepper” were significantly low. The HDL concentration for the groups G4 and G6 were significantly higher than the G3 diabetic rats fed with HFD. Feeding the groups of diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% dried red chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin, the LDL and VLDL levels as well as total lipids were significantly low as compared with control diabetic HFD “G3”. The histopathological examination of liver and pancreas show that G4 and G6 of diabetic rats fed HFD, either administerated with 0.015 % capsaicin or fed with diet containing 2% dried Serrano pepper had the best histological examination for liver or pancreas. The chemical composition of all prepared chicken patty samples were almost the same, meanwhile, the chicken patty samples containing 2 % Serrano pepper show the best results for all physical and microbiological examination as well as sensory evaluation. Keywords: Red chili, Capsicum annum, capsaicin, drying, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, high fat diet, chicken patties
... The fraction in AcOEt of the leaves of P. caimito presented the highest phenolic content in comparison to the other fractions of the leaves analysed (11.37 ± 0.3 mg GAE g −1 ), followed by the extract in EtOH (Table 3). Extracts from leaves of P. caimito presented total phenolic contents similar to other species of this genus [12] [26] [27]. ...
... Pouteria sapota: (+)-Catechin, (-)-Epicatechin, Gallic acid catechin-3-O-gallate, and myricetin and Gallocatchin-3-Ogallate were isolated from the fruits of Pouteria sapota [14,15] . The presence of dihydromyricetin and (+)-Catchin-3-O-gallate in three species of Pouteria; Sapota, viridis and campechiana were reported [16] . ...
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Sapotaceae is a family of flowering plants that known with wide range of chemical constituents like saponins, flavonoids and poly phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in plant kingdom and have several biological activities as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic and antiulcer. This review focuses on the phenolic compounds identified in different species of family sapotaceae and their biological activities.
... Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. Few studies report on the saponified carotenoid composition in some tropical fruits (Yahia et al. 2011;Akter et al. 2011;Isabelle et al. 2010). A survey on the carotenoid composition in saponified extracts of tropical fruits from the Amazonian region was published by De Rosso and Mercadante (2007), and a screening on the carotenoid composition of tropical vegetables and fruits from the Central America State of Panama, although only limited to the detection of lutein and zeaxanthin, was reported by Murillo et al. (2010). ...
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One-dimensional liquid chromatography is widely applied to the analytical separation of various phytochemicals, including carotenoids; however, sometimes it does not provide sufficient resolution power for the analyte separation in very complex real-world samples. Multidimensional chromatography is a technique that may provide the required analytical separation power to tackle such a task. The aim of this work was to apply comprehensive multidimensional two-dimensional liquid chromatography, coupled to photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection, to the free carotenoid separation in red mamey (Pouteria sapote) fruit for the first time, using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography conditions in the second dimension separation. A comparison between one- and two-dimensional separation of the same matrix is shown, and a total of 23 different carotenoids belonging to 17 different carotenoid chemical classes were separated in the double orthogonal separation and identification system; moreover, a hypothesis for the possible detection of a new carotenoid is also reported for the first time.
... Several studies showed that there is a relationship between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the development of these disorders (Yahia, 2011). Epidemiological studies showed that antioxidant compounds in the fruits and vegetables can terminate a free radical chain reaction (Basma, 2011) which is capable of preventing diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes (Basma, 2011). ...
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Diabetes is a major degenerative disease affecting at least 15 million people and having complications which include hypertension, atherosclerosis and microcirculatory disorders. At least 80% of Africans rely on plant medicine for their healthcare in the management of diabetes and other diseases. The present review paper unveils the roles of Capsicum in diabetes mellitus. The review reported Capsicum to possess hypoglycemic, insulinomimetic or secretagogues properties, weight reducing effect and hypolipidemic properties in diabetes. The roles played by Capsicum in diabetes could be traced to its antioxidant properties embedded in its phytoconstituents. We recommend further research on this plant.
... There is a limited number of studies on saponified extracts of tropical fruit [25][26][27], and one survey dealing with Amazonian fruit [28]. In Panama several fruit species have not yet been considered for their intact carotenoid composition. ...
Article
Introduction. Many tropical fruits have great health potential due to the possible presence of bioac- tive phytochemicals. Natural food composition databases are very important sources of information relative to natural food biodiversity and nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to report for the first time on the native carotenoid composition of the fruit of four tropical species from Panama. Materials and methods. Fully mature fruit were collected in Panama and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, after carotenoid extraction with acetone. Results and discussion. The carotenoid composition had never been previously reported for two of the investigated fruits, mem- brillo (Gustavia superba) and guanabana toreta (Annona purpurea). In membrillo, 5 different carotenoids were detected; the content of total carotenoids was 318.6 μg g−1 fresh weight (fw), with β-carotene showing a relative abundance of 75.3%. In guanabana toreta, 11 different carotenoids were detected; the total carotenoid content was 48.3 μg g−1 fw, with β-carotene and zeaxanthin showing a relative abundance of 26.9% and 27.5%, respectively. In jobo (Spondias mombin), 11 different carotenoids were detected; the total carotenoid content was 45.8 μg g−1 fw, with β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene showing a relative abundance of 25.4%, 10.5% and 8.5%, respectively. In mamey (Mammea americana), 16 different carotenoids were detected; the total carotenoid content was 145.2 μg g−1 fw; in particular, 10 different violaxanthin fatty acid diesters, of both cis and trans isomers, were determined. Conclusion. The con- sumption of the fruit studied should be promoted both locally and abroad, because of the reported presence of these health-promoting phytochemicals.
... The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mamey sapota (pouteria sapota) in postharvest were evaluated and hydrophilic extract of sapota fruit showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of lipophilic portion. The appreciable amount of total soluble phenolic content which contain mainly p-hydroxy benzoic acid had been reported (Rodriguez et al. 2011;Yahia et al. 2011). The sapota juice can be used as nutritional and nutraceutical health J Food Sci Technol beverage, which contains large amount of polyphenols. ...
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Rheological behaviour of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice at different temperatures (10 to 85 °C) and total soluble solid content (10.2 to 55.6 °brix) corresponding to a water activity (aw) (0.986 to 0.865) was studied using controlled stress rheometer by coaxial cylinders attachment. The rheological parameter shear stress (Pa) was measured upto a shear rate of 1,000 s(-1). The investigation showed that the enzyme clarified sapota juice and its concentrates behaved like a Newtonian liquid and the viscosity (η) values were in the range 4.340 to 56.418 mPa s depending upon temperature and concentration studied. The temperature dependency of viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice was described by Arrhenius equation (r > 0.94) and activation energy (Ea) for viscous flow was in the range 5.218 to 25.439 KJ/mol depending upon concentration. The effect of total soluble solid content on flow activation energy was described by exponential relationship (r > 0.95, rmse% <13.5, p < 0.01) and that of water activity was described by power law relation (r > 0.99, rmse% <5.80, p < 0.01). The effect of total soluble solid content on viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice followed second order exponential type relationship (r > 0.99, rmse% < 3.53) at the temperature used. The effect of water activity on viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice followed power law equation (r > 0.98, rmse% < 4.38). A single equation representing combined effect of temperature and total soluble solid content/water activity on viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota was established.
