Article

Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Student Engagement: Engagement in Learning or in Schooling?.

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Abstract

Teacher actions can influence how students engage at school, making it relevant to understand their conceptions of student engagement and how to facilitate it. Reviews of existing literature suggested that a distinction between engagement in schooling and engagement in learning might help differentiate between social and academic outcomes.Data from a phenomenographic study of 20 Australian teachers were analysed to show how teacher thinking related to this distinction. While some teachers held complex conceptions centred on promoting cognitive engagement and student learning, others aligned with engagement in schooling, focusing on generating participation and emphasising positive student affective experiences.

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... Student engagement has diverse definitions and is challenging to measure (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007;Yonezawa, Jones, & Joselowsky, 2009). For this study, cognitive engagement is defined as: intrinsic motivation, setting targets, knowledge and skill mastery, metacognition and student autonomy (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007). ...
... Student engagement has diverse definitions and is challenging to measure (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007;Yonezawa, Jones, & Joselowsky, 2009). For this study, cognitive engagement is defined as: intrinsic motivation, setting targets, knowledge and skill mastery, metacognition and student autonomy (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007). Psychological engagement includes student enjoyment, interest in learning, positive relationships and self-efficacy (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007). ...
... For this study, cognitive engagement is defined as: intrinsic motivation, setting targets, knowledge and skill mastery, metacognition and student autonomy (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007). Psychological engagement includes student enjoyment, interest in learning, positive relationships and self-efficacy (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Martin, 2007). Measuring student engagement is important in determining the extent of learning facilitation in visual arts theory. ...
Conference Paper
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Visual arts theory is fundamental to facilitating visual literacy, or students' ability to decode and construct imagery. Visual literacy skills support students' participation in contemporary society. This doctoral study uses a mixed methods approach to investigate students' engagement in visual arts theory, as increased engagement may facilitate visual literacy skills. A diagnostic instrument was created to measure year 11 students' prior learning in theory, as well as their cognitive and psychological engagement. Interviews with year 11 students, visual arts teachers, and some principals or school representatives, facilitated the development of the instrument and contextualised the findings. Phase One findings suggest measuring students' engagement facilitates the diagnosis of key issues and knowledge gaps affecting students' engagement in visual arts learning.
... Of these nine studies, however, only four were conducted with secondary school teachers, with all of these using qualitative methods only (Cothran & Ennis, 2000;Fredricks, Wang, et al., 2016;Harris, 2008Harris, , 2011Zyngier, 2007). Additionally, only two of these studies were completed with Australian secondary school teachers (Harris, 2008(Harris, , 2011Zyngier, 2007), using a similar sampling demographic to the current study. ...
... Of these nine studies, however, only four were conducted with secondary school teachers, with all of these using qualitative methods only (Cothran & Ennis, 2000;Fredricks, Wang, et al., 2016;Harris, 2008Harris, , 2011Zyngier, 2007). Additionally, only two of these studies were completed with Australian secondary school teachers (Harris, 2008(Harris, , 2011Zyngier, 2007), using a similar sampling demographic to the current study. These investigations confirmed the significant role teachers play in student engagement, thus supporting the current investigation into the teachers' role as pivotal because their decisions and behaviours impact student engagement in the classroom (Berry, 2020;Harris, 2011). ...
... Additionally, only two of these studies were completed with Australian secondary school teachers (Harris, 2008(Harris, , 2011Zyngier, 2007), using a similar sampling demographic to the current study. These investigations confirmed the significant role teachers play in student engagement, thus supporting the current investigation into the teachers' role as pivotal because their decisions and behaviours impact student engagement in the classroom (Berry, 2020;Harris, 2011). ...
