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Abstract

The tasks that teachers set have a major effect on how students approach learning, however the nature of this interaction has not been explored comprehensively, nor against current understandings of quality learning. This paper details the development of a typology of task characteristics that lead to four different types of engagement associated with quality learning. The typology was developed from the work of hundreds of teacher researchers in the Project for Enhancing Effective Learning (PEEL), who provided accounts of tasks they designed to engage students in quality learning. It provides insights into characteristics of tasks that are more likely to lead to higher levels of engagement and stimulate better approaches to learning and hence provides a way of auditing both individual tasks and the sets of tasks in a course.

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... Podría decirse que es el grado en que los alumnos están implicados, conectados y comprometidos activamente para aprender y rendir, en contraste con la participación superficial, la apatía y la falta de interés. Más específicamente el compromiso hacia las tareas académicas se refiere a la intensidad y emoción con las cuales los estudiantes se implican para iniciar y llevar a cabo actividades de aprendizaje; es una energía en acción que conecta a la persona con la actividad (APPLETON et al., 2006;MITCHELL;CARBONE, 2011;DONOLO, 2014). ...
... Podría decirse que es el grado en que los alumnos están implicados, conectados y comprometidos activamente para aprender y rendir, en contraste con la participación superficial, la apatía y la falta de interés. Más específicamente el compromiso hacia las tareas académicas se refiere a la intensidad y emoción con las cuales los estudiantes se implican para iniciar y llevar a cabo actividades de aprendizaje; es una energía en acción que conecta a la persona con la actividad (APPLETON et al., 2006;MITCHELL;CARBONE, 2011;DONOLO, 2014). ...
... La segunda está relacionada con la implicación en el aprendizaje y las tareas académicas, lo cual incluye participación en clase, persistencia, concentración, atención, responder preguntas, hacer preguntas y contribuir en las discusiones de la clase. Y la tercera involucra la participación en actividades extraescolares, tales como practicar algún deporte, participar del centro de estudiantes del colegio o tomar clases de arte (ARGUEDAS, 2010;PARIS, 2004;KONG;WONG;LAM, 2003;MITCHELL;CARBONE, 2011). ...
Article
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The article presents preliminary results of research conducted with students and teachers at primary level in the area of Social Sciences. The purpose was to describe, explore and explain how student engagement relates to the contextual factors and teaching style of classroom and how engagement, context and classroom interact themselves. Understanding by involvement, the intensity and the emotion with which the students are involve for start and carry out learning activities. Data collection have used questionnaires and observation protocols. The results have shown that the classroom configuration is defined as key factor to address and understand the engagement; Also, the main conclusions can point the engagement can be shared; and the learning context and classroom organization play a fundamental role in the level of involvement that students show towards learning in the area of Social Sciences.
... There are few detailed definitions of active and passive engagement, but there appears to be an implicit understanding of active engagement meaning 'what is done' with the object of engagement and passive engagement meaning 'what is not done'. Active engagement refers to the intensity and emotional quality of involvement in carrying out activities with an object of engagement (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011), in this instance, technologies of navigation. Active involvement with these involves cognitive, affective and behavioural engagements. ...
... Cognitive engagement reflects the extent to which respondents expend mental effort (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011) towards their use of Sat Nav technologies for example, navigation capacity and ease of use. Focus group conversations revolved around the navigation capacity characteristics of Sat Nav use, the majority of which were concerned with the instructional dimensions: ...
... Affective engagement reveals the level of emotional response (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011) towards the use of Sat Nav technologies for example, positive attitudes towards, or preference for, Sat Nav technologies over traditional mapping tools such as paper-based maps. Responses indicating affective engagements with Sat Nav were instinctive, succinct and direct: ...
Article
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It is somewhat paradoxical that at a time of widespread and increasing adoption of Satellite Navigation (Sat Nay) technologies of wayfinding, geographic and cartographic research has engaged very little with issues relating to their impact on spatial awareness and cartographic literacy. Through exploration of geography students' engagements with Sat Nay, we investigate how these latest forms of wayfinding technologies are influencing choice and methods of navigation and how they affect attitudes towards more 'traditional' forms of maps and map use. We explore engagement in terms of what geography students know about, feel towards, and achieve with, Sat Nay technologies. Principally, Sat Nay is not seen as a 'map' but as something different and distinctive. This, in turn, has implications for how people navigate, how they relate to the places and spaces around them and for their spatial cognition and 'map-reading' abilities.
... There appears to be an implicit understanding of active engagement meaning "what is done" with the object of engagement, and passive engagement implying "what is not done" (Axon, 2015). Active engagement refers to the intensity and emotional quality of involvement in carrying out activities with an object of engagement (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011), in this instance, CBCRS. Active engagement involves cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement. ...
... Cognitive engagements reflect the extent to which participants expend mental effort (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011;Wolf and Moser, 2011) towards CBCRS. Cognitive engagements indicate levels of awareness, knowledge and understanding (Lorenzoni et al., 2007;Whitmarsh and O'Neill, 2011) of such projects. ...
... Affective engagements reveal the level of emotional response (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011;Wolf and Moser, 2011) towards CBCRS. Exploring the emotive language used by residents allowed for a closer analysis of affective engagements (Pang and Lee, 2008), indicating multiple emotional connections reflecting positivity, indifference, negativity and (dis)engagement with CBCRS. ...
Article
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In recent years the UK has positioned itself to become a global leader in addressing climate change. Along with this positioning, there has been an increasing emphasis on the role of communities to facilitate, increase and sustain carbon reduction practices. Previous research into community-based carbon reduction projects has highlighted the difficulty of engaging the public in community initiatives and sustaining pro-environmental behaviours. The importance placed on addressing climate change necessitates an understanding of how individuals respond to, and engage with, (or even ignore) community-based carbon reduction strategies. The paper presents findings from focus groups in three urban communities and investigates individual engagements with community-based carbon reduction strategies. Focusing on the three dimensions of engagement: cognitive; affective and; behavioural, the paper discusses what people know, feel and do about addressing climate change at the community level. An “information-vacuum” is reported that leads to an “awareness-involvement gap” that inhibits sustained engagement with community projects. Drawing on these findings, the paper advances a new theoretical framework and a “what works” approach for community-based initiatives attempting to meaningfully engage the public with addressing climate change and sustainable living.
... As the contribution of students to the learning process is not a new phenomenon, where academic motivation is seen as a powerful factor in getting them more interested in learning [40]; the success of student question generation activities can be maximized if the instructor has a better understanding of how students are motivated to learn by investigating on how motivation theories explain students motivation during those tasks [41], [42]. And by looking at how the activity of developing student-generated questions and answering student-generated questions, impact their motivations to learn [14]. ...
... Item 5 and 6 illustrate that most-active contributors (mean value of M=6. 42) show liking towards the subject matter of the course (p-value=0.000 < 0.05); and, are interested with the content of the course (p-value=0.000 ...
... Low student engagement has been related to early school dropout (Archambault, Janosz, Fallu, & Pagani, 2009) and poor student achievement (Klem & Connell, 2004;Zimmer-Gembeck, Chipuer, Hanisch, Creed, & McGregor, 2006). Research has also shown that teacher support (Cornelius-White, 2007;Skinner, Furrer, Marchand, & Kindermann, 2008; van Uden, Ritzen, & Pieters, 2014;Zimmer-Gembeck et al., 2006), peers (de Bruyn, 2005;Furrer & Skinner, 2003), classroom structure and management (Anderman, 2003;Raphael, Pressley, & Mohan, 2008), task characteristics (instruction and assignments; Anderman, 2003;Marks, 2000;Mitchell & Carbone, 2011), and autonomy support (Elffers, 2013;Skinner et al., 2008) influence student engagement at the classroom level (Fredricks et al., 2004). Furthermore, factors at the school and family levels can also influence engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Zyngier, 2008). ...
... Archambault et al., 2009;Reschly & Christenson, 2006); and (3) studies focusing on a specific aspect, such as classroom structure, that contributes to student engagement (e.g. Anderson, Christenson, Sinclair, & Lehr, 2004;Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). ...
Article
Interest in student engagement has increased over the past decade, which has resulted in increased knowledge about this concept and about the aspects that facilitate engagement. However, as yet, only a few studies have focused on engagement from the perspective of the teacher. In this study, we capture the experiences of teachers who were explicitly working with their teams on fostering student engagement. We used the learning history method to capture those experiences and at the same time to stimulate learning within the participating teams. A learning history includes the voices of the different participants involved in order to stimulate reflection and learning. Three teams of teachers participated in the writing of this learning history. Several teachers (n = 10), students (n = 10), and managers (n = 5) from or related to the teams were interviewed. The learning history shows that, on the one hand, teachers emphasized positive relationships and structure in relation to student engagement, yet, on the other hand, students continued to provide examples of negative relationships and mentioned a lack of structure, although they also mentioned improvements. Furthermore, the learning history showed that teachers in all teams reflected on their experiences and learned from the activities employed to foster student engagement, which included taking a more positive approach, conversations about a skills form, and being more consequent. These results taken together indicate that it is possible for teachers to do a better job of engaging their students and that their repertoire can be expanded to include more engagement-related actions. Finally, the learning history produced offers insight into the difficulties experienced by the teams. An important limitation mentioned by all teams was that teachers found it difficult to address each other’s behavior when someone did not act as agreed upon.
... Alguns artigos buscam entender as diferentes formas de engajamento entre grupos, por exemplo, comparando a forma de engajamento de estudantes internacionais com estudantes nativos, ou então estudantes pertencentes a grupos minoritários (HU; WOLNIAK, 2013). Outras pesquisas buscam criar tipologias de diferentes formas de engajamento de acordo com o perfil do estudante (NELSON LAIRD et al., 2007;MILEM, 2004) ou diferentes tipos de instituições (PIKE; KUH, 2005) e suas práticas para engajar seus estudantes (MITCHELL;CARBONE, 2011;ZHAO;KUH, 2004). ...