... In recent years, bioactive phytochemical compounds such as flavanoids, coumarins, tannins, saponins and anthocyaninins have also gained great importance because of their health benefiting properties. The consumption of fruits has also been shown to plays a significant role in prevention and delay in the onset of chronic degenerative diseases such as hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular diseases [4] . The above importance has attracted the attention of several pharmaceutical companies to carry out research in bioactive components as they search for new drugs. ...
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Assessment of ethnomedicinal uses of indigenous fruit trees (IFTs) was carried out using both household surveys and focus group discussions (FGD) in the five Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) districts of Uganda. A total of 400 respondents were interviewed on the availability of IFTs in their locality, their medicinal uses, parts used as medicine and methods of preparation. Frequencies of responses, Informant Consent Factor (ICF), Fidelity Level (FL) and User Value (UV) were analysed. The predominant methods for preparing/administering medicine from IFTs were decoction (47%), eating fruit pulp (33%), chewing (5%), smoking (3%) and application as ointment (1%) among others. The highest ICF of health conditions claimed to be treated using IFTs were bone pain (ICF=0.833) and loss of appetite (ICF=0.833). The most cited IFT for medicinal uses was Saba comorensis (UV=0.39) and the least was Carissa edulis. Evaluation of bioactive components of these IFTs would help justify their apparent therapeutic claims.
... Unlike synthetic drugs, bioactive natural products have beneficial effect on the whole organism and cause no unwanted side effects. Fruits and vegetables provide many essential nutrients and also contain several other phytochemicals which have been suggested to be responsible for health benefits due to their antioxidant properties and other positive effects (Yahia et al., 2011). Plant-derived ingredients possessing antioxidant and antimicrobial properties have the advantage of being readily accepted by consumers, as they are considered to be natural. ...
Article
Sapotaceae is a flowering plants family reported for its richness in triterpenoid saponins. Sapotaceae comprises a large number of fruit-producing plants of nutritional and medicinal value. Different species of family Sapotaceae received a considerable interest owing to their rich triterpenoid saponins content of a myriad pharmacological effects and health benefits. Several databases were searched for collecting papers for this review in the scope of phytochemistry, bioactivity and record of triterpenoid saponins from family Sapotacese such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus and Reaxys from 1990 till now. Triterpenoid saponins reported from Sapotaceae plants are mostly of protobassic acid, 16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, bayogenin, and oleanolic acid derivatives with both monodesmosidic and/or bidesmosidic attached sugar side chains. Besides, the most frequently attached sugar units are glucose, glucoronic acid, apiose, xylose, rhamnose, and arabinose. The reported health effects of Sapotaceae plants in folk medicine in relation to their bioactive saponins were also reviewed with special attention to anti-inflammatory, antiulcer activity, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. This review aims to present a holistic compile on the phytochemical and biological diversity of triterpenoid saponins reported from family Sapotaceae with future perspectives.
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Background: Manilkara zapota, also known as Sapodilla, is the best-known and most widely cultivated fruit from Sapotaceae. Sapodilla is a rich source of nutrients (sugars, acids, protein, amino acids), minerals (potassium, calcium, and iron), and comprises of a myriad of bioactive compounds, which are chiefly composed of ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acid, depsides, and flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavanols). Owing to the rich phytochemical profile of its edible and non-edible parts, sapodilla has an enormous potential pharmacological applications that can be understood through various biological activities. Scope and approach: In a comprehensive analysis, this review specifically describes the nutritional profile of sapodilla fruit, and provides current evidence on the bioactive potential of the different parts (edible as well as non-edible) of the sapodilla and highlights the main biological activities involved. The bioactive properties recommend the use of bioactive components of edible as well as non-edible portions of sapodilla in the development of innovative food and pharma products. This review also gives insights into sapodilla, as a potential and novel ingredient for its versatile food and non-food applications and the latest research advancements. Key findings and conclusion: The nutritional profile of sapodilla fruit and phytochemical diversity of sapodilla fruit and its by-products (peels, seeds, bark, leaves) make them potential sources of nutraceutical compounds from which functional foods can be obtained. Pharmacologically, both edible and non-edible portions of sapodilla has the potential to be an antioxidant, anticancer/anti-tumor, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective agent. The article aimed to comprehensively collate some of the vital information published on sapodilla and review the potentiality of tapping bioactive compounds from sapodilla fruits and by-products. Thus, this review would play an important role in understanding the scope for utilization of edible as well as non-edible parts of the sapodilla plant in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.
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Apis mellifera propolis has been used in ethnobotany and its compounds and therapeutic properties have been evaluated in various studies. Propolis from Maxcanú, Tizimín and Huhí, Yucatán, México were analyzed, determining the bioactive compounds (BC) of ethanolic extracts (PEE) and their potential use in the control of blood pressure, diabetes, and their antioxidant capacity. PEE was prepared by mixing 6 g of propolis with 20 mL of 95% ethanol, stirring daily for 28 days. BC were identified using HPLC and in vitro assays were performed on their antioxidant activity, ACE-I inhibition, and antidiabetic properties. Total phenols and flavonoids were between 1.27 ± 0.02 and 25.95 ± 0.99 mg GAE g-1 and 65.06 ± 3.48 and 85.64 ± 4.09 mg CE g-1 dry extract. The results of the in vitro assays were positive and a close relationship with the total content of flavonoids was detected, with epicatechin and p-coumaric being the main components identified. According to the results, the Huhí PEE had the highest values in all the assays, as well as the BC content. This study demonstrates that PEE can be used as a potential alternative in the treatment of certain diseases due to the therapeutic properties that exhibits.
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Mamey (Pouteria sapota) is a Mexican native fruit of sweet flavor and high content of antioxidants. Some of these antioxidants are sensitive to high temperatures. Nonthermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressures (HHP) could be an adequate alternative to traditional thermal pasteurization. Mamey nectars were treated under different HHP conditions and the effects on native microorganisms (mesophilic bacteria, molds and yeast), pectinmethylesterase (PME) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities as well as on total phenolic content (TPC), were evaluated. Most HHP treatments conditions were equally effective to inactive native microorganisms. The application of HHP improved the extraction of TPC showing increments of 24% (400 MPa/2 min) to 64% (500 MPa/2 min) compared with the control samples. At 500 MPa/5 and 10 min maximum inactivation levels of PPO of about 40% were obtained, while PME activity showed decrements up to 70% at 400 MPa/5 min. HHP showed to be a potential technology to preserve mamey nectar, but more conditions should be tested to reach higher enzyme inactivation.