Article
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This article reports on original research investigating the pivotal role that teachers play in student engagement, using a tri-dimensional framework. This framework identifies how teachers’ pedagogical choices impact student engagement in ways that influence students’ external behaviours, internal emotions and internal cognitions. A questionnaire was developed to explore secondary teachers’ ( n = 223) perceptions of pedagogies that support students’ behavioural, emotional and cognitive engagement in the classroom. Findings revealed that female participants placed higher importance on pedagogies that support students’ cognitive and behavioural engagement, and participants with leadership roles placed higher importance on pedagogies that support students’ cognitive and emotional engagement. Also emerging from the research was a negative correlation between the importance teachers placed on pedagogies that support cognitive and behavioural engagement and their school’s ICSEA value (the measure of socio-educational advantage in Australian schools). Overall, results support the tri-dimensional framework of student engagement utilised in this study and provide a robust framework for future research to further explore teachers’ pedagogical choices and how these choices impact student engagement.
... (258) While clearly linked to notions of self-regulation described within cognitive engagement, this dimension more explicitly foregrounds student agency. The importance of student agency within engagement was also noted in Harris' (2010Harris' ( , 2011 study of Central Queensland secondary teachers' engagement definitions and strategies. Here, teachers' most complex engagement strategy was entitled Collaborating, where they described working jointly with students to create curriculum suited to student purposes. ...
... However, teachers' described engagement strategies were not sufficiently well-aligned with previously generated classification systems (e.g. Borup, Graham, and Drysdale 2014;Harris 2010Harris , 2011 to enable a priori codes to be used. Hence, in vivo codes were generated to better describe distinctions between strategies. ...
... As in other studies (e.g. Harris 2010Harris , 2011, teachers shared differing engagement definitions and strategies within the inclusive distance education context. Teachers generally described behavioural and emotional dimensions of engagement, while cognitive dimensions appeared in only some definitions. ...
Article
Compulsory distance education has always sought to be inclusive, providing educational opportunities for K-12 students unable to attend mainstream, face-to-face schools for medical, geographical, or personal reasons. However, how to effectively engage these diverse learners has remained a perpetual challenge, with a need for further investigation into the nature of student engagement with compulsory school distance contexts and how teachers can best support it. This qualitative study used focus groups (n = 2 groups, n = 16 participants) to examine teacher definitions and student engagement strategies within eKindy-12 distance education in Queensland, Australia. Categorical analysis was conducted using a priori codes for definitions, focusing on four previously established engagement types (i.e. behavioural, emotional, cognitive, and agentic engagement), and in vivo codes for strategies. Teacher definitions focused strongly on behavioural engagement, but most also contained elements of emotional and cognitive engagement; agentic engagement was only occasionally evidenced via practice descriptions. Teachers described engaging students by: building relationships, creating a safe classroom environment through differentiation, using inclusive technological tools to facilitate interaction and monitor progress, making learning fun and relevant, drawing on school-wide pedagogical frameworks and teaching strategies, and encourage self-regulation. Findings suggest distance education teachers face unique challenges around evidencing engagement and supporting student agency.
... In this thesis, interest and engagement are in focus because they are seen as beneficial for learning (Wilson et al., 2005;Exeter et al., 2010;Harris, 2011). Interest as an attitude has a reciprocal relationship to learning, a relation that Ma (1997) has established by means of a questionnaire on students' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement tests. ...
... A possible research outlook includes aspects of how to further approach student engagement in connection to mathematical target knowledge, on the Teacher-Math-Task face of the didactical tetrahedron. I agree with Harris (2011), who suggests that student engagement is a useful concept when describing student experiences and learning. ...
... En övergripande reflektion är i linje med Harris (2011) och Skillings (2016) resultat om att lärarens perspektiv och agerande spelar roll i engagemangskapandet. Utifrån den här avhandlingens resultat kan man säga att läraren har en central roll i engagemangsskapandet och att det finns specifika situationer där läraren ges tillfälle att engagera elever i matematik. ...