... Alguns artigos buscam entender as diferentes formas de engajamento entre grupos, por exemplo, comparando a forma de engajamento de estudantes internacionais com estudantes nativos, ou então estudantes pertencentes a grupos minoritários (HU; WOLNIAK, 2013). Outras pesquisas buscam criar tipologias de diferentes formas de engajamento de acordo com o perfil do estudante (NELSON LAIRD et al., 2007;MILEM, 2004) ou diferentes tipos de instituições (PIKE; KUH, 2005) e suas práticas para engajar seus estudantes (MITCHELL;CARBONE, 2011;ZHAO;KUH, 2004). ...
Article
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The engagement is a factor already studied and evaluated internationally as it is used as an indicator to assess the provision of teaching quality. This article aims to present a review of the international literature on student engagement. Initially the concept of engagement is set, the following student engagement and academic success. The article also seeks to present the models of engagement found in the international literature, as well as institutional practices that can improve student engagement. Finally, the conclusions remarks of the article are drawn.
... Los autores se refieren a él de diversas maneras, como la unión de la escuela y la conectividad (Eggert, Thompson, Herting, Nicholas y Dickers, 1994), el apego (Gottfredson, Fink y Graham, 1994), pertenencia, participación (Finn, 1989;Caspi, Entner, Moffitt y Silva, 1998) y hasta como compromiso afectivo (Janosz, LeBlanc, Boulerice y Tremblay, 1997). En esta investigación se considera el engagement académico como el grado en que los estudiantes están implicados, conectados y comprometidos activamente para aprender y tener un buen desempeño (Appleton, Cristenson, Kin y Reschly, 2006;Mitchell y Carbone, 2011). ...
... Los resultados de esta investigación coinciden con los de Bresó et al. (2005) ya que las creencias de autoeficacia académica percibida tienen un efecto positivo sobre el engagement académico. También, los resultados comprueban que el compromiso afectivo incide sobre el grado en que los estudiantes de posgrado se implican, conectan y comprometen activamente con el aprendizaje y buen desempeño, lo que se conoce como engagement académico (Appleton et al., 2006;Mitchell y Carbone, 2011). Sin embargo, son las creencias de autoeficacia medidas a través de la comunicación, la atención y la excelencia (Blanco et al., 2011) las que más impactan al engagement académico, que a su vez está medido a través del vigor, la dedicación y la concentración de los estudiantes (Schaufeli et al., 2002). ...
Article
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Este estudio se enfocó en medir las creencias de autoeficacia académica, el compromiso afectivo con la universidad y el impacto del engagement académico sobre la lealtad de los estudiantes de posgrado en la prestación de servicios educativos; lo anterior se desarrolló a través de una investigación empírica, no experimental, de naturaleza explicativa y transversal. La unidad de análisis se conformó por estudiantes de posgrado de las áreas de ingeniería, negocios y ciencias sociales. La muestra fue no probabilística aplicada en el área de posgrados de una universidad privada en México, obteniéndose 484 encuestas válidas. Los resultados muestran que la lealtad incrementa en tanto mayor sea el engagement de los estudiantes en su proceso académico. A su vez, tanto las creencias de autoeficacia académica percibida como el compromiso afectivo son predictores de la lealtad, a través del engagement académico.
... Podría decirse, que es el grado en que los alumnos están implicados, conectados y comprometidos activamente para aprender y rendir, en contraste con participación superficial, apatía y falta de interés. Más específicamente, el compromiso hacia las tareas académicas refiere a la intensidad y emoción con la cual los estudiantes se implican para iniciar y llevar a cabo actividades de aprendizaje, es una energía en acción que conecta a la persona con la actividad (Appleton, Cristenson, Kin y Reschly, 2006;Mitchell y Carbone, 2011;Rigo, 2014). ...
... La segunda definición está relacionada con la implicación en el aprendizaje y las tareas académicas, lo cual incluye participación en clase, persistencia, concentración, atención, responder preguntas, hacer preguntas y contribuir en las discusiones de la clase. Y, la tercera definición involucra la participación en actividades extraescolares, tales como practicar algún deporte, participar del centro de estudiantes del colegio o tomar clases de arte (Arguedas, 2010;Fredriscks, et al., 2004;Kong, Wong y Lam, 2003;Mitchell y Carbone, 2011). otra consideración sobre el componente conductual de la implicación es realizada por Finn (1993), quien entiende que la participación es el concepto clave para el estudio de este constructo e identifica cuatro niveles. ...
Article
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El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo profundizar en desarrollos teóricos y empíricos sobre compromiso en el aula. En la primera parte, se presentan consideraciones conceptuales actuales sobre implicación conductual y afectiva hacia el aprendizaje académico. Luego, se expone un estudio llevado a cabo en una escuela primaria de Argentina con alumnos de sexto grado -segundo ciclo-, con el objetivo de describir el compromiso observado y auto-percibido en relación con el rendimiento académico y rasgos del contexto instructivo. Los resultados hallados muestran relaciones entre alto rendimiento, niveles elevados de compromiso hacia el aprendizaje y percepción del entorno áulico orientado a la autonomía, curiosidad, desafío y evaluación formativa. Por último, se presentan algunas orientaciones para promover la responsabilidad en el aula.
... We acknowledge that a significant body of research and recommendations for educational reform already exist in Australia, aimed at better understanding and improving student engagement (Abbott-Chapman et al., 2013;CESE, 2015;CESE, 2017 Goldspink, et al., 2008;Fullarton, 2002;Goss, Sonnemann & Griffiths, 2017;Green at al., 2012;Harris, 2008Harris, , 2011Helme & Clarke, 2001;Lingard et al., 2001; Melbourne Graduate School of Education, n.d.; Mitchell & Carbone, 2011;Sullivan, Johnson, Owens, & Conway, 2014;Zyngier & May, 2004;Zyngier, 2007Zyngier, , 2008Zyngier, , 2017. This research has investigated and evaluated how student engagement is -or should be -interpreted, supported and implemented in Australian classrooms. ...
... Importantly, this research includes task characteristics that support the three-dimensional construct of student engagement (cf. CESE, 2017;Mitchell & Carbone, 2011), as well as recommendations for educational authorities to reform state and national educational practices from a dimensional perspective (Department of Education and Training, 2018; Lingard et al. 2001). Indeed, student engagement continues to be identified as a significant issue in Australia, particularly in relation to the middle years of schooling (CESE, 2015;Fredricks, 2011;Zyngier, 2008). ...
Article
Student engagement is considered to be a malleable, multi-dimensional construct which combines the three dimensions of behavioural, emotional and cognitive engagement. Importantly, the literature reveals a solid understanding of how teachers influence student engagement, highlighting the teacher's role as paramount to ensuring students are able to experience meaningful engagement. This review includes Australian state educational frameworks, and considers the impact these may have on teaching as a profession. All states and territories include some, or all, of these dimensions in frameworks that address students' engagement and wellbeing. However, variations in terminology, structure and definition make it challenging for the teaching profession to clearly understand what is required to support student engagement at a nationally consistent level. Research has found that teachers tend to hold quite disparate conceptualisations of student engagement, as well as employ engagement strategies that are often contrary to these conceptualisations. With this in mind, a key purpose of the current review is to provide clear guidelines of student engagement as a tri-dimensional construct, accompanied by research-based definitions and strategies to support engagement more consistently, to inform a framework for teaching professionals to implement effective engagement pedagogies in the classroom.
... Furthermore, the nature of the tasks to be carried out influences students' engagement with the tasks [75]. In this study, figuring out the correct solution and responding to a set of adaptive multiple-choice quiz questions constitutes the learning task. ...
... Table III presents consistency values for each combination and for the overall solution, with all values being above the recommended threshold (>0. 75). The overall solution coverage shows the extent that learners' performance can be determined based on the identified configurations and is comparable to the R-square value. ...
Article
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Investigating and explaining the patterns of learners' engagement in adaptive learning conditions is a core issue towards improving the quality of personalized learning services. This study collects learner data from multiple sources during an adaptive learning activity, and employs a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach to shed light to learners’ engagement patterns, with respect to their learning performance. Specifically, this study measures and codes learners' engagement by fusing and compiling clickstreams (e.g., response time), physiological data (e.g., eye-tracking, EEG, electrodermal activity) and survey data (e.g., goal-orientation) to determine what configurations of those data explain when learners can attain high or medium/low learning performance. For the evaluation of the approach, an empirical study with 32 undergraduates was conducted. The analysis revealed six configurations that explain learners' high performance and three that explain learners' medium/low performance, driven by engagement measures coming from the multimodal data. Since fsQCA explains the outcome of interest itself, rather than its variance, these findings advance our understanding on the combined effect of the multiple indicators of engagement on learners’ performance. Limitations and potential implications of the findings are also discussed.
... On the other hand, the type of task influences student engagement, which can positively affect the quality of learning (Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). Firstly, the telecollaboration introduced novel aspects in its activities whereas the activities performed by the face-to- face teams may seem similar to work performed in the past. ...
... The last feature promotes metacognition (paying attention to one's own learning), the task control is shared with the instructor, and the work complexity is partially established by the student team. The last three characteristics (novel, authentic, and open) usually stimulate student engagement level (Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). Table 2 presents the items included in the questionnaire grouped into three categories. ...
Article
Telecollaboration is defined as a collaborative activity that involves people from distant geographic locations working together through Internet tools and other resources. This technique has not been frequently used in learning experiences and has produced diverse academic results, as well as degrees of satisfaction. This paper describes a telecollaboration experience among students at two universities. We analyzed data from 255 students divided into different groups in order to compare their academic results and satisfaction derived from the experience. We also studied the communication tools used by the telecollaborators and their effect on with student satisfaction. The telecollaborators obtained better academic results but lower levels of satisfaction than the face-to-face groups. Furthermore, the students preferred day-to-day tools, and the use of non-institutional email was the most popular option. Social networks and chat and voice tools also proved to be useful. And, those who employed synchronous tools were more satisfied with the experience.
... Collaborative behaviours can be identified by assessing whether the members' contributions enrich other members' work. Recent studies by Li (2012) and Mitchell and Carbone (2011) found that assignment specification should be carefully designed to promote collaborative learning. ...