Chapter
Sapota or Sapodilla is a climacteric fruit, generally utilized for its sweet and delicious fruits. It contains a substantial quantity of vitamins, minerals, proteins, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, etc. In particular, a rich variety of phenolic compounds (as sources of natural antioxidants) and flavonoids have attracted the attention of many researchers and practitioners toward this fruit. Increased incidence of the diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus, and cancer is associated with the socioeconomic burden and higher cost for public health systems. Therefore, an allopathic alternative is required having minimum risk factors, mainly antioxidants are utilized for disease prevention. So, sapota is one such fruit, rich in polyphenolic content and thus having high antioxidant activity, which could be isolated for addition into other products and medicines. Thus, the chapter discusses about the important bioactive compounds present in sapota fruit and other different botanical fractions and their associated health benefits.
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This research work has an objective to analyze the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity in the spray-dried powders of sapota fruit using encapsulating agents of maltodextrin and gum Arabic. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of rehydrated dried powders of sapota using maltodextrin, gum Arabic and a mixture of these compounds were determined by FRAP, DPPH and ABTS assays. The retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in the rehydrated dried powders, when compared to fresh sapota juice, was due to the use of gum Arabic which was very efficient in protecting the sapota fruit and to avoid its oxidation.
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As plantas do gênero Pouteria, família Sapotaceae, têm sido muito utilizadas na alimentação e também na medicina popular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a polpa da laranjinha-de-pacu (Pouteria glomerata) coletados no Município de Rosana – SP, devido à ausência de estudos químicos com esta fruta. A acidez titulável e pH da fruta, indicaram seu potencial de consumo e industrialização. Os teores de compostos bioativos, encontrados neste estudo, demonstraram que a laranjinha-de-pacu pode ser considerada fonte de vitamina C e de compostos bioativos que apresentam atividade antioxidante elevada, afirmando a qualidade nutricional da fruta. Os teores encontrados em mg 100 g-1 foram: flavonoides amarelos 9,63 ± 0,22, antocianinas 0,65 ± 0,14, carotenoides 0,93 ± 0,08 e vitamina C 34,87 ± 0,59. A polpa foi extraída com água, EtOH 95%, MeOH 80% e MeOH/Ace para avaliação da influência do solvente na extração de compostos fenólicos, flavonoides e atividade antioxidante. O maior teor de compostos fenólicos foi obtido para os extratos MeOH/Ace (48,61 ± 1,37 mg EAG 100g-1) e EtOH 95% (38,55 ± 0,90 mg EAG 100g-1) e para flavonoides totais não observou-se diferença significativa entre os quatro extratos analisados, variando de 12,23 a 15,40 mg ERT 100 g-1. A avaliação da atividade antioxidante pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais livres DPPH e ABTS revelou o solvente MeOH 80% como o mais ativo para as duas concentrações testadas (200 e 20 mg mL-1). Nossos estudos demonstram a importância do incentivo no consumo desta fruta, por ser boa fonte de compostos bioativos apresentando efeitos benéficos para a saúde humana.
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Two commercial varieties of Peruvian Pouteria lucuma fruits namely “Seda” and “Beltrán” were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties as well as their primary and secondary metabolites content and profile. Free sugars, dietary fiber, and starch comprise the main components in both varieties. Phenolic compounds derived from flavanoids (flavan‐3‐ols), gallic acid, and their derivatives were identified. Xanthophylls were tentatively identified based on their UV‐vis spectra and enclosed the majority of the carotenoids found in lucuma. Additionally, both varieties showed to be sources of lipophilic compounds such as tocopherols (α, β, and γ) and triterpenoids. The triterpenoid α‐amyrin was identified in a Pouteria fruit for the first time. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (AoxC) of the lipophilic fraction represented approximately 30% of the total AoxC. These results show that both lucuma varieties are rich sources of compounds with technological and functional properties with potential application in the food industry. Lucuma is a characteristic Peruvian fruit. To date, it is mainly used by the regional ice cream industry and it has been included recently in some confectionery products. Due to its high dietary fiber, carotenoids and sugar content it could be used as an alternative to the use of refined sugars and artificial colorants in the dairy and bakery industry.
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Objective: To test the mosquitocidal potential of leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with different solvents and elucidate the structure of an isolated mosquitocidal compound. Methods: The leaf extracts of Pouteria campechiana prepared with three solvents (petroleum benzene, ethyl acetate and acetone) and potential bioactive fractions were tested against various stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus by using the WHO protocols, and the chemical profile and its functional groups were identified by GC-MS and Fourier transmission-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The structure of bioactive compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral technique. Results: The preliminary phytochemical results revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids in the acetone extract. A significant toxic potential was observed in the acetone extract against both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The acetone extract exhibits remarkable larvicidal (LC50: 12.232 μg/mL and LC90: 63.970 μg/mL), pupicidal (LC50: 18.949 μg/mL and LC,0: 167.669 μg/mL) and adulticidal (LC50: 20.689 μg/mL and LC90: 72.881 μg/mL) effects against Aedes aegypti. Furthermore, the same extract was subjected to isolation of bioactive compound by GC- MS and FT-IR analysis. GC-MS results showed the presence of 5 major compounds, and octacosane (18.440%) was detected as the predominant compound. The FT-IR result of acetone extract demonstrated the presence of various functional groups like alkanes/alkynes, ester, aromatic and amides. The NMR spectrum results of isolated compound were well matched to glycoside linked flavonoids. Based on the chromatography and spectral techniques the isolate molecule was identified as myricitrin by FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. Conclusion: The isolated compound myricitrin possesses a significant toxic effect in all stages of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito’s with lowest LC50 and LC90 values.
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The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and ethnodiseases such as diarrhea, stomachache, dysentery, "empacho" (blockage), and bile is a common strategy among indigenous communities. It is estimated that approximately 34% of medicinal plants are used to treat diseases of the digestive tract. In Mexico, gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, parasites, or viruses represent one of the main causes of death in children in rural populations. Our objective was to document the use of medicinal plants used by the indigenous groups of Oaxaca, Mexico, for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, based on previous studies, experiences, and field observations in indigenous communities and supplemented with bibliographic references. In Oaxaca, there are 16 indigenous groups, the largest being the speakers of the Zapoteco, Mixteco, Mazateco, Mixe, Chinanteco, Amuzgo, Tacuate, Chatino, and Cuicateco languages. In this review of the medicinal plants used for gastrointestinal disorders, 186 species were grouped into 147 genera and 71 botanical families, among which the largest number of species belonged to Asteraceae (29), Fabaceae (15), Euphorbiaceae (9), Solanaceae (9), and Lamiaceae (9). Different pharmacological studies showed potential for preventing microbial and fungal pathogens that cause gastrointestinal disease.