Thesis
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This book is about interest and engagement in mathematics. The overall aim is to contribute to further understanding of interest manifested as student engagement in mathematics in years 6-9. In particular, the studies capture how engagement is recognised by teachers and researchers and what didactical strategies the teachers use to engage students in an introduction to algebra. Also, tasks seen by students as interesting and engaging are presented and analysed. Unlike other studies, student engagement is discussed in light of the Theory of Didactical Situations in Mathematics (TDS). The most important results are insights into the relational constitution of engagement. These insights are visible in the interplay between the student, the teacher, the task and the mathematics. The results show that teachers have an important role in engaging students in mathematics during the didactical situation. Teachers seem to agree on how engagement is indicated in the classroom. The strategies for enhancing engagement provided and discussed by the teachers are all a part of the meso-contract. Further, working with the target knowledge in the foreground can enhance student engagement and thus contribute to the development of an adidactical situation. These empirical findings seem to support the idea that, in order to engage students in mathematics, it is important to design didactical situations and tasks where enhancing engagement is a part of the macro-contract.
... Student engagement is a broad term that encompasses various definitions. Although research has narrowed it down to four constructs (psychological, cognitive, behavioral, academic), even these definitions remain in relative ambiguity (Borup et al., 2014;Fredericks et al., 2019;Harris, 2011). Psychological engagement includes affective states, such as enjoyment, sadness, sense of belonging, and attitudes toward school (Fredericks, 2014;Harris, 2011). ...
... Although research has narrowed it down to four constructs (psychological, cognitive, behavioral, academic), even these definitions remain in relative ambiguity (Borup et al., 2014;Fredericks et al., 2019;Harris, 2011). Psychological engagement includes affective states, such as enjoyment, sadness, sense of belonging, and attitudes toward school (Fredericks, 2014;Harris, 2011). Cognitive engagement refers to students' commitment to and investment in their learning; this includes goal-setting, work ethic, self-motivation, and self-regulation (Harris, 2011). ...
... Psychological engagement includes affective states, such as enjoyment, sadness, sense of belonging, and attitudes toward school (Fredericks, 2014;Harris, 2011). Cognitive engagement refers to students' commitment to and investment in their learning; this includes goal-setting, work ethic, self-motivation, and self-regulation (Harris, 2011). Behavioral engagement typically focuses on observable behaviors, such as classroom participation and attendance, while academic engagement (which is related to behavioral engagement) focuses on activities, such as assignment completion and time spent doing homework (Harris, 2011). ...
Thesis
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In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges in education, exposing its limitations and new and existing disparities within the system. While the pandemic has highlighted these issues, it has also provided new perspectives for educational technology and teaching and learning online. Due to shelter-in-place and stay-at-home mandates, many schools were forced to transition classes from in-person to online. As a result, many educators and students were pushed into the unfamiliarity of the virtual classroom. This qualitative instrumental case study sought to capture the lived experiences of K-12 educators who were graduates of an online educational technology program and had been teaching online due to the pandemic from March 2020 to February 2021. The purpose of this study was to describe their experiences and understand how the program may have influenced their self-efficacy to teach online. Data was collected through two methods: (a) questionnaire and (b) focus groups. Ten participants completed the questionnaire, and six of those participants self-selected to be in focus groups. From the questionnaire, four major themes emerged, and seven themes were identified from the focus group data. The two most cited themes were centered around student engagement and participants’ technology backgrounds. The study’s findings revealed that the program was beneficial for most participants and increased their confidence to teach online by equipping them with tools, resources, and strategies that were transferrable to the online environment. Participants primarily used technology skills, social and communication skills, and design skills while teaching online. However, the findings indicated a need to address educators’ professional development in pedagogy skills and management and institution skills, which encompass student engagement and expectations respectively. The current study added to the body of research on educational technology programs and highlights the potential to develop educators’ self-efficacy and knowledge domains beyond the scope of technology knowledge. It addressed a gap in literature exploring educators’ experiences teaching online during COVID-19 and how skills and knowledge from the program may have assisted educators in that transition. Further research was recommended on topics, such as student engagement, equity, hybrid learning, and special education and pre-service educators’ experiences teaching online.
... Engagement is a complex and 'messy' (Harris, 2011) meta-construct (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004. It is often categorised into behavioural, psychological (or affective), and cognitive dimensions. ...
... A review of the literature identifies minimal research around teachers' perspectives of student engagement with available studies utilising extremely small samples of teachers thereby limiting the generalizability of these results (Harris, 2011). Furthermore, a number of these studies report a deficit discourse by teachers about a lack of student engagement with their core purpose around the compliance of students during lessons. ...