Conference Paper
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The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and their increasing use in higher education have provided opportunities for building collaborative learning environments for students. Collaborative experiences are particularly beneficial for preparing students for their future workplace environments. Moreover, the creation and sharing of resources and information as afforded by Web 2.0 technologies can also improve a student's learning experience. Web 2.0 technologies such as wikis can be used to enable and support new and varied forms of group work learning. Wikis provide tools for measuring students' contributions, such as the number, size and regularity of their contributions. However, the value of the students' collaboration and interactions as they worked together as a group is more difficult to determine. This suggests a need for an assessment framework to evaluate the value of students' contributions and their interactions in wiki-based group work assignments. The framework was built from a review of the literature, drawing on relevant research for assessing group work. Future studies will trial this assessment framework in a real unit setting that applies wikis for group work.
... In order to have a better understanding of levels and types of engagement, one should have a clear picture of various task types. Mitchell and Carbone (2011) introduced an eight-dimension typology of task characteristics, including routine-never, artificial-authentic, closed-open, simple-complex, individual-collaborative, degree of ownership, degree of linkage, and degree of reflection on learning. As various task characteristics tend to result in different educational outcomes, EFL/ESL teachers should Task types and Learners' Performance in Collaborative Virtual Learning Environments select tasks with the appropriate purpose and audience in mind. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to examine how various task types affect the extent to which learners engage in form-related changes(FRC) and meaning-related changes(MRC).To this end,15 Iranian language learners (9 female and 6 male) participated in instruction sessions in which they learned how to self-correct and peer-correct three writing tasks ,namely ; argumentative, informative , and analytical. Etherpad package was used to facilitate the communication among the learners as they shared their responses and feedback on each other's writings. Data analysis indicated more instances of peer-correction (54%) compared to those of self-correction (46%) in the three task types. The results of a Chi-square analysis illustrated that the difference in the instances of corrections produced was statistically significant (X2=10.890, p=0.00).In this regard, the results indicated that the number of corrections produced in the analytical task was higher than that of other tasks. Another Chi-square test (Chi-Sq = 6.754, DF = 2, P-Value = 0.034) proved that the participants in all task types made statistically significant changes in meaning-related aspects compared to the changes they made to the formal ones in their written products. A t-test analysis revealed that learners' focus between form and structure was not significantly different whether they worked individually or collaboratively. (P-value = 0.3 for argumentative task, P-value = 0.26 for analytical task). However the analysis showed that the emphasis of accuracy and meanings (p-value =0.031 for argumentative task, P-value = 0.033) increased when they worked in groups. The findings of an interview revealed that most of the interviewees agreed that the writing and editing in collaboration with peers were a positive and useful experience.
... In summary, the structure of the TBL module based on the student-respondents' description has been found to be very well-structured, and the way how the instructions, activities, and assessment were presented has been a significant factor why the students were able to progress in performing the tasks and understanding the lessons. The result is supported by Mitchell and Carbone (2011) which indicates that the structure of the task that students are carrying out will influence students' engagement with the lesson for them to understand fully the lessons included. In terms of adaptability, the results showed a grand mean of 4.63 that depicts strong agreement. ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the task-based learning module in Mathematics in improving the computational skills of Grade V Students. The study used descriptive-experimental research design focused on students' perception of the lesson structure, evaluation of the module, and its effectiveness in improving the computational skills of the students. Generally, the students perceived the structure of the module in terms of pre-task, task, and review as very well structured. Likewise, the findings showed the evaluation in terms of adaptability, clarity, validity, usability, and aesthetic value to a very great extent. The results also showed a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test scores of the students in computational skills in terms of problem solving, decision making, sequencing, algorithm formation, and quantitative measurement. However, no significant relationship was found between the perceived structure of the lesson and the mean scores of the students in computational skills. Moreover, the perceived evaluation of the module has no significant relations with the computational skills. The study recommends the use of task-based learning module in Mathematics following the structure of pre-task, task, and review to improve the computational skills of the students.
... In order to have a better understanding of levels and types of engagement, one should have a clear picture of various task types. (Mitchell and Carbone, 2011) introduced an eight-dimension typology of task characteristics, including routine-never, artificial-authentic, closed-open, simple-complex, individual-collaborative, degree of ownership, degree of linkage, and degree of reflection on learning. As various task characteristics tend to result in different educational outcomes, EFL/ESL teachers should select tasks with the appropriate purpose and audience in mind. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to examine how various task types affect the extent to which learners engage in form-related changes (FRC) and meaning-related changes(MRC). To this end,15 Iranian language learners (9 female and 6 male) participated in instruction sessions in which they learned how to self-correct and peer-correct three writing tasks,namely; argumentative, informative, and analytical. Etherpad package was used to facilitate the communication among the learners as they shared their responses and feedback on each other's writings. Data analysis indicated more instances of peer-correction (54%) compared to those of self-correction (46%) in the three task types. The results of a Chi-square analysis illustrated that the difference in the instances of corrections produced was statistically significant (X2=10.890, p=0.00). In this regard, the results indicated that the number of corrections produced in the analytical task was higher than that of other tasks. Another Chi-square test (Chi-Sq = 6.754, DF = 2, P-Value = 0.034) proved that the participants in all task types made statistically significant changes in meaning-related aspects compared to the changes they made to the formal ones in their written products. A t-test analysis revealed that learners’ focus between form and structure was not significantly different whether they work individually or collaboratively. (P-value = 0.3 for argumentative task, P-value = 0.26 for analytical task). However the analysis showed that the emphasis of accuracy and meanings (p-value =0.031 for argumentative task, P-value = 0.033) increased when they worked in groups. The findings of an interview revealed that most of the interviewees agreed that the writing and editing in collaboration with peers were a positive and useful experience.
... As instructors can more systematically improve learning by understanding constructivism's implications for teaching, instructors can also systematically improve students' motivation during specific tasks by understanding how motivation theories explain students' motivation during those tasks (Ames, 1992;Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). In this paper, we argue that in order to systematically maximize the benefits of CSPs, 2 G.L. Herman instructors must also develop a better understanding of how students are motivated to learn and how CSP tasks impact students' motivations to learn. ...
Article
In order to maximize the effectiveness of our pedagogies, we must understand how our pedagogies align with prevailing theories of cognition and motivation and design our pedagogies according to this understanding. When implementing Contributing Student Pedagogies (CSPs), students are expected to make meaningful contributions to the learning of their peers, and consequently, instructors inherently give students power and control over elements of the class. With this loss of power, instructors will become more aware that the quality of the learning environment will depend on the level of students’ motivation and engagement rather than the instructor's mastery of content or techniques. Given this greater reliance on student motivation, we will discuss how motivation theories such as Self-Determination Theory (SDT) match and support the use of CSP and how CSP can be used to promote students’ intrinsic motivation (IM) to learn. We conclude with examples of how we use principles of SDT to guide our design and use of CSP. We will particularly focus on how we changed the discussion sections of a large, required, sophomore-level class on digital logic and computer organization at a large, research university at relatively low-cost to the presiding class instructor.
... Another focus at the classroom level has been placed on the influence of teachers' instructional approaches (Marks 2000;Skinner et al. 2008). The way teachers design learning tasks influences students' learning and engagement (Ames 1992;Mitchell and Carbone 2011). Instructional strategies that promote in-depth inquiry and student interaction have been found to increase student engagement (Brock et al. 2008;Wang and Holcombe 2010). ...
Article
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Drawing on data from a merged data set from a student survey and a parent survey that were conducted in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in 2013, this article uses a multilevel framework to investigate the effects of individual characteristics and the classroom and school environments on high school students? school engagement in a modernising education system that is different from Western ones. The results of the three-level model revealed that while students? attributes remained strong predictors of their school engagement, the social and organisational environment of classrooms and school also greatly shaped the extent to which students emotionally and cognitively engaged with their school and learning. This study provided evidence to support the interactive nature of the impact of multilevel environments on student engagement. The policy and research implications were also discussed in the empirical context of Abu Dhabi.
... There is no agreement on the fourth component of engagement. Agency is introduced as a fourth component by Reeve andTseng (2011), Mitchell andCarbone (2011) introduce metacognitive engagement, while Reschly and Christenson (2006) suggest academic engagement as the fourth component of engagement. ...
Article
Student engagement is an important condition for positive outcomes at school. This study examined whether teachers' motives for being a teacher, their ratings of the relative importance of different teacher competences, their self-efficacy for teaching, and ratings of their own interpersonal teacher behavior could predict teacher perceptions of student engagement. Relations between perceived student engagement and teacher beliefs were explored using data from a survey of 195 teachers in prevocational and vocational education in the Netherlands. Teachers rating themselves higher on dimensions of interpersonal teacher behavior, importance of didactic and pedagogical competence, and self-efficacy perceived their students as more engaged.
... It will first describe some key multimedia learning concepts and then propose a general multimedia principle for this workshop. It will then explain the influence of Mayer's (2009) principles on the design of the workshop sessions and will finish by discussing some of the tasks using Mitchell and Carbone's (2011) typology and clarifying how these will promote the teachers' reflection and autonomy. ...
Thesis
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Although little has been written about language teaching in the field of translation studies, Johns’ (1991) concept of data-driven learning (DDL) has been suggested as a viable way to promote translator competencies and skills within the language classroom. However, most language teachers in Chile are not exposed to approaches involving the use of corpora for pedagogical purposes. Hence, this research aims to produce a teacher development workshop to introduce DDL in a Chilean private translation training institution named Escuela Americana de Traductores e Intérpretes (EATRI). To this end, this case study comprised the following three stages: understanding the teachers’ perceptions of DDL, designing and developing a workshop and evaluating the workshop prototype. In the first stage, audio-recorded interviews were used as the data collection method, and questionnaires were used in the third stage. The teachers’ initial perceptions towards the feasibility of DDL indicated that the workshop should address (1) DDL teacher training, (2) DDL learner training, (3) DDL inductive and deductive approaches and (4) induction to the translator studies field. These perceptions were used to create a seven-session online workshop produced using Articulate and uploaded on a Moodle platform. Wallace’s (1991) checklist for course design was also used in the design of the workshop. In their evaluations of the workshop, the teachers agreed that their initial apprehensions had been addressed. However, they problematised other issues, such as those associated with empowering language teachers with knowledge of the translation studies field, the possible prescriptivism of the workshop, the development of the teachers’ perceptions, the online delivery method and the promoted level of autonomy. Some of these considerations will inform the last stage of the courseware development before the first version of the online workshop is tested in the second semester of 2014.