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Mass rearing fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha for the sterile insect technique involves the use of artificial larval diets that commonly contain corn cob powder as a bulking agent. Corn cob powder varies in quality, and larval diets that contain it can be reaching at high temperatures (>34°C), which subsequently has a negative effect on pupal weight and adult survival. In addition, corn cob powder is susceptible to contamination by mycotoxins, which can inhibit larval development and cause high larval mortality. The objective of this work was to develop a low-cost artificial larval diet for mass rearing Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using coconut fiber, a nonconventional bulking agent, and to evaluate its effects on the quality parameters for A. ludens wild-type, A. ludens Tap-7 GS-strain, A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata. The coconut fiber diet resulted in an increase in the larval and pupal weight of A. ludens Tap-7 GS-strain and A. obliqua, an increase in the larval weight of A. ludens wild-type, an increase in the flight ability of A. obliqua and A. serpentina and an increase in adult eclosion in A. ludens Tap-7 GS-strain. The coconut fiber diet resulted in increased production and quality of the mass-reared flies, reduced the cost of the diet by 15 and 20% for A. ludens and A. obliqua, respectively, and led to further cost savings through reduced labor processes.
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Fruits from six selections (S) of mamey sapote were harvested in the Soconusco, Chiapas at a mature stage and ripened at room temperature (23 °C and 70 % R. H.) for 12 d. The fruits from the six selections showed maximum respiration and ethylene rates between 31 and 44 mL C0(2) kg-1 h-1, and 225 and 550 /µL kg-1 h-1, respectively. Fruits from selections SI and S2 kept flesh firmness for longer (≤ 20 N), lowest content of phenolic compounds (0.5-0.6 mg g-1 fresh weight) and the best color parameters (L* = 61, C* = 46 and h = 55). Soluble solids content was between 17.5 y 23 °Brix and total sugars was 122 y 196 mg g-1 at ripe stage of selections evaluated with no significant differences. We conclude the SI and S2 selections had the best postharvest characteristics.
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Sapote mamey fruits were harvested in physiological ripening stage, fruits were stored by 0 (control), 7, 14, 21 or 28 days at 10 °C with 85% relative humidity to determinate the effect of storage under low temperatures on quality and behavior of carbohydrates during ripening (20 °C ± 2 °C, 60% RH). Control fruits were soft in 9.9 days, loss weight was 1.4 by day, 15 N of firmness, 17.8% of total solids soluble, 193.8 y 78.3 mg g-1 of total and reducing sugars, 115.5 mg g-1 of starch and h=59.2 values and 451 mg g-1 of total carotenoids in fresh weight. This characteristics indicate that control fruits do not reached the highest organoleptic properties. Fruits stored at 10 °C among 7 and 28 days, 1.3% by day of loss of weight, 21% of total solids soluble, 247 and 363 mg g-1 of sugar total, between 47 and 240 mg g-1 of starch, h values less than 55, and total carotenoids highest to 1 000 mg g-1 of fresh weight. Results indicate that storage to 10 °C between 7 and 28 days did not affect negatively the parameters evaluated. However, total sugars values in fruits stored for 21 or 28 days, did not exceed 58 mg g-1. Reducing sugars are involved in taste of sapote mamey fruit, so the decrease affect negatively its flavor.
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Vegetables are generally boiled for cooking or stored in refrigerators. This results in loss of their nutritional values. Ascorbic acid is one of the important nutrients for human health. In this study, Ascorbic acid (vitamin-C) content of various vegetables of Pakistan was determined, and effect of boiling and freezing were compared with natural Ascorbic acid contents by HPLC. The maximum concentration of Ascorbic acid was found in green chilli: i.e. 105 mg /100 g in fresh state; while in boiled and frozen state its concentration is comparatively less: i.e. 85 and 92 mg/100 g respectively. The other vegetables like: cabbage, tomato, turnip, potato, spinach, onion, garlic, green pea, green beans and cauliflower contained greater amount of Ascorbic acid in their fresh state i.e. 30, 20, 25.3, 20, 30, 24.3, 31, 28.5, 30, 42 mg/100 g as compared to frozen (23.4, 13, 23.6, 15, 23.4, 14.1,25, 26.5, 27.0, and 39 mg/100g respectively) and boiled state (11.6, 9.3, 22.5, 10.0, 20.3, 13.1, 23, 25.2 and 35 mg /100g respectively). The minimum amount of Ascorbic acid was found in boiled state of carrot and lettuce: i.e. 4.0 mg/100 g. These results showed that freezing or boiling of vegetables causes significant loss of available Ascorbic acid contents, especially boiling.
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Investigation was carried out to evaluate thermophysical properties such as density, Newtonian viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L.) juice at different moisture contents ranging from 38.01% to 88.64% (wet basis) corresponding to a water activity in the range of 0.839 to 0.987. The investigation showed that density and Newtonian viscosity of enzyme clarified sapota juice decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in moisture content as well as water activity, whereas thermal conductivity increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in moisture content and water activity. The specific heat and thermal diffusivity were markedly affected by moisture content as well as water activity. Empirical mathematical models were established relating to thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified sapota juice with moisture content/water activity. Results indicated that there was a high significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between thermophysical properties with moisture content/water activity of enzyme clarified sapota juice. A significant (p < 0.0001) positive correlation between thermal properties and moisture content/water activity, whereas significant (p < 0.00001) negative correlation between physical properties with moisture content/water activity was observed. In general, the thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified sapota juice were markedly affected by moisture content/water activity.
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Fruit pulps of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L. Mart.), baobab (Adansonia digitata L.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) and jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi L. Willd.) sampled from Nuba Mountains, Sudan were characterized for their proximate composition, mineral contents, total soluble phenols, total carotenoids and total antioxidant capacity. Mineral contents were high, total soluble phenols ranged 14 − 45 mg GAE/g DW and total carotenoids were between 7 and 16 mg/kg DW. Total antioxidant capacity reached 120 – 425 μmoles TE/g DW when measured in hydrophilic extract using DPPH assay. The richness of these fruits in minerals and antioxidant compounds makes them considerable sources of nutrition and of potential impact on human health.
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Carotenoids possessing hydroxyl groups (xanthophylls) are often found as fatty acid esters in many fruits and vegetables. The developments in high resolution chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques have led to a detailed characterization of xanthophyll esters in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, such as apples, apricots, mandarins, mangoes, papayas, red and chili peppers, potatoes or squash. Some more rich sources have been identified, like wolfberry (goji), sea buckthorn, persimmon, whose popularity is increasing due to the high content of bioactive compounds. Esterification increases the lipophilicity of xanthophylls and contributes to the sequestration of carotenoids, to the formation of specialized structures in the chromoplasts and to an increased photoprotection. The process occurs during ripening in fruits and it is associated with a significant change in colour. Even if the specific enzymes which catalyze the esterification process were not characterized yet in fruits, detailed analytical data regarding the carotenoid composition suggested a selectivity of these enzymes for certain fatty acids and selectivity for the ring in the case of non-symmetric xantophylls. Xanthophyll esters seem to be efficiently hydrolyzed and absorbed in humans leading to a comparable bioavailability to the unesterified compounds. In addition, the xanthophyll esters preserve the antioxidant capacity of the parent compounds while having a better stability in fruits during storage and processing. All these properties are important from the perspective of the use of fruits rich in xanthophyll esters as valuable components of the human diet and as sources of bioactive compounds in the prevention of severe degenerative diseases.