... Having said this, generic routes to engagement emerged based on the purposes of promoting quality learning with students where they had some control over their learning and the learning process. As Harris (2011) identified, while it is reasonable to consider engagement in school for social development, at the core of education there must be a focus on students' learning. Expert teachers realise this and strike a balance between affective, cognitive and metacognitive engagement when working with their students. ...
Article
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This paper reports on a large study investigating the pedagogical reasoning of 40 expert science teachers in Australia in an attempt to explicate expert practice. Over a three-year period, the teachers were divided into two cohorts involving both elementary and high school teachers of science. Each cohort experienced eight days of a professional program that helped to focus their attention and unpack the complex and detailed tacit knowledge about teaching 'carried in their heads'. The main sources of data were the recorded planning conversations of teachers as they worked with peers in designing, preparing and developing a unit of work for their students along with interviews that were conducted with all 40 teachers involved in the project. Additional data was extracted from notes, summaries and conversations captured during the days of the professional program. Coding of these data identified major themes that were compared to those from an earlier pilot study. Emerging from a comparison of these analyses were four key foci, which form a framework for elucidating the tacit pedagogical reasoning of teachers. These included: Big ideas, Generation of quality learning and quality learners, Responding to contextual constraints and opportunities, Teacher personal and professional identify, and Routes to engagement. Careful mapping of teacher thinking (as evidenced from their conversations) between these foci demonstrated rapid and complex movement from one focus to the other as teachers planned their teaching. We termed this 'pinball reasoning'. Within this paper we report on the findings in relation to latter focus, Routes to engagement using the phenomena of pinball reasoning to discuss the multiple ways teachers could be led to thinking about engagement.
... Participation in these activities is critical for positive academic outcomes and preventing school dropout (Barkaoui et al., 2015;Fredricks et al., 2004;Nguyen et al., 2018). Emotional engagement refers to students' positive or negative responses and attitude to staff or other students and that may indicate their feelings of belonging to school and possibly a factor that may affect their motivation to learn (Barkaoui et al., 2015;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Nguyen et al., 2018;Van Uden et al., 2013). And Cognitive engagement, which refers to students' commitment and willingness to invest effort in learning. ...
... And Cognitive engagement, which refers to students' commitment and willingness to invest effort in learning. Cognitive engagement includes goal-setting, self-regulation and intrinsic motivation to immerse in intellectual challenges and in mastery of complex tasks and skills (Barkaoui et al., 2015;Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Nguyen et al., 2018;Van Uden et al., 2013). ...
... Barkaoui et al. (2015) mention that the interrelation between the dimension might be hierarchical, placing emotional and cognitive engagement as more important than behavioral engagement. The emotional and cognitive dimensions however, are less examined in research, possibly because they are more abstract and difficult to observe and measure (Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011). Most research has focused on behavioral engagement as its entities can be fairly operationalized and measured (Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Lawson & Lawson, 2013;Nguyen et al., 2018;Van Uden et al., 2013). ...
Article
This study explores strategies suggested by inservice teachers to enhance students' low behavioral engagement in the classroom. 110 teachers were asked to describe their hypothetical responses to two vignettes depicting an individual-student and a whole-class low behavioral engagement. Based on coding participants' self-reports strategies it was found that the two most common strategies being mentioned to both vignettes were modifying teaching goals and highlighting students' strengths. More varied and richer strategies emerged in response to the individual-student vignette compared to the whole-class vignette. Some of the findings reflect differences among novice, experienced and senior teachers.
... Disengagement is both caused by and contributes to students feeling marginalised, resentful and ineffective regarding their schooling, and is consequently associated with poor academic outcomes (Skinner & Pitzer, 2012). Conversely, engagement in schooling has been positively correlated with improved academic achievement, higher school completion rates and an increased sense of belonging (Harris, 2011). ...