... They also note that when designing a curriculum there should be a focus on increasing interaction with class materials (Robinson and Hullinger, 2008). Mitchell and Carbone (2011) suggest that engagement can be enhanced depending on the nature of the task the students are carrying out. ...
Article
Student engagement is intrinsically linked to two important metrics in learning: student satisfaction and the quality of the student experience. One of the ways that engagement can be influenced is through careful curriculum design. Using the knowledge that many students are ‘assessment-driven’, a low-stakes continuous weekly summative e-assessment was introduced to a module. The impact this had on student engagement was measured by studying student activity within the module virtual learning environment. It was found that introduction of the e-assessments led to a significant increase in virtual learning environment activity compared to the virtual learning environment activity in that module the previous year, and also compared to the virtual learning environment activity of two other modules studied by the same student cohort. As many institutions move towards greater blended or online deliveries, it will become more important to ensure that virtual learning environments encourage high levels of student engagement in order to maintain or enhance the student experience.
...  increased motivation (Barata et al. 2013;de Byl and Hooper 2013);  higher engagement and participation (Akpolat and Slany 2014;Anderson et al. 2014;Barata et al. 2013;Mitchell and Carbone 2011;Muntean 2011); ...
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This dissertation addresses decreased academic participation, low engagement and poor experience as issues often related to students’ retention in online learning courses. The issues were identified at the Department of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, although high dropout rates are a growing problem in Computer Science studies worldwide. A solving approach often used in addressing the before mentioned problems includes gamification and personalization techniques: Gamification is a process of applying game design principles in serious contexts (i.e., learning), while personalization refers to tailoring the context to users’ needs and characteristics. In this work, the two techniques are used in combination in the Personalized Gamification Model (PeGaM), created for designing an online course for learning programming languages. PeGaM is theoretically grounded in the principles of the Gamified Learning Theory and the theory of learning tendencies. Learning tendencies define learners’ preferences for a particular form of behavior, and those behaviors are seen as possible moderators of gamification success. Moderators are a concept explained in the Gamified Learning Theory, and refer to variables that can influence the impact of gamification on the targeted outcomes. Gamification success is a measure of the extent to which students behave in a manner that leads to successful learning. The conceptual model of PeGaM is an iterative process in which learning tendencies are used to identify students who are believed to be prone to avoid certain activities. Gamification is then incorporated in activities that are recognized as ‘likely to be avoided’ to produce a specific learning-related behavior responsible for a particular learning outcome. PeGaM model includes five conceptual steps and 19 design principles required for gamification of learning environments that facilitate student engagement, participation and experience. In practice, PeGaM was applied in an introductory JavaScript course with Bachelor students of Computer Science at RWTH Aachen University. The investigation was guided by the principles of the Design-Based Research approach. Through this approach, PeGaM was created, evaluated and revised, over three iterative cycles. The first cycle had an explorative character, included one control and one treatment group, and gathered 124 participants. The second and third cycle were experimental studies, in which 69 and 171 participants were randomly distributed along one control and two treatment groups. Through the three interventions, mixed methods were used to capture students’ academic participation (a measure of students’ online behavior in the course collected through activity logs), engagement (evaluated quantitatively through a questionnaire compiled to measure behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), and gameful experience (quantitative measure of students’ experience with the gamified system). In addition, supporting data was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey questions. The empirical findings revealed that gamification with PeGaM contributes to learning outcomes and that the success of gamification is conditioned by the applicability of game elements with learners’ preferences and learning activities. Cross case comparisons supported the application of PeGaM design principles and demonstrated its potential. Even though limited support was found to confirm the moderating role of learners’ learning tendencies, the study demonstrated that the gamification of learning activities that students are likely to avoid can increase their participation - but must be carefully designed. Most importantly, it has been shown that educational gamification can support and enhance learning-related behavior but require relevant and meaningful learning activities in combination with carefully considered reward, collaborative and feedback mechanisms. The study provides practical and theoretical insights but also highlights challenges and limitations associated with personalized gamification thus offers suggestions for further investigation.
... It is often categorised into behavioural, psychological (or affective), and cognitive dimensions. However, two additional dimensions have been recently proposed: meta-cognitive as students focus on their own learning; (Mitchell & Carbone, 2011) and, agentic whereby students are encouraged to contribute to the flow of teaching (Reeve & Tseng, 2011). These different dimensions of engagement, while not necessarily in conflict, do reflect different teaching purposes. ...
Article
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This paper reports on a large study investigating the pedagogical reasoning of 40 expert science teachers in Australia in an attempt to explicate expert practice. Over a three-year period, the teachers were divided into two cohorts involving both elementary and high school teachers of science. Each cohort experienced eight days of a professional program that helped to focus their attention and unpack the complex and detailed tacit knowledge about teaching 'carried in their heads'. The main sources of data were the recorded planning conversations of teachers as they worked with peers in designing, preparing and developing a unit of work for their students along with interviews that were conducted with all 40 teachers involved in the project. Additional data was extracted from notes, summaries and conversations captured during the days of the professional program. Coding of these data identified major themes that were compared to those from an earlier pilot study. Emerging from a comparison of these analyses were four key foci, which form a framework for elucidating the tacit pedagogical reasoning of teachers. These included: Big ideas, Generation of quality learning and quality learners, Responding to contextual constraints and opportunities, Teacher personal and professional identify, and Routes to engagement. Careful mapping of teacher thinking (as evidenced from their conversations) between these foci demonstrated rapid and complex movement from one focus to the other as teachers planned their teaching. We termed this 'pinball reasoning'. Within this paper we report on the findings in relation to latter focus, Routes to engagement using the phenomena of pinball reasoning to discuss the multiple ways teachers could be led to thinking about engagement.
... There are still controversies about the third and fourth dimensions. In the literature, one can meet different engagement types or names such as academic (see Furrer & Skinner, 2003), motivational (see Skinner & Belmont, 1993) and meta-cognitive engagement (see Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). But in a motivational model aiming to analyze engagement construct as a whole, it would be better to deal with the concept as a multidimensional construct. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to explore antecedents and outcomes of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' self-determined classroom engagement within a self-system model of motivation process development framework. Grounded on the modern motivation theory, Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), a mixed-method research was conducted with 412 EFL learners answering self-report questionnaires and randomly chosen 18 interviewees in preparatory classes of a foreign languages vocational school at a medium-scaled Turkish university. Data triangulation showed that quantitative and qualitative findings were consistent with one another according to general tendencies about context (perceived autonomy-support), self (basic psychological needs), action (behavioural, emotional, agentic and cognitive engagement) and outcome (achievement and attendance) variables. The hypothesized path models among context, self, action and outcome, highlighted that learners' perceptions of classroom social context facilitate or undermine their intrinsic desires to act, which in turn have a substantial impact on their achievement and attendance in English language course. Themes from the interviews also underscored that course teacher is a motivation supporter in EFL classrooms and plays a pivotal role in learners' self-related ideas, multidimensional classroom engagement and positive outcomes in English course. By presenting details on underlying structures of EFL learners' motivational self-systems within antecedents and outcomes of classroom engagement framework, it provided significant insights into many questions about classroom engagement. The findings of the study have implications for those in charge of English as a foreign language teaching who want to foster learners' engagement more or have to cope with a high number of unmotivated language learners in their classrooms.
... Of course, the student's personality characteristics (anxiety, selfconfidence, self-doubt, etc.) and his or her social and cultural background determined by the family also play a role. On the part of the teacher and the school, it is especially the reasonable difficulty of learning requirements (Mitchell & Carbone, 2011) in relation to different groups of students, which is generally understood on the part of an individual´s approach to education. However, it is related to the teacher's knowledge of what students he/she has in front of him/her, especially in terms of the motivational type of student and in terms of his current level of development of dispositions (Machů & Lukeš, 2019). ...
Article
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Introduction: The current school is strongly focused on student performance. Each student faces a large number of learning tasks, which place considerable demands on them, arouse in them a different degree of interest, evoke a different degree of commitment to work, are associated with different expectations or have a different degree of attractiveness. Performance situations are associated with pleasant experiences but also with experiences of failure, which in their essence affect the activity or passivity of the student, and thereby affect the prioritization of the necessity to excel or the need to avoid failure. These needs are the basis of performance orientation, which is analysed in the paper. The aim is to verify whether the motivational orientation of students is related to their beneficial outcomes. Methods: The quantitative nature of the paper made it possible to use both indicators of descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, standard deviation) and inductive statistics (Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's Chi-square test, Shapiro-Wilk normality test). The surveyed sample of 363 respondents consisted of an available selection of students from 14 primary schools in five regions of the Czech Republic in 2019. The data were collected physically at schools using a standardized questionnaire. Students were acquainted with its purpose and content. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out electronically, both in terms of methodology in accordance with the research design of Hrabal and Pavelková (2011). Results: The analysis of the data of the sample of respondents revealed that the performance orientation of problem students differs statistically significantly from that of the performance motivation of non-problem students in two cases: 1) the need for successful performance, where differences were verified using hypothesis H1 and 2) in the ratio of performance needs, where the differences were verified using hypothesis H4. In other cases, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. Discussion: The presented findings correspond to current domestic (Krykorková & Váňová, 2010) and foreign research (Weiner, 2000). They draw attention to the importance of a positive motivation of the student in terms of his degree of involvement in the development of his own dispositions, which affects the benefit of the student. Positively motivated students achieve better results with a comparable intellect than non-motivated students (Man & Mareš, 2005). The role of the teacher and his knowledge of motivational types of students is of paramount importance in this respect. Limitations: The sample under examination of respondents does not bring a representative sample in terms of the representation of students according to school years, regions of the Czech Republic or according to the representation of so-called problem or non-problem students. The outcomes of the survey can thus be applied only to a given sample of respondents. Conclusion: The benefitting for students in the sample showed lower positive motivation than their intellectually comparable non-problem classmates. It is a question of reserves, the use of which is a challenge not only for themselves, but also for the school and parents. The largest differences between the two groups were recorded in the specific ratio of positive and negative motivation 4: 2 within the T1 type and in the ratio 1: 3 within the T6 type. The attempt to determine the causes of this fact, especially proposing a remedy, is a topic for further research in this area.
