Pouteria sapota, commonly known in some countries as mamey sapote, is a member of the Sapotaceae family native to the Mesoamerican region. Awareness about this tree and consumption of its fruit have been mostly restricted to producing countries (Mexico and Central America), with only a few reports outside the American continent. In this chapter, we will discuss features related to botany and cultivation of the plant, as well as characteristics of the fruit, considering chemical composition, nutritional properties and health potential. Special emphasis is given to the main bioactive compounds present in the fruit, which include volatiles, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the latter. Traditional uses, development of processed products and innovative processing alternatives are also among the issues reviewed. Usually, the fruit is harvested when the pulp begins to change colour to its characteristic orange/salmon hue due to the carotenoid profile. Once harvested, the fruit has a postharvest shelf life of three to seven days, depending on the degree of maturity and storage temperature. Postharvest fruit shelf life has only been slightly extended by reducing storage temperature due to damage caused by chilling injury; therefore, other alternatives to improve shelf life are described in this chapter. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh or processed in ice cream, smoothies and jam, among others, due to its sweet flavour. Mamey sapote fruit contains nutritionally important constituents, such as carotenoids, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium and iron. The presence of nutritionally valuable carotenoids in mamey sapote fruit has recently drawn attention due to rarely occurring keto-carotenoids, namely sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin. Potassium is the main mineral, in terms of quantity, present in the fruit pulp. Mamey sapote is also a fruit rich in polyphenols, gallic acid being one of the main compounds found. Volatiles are also relevant because of the sensory properties they confer to the fruit. Although the fruit are traded and consumed mostly fresh, their commercialization in the form of frozen pulp is becoming popular, especially for export. Because of fruit deterioration due to enzymatic browning reactions , alternatives for processing have been evaluated as well. Since traditional thermal blanching has shown negative effects on texture, and is detrimental for the nutritional and sensory properties, non-thermal processing technologies, such as the use of microwave technologies, to ensure the safety of the processed pulp, have been studied. Other innovative tools, such as high hydrostatic pressure processing, are also being considered as promising and innovative alternatives for the preservation of the mamey sapote pulp without affecting its sensory and nutritional quality. Pouteria sapota has the potential to expand out of the current traditional and ethnic markets to a wider and international context, especially if the pulp can be included as an ingredient in fruit mixtures and juice formulations. *Corresponding author: victor. jimenez@ ucr. ac. cr 456 V.M. Jiménez et al.