... Interest in the construct of academic engagement and its widespread acceptance as a prerequisite for productive learning has proliferated since the mid-1990s (e.g., Skinner & Pitzer, 2012;Zyngier, 2008). However, the broad range of strategies to enhance student engagement, together with current discourse around engagement reveal that it is a contested concept that is theorised in multiple ways (e.g., Appleton et al., 2008;Harris, 2008Harris, , 2011Parker & Hodgson, 2020). Engagement has historically been considered in terms of three discrete dimensions: behavioural (i.e., easily observable and quantifiable aspects of schooling such as attendance and compliance with school rules); affective (i.e., observable psychological dispositions, attitudes and relationships); and cognitive (i.e., psychological investment in mastery learning and use of strategies; e.g., Allen et al., 2019;Gibbs & Poskitt, 2010;McMahon & Portelli, 2004;Reschly et al., 2020;Zyngier, 2008). ...
... In their review of the research literature, Fredericks et al. (2004) found that while some researchers focused on a single dimension, others contended that all three are equally significant. However, it has also been argued that cognitive engagement is the most important dimension of a hierarchical model (e.g., Harris, 2011). Arguing that 'any adequate treatment of student engagement must transcend … behavioural manifestations', Nystrand and Gamoran (1991) suggested a distinction between procedural and substantive engagement (p. ...
Article
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This paper shares findings from a project that examined how schools serving marginalised communities facilitated students’ substantive engagement. Through interviews with students, parents, teachers and school leaders, we determined that substantive engagement was supported by formal and informal strategies that enabled access to rich learning opportunities, the provision of welcoming school and classroom climates, and the enactment of pedagogies of care and school-wide programmes focused on substantive engagement. There were four key areas of substantive engagement: engaging curriculum and pedagogy, engaging school climate, engaging with learners, and engaging with communities. Strategies to support engagement included the removal of barriers to learning, such as assistance with breakfast or public transport, nurturing a positive school climate, providing support for ethnic groups and the delivery of alternative or flexible programmes. Drawing on the findings from five case studies, we propose four principles for substantive student engagement in complex contexts, which will be useful for school leaders and teachers who work in schools that serve marginalised communities.
... Por se tratar de uma forma de comportamento, o engajamento supõe motivação, fator que faz acontecer o engajamento e lhe dá uma direção. A intensidade e a qualidade do engajamento tem sido associadas às modalidades excelentes de motivação, que são a motivação intrínseca, as formas autodeterminadas da motivação extrínseca, bem como a orientação para o trabalho ou à meta domínio (Harris, 2011;Reeve, Deci, & Ryan, 2004). ...
... As pessoas engajadas podem estar motivadas extrinsecamente por regulação externa, ou seja, fatores que não estão sob o controle do indivíduo, e a pessoa atende a controladores externos, agindo, por exemplo, em função de alguma recompensa, ou para evitar punições e perdas (Harris, 2011;Reeve et al., 2004). ...
... Pessoas engajadas tendem a executar suas atribuições com mais vigor e dedicação e, consequentemente, podem permanecer atuantes nas organizações (Cavalcante et al., 2015). A quarta hipótese foi confirmada, onde constatou-se que os Custos de troca influenciam positivamente no engajamento dos alunos nos projetos sociais corroborando com estudos que indicam que as pessoas engajadas podem estar motivadas extrinsecamente, agindo, por exemplo, em função de alguma recompensa, ou para evitar punições e perdas (Harris, 2011;Reeve et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Algumas organizações têm se preocupado em oferecer projetos sociais que englobam a comunidade em geral e os seus colaboradores. Esses projetos são realizados com a participação do trabalho voluntário. Analisar os fatores antecedentes que movem o cidadão voluntário a permanecerem nos projetos sociais e a se engajarem nas instituições onde são prestados esses trabalhos sociais é a proposta deste estudo. A pesquisa fundamenta-se em uma abordagem de investigação quantitativa e o estudo foi exploratório com corte transversal único, onde os dados foram coletados por meio de um instrumento de pesquisa com a obtenção de 351 questionários respondidos. Para os testes das hipóteses do estudo, foi realizada a análise de equações estruturais, com base no PLS-PM (Partial Least Squares Path Modeling), onde foram apresentadas medidas satisfatórias para os construtos investigados e o modelo proposto, sendo significantes algumas relações entre os construtos. Os resultados indicam que os custos de troca e o altruísmo influenciam positivamente no engajamento dos indivíduos na organização que desenvolve projetos sociais e que o engajamento e custos de troca também impactam positivamente na intenção de permanecer nos projetos sociais. A compreensão de motivações e determinantes do comprometimento com o trabalho voluntário torna-se crucial para que os gestores desta força de trabalho possam desenhar mecanismos eficazes de atração, engajamento e retenção.