... 9 Building on the importance of resources in engagement, several authors have suggested that engagement can be enhanced by effective design and use of learning resources, particularly in the world of online learning. 11,12 Claxton 13 observed that, in order to be engaging, learning resources need to meet certain criteria. For example, resources need to be relevant, give the learner a sense of responsibility or control over their learning, and offer realistic tasks. ...
Article
Engagement is an integral pedagogical component underpinning effective educational activities and is of importance for educators using online platforms. Carefully designed, technology-enabled learning resources can increase student engagement. We developed an open educational resource etextbook on vital sign measurement using an interactive and multimodal platform to facilitate student learning. The etextbook design was informed by experiential teaching-learning theory. Students progressed through the etextbook at their own pace, following pedagogy informed by the iterative process of read, observe, practice, and test, commonly used in nursing education. The etextbook was introduced as a required reading in a first-year health assessment course at one university and two colleges. In this project, we explored the level of engagement experienced by users of the etextbook. We conducted a descriptive study using the User Engagement Scale to measure students' degree of engagement using the etextbook. Results from participants (N = 455) who used the etextbook in the study indicated a high level of engagement. The responses to an open-ended item on the survey provided context to the results and shed light on effective design practices. Several recommendations for best practices in developing etextbooks are identified for educators to consider.
... Uno de estos aspectos es sin duda el compromiso escolar. Este metaconstructo hace referencia básicamente al grado de implicación y participación activa del estudiante en los procesos de aprendizaje, en el trabajo que conduce a una comprensión profunda de los contenidos y procedimientos, así como en el desarrollo de un compromiso activo para aprender de forma significativa y autorregulada (Appleton, Christenson, Kim, & Reschly, 2006;Christenson, Reschly, & Wylie, 2012;Mitchell & Carbone, 2011;Saracostti et al., 2019a). El compromiso escolar es una variable clave para prevenir temprana y oportunamente la desescolarización y promover la retención escolar en el sistema educativo. ...
Article
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Los factores contextuales pueden tener una incidencia significativa en la configuración de la trayectoria educativa, así como en la construcción del compromiso escolar. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en validar un instrumento de medición de factores contextuales que pueden incidir en el compromiso escolar que niños, niñas y adolescentes tienen con sus estudios. La escala fue aplicada a 403 estudiantes de enseñanza básica/primaria y media/secundaria. El proceso de validación contempló análisis de homogeneidad y análisis factoriales exploratorios realizados con la mitad de la muestra. Se extrajeron 18 ítems, agrupados en tres factores contextuales (familias, profesorado y pares). Esta estructura fue confirmada con la segunda mitad de la muestra mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio. El modelo de tres factores correlacionados presentó buenos niveles de ajuste a los datos y una adecuada confiabilidad. Se discute la incidencia de estos factores contextuales sobre el compromiso escolar y sobre factores de riesgo de desescolarización.
... Explicitly related to engagement, motivation is a centrally held tenet of teaching and learning (Mitchell 2011). Motivation has long held roots in self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci et al. 1991;Ryan and Deci 2000), building on social learning theory (Bandura 1971). ...
Article
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The emergence of online environments has changed the landscape of educational learning. Some students thrive in this learning environment, but others become amotivated and disengaged. Drawing on self-determination theory, we report the findings of a study of 574 undergraduate business students at an Australian higher education institution on their attitude toward online learning, and its impact on their motivation and educational engagement. Data was collected via an e-mail survey and analysed using structural equation modelling and the Hayes’ bootstrapping method. The results of the study were mixed. Attitude to online learning mediated the relationships of both intrinsic motivation to know and extrinsic motivation with engagement, indicating that the design of online learning environments can play a role in enhancing learning experiences. However, attitude to online learning was not found to mediate the intrinsic motivation to accomplish and engagement relationship. A negative mediation effect was partially supported between amotivation and engagement, with study mode found as a moderated mediator to this effect, being stronger and significant for online students as opposed to on-campus students. These results have implications for how students can be engaged online, and the need for educators to design online learning environments that support the learning experience for all students.
... There are various definitions and names of engagement in the literature, and each focuses on different aspects of engagement (see Eccles, 2016;Furrer & Skinner, 2003;Kahu, 2003;Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). It is a complex term with lots of associations and multiple levels. ...
Article
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Classroom engagement as a multi-dimensional concept has received considerable attention nowadays in educational research, but there is limited research on this issue in language learning. This study investigates classroom engagement in English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms, which can be considered the action component of the motivational system. Grounded in self-determination theory and the self-system model of motivational development, it tests a mediation model among indices of context (perceived teacher autonomy-support), self (psychological needs) and action (classroom engagement in language classrooms) with a cross-sectional survey design in 412 EFL learners in Turkey. The study findings indicated that learners' classroom engagement was directly predicted by learners' basic psychological needs, and indirectly by an autonomy-supportive context. Also, classroom engagement was directly predicted by perceived teacher autonomy-support in this model. The study highlights the pivotal role of learners' self and of language teachers in motivation. The findings deepen understanding of classroom engagement and its potential contribution to the quality of learning. They also have implications for language teachers and educators, suggesting that they should adopt autonomy-supportive behaviours to actively engage learners in learning in the language classroom. This paper was checked for plagiarism using iThenticate during the preview process and before publication. / Bu çalışma ön inceleme sürecinde ve yayımlanmadan önce iThenticate yazılımı ile taranmıştır.
... Estudiantes de kinesiología y fonoaudiología también valoran positivamente este tipo de actividad en López et al. (2011) donde también se menciona que una característica que se puede observar en este tipo de actividades es la disminución del estrés y ansiedad por parte de los estudiantes, esto podría estar relacionado con el efecto en la percepción positiva que se tiene frente a la actividad. La mayoría de los estudiantes indicaron que el nivel de dificultad que aprecian de esta metodología fue media, siendo teóricamente lo recomendable, pues una complejidad alta (que conlleva una sobrecarga cognitiva), como también una muy simple, puede afectar el buen desarrollo del objetivo y aprendizaje de una actividad, ya que es un factor importante en la perspectiva del estudiante y por ende, en su motivación (Mitchell & Carbone, 2011). ...
Article
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In this study, the perception of human anatomy students faced with constructing a three-dimensional (3-D) pelvis model (to scale) was studied. Few studies evaluate the perception of students facing learning and teaching methodologies with 3-D models. The activity was performed with students from a human anatomy course as part of the obstetrics degree, in which models of pelvic zone bone structures (to scale) were supplied in order to incorporate the anatomic structures (ligaments, muscles, vascularization and innervation). Once the activity was finished, a perception questionnaire was taken. 60 students participated in the activity of constructing the 3-D anatomical model and also completed the questionnaire. It was found that over 93 % of the students felt motivated, believed the activity facilitated learning and also that the activity was well planned. Some of the negative factors that were reported included time taken and the associated costs. Due to the positive perception of the students involved in the activity of constructing anatomical models, this is considered to be a suitable methodology for use during the process of teaching and learning about human anatomy.
... Student engagement is a conceptual representation of the student experience (Kuh, 2001Kuh, , 2003 Tinto, 2005a Tinto, , 2005b). Various research reports and publications have examined student engagement (Brett, 2009; English Australia, 2010; Krause et al., 2005) considering a spectrum of issues from practicalities (Mitchell & Carbone, 2011; Rowe & Savelsberg, 2010; Victorian Immigrant and Refugee Women's Coalition, 2009) to theoretical dimensions (Krause & Coates, 2008; Kuh, 2003; Tinto, 2005b). Tinto (2005a Tinto ( , 2005b) approached student engagement as an institutional capacity since student engagement occurs within the context of an educational institution. ...
Article
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Organisational growth is achieved when good business practices are underscored by sound management and leadership skills. These skills largely stem from good education and training derived from undergraduate business management curricula. However, the business community regularly dismisses mainstream curricula because they lack practical orientation, rendering them irrelevant to the 21st century workplace. Despite businesses’ criticism of the education sector, corporations and educational institutions spend US$2.2 trillion annually on management education and training, making it a substantial resource investment. This begs the question whether such funds are being well spent. Critics assert that contemporary business curriculum is dated: business curriculum heralds from the corporate era when management schools primarily provided practitioner or vocationally oriented training facilitated by business practitioners. To gain respectability in the academic realm, management schools transformed to the faculty era where scientific research took centre-stage forsaking its practitioner roots. If business degrees are largely considered to be too academic and too far removed from real world applicability and utility, their credibility and validity are undermined. This paper introduces the Australian School of Management’s solution to the described dysfunctional disjoint by linking the two disparate eras, thereby bridging the gap in a practical win-win solution. The three-year curricular model embeds a collaborative symbiosis between industry and academia and culminates in two double weighted capstone industry internships. The case study presented represents the Australian School of Management (ASM) genesis and development of this business management pedagogic model that is aimed at preparing aspiring practitioners for successful careers whilst having the ability to synthesise best practices.