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Mamey sapote fruits harvested at physiological maturity were stored in 35 L containers and ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) was applied at 0, 100 and 500 mg·L-1 doses during 24 h. After this treatment, the fruits were stored during 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 10°C and then they were transferred at room temperature (24 ± 1°C, 50-60 % RH) during another eight days. The fruit ripening treated with or without ethephon was homogeneous. The quality characteristics were not adversely affected by ethephon use. After 14 storage days at 10°C ± 1 and eight days at room temperature the chilling injury symptoms started to show, and they were mild to severe after 21 and 28 storage days at the same temperature. The fruits stored during 21 and 28 days at 10± 1°C and ripened at room temperature, 24 ±1°C, showed chilling injury symptoms and increased presence of pathogens in the pulp, and lower total soluble solids content. Luminosity decreased significantly while the hue and chromaticity increased, the latter associated to chilling injury symptoms in the pulp (lignification and flesh browning). Respiration and ethylene production increased significantly after storage, even in the fruits where no ethephon was applied, suggesting that there was no significant response to exogenous ethylene on these parameters.
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Mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn) is a tropical species from the Sapotaceae family native to Mexico and Central America. Its tree produces an edible climacteric fruit, whose weight can range from 250 to 900g. The flesh is soft, comprises about 78% of the fruit, and has high sugars to acidity ratio, which gives it a sweet taste when ripe. Because of current public interest to consume products that promote health, the aim of the work was to characterize soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity in mamey sapote fruits from Chiapas, Mexico, at different maturity stages. Storage at 12 (±1)°C was conducted for 18d. When fruits ripened firmness flesh varied, in average, from 41.8 to 3.0N, soluble solids content from 17.7 to 28.1 ºBrix, hue angle from 56.4 to 46.3º, and lightness from 67.3 to 42.0. Phenolic content was affected by ripening since average values of 2563 and 234μg/g were found in unripe and consumption maturities, respectively. In a soluble phenolics extract from flesh, gallic acid (GA), gallocatechin-3-gallate (G3G), epicatechin (ECT), and catechin (C) were found, being the latter the most abundant compound, which increased with ripening from 9.9 to 113.1μg/g, while GA, G3G, and ECT had average values of 4.7, 11.9, and 5.8μg/g, respectively, without significant variation. Antioxidant activity, expressed through the IC50 parameter, remained practically unchanged and showed an average value of 12.9μg/mL. Based on phenolic composition the mamey sapote fruit may constitute a good source of antioxidant compounds.
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Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.
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Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress. Considering scanty data available on antioxidant activity (AOA) of roots, tubers and vegetables commonly consumed in India, the objective of the present study was to assess their AOA and relate it to their total phenolic content. AOA was assessed in vegetables (n=19) and roots/tubers (n=10) by DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) scavenging activity and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods and the total phenolic content (TPC) using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Although AOA as well as TPC showed wide variation among roots, tubers and vegetables studied. AOA (both DPPH and FRAP) was significantly correlated with TPC among all the foods studied, with the correlation coefficient (r) values being 0.76 and 0.85 (p
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IntroductionChemistrySources of Dietary CarotenoidsPostharvest and Processing EffectsAbsorption and MetabolismBiological Actions and Disease PreventionConclusions AcknowledgmentReferences
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Epidemiological surveys have shown an inverse relationship between the intake of fruit and the incidence of coronary heart disease and some type of cancer. Data found in the literature regarding the flavonoids in general while this study focuses on flavanones, a subclass of flavonoids which occurs in Citrus fruit. The aim of this work is to elucidate the antioxidant or pro-oxidant behaviours of some common flavanones and to determine their activity–structure relationships as antioxidant using the crocin bleaching inhibition assay. The compounds studied were regarding both the aglycon form and the glycoside form. Data evidence that the substitution of the 7th OH group of the flavanones by a neohesperidoside influences the relationship between structure and antioxidant activity. In fact, the 3′,4′-catechol structure and the O-methylation, in the aglycone forms, do not result significant. On the other hands, in the glycosylate forms, the 3′,4′-catechol structure noticeably increases the antioxidant power and the O-methylation decreases the antioxidant activity. The influence of the O-glycosylation with a rutinose molecule is neglectable.
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Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), found in many plants either in free-form or part of tannins, is known to possess anti-microbial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. NFκB regulates the expression of several genes involved in carcinogenesis. These include anti-apoptotic, cytokines and cell cycle-regulatory genes. It is well established that the transcriptional factor NFκB is deregulated in many forms of cancer. Thus, agents that can suppress NFκB activation have the potential of suppressing carcinogenesis. In the present investigation, gallic acid was isolated from Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae) and eight esters were synthesised. These compounds were evaluated against TNF-α-induced NFκB activation with stably transfected 293/NFκB-Luc human embryonic kidney cells. Gallates with IC(50) values in a range of 10-56 µM mediated inhibitory activity higher than gallic acid (IC(50) 76.0 ± 4.9 µM). In addition to inhibiting NFκB activation, gallic acid mediated a modest cytotoxic effect, and some of the gallates affected cell viability at the tested concentrations. Based on these results, suppression of NFκB activation by gallate esters could play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis.
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Certain dietary antioxidants such as vitamin E and vitamin C are important for maintaining optimum health. There is now much interest in polyphenolic products of the plant phenylpropanoid pathway as they have considerable antioxidant activity in vitro and are ubiquitous in our diet. Rich sources include tea, wine, fruits and vegetables although levels are affected by species, light, degree of ripeness, processing and storage. This confounds the formulation of databases for the estimation of dietary intakes. Most attention to date has focused on the flavonoids, a generic term which includes chalcones, flavones, flavanones, flavanols and anthocyanins. There is little convincing epidemiological evidence that intakes of polyphenols are inversely related to the incidence of cancer whereas a number of studies suggest that high intakes of flavonoids may be protective against CHD. In contrast, numerous cell culture and animal models indicate potent anticarcinogenic activity by certain polyphenols mediated through a range of mechanisms including antioxidant activity, enzyme modulation, gene expression, apoptosis, upregulation of gap junction communication and P-glycoprotein activation. Possible protective effects against heart disease may be due to the ability of some polyphenols to prevent the oxidation of LDL to an atherogenic form although anti-platelet aggregation activity and vasodilatory properties are also reported. However, some polyphenols are toxic in mammalian cells. Thus, until more is known about their bioavailability, metabolism and intracellular location, increasing intakes of polyphenols by supplements or food fortification may be unwise.
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The fatty acid composition, antioxidants, and the oxidation resistance of the low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from a number of different donors were determined. The oxidation resistance of LDL, as determined in vitro by the duration of the lag-phase in copper ion-induced oxidation, did not correlate with the alpha-tocopherol content of the LDL. By supplementating plasma with vitamin E, the alpha-tocopherol content of LDL could be increased from approximately 9 to 30 mol/mol LDL and also the oxidative resistance increased nearly linearly with increasing alpha-tocopherol content. The results indicate that alpha-tocopherol is an important, yet not the only parameter that determines the oxidation resistance of LDL.
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Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great.