... Los resultados mostraron que los maestros estaban más preocupados en resolver el problema que en enseñar a resolver pues la presencia de aspectos regulatorios del propio problema frente a generalizaciones es mayor en ambos problemas. Por esto con este estudio se persigue dar un paso más y centrarnos en el análisis de los procesos metacognitivos y en el grado de participación de los alumnos en dichos procesos cuando se resuelve de forma conjunta problemas matemáticos con diferentes niveles de complejidad cognitiva, planteando como hipótesis que a medida que dicha complejidad de la tarea es superior, se debe promover en el aula en mayor medida procesos metacognitivos, así como una mayor participación por parte del alumno en la construcción de éstos, puesto que si el problema tiene mayor dificultad, los alumnos deberían operar en niveles metacognitivos superiores (Mitchell y Carbone, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumen La interacción que se produce entre el maestro y sus alumnos cuando resuelven tareas matemáticas en el aula es un aspecto de interés en la Educación Matemática. Numerosas investigaciones analizan estas interacciones desde el punto de vista cognitivo, pero poco se sabe desde el punto metacognitivo. En este estudio se pretende analizar qué ocurre con la promoción de procesos metacognitivos y con el grado de participación que tienen los alumnos en los mismos, cuando maestro y alumnos resuelven de forma conjunta problemas matemáticos con diferentes niveles de complejidad cognitiva. Los resultados reflejaron que a medida que la complejidad cognitiva aumenta, existen diferencias en la promoción de los procesos metacognitivos y del grado de participación de los alumnos en ellos, aunque estas diferencias no son significativas. Palabras clave: interacción en el aula, procesos metacognitivos, grado de participación, resolución de problemas, dificultad cognitiva. Abstract The interaction the teacher and his students when they solve mathematical tasks in the classroom is an aspect of interest in Mathematics Education. Numerous investigations analyze these interactions from the cognitive point of view, but little is known from the metacognitive point. This study aims to analyze what happens with the promotion of metacognitive processes and the level of participation that students have in them, when teachers and students solving mathematical problems with different levels of cognitive complexity. The results showed that as cognitive complexity increases, there are differences in the promotion of metacognitive processes and the level of participation of students in them, although these differences are not significant.
... Students at traditional universities may have no experience with similar activities. Given that this was a new activity for the students, they were motivated; but as often occurs with change, they also showed some resistance to the unknown [36]. Initially, students resorted to communication patterns that work for them in classroom collaboration. ...
Article
In today’s globalized world, it seems important that students can telecollaborate in a team by making effective use of information and communication technologies. This collaboration format can positively influence their academic performance, enhance engineering student interest in the subject, and improve skills such as communication and teamwork. In this work a collaboration model between engineering students, and also between instructors, from two distant traditional universities is presented and analyzed. Potentialities, challenges and key elements for a viable experience are identified, that would be capable of achieving the proposed objectives, and sustainable over time. Considering these activities as projects, instructors are actively involved in the initiation, planning, monitoring and controlling, and closing of these activities. On the other hand, students are those who must perform scheduled tasks. This article identifies the difficulties and potentials for each of these roles.
... Students at traditional universities may have no experience with similar activities. Given that this was a new activity for the students, they were motivated; but as often occurs with change, they also showed some resistance to the unknown [36]. Initially, students resorted to communication patterns that work for them in classroom collaboration. ...
Article
In today’s globalized world, it seems important that students can telecollaborate in a team by making effective use of information and communication technologies. This collaboration format can positively influence their academic performance, enhance engineering student interest in the subject, and improve skills such as communication and teamwork. In this work a collaboration model between engineering students, and also between instructors, from two distant traditional universities is presented and analyzed. Potentialities, challenges and key elements for a viable experience are identified, that would be capable of achieving the proposed objectives, and sustainable over time. Considering these activities as projects, instructors are actively involved in the initiation, planning, monitoring and controlling, and closing of these activities. On the other hand, students are those who must perform scheduled tasks. This article identifies the difficulties and potentials for each of these roles.
... In addition, academic engagement is the degree of intensity and emotion with which students are involved in initiating and carrying out a learning activity [7]; granting the energy that said action demands [8]. It also allows demonstrating the motivation and cognitive aspects that generate significant changes in their performance [9], so it is conceived as the dedication that allows a student to perform adequately in their educational tasks; but contrarily, if he lacks the academic engagement, he would act disinterested, with a tendency to trivialize the studies and distrust their own academic abilities [10]. ...
Article
To ensure student engagement and optimal preparation of the future workforce, academic educators frequently and repeatedly update curricula and pedagogic approaches. Evaluation of these updates often focuses on how well the chosen educational technique achieves its goal. For updates that add a new learning goal, it is important that evaluation considers the value of the goal in a crowded curriculum. Peer-to-peer feedback and coaching provides a low-investment and timely method of evaluation and can be facilitated by conferences focused on pedagogy. This coaching article uses a case study of an assignment for postgraduate students incorporating student-produced videos developed independently at three Australian universities. The authors learned of one another’s work in preparation for delivering presentations at a conference focused on teaching public health and decided to collaborate on a single workshop. In the process, they reinforced and expanded their understanding of the benefits and important considerations for a video assignment and engaged in two-way coaching with conference delegates from across Australasia. Benefits include teaching students skills that will become increasingly important in their future careers, the potential for enhanced student engagement due to novelty, and resistance to plagiarism. Important considerations include explaining the aim and parameters of the assessment as well as minimizing student anxiety. Preparation for the workshop led to refinements in some of the assessments. This article is simultaneously an affirmation of the value of peer-to-peer coaching opportunities that can arise at pedagogy conferences and an argument for the value of video assignments in public health education.
Thesis
La investigación educativa ha mostrado que cuando maestro y alumnos resuelven de forma conjunta problemas en el aula, apenas existe razonamiento y el grado de participación de los alumnos es prácticamente inexistente. Es por ello que la presente Tesis Doctoral pretende analizar si la tarea que se realiza en las aulas determina el comportamiento de los docentes, para que éstos promuevan mayor razonamiento en las aulas y los alumnos sean más participativos en la construcción de su propio aprendizaje. Para ello se lleva a cabo dos estudios empíricos con diez maestros y sus alumnos en aulas de Primaria. En el primero se resuelve de forma conjunta un problema con tres apartados diferentes de distintos dominios cognitivos. En el segundo se resuelve un problema no rutinario en el mismo contexto que el del primer estudio. Se analiza las interacciones que surgen en dichas resoluciones según los procesos que se promueven y el grado de participación que tienen los alumnos, así como los perfiles docentes según diferentes dimensiones que se tendrán en cuenta. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que a medida que la complejidad cognitiva de la tarea es superior los procesos cognitivos avanzados, como el razonamiento, y el grado de participación de los alumnos también aumenta. Del mismo modo, en cuanto a los perfiles de los maestros se refiere, los docentes se vuelven menos directos y promueven el razonamiento en mayor medida.
Article
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Quality teaching that enhances student learning and engagement in science is a focus for all educational systems. Whether fuelled by the results from international studies, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), or from what is already evident from the research, highly skilled teachers can greatly improve the educational outcomes of students (MOURSHED, CHIJIOKE & BARBER, 2010). It is this fundamental principle that underpins the recent development and implementation of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APSTs), which identify explicitly the qualities that teachers are expected to demonstrate in each of four career stages: Graduate, Proficient, Highly Accomplished, and Lead (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL], 2012). Underpinning teacher quality in at least four of these standards is the elusive tacit or pedagogical knowledge that is held and used by ‘expert’ teachers of science in their teaching. The study discussed in this paper set out to explicate the knowledge or ‘pedagogical reasoning’ brought to a teaching context by expert teachers as they plan to teach science. The three-year longitudinal study incorporated two cohorts of teachers representing elementary and high school teachers of science (N = 40) in one state in Australia. Data were collected from audio recordings of pairs of teachers as they designed units of work, interviews with pairs of teachers, and other ad hoc data collected during workshops conducted with the teachers throughout the study. Analyses of these data revealed non-linear, complex, and rapid interactions between five distinct, but richly connected focal concepts that comprise teachers’ pedagogical reasoning. The five focal concepts were termed: Big Ideas; Student Engagement; Quality Learners and Quality Learning; Contextual Constraints and Opportunities; and, Teacher Personal and Professional Identity. The study illustrates the rich web of professional wisdom and pedagogical reasoning that underpins the classroom practices of expert teachers of science and why this knowledge is crucial to understand if we are to nurture our next generation of teachers of science.
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Student engagement is an important issue in higher education, and is related to the quality of the student experience. Increasing student engagement is one way of enhancing quality at a higher education institution. An institution is able to influence student engagement in a number of ways, one being through curriculum design. The use of a low-stakes continuous weekly summative e-assessment had a positive influence on student engagement in an optional level 5 (second year) undergraduate geography module. Students considered their increased engagement was a direct consequence of this assessment method. It was also found that students thought they improved their learning, particularly their understanding, as a result of the continuous assessment. This study suggests that carefully designed assessments can be used to increase student engagement and learning, and, as a result, contribute to improving the quality of the overall student experience.
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Student engagement is an important precursor for learning. In this study we used teacher (N = 200) and student (N = 2288) questionnaires to investigate whether perceived interpersonal teacher behavior and teacher beliefs concerning motives for being a teacher, attitudes toward teacher knowledge domains and self-efficacy for teaching are related to self-reported student engagement. Three components of engagement were distinguished: behavioral, emotional and cognitive engagement. The strongest relations were found between the two dimensions of interpersonal teacher behavior and the three components of student engagement. Remarkably, there was a relation of almost zero (0.01) between students' age and their engagement.
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The present study was conducted to meet the needs of a group of schools in a low-income community which have sought to enhance student engagement and achievement through digital learning, but whose continued success is hampered by an ongoing Summer Learning Effect (SLE). This study contributes to understandings about how to design a summer blogging program that both engages students and supports ongoing literacy learning over summer. Existing small-scale studies provide reason to expect that continuation of a school blogging approach is likely to be an effective component to ameliorating the effect of summer for economically disadvantaged students. Here we build on those attempts by investigating how to design such a program to maximise participation and engagement, and then test the efficacy of that design. Program development was a multi-phased, iterative process consistent with a design-based approach to educational research (Anderson & Shattuck, 2012). Learning design needed to be both appealing, to promote sign up, and engaging, to promote ongoing use. Results suggest that blogging in response to well-designed activities had an impact on the summer learning effect in writing and in reading.
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In this study, we investigated how student cognitive styles affect reactions toward course assignments. A total of 283 business undergraduates enrolled in either a statistics course or a business strategy course were involved in the study. In each course, students were given surveys to measure attitudes toward two very different versions of the same assignment – one in which the instructions were very detailed and structured and the other in which they were very short and ambiguous. Student cognitive styles were classified as either adaptive or innovative using Kirtin Adaption-Innovation (KAI) scores. An adaptive cognitive style prefers structure and details, while an innovative style is more comfortable with less structure. Differences between reactions of the two student types, as well as differences between the two assignments for each type of student, were studied. Results indicate that students prefer and express higher levels of self-efficacy and less anxiety on the assignment that corresponds with their cognitive style. Additional discussion focuses on how this information might be used by instructors to improve the learning experiences of students of both types.
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This paper reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of changes made to a first year laboratory course in inorganic chemistry at a Scottish university. All the changes were consistent with four hypotheses about the design of effective laboratory experiences. The hypotheses were developed from an analysis of an information processing model of learning. The changes to the laboratory programme were made and evaluated over a period of three years and they included improvements to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and the introduction of prelab work, laboratory techniques training and mini-projects. Evidence from the study supports the conclusion that the changes were effective in imporving students' attitudes about the laboratory course.
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S So oc ci ia al l C Co on ns st tr ru uc ct ti iv vi is sm m a an nd d t th he e W Wo or rl ld d W Wi id de e W We eb b-A A P Pa ar ra ad di ig gm m f fo or r L Le ea ar rn ni in ng g A Ab bs st tr ra ac ct t The World Wide Web is being seen more and more as an effective and above all inexpensive means of delivering courses in the tertiary education sector. It is important however that financial imperatives to not take precedence over educational goals. In the search for an effective approach to Web learning, an re-examination of learning theory is required. This paper examines the three broad philosophies of Behaviourism, Cognitive Theory, and Constructivism and reviews their potential for delivering tertiary education via the Web. Problems with the Web are identified, such as the abstract textual nature of current Web technology, and the poor interactivity resulting from limited bandwidth. One theory, Social Constructivism, views learning as a process of enculturation brought about through social interaction. This paper proposes a pragmatic approach to the implementation of Social Constructivist approaches. As the Web develops, and environments rich in media and possessing a high level of interactivity become possible, the need for Social Constructivist strategies may be reduced. In the mean time, the potential of the Web as a communications medium rather than a mere content provider must not be ignored.
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This paper arises from investigations of the topics in science which students perceive to be difficult. An information processing model is described which relates student performance to the amount of information to be processed in a learning or problem-solving situation. When the student working memory capacity is exceeded, there is a sharp drop in performance, but some students (/i>10%) continue to operate efficiently with problems which exceed their capacity; they are probably employing chunking devices that enable them to reduce the problem demand to less than their limit of capacity. Empirical measurements give support to the model and suggest hypotheses for future research.
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The meta-analysis compared and synthesized the results of 23 experimental studies on hypertext. The analysis was based on 56 pairs of effect sizes and significance levels of the impact of users, tasks, and tools on interactions with hypertext. This analysis focused on three factors that prevailingly influence the use of hypertext: the cognitive styles and spatial ability of users; the complexity of tasks; and the structure of information organization and the visualization of the structure. The meta-analysis found that this group of experimental studies reported significantly discrepant findings, indicating that substantial differences exist among individual experiments. Individual differences in cognition did not yield enough evidence to conclude that the effect sizes are significantly apart from zero. The meta-analysis showed that the overall performance of hy pertext users tended to be more effective than that of nonhypertext users, but the differences in efficiency measures were consistently in favor of nonhypertext users. Users benefited more from hypertext tools for open tasks. Overall, the complexity of tasks has the largest combined effect sizes. Graphical maps that visualize the organization of hypertext have significant impact on the usefulness of a hypertext system. This meta-analysis raised two issues concerned with the present hypertext literature: (a) the absence of a taxonomy of tasks for analyzing and comparing hypertext usability across studies, and (b) the weaknesses of the connections between abstract hypertext reference models and specific hypertext systems. These weaknesses may considerably undermine the significance of individual findings on hypertext usability. Results of the meta-analysis suggest that the discrepancies among empirical findings are related to these weaknesses. Future work on hypertext usability should emphasize task taxonomies along with longitudinal and ethnographic studies for a deep understanding of the interactions between users and hypertext. Recommended research issues for the future are highlighted in Section 5.
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This paper reports an analysis of videotape and interview data from four Year 8 mathematics lessons from the perspective of student cognitive engagement. The study extends our understanding of cognitive engagement by locating empirical evidence for its occurrence within the classroom. On the basis of the data we have examined, it appears that cognitive engagement can be consistently recognised by specific linguistic and behavioural indicators and is promoted by particular aspects of the classroom situation, the task, and the individual.
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With many learners failing to engage with didactic and outmoded instructional methods, and unwilling to use technology that simply replicates the one-way transfer of information from teacher to student, authentic learning designs have the potential to improve student engagement and educational outcomes. This paper argues that online technologies afford the design and creation of truly innovative authentic learning environments. The theoretical foundations of this approach are strong, and they are also explored, together with discussion of the importance of tasks as the focus of authentic activities. Finally, the case is made for a more comprehensive approach to investigating the effectiveness of authentic learning environments through design-based research.
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Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is important to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particularly in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns are consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3.669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.
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Describes the cognitive characteristics and procedural "forms" associated with common school learning tasks. Illustrates how variations in these can affect student motivation and learning. Concludes that simple task content and unvaried procedures tend to result in limited thinkers and alienated workers. (JDH)
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This review focuses on the intrinsic character of academic work in elementary and secondry schools and the way that work is experienced by teachers and students in classrooms. The first section contains a review of recent research in cognitive psychology on the intellectual demands of the tasks contained in the school curriculum, with particular attention to the inherent complexity of most of the tasks students encounter. The findings of this research are brought to bear on the issue of direct versus indirect instruction. The second section is directed to studies of how academic work is accomplished in classroom environments. Classrooms appear to shape the content of the curriculum in fundamental ways for all students and especially those who find academic work difficult. In addition, the processes that are likely to have the greatest long-term consequences are the most difficult to teach in classrooms. The paper concludes with an analysis of issues related to improving instruction and extending current directions in research on teaching.
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Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is import taut to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particular v in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns arc, consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3,669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.
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The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions
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194 fourth through sixth graders from 8 classes participated in this study. 4 science lessons that varied with respect to level of cognitive content, procedural complexity, and social organization were observed in each room. After each of the lessons, students responded to questionnaires designed to measure task involvement and use of cognitive strategies. Cognitive engagement was defined by the number of self-regulating, rather than work-avoidant or help-seeking, strategies children reported using. In addition, detailed transcripts of the lessons were prepared. Findings indicate that student involvement did not differ significantly by difficulty of cognitive content, type of social organization, or procedural complexity of tasks. In addition, cognitive engagement was similar for tasks judged as low and high in cognitive difficulty, although students reported using more strategies in the latter situations. Cognitive engagement was lower during small-group work and when tasks were procedurally complex. Qua...
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Knowing how campus‐based students engage in key online and general learning practices can play a central role in managing and developing university education. Knowledge in this area is limited, however, despite recent advances in student engagement research, and widespread adoption of online learning systems. This paper responds to the need to develop such knowledge, by documenting the development and application of a typological model of online and general campus‐based student engagement. It reports the statistical analyses used to develop the model, and analyses the model’s structure and substance. The model is exemplified by considering what it says about how increasingly powerful and pervasive online technologies might be leveraged to enhance campus‐based student engagement.
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This chapter provides a cross-societal discussion of the findings of the Schooling for the future study, the case studies. It examines why senior educators and policy leaders in each of the six case study societies believe that bureaucratic school systems are the most likely scenario for future even though these are not the most desired. It examines some of the key factors that account for senior educators and policy leaders’ views, and the changes they argue are needed to achieve the desired scenario for the future. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the contribution and the implications of the study for the usefulness of the OECD scenarios as policy tools.
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The researchers conducted a sequential qualitative–quantitative mixed analysis of the characteristics of effective high school teachers as perceived by 615 college students, predominantly Hispanic, at two Hispanic-Serving Institutions. Qualitative analyses revealed the presence of 24 themes: Caring; Communication; Creative; Disciplinarian; Fairness; Flexible; Friendly; Fun; Knowledgeable; Listening; Manages Classroom; Uses Different Modalities; Involving; Motivating; Organized; Passion for Teaching; Patience; Builds Relationships; Shows others respect; Challenges; Service; Teaches Well; Good Personality; and Understanding. These themes were quantitized and statistically analyzed to determine whether differences were present as a function of gender, ethnicity, student status, and generational status. All possible subtests discriminant analyses revealed statistically significant differences in dominant themes in these areas. In addition to providing a model of mixed analysis, implications are discussed.
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This article describes a study which examines how task designs, the compositional context set by the musical requirements, influence students' experience of composition. A total of forty-four compositions were collected from a class of eleven Year 11 music elective students over one school year. In addition to the analysis of draft and final forms of compositions, data were obtained as self-report documents including 'Composer's Diaries', 'Composer Writes Pages', and questionnaires. Data were presented in two ways involving a larger comparative study and a sampling of several case studies. The findings of this study suggest the conditions set by tasks determine how students relate to composition and the nature of musical outcome. There were indications that students experience task constraints and freedom differently, in part determined by their working style, background, and self-concept as composers. Overall, constraint and freedom were identified as artistically significant in the realisation of a composition. Implications for teaching practice include the suggestion that tasks should differentiate between 'Instructional' tasks for learning and 'Composition' tasks which empower students to participate as makers in the role of artistic creator.
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An emerging body of contemporary instructional research has focused on classroom work as an intricate system of tasks. In this article, we offer a descriptive theory of the nature of classroom tasks. Our major aim is to describe the interplay among 3 elements of classroom work: the conditions under which tasks are set, the cognitive plans students use to accomplish tasks, and the products students create as a result of their task-related efforts. As each of these interconnected elements is considered, implications are offered for classroom instruction.