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Increased interest in the potential cardio-protective effects of fruit and vegetables is currently unsupported by systematic reviews of the reported associations of these foods with risk. All ecological, case-control, cohort studies and unconfounded trials in humans were eligible for inclusion. Eligible outcomes were symptomatic coronary heart disease, stroke and total circulatory disease. Only studies of diet that reported on fresh fruit and vegetables or a nutrient which could serve as a proxy (reversing the usual direction of inference) were included. MEDLINE (1966-1995) and EMBASE (1980-1995) were searched using the terms cerebrovascular disorder, coronary heart disease, fruit(s) and vegetable(s) as keywords. Personal bibliographies, books and reviews were also searched, as were citations in located reports. For coronary heart disease nine of ten ecological studies, two of three case-control studies and six of 16 cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For stroke three of five ecological studies, none (of one) case-control study and six of eight cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For total circulatory disease, one of two cohort studies reported a significant protective association. No attempt was made to arrive at a summary measure of the association because of the differences in study type, study quality and the different exposure measures used. Although null findings may be underreported the results are consistent with a strong protective effect of fruit and vegetables for stroke and a weaker protective effect on coronary heart disease. Greater use of food-based hypotheses and analyses, would complement existing nutrient-based analyses and help guide the search for underlying causes.
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Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and, in theory, may provide protection against cancer, although direct human evidence of this is scarce. The relation between the intake of antioxidant flavonoids and subsequent risk of cancer was studied among 9,959 Finnish men and women aged 15-99 years and initially cancer free. Food consumption was estimated by the dietary history method, covering the total habitual diet during the previous year. During a follow-up in 1967-1991, 997 cancer cases and 151 lung cancer cases were diagnosed. An inverse association was observed between the intake of flavonoids and incidence of all sites of cancer combined. The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of all sites of cancer combined between the highest and lowest quartiles of flavonoid intake was 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.67-0.96). This association was mainly a result of lung cancer, which presented a corresponding relative risk of 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.34-0.87). The association between flavonoid intake and lung cancer incidence was not due to the intake of antioxidant vitamins or other potential confounding factors, as adjustment for factors such as smoking and intakes of energy, vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene did not materially alter the results. The association was strongest in persons under 50 years of age and in nonsmokers with relative risks of 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.77) and 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.58), respectively. Of the major dietary flavonoid sources, the consumption of apples showed an inverse association with lung cancer incidence, with a relative risk of 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.76) after adjustment for the intake of other fruits and vegetables. The results are in line with the hypothesis that flavonoid intake in some circumstances may be involved in the cancer process, resulting in lowered risks.
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Epidemiological studies indicate that fruit and vegetables are health-promoting and protective against disease, particularly cardiovascular disease and cancer. Possible plant nutrients providing this protection include antioxidants and dietary fibre. Clinical trials with antioxidant supplements give inconsistent results for protection against lung cancer in smokers, invasive cervical cancer, oesophageal and gastric cancers, colorectal polyps and coronary heart disease. The antioxidants used in trials may be contributing to a more complex system. Antioxidants have differing solubilities which partition across the phases of tissues, cells and macromolecular structures: water-soluble ascorbate, glutathione and urate; lipid-soluble tocopherols and carotenoids, and intermediatory-soluble flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. The health protection provided by fruit and vegetables could arise through an integrated reductive environment delivered by plant antioxidants of differing solubility in each of the tissue, cellular and macromolecular phases.
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The macular region of the primate retina is yellow in color due to the presence of the macular pigment, composed of two dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, and another xanthophyll, meso-zeaxanthin. The latter is presumably formed from either lutein or zeaxanthin in the retina. By absorbing blue-light, the macular pigment protects the underlying photoreceptor cell layer from light damage, possibly initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species during a photosensitized reaction. There is ample epidemiological evidence that the amount of macular pigment is inversely associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration, an irreversible process that is the major cause of blindness in the elderly. The macular pigment can be increased in primates by either increasing the intake of foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, such as dark-green leafy vegetables, or by supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin. Although increasing the intake of lutein or zeaxanthin might prove to be protective against the development of age-related macular degeneration, a causative relationship has yet to be experimentally demonstrated.
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Background: Increased interest in the potential cardio-protective effects of fruit and vegetables is currently unsupported by systematic reviews of the reported associations of these foods with risk. Method: All ecological, case-control, cohort studies and unconfounded trials in humans were eligible for inclusion. Eligible outcomes were symptomatic coronary heart disease, stroke and total circulatory disease. Only studies of diet that reported on fresh fruit and vegetables or a nutrient which could serve as a proxy (reversing the usual direction of inference) were included. MEDLINE (1966-1995) and EMBASE (1980-1995) were searched using the terms cerebrovascular disorder, coronary heart disease, fruit(s) and vegetable(s) as keywords. Personal bibliographies, books and reviews were also searched, as were citations in located reports. Results: For coronary heart disease nine of ten ecological studies, two of three case-control studies and six of 16 cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For stroke three of five ecological studies, none (of one) case-control study and six of eight cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For total circulatory disease, one of two cohort studies reported a significant protective association. No attempt was made to arrive at a summary measure of the association because of the differences in study type, study quality and the different exposure measures used. Conclusions: Although null findings may be underreported the results are consistent with a strong protective effect of fruit and vegetables for stroke and a weaker protective effect on coronary heart disease. Greater use of food-based hypotheses and analyses, would complement existing nutrient-based analyses and help guide the search for underlying causes.
Article
The low technology production of sapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore and Stearn] makes it necessary to implement new alternatives, such as low storage temperatures, for postharvest management to prolong shelf life and preserve fruit quality. The effect of storage temperatures on quality of fruits harvested at physiological maturity was studied. Control fruits were stored (7 d) at room temperature (approximately 25 °C), and experimental fruits were stored at 10, 13, and 15 °C for 13, 18, and 24 d. After storage, the fruits were evaluated at room temperature on days 0, 3, and 6. The best cold storage temperature for mamey fruits was 13 °C; fruits exhibited firmness, color [L* (luminosity), color saturation index (chroma), and hue angle)], total soluble solids (°Brix) and acidity, as well as weight loss, similar to those of the control fruits at eating ripeness. At 13 °C, 10 % fruit rot occurred at 18 d, and 10 to 30 % at 24 days. At 15 °C, fruits began senescence after 13 d of storage and exhibited the most rotting. Fruits exposed to 10 °C storage did not ripen, and there were no changes in firmness, total soluble solids or pulp color. Based on their morphological and molecular characteristics, the fungi that induced rotting in fruits were identified as Pestalotiopsis paeoniicola and Lasiodiplodia theobromae.
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Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine their phytosterol and tocopherol content. The species studied were Cotia nut (Aptandra spruceana M.), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.), Mucajá (Couma rigida M.), Red Açaí (Euterpe oleracea M.), Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D.), Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L.), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) and Uxi (Endopleura uchi C.). Phytosterols were analyzed by GC–FID using β-cholestanol as an internal standard, while tocopherols were determined by RP-HPLC-DAD. The pulps of Mucajá (26–236 mg 100 g–1), Inajá (119–285 mg 100 g–1) and Jenipapo (216 mg 100 g–1) showed the highest total phytosterol contents. Considering α-tocopherol equivalents, the pulps of Buriti (346.72 μg g–1) and Uxi (200.92 μg g–1) contained the highest vitamin E activity. Therefore, the results indicate that these fruits and nuts have great potential to be cultivated and marketed as alternative dietary sources for these bioactive compounds.
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Publisher Summary Several methods have been developed to assess the total antioxidant capacities of various biological samples, particularly complex matrices such as plasma, serum, wine, fruits, vegetables, and animal tissues. This chapter presents a method called “oxygen radical absorbance capacity” (ORAC) assay based largely on the work reported by Glazer's laboratory, which depends on the unique properties of phycoerythrin (PE). The ORAC assay is the only method that takes reactive species (RS) reaction to completion and uses an “area under the curve” (AUC) technique for quantitation, thus combining both inhibition time and inhibition percentage of the RS action by antioxidants into a single quantity. The chapter discusses the general principles of ORAC assay for assessing antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals. By integrating inhibition percentages over the whole inhibition time period, the ORAC assay successfully overcomes all related problems in quantitation of the antioxidant capacity of a biological sample. Either B- or R-phycoerythrin (B-PE or R-PE) can be used in the ORAC assay. The sensitivity of B- or R-PE to hydroxyl radical damage may be different even for the same PE with different lot numbers. The concentrations of Cu 2+ and standard (Tro lox) can be adjusted, when it is necessary. The aforementioned procedures are based on using B- or R-PE that loses more than 90% of its fluorescence within 30 rains. The chapter concludes with a discussion of ORAC assay for assessing antioxidant capacity against transition metals.
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There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive components of food. The roles of fruit, vegetables and red wine in disease prevention have been attributed, in part, to the antioxidant properties of their constituent polyphenols (vitamins E and C, and the carotenoids). Recent studies have shown that many dietary polyphenolic constituents derived from plants are more effective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E or C, and thus might contribute significantly to the protective effects in vivo. It is now possible to establish the antioxidant activities of plant-derived flavonoids in the aqueous and lipophilic phases, and to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of wine and tea can be accounted for by the activities of individual polyphenols.
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The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18−20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6−8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from whole pomegranates than in experimental juices obtained from the arils only (12−14 TEAC). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses of the juices revealed that commercial juices contained the pomegranate tannin punicalagin (1500−1900 mg/L) while only traces of this compound were detected in the experimental juice obtained from arils in the laboratory. This shows that pomegranate industrial processing extracts some of the hydrolyzable tannins present in the fruit rind. This could account for the higher antioxidant activity of commercial juices compared to the experimental ones. In addition, anthocyanins, ellagic acid derivatives, and hydrolyzable tannins were detected and quantified in the pomegranate juices. Keywords: Pomegranate; Punica granatum; Punicaceae; juice; phenolics; anthocyanins; ellagic acid; punicalagin; tannins; antioxidant activity; ABTS; DPPH; DMPD; FRAP
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Carotenoids form one of the most important classes of plant pigments and play a crucial role in defining the quality parameters of fruit and vegetables. Their role in the plant is to act as accessory pigments for light harvesting and in the prevention of photo-oxidative damage, as well as acting as attractants for pollinators. Their function as antioxidants in the plant shows interesting parallels with their potential role as antioxidants in foods and humans. Carotenoids are products of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The enzymes leading to carotenoid biosynthesis have all been characterised, and more recently the genes encoding these enzymes have been cloned from bacteria, fungi and plants. New information on enzyme activities and the factors leading to the regulation of the pathway is reviewed. Vitamin A deficiency is a widespread problem in the developing world, causing blindness, particularly in the young. This has driven research into finding ways of introducing provitamin A carotenoids into staple crops, and this has recently been achieved in rice and canola through genetic manipulation. The fact that carotenoids show protective activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of degenerative disease end points has also give impetus to studying whether increasing intakes of the commonly consumed carotenoids would have public health benefits in the developed world. Human intervention studies have been undertaken using supplements of β-carotene rather than utilising foods with enhanced carotenoid levels, but no potential benefit has been shown. Indeed, there is evidence of an increased health risk from the consumption of β-carotene supplements. These observations suggest that the threshold between the beneficial and adverse effects of some carotenoids is low and provides a strong stimulus to further understanding the functional effects of specific carotenoids. Specific needs for future research are identified in the review.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
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Phytochemicals, as plant components with discrete bio-activities towards animal biochemistry and metabolism are being widely examined for their ability to provide health benefits. It is important to establish the scientific rationale to defend their use in foods, as potential nutritionally active ingredients. Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as: (1) substrates for biochemical reactions; (2) cofactors of enzymatic reactions; (3) inhibitors of enzymatic reactions; (4) absorbents/sequestrants that bind to and eliminate undesirable constituents in the intestine; (5) ligands that agonize or antagonize cell surface or intracellular receptors; (6) scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals; (7) compounds that enhance the absorption and or stability of essential nutrients; (8) selective growth factors for beneficial gastrointestinal bacteria; (9) fermentation substrates for beneficial oral, gastric or intestinal bacteria; and (10) selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria. Such phytochemicals include terpenoids, phenolics, alkaloids and fiber. Research supporting beneficial roles for phytochemicals against cancers, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, inflammation, microbial, viral and parasitic infections, psychotic diseases, spasmodic conditions, ulcers, etc is based on chemical mechanisms using in vitro and cell culture systems, various disease states in animals and epidemiology of humans. However, it must be emphasized that a distinction needs to be drawn between the types of information that can be obtained from studies in vitro, in animals and in humans. Mechanisms of action must certainly be established in vitro; however, the efficacy of these same ingredients with their mechanisms of action, must also be demonstrated in vivo. The rapid growth in the use of phytochemicals in nutraceutical and functional foods requires that the food and pharmaceutical industries face new challenges: in addressing worldwide public concern over the efficacy and safety of supplements and foods claimed to be health-promoting; in government regulations related to safety, labeling and health claims for products that contain phytochemicals; in the manufacturing of foods with different qualities and stabilities; and in marketing issues, particularly as they relate to consumers' recognizing added value.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
All methods for assessing the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of food samples are strongly affected by the solvents used during extraction. In recent years a sequential solvent extraction procedure utilising water and acetone has been widely used for TAC measurements of foods. To better understand the efficiency of this procedure in terms of the amount of extracted antioxidants and the subsequent measurement of TAC, two vegetables (onion and spinach) and two fruits (orange and tomato) were sequentially extracted with water, acetone and chloroform. Each extract fraction was analysed separately for its content of known antioxidant compounds by specific procedures and for its TAC by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results showed that the compounds in the water and acetone extracts were the main contributors to TAC. The chloroform extracts did not contribute to TAC, with the exception of the spinach extract, owing to the presence of low levels of carotenoids. In conclusion, the analysed extraction procedure was more effective for foods rich in water-soluble antioxidants than for those rich in lipid-soluble antioxidants. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants in the American diet was estimated from the most common 34 fresh fruit and vegetables and their daily consumption data. Among 14 fruit and 20 vegetables, orange contributed the highest amount of total phenolics [117.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) person−1 day−1] and antioxidants [146.6 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE) person−1 day−1]. Orange contributed about 26 and 25% of total phenolics and antioxidant, respectively, in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. Apples showed relatively high levels of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity comparable to those of oranges and their phenolics and antioxidants contribution is the second highest. Even though potatoes had lower levels of phenolics and antioxidant capacity, they were third due to the fact that their consumption is the highest (137.9 lb person−1 year−1) in the American diet. Although plums and strawberries were ranked as the group with the highest total phenolics and antioxidant capacity among 34 tested fruit and vegetables, their contributions were relatively low due to their lower daily consumption. Generally, the levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of fruits were higher than those of vegetables. American daily intake of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidants from fruits and vegetables was estimated to be 450 mg GAE, 103 mg catechin equivalents and 591 mg VCE, respectively. Although we do not yet know the required minimum daily amounts of antioxidants, when we estimate the daily requirement of antioxidants, we must consider not only the antioxidant concentrations of the particular food, but also the daily intakes of the food. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The carotenoid content of 18 fruits (apple, banana, guava, jackfruit, kedondong, kemang, mango, mangosteen, orange, papaya, pineapple, rambutan, salak, sawo, starfruit, tangerine, red watermelon, and yellow watermelon) commonly consumed by children in West Java, Indonesia was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. These fruits were purchased in supermarkets in urban areas, small stores in rural areas, and outdoor markets. The cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β -carotene content of these fruits are reported. Large sample-to-sample variation in the same fruit was observed in the cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β -carotene content of these fruits. Salak and guava were found to be excellent sources (containing 140+μg retinol equivalents/100 g) of provitamin A carotenoids, and mango, red watermelon, and papaya are good sources (containing 70+μg retinol equivalents/100 g).