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An exploratory study was conducted of elementary school children searching a full-text electronic encyclo- pedia on CD-ROM. Twenty-eight third and fourth graders and 24 sixth graders conducted two assigned searches, one open-ended, the other one closed, after two demon- stration sessions. Keystrokes captured by the com- puter and observer notes were used to examine user information-seeking strategies from a mental model perspective. Older searchers were more successful in finding required information, and took less time than younger searchers. No differences in total number of moves were found. Analysis of search patterns showed that novices used a heuristic, highly interactive search strategy. Searchers used sentence and phrase queries, indicating unique mental models for this search sys- tem. Most searchers accepted system defaults and used the AND connective in formulating queries. Transi- tion matrix analyses showed that younger searchers generally favored query refining moves and older searchers favored examining title and text moves. Sug- gestions for system designers were made and future re- search questions were identified.
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Universal education has aggravated the problems of students’ disengagement in learning, highlighting in particular, a greater range of motivations to learn and wider diversification in students’ interests. Students’ engagement with curriculum has become a crucial element in classroom learning. How we cultivate their involvement in the curriculum may be seen as being far more important than the epistemological consideration in the design of the school curriculum. Though aspects of behavioural, affective and cognitive engagements have been revealed in literature, we are still in need of a validated instrument that measures student engagement for further research. In the present study, an instrument of student engagement in the subject area of mathematics was developed through grounded research. Its validity was established by statistical methods
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This paper reports a six month intervention program in two ninth grade science classes and one eleventh grade human biology class. One teacher, one researcher, and 64 students participated in this action research to improve student learning and attitude through training in metacognition. The researcher was a participant observer, who introduced materials and procedures for teacher and students designed to increase the students' awareness and control of their own learning. Materials included a Question-Asking Checklists to help students practice evaluation strategies during class, an Evaluation Notebook and Card, and a Techniques Workbook. The study had four main phases: (1) exploratory; (2) awareness; (3) participation; and (4) responsibility. The extensive data came from direct observations, audio and/or video recordings of classroom activities and student interviews, tests, and self-evaluations. It demonstrated changes in student and teacher behavior and in achievements and attitudes. Difficulties in presenting the extensive results of this new style of research have not yet been solved. A summary of evidence is presented on two outcomes: greater learner control over learning through effective decision making, and the teacher allowing more learner control. Recommendations for classroom practice and implications for the curriculum and school organization are drawn. (Author/BS)
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There is increasing pressure on teachers in higher education to provide assessment systems that are fair, valid, reliable, efficient, and effective. Funding bodies, students themselves, and public opinion have higher expectations, and there is a new emphasis on competence-based systems. Growing numbers of students and financial constraints make efficient assessment even more difficult to maintain. In this book, practical guidance is offered to the problems teachers in higher education face with regard to assessment. Well over 500 tips are grouped into 10 main chapter areas, with 54 subheadings. The book is not intended to be read all at once, but is designed to be a "dip-in" resource for particular problems. The following chapters are included: (1) "Developing Strategies and Structures for Assessment"; (2) "Managing Your Assessment"; (3) "Learning through Assessment"; (4) "Assessment Quality Control"; (5) "Methods of Assessment"; (6) "Traditional Exams and Vivas"; (7) "Multiple Choice Questions and Responses"; (8) "Assessing Independent Learning"; (9) "Self, Peer, and Group Assessment"; and (10) "Assessing Competence and Transferable Skills." The book concludes with "An Assessment Manifesto." Forty-four sources are listed for further reading. (SLD)
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This article reports on a study of student engagement in the first year of their undergraduate information and communication technology (ICT) degree at an Australian university. The study was conducted at Monash University in the four undergraduate ICT degrees of the Faculty of Information Technology. The study draws on data collected from staff and students using interviews and a start of semester survey. Three aspects of engagement broadly classified as behavioural, cognitive and affective are used as a framework to analyse the data. Results show that staff perceived students as demonstrating low levels of engagement in their university study. Students presented many reasons to explain the nature and extent of their engagement. Many of their reasons relate to studying in an educational landscape of changing lifestyles and work patterns and a strong reliance on technology to support their learning. This article re-conceptualises the undergraduate student learning experience in the current tertiary climate. Implications of the perceived lack of student engagement are discussed and recommendations are made for ways to increase the level of student engagement.
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Recent research in the areas of cognitive psychology and student learning involves changed conceptions of the natures of learning and of teaching, with promising implications for the enhancement of tertiary teaching. A model of learning is presented, proposing that the teaching context, students' approaches to learning, and the outcomes of learning, form a system in a state of equilibrium. Three approaches to enhancing teaching follow from the model: additive, interactive, and contextual. Additive approaches ignore both students' approaches to learning and the institutional context, and are relatively ineffective. Genuine improvements in student learning involve interactive and contextual approaches to teaching, which can be activated through appropriate staff development.
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Examines the classroom learning environment in relation to achievement goal theory of motivation. Classroom structures are described in terms of how they make different types of achievement goals salient and as a consequence elicit qualitatively different patterns of motivation. Task, evaluation and recognition, and authority dimensions of classrooms are presented as examples of structures that can influence children's orientation toward different achievement goals. Central to the thesis of this article is a perspective that argues for an identification of classroom structures that can contribute to a mastery orientation, a systematic analysis of these structures, and a determination of how these structures relate to each other. The ways in which interventions must address the independency among these structures are discussed in terms of how they influence student motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This book provides the student with an understanding of theories and research on learning and related processes and demonstrates their application in educational contexts. The text is intended for graduate students in schools of education or related disciplines, as well as for advanced undergraduates interested in education. It is assumed that most students using this text are pursuing educationally relevant careers and that they possess minimal familiarity with psychological concepts and research methods. Important historical theories are initially discussed, followed by accounts of current research. Differing views are presented, as well as criticism when warranted. A chapter is devoted to problem solving and learning in reading, writing, mathematics, and science. The chapters on motivation, self-regulation, and instructional processes address topics relevant to learning theories. These topics traditionally have shown little overlap with learning theories, but fortunately this situation is changing. Researchers are addressing such topics as how motivation can influence quantity and quality of learning, how instructional practices impact information processing, and how learning principles can be applied to develop self-regulated learners. The applications of learning principles focus on school-aged students, both because of personal preference and because most students are interested in working with children and teenagers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two groups of 20 first-year students were asked to read three sections of a textbook. After the first two sections the groups received different types of question. One group received questions which demanded a thorough understanding of the meaning of the passage. The other group was given detailed factual questions. After the final section of reading a common set of questions of both types was asked. Besides providing further evidence of qualitative differences in learning, the experiment showed that students did adapt their way of learning to their conception of what was required of them.
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The human–computer interface has become a focal point in the development of complex control systems, and the mediator of the flow of control and information between the operator and the system. This chapter provides an overview of the survey models and modeling approaches at the human–computer interface with emphasis over many of the aspects, issues, and developments in models and modeling. The human–computer interface is itself a model of the interaction between the machine and the human, and is based on mental models and interface object models. System models of the operator are the models of the operator's mental models, which are internal representations of interface object models. Different tasks and different environments impose different requirements and constraints on the human–computer interface. The models that have been used in human computer interfaces are the cognitive model, conceptual model, mental model, system model of operator, interface object models, and interface model. One must unfold the models of the human–computer interface and trace the outward paths back to the task and machine environments. It is only with respect to the observable products and the answers that one can evaluate the models of the human–computer interface, which is a multifaceted, interdisciplinary enterprise that should not be dominated by one or another element or model of the mind or the machine. Nevertheless, the development of the interface will continue in spite of both itself and its critics.
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This paper examines the impact of task structure on students' learning processes in the context of several case studies in practical secondary school science. Three levels of differentiated task structure were investigated: open (no structured in-task support), partially structured (some in-task support), or prescriptive (highly structured in-task support). Analysis focused on the students' social exchanges, particularly the nature of the talk and action during task resolution, and the quality of task outcomes. Reflections on the observations highlight where and how pedagogic tactics could be focused to support more effective social and cognitive interactions and thus higher-quality task resolutions.
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Teachers of mathematics face a particular tension, which the authors call the planning paradox. If teachers plan from objectives, the tasks they set are likely to be unrewarding for the pupils and mathematically impoverished. Planning from tasks may increase pupils' engagement but their activity is likely to be unfocused and learning difficult to assess. By seeking inspiration from research in the areas of curriculum design, the nature of authenticity in the classroom and the use of tools, and by looking retrospectively at the design of computer‐based tasks that have underpinned their research for many years, the authors recognise a theme of purposeful activity, leading to a planned appreciation of utilities for certain mathematical concepts. The authors propose utility as a third dimension of understanding, which can be linked to purpose in the effective design of tasks. The article concludes with a set of heuristics to guide such planning.
Article
This article analyzes the development of initiative as an exemplar of one of many learning experiences that should be studied as part of positive youth development. The capacity for initiative is essential for adults in our society and will become more important in the 21st century, yet adolescents have few opportunities to learn it. Their typical experiences during schoolwork and unstructured leisure do not reflect conditions for learning initiative. The context best suited to the development of initiative appears to be that of structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations, in which youths experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation in combination with deep attention. An incomplete body of outcome research suggests that such activities are associated with positive development, but the developmental processes involved are only beginning to be understood. One promising approach has recorded language use and has found that adolescents participating in effective organizations acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative.
Improving the quality of teaching and learning. Melbourne: PEEL Publishing Approaches to the enhancement of tertiary teaching
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Teaching for quality learning at Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO Taxonomy Taxonomy of educational objectives Task factors, teacher behaviour, and students' involvement and use of learning strategies in science
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Cummulative experience of task form: Its impact on students as thinkers and workers
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Principles for designing programming tasks: How task characteristics influence students learning of programming
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Carbone, A. (2007). Principles for designing programming tasks: How task characteristics influence students learning of programming. Melbourne: Monash University.
Student satisfaction with groupwork in undergraduate computer science: Do things get better? Paper presented at the Fifth Australasian Computing Education Conference Educating artistic vision
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Drury, H., Kay, J., & Losberg, W. (2003). Student satisfaction with groupwork in undergraduate computer science: Do things get better? Paper presented at the Fifth Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE 2003), Adelaide, Australia. Eisner, E. (1972). Educating artistic vision. New York, USA: The Macmillan Company.