Article
Triterpene saponins are a class of plant natural products with a wide range of bioactivities, which makes them an interesting research subject. This work reports, for the first time, the isolation and characterization of saponins in Ipomoeabatatas tuber flour, their quantification and antioxidant properties. Their structures were characterized on the basis of UV, FAB–MS, ESI–MS, GC–MS, polarimetry and NMR data, as: oleanolic acid-3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (sandrosaponin IX) (1) and oleanolic acid-3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2). A new quantitative HPLC–DAD method for saponin content determination in this tuber was developed and validated. Their total content was 200.01 mg/100 g dry weight (RSD = 7.2%; p < 0.001). The single saponin contents were: 161.20 mg/100 g dry weight (RSD = 0.58%; p < 0.001) for saponin 1 and 14.67 mg/100 g dry weight (RSD = 0.41%; p < 0.001) for saponin 2. The antioxidant activities, tested by DPPH and FRAP assay, of total phytochemical fraction and of single saponins were moderate in relation to commercial standards.
Article
‘Rhapsody’ tomatoes heated for 24 h in air at 34 or 38 °C were compared to fruit heated in 5% O2 at 38 °C in order to determine if heat treatment applied in reduced O2 pressure might reduce stress-related oxidative changes that sometimes accompany heat injury. Fruit were subsequently stored at 4 or 10 °C for up to 30 d. Unheated fruit and those heated in air at 34 °C for 24 h developed the best colour during storage at 10 °C. Storage at 4 °C inhibited carotenoid development in all treatments. Fruit heated in air or in 5% O2 lost the most ascorbic acid and isoascorbic acid. Glutathione reductase activity at the end of storage was similar in all fruit, while glutathione S-transferase activity was higher in fruit that had initially been heated in 5% O2. Heating of ‘Rhapsody’ tomato fruit in air at 34 °C for 24 h prior to storage at 10 °C for up to 30 d resulted in the least losses in antioxidant content, and fruit colour developed adequately. Reduced O2 neither improved the efficacy of the heat treatment in reducing chilling injury nor protected tomato fruit from the negative effects of heat treatment.
Article
For the first time, a database of the antioxidant capacities of both the lipophilic and hydrophilic components of foods has been developed using the modified oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL) assay and a peroxyl radical generator. For lipophilic components, randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin was used as a solubility enhancer. Four representative samples were extracted directly with the hydrophilic solvent (acetone:water:acetic acid, 70:29.5:0.5). Their ORACFL values were similar to that obtained for hydrophilic ORACFL (H-ORACFL) following lipophilic extraction with hexane:dichloromethane (1:1). Lipophilic ORAC values (L-ORACFL) were relatively low compared to H-ORACFL, ranging from 0.11±0.06 to 154.70±3.58 μmol TE/g of fresh or dry weight, whereas H-ORACFL ranged from 1.23±0.17 to 175.24±10.36 μmol TE/g of fresh or dry weight. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated as the sum of the lipophlic and hydrophilic ORACFL values. L-ORACFL as a percentage of TAC ranged from 0.27% to 63.70%. Sampling time during the year significantly influenced lipophilic and/or hydrophilic ORACFL values in some food samples. In order to get an accurate total antioxidant capacity of a given food sample, both lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions need to be measured. Food processing, such as cooking or peeling, need to be considered as additional factors which can introduce variation in antioxidant capacity measurements of foods.
Article
The TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay is based on scavenging of 2,2′-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical anions (ABTS−). In this report we describe a modification based on pre-generation of the ABTS radical anions with a thermolabile azo compound, 2,2′-azobis- (2-amidinopropane)HCl (ABAP). This modification makes the assay less susceptible to artefacts, e.g. influence on the radical generation process. For most antioxidants tested, a biphasic reaction pattern was seen, i.e. a fast and slow scavenging rate. We evaluated application of the assay with both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds with antioxidant capacity. Several organic solvents, compatible with water, were tested with α-tocopherol, quercetin and β-carotene. It was found that the TEACs differed in various solvents. Under standardized conditions additivity of TEACs obtained from individual antioxidants could be demonstrated. This might enable application of the assay for the identification of “unknown” antioxidants.
Article
Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC50 in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 μg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 μg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 μg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants. Practical Application: Potent antioxidant from natural sources is of great interest to replace the use of synthetic antioxidants. In addition, some of the plants have great potential to be used in the development of functional ingredients/foods that are currently in demand for the health benefits associated with their use.
Article
The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white grape, banana, apple, tomato, pear, and honeydew melon. On the basis of the dry weight of the fruits, strawberry again had the highest ORAC activity followed by plum, orange, pink grapefruit, tomato, kiwi fruit, red grape, white grape, apple, honeydew melon, pear, and banana. Most of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits was from the juice fractions. The contribution of the fruit pulp fraction (extracted with acetone) to the total ORAC activity of a fruit was usually less than 10%. Among the commercial fruit juices, grape juice had the highest ORAC activity followed by grapefruit juice, tomato juice, orange juice, and apple juice.