... Some researchers, however, have divided behavioural engagement into two dimensions, respectively behavioural engagement and academic engagement (Appleton, Christenson & Furlong, 2008;. According to this point of view, while academic engagement was evidenced by the time spent doing schoolwork in school or at home, academic credits accrued, and homework completed, behavioural engagement includes student attendance, active participation in classes, and/or involvement in extracurricular activities arranged by school (Harris, 2011). Emotional student engagement is comprised of positive and negative effect in interactions with teachers, peers, schoolwork, and the school (Reschly & Christenson, 2012). ...
... Bununla birlikte, bazı araştırmacılar davranışsal katılımı sırasıyla davranışsal katılım ve akademik katılım olmak üzere iki boyuta ayırmıştır (Appleton, Christenson ve Furlong, 2008;Furlong ve Christenson, 2008). Bu bakış açısına göre, okulda ya da evde okulla ilgili işleri yapmak ve ev ödevlerini tamamlamak için harcanan zaman akademik katılımın göstergesi iken okula devam, derslere aktif katılım ve ders dışı etkinliklere katılım ise davranışsal katılımın göstergeleridir (Harris, 2011). Duyuşsal öğrenci katılımı, öğretmenler, akranlar, okul çalışmaları ve okul ile etkileşimler üzerindeki olumlu ve olumsuz etkilerden oluşmaktadır (Reschly ve Christenson, 2012). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is threefold: 1) to determine the levels of university students' engagement and trust in professors, 2) to investigate if there is a significant difference between students' engagement and trust scores in terms of some variables, and 3) to explore the relationship between student engagement and trust in professors. The participants comprised 1840 university students studying at seven different faculties of Inonu University during the 2013-2014 academic year. A test battery containing demographic information, student trust scale and student engagement scale was administered to the participating students. Results showed that female students and students from earlier grades trust in professors and engage into classroom activities more. Regression analysis results, also, indicated that students' scores on trust in professors explained approximately 16% of the total variance in student engagement. This implies that when students trust in their professors they tend to engage in lessons more, which, in turn, brings about better learning. Öz Bu araştırma ile üniversite öğrencilerinin derse katılım ve öğretim elemanlarına güven düzeyleri, derse katılım ile öğretim elemanlarına güven güven arasındaki ilişkinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya 2013-2014 eğitim öğretim yılında İnönü Üniversitesi bünyesinde bulunan yedi fakültede öğrenim gören 1840 öğrenci katıl-mıştır. Araştırmaya katılan öğrencilere Üniversite Öğrencileri İçin Derse Katılım Ölçeği ve Öğretim Elemanla-rına Güven Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Bağımsız değişkenler açısından yapılan analizler sonucunda öğrencilerin derse katılım düzeyleri ve öğretim elemanlarına güven düzeyleri cinsiyet ve sınıf düzeyi değişkenlerine göre anlamlı şekilde farklılaştığı belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarına güveninin derse katılımlarını anlamlı şekil-de yordayıp yordamadığını belirlemek amacıyla regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Öğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarına duydukları güven onların derse katılımının anlamlı yordayıcısı olduğu ve derse katılım düzeyine ait toplam var-yansın yaklaşık %16'sını açıkladığı belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuç öğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarına güvendiklerinde derse daha fazla katıldıklarını ve bu sayede daha iyi öğrendikleri anlamına gelmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Öğretim elemanlarına güven, derse katılım, öğrenci.
... And, it cause effective knowledge sharing in class…" Student engagement involves both behaviors (attention, effort, etc.) and emotions (interest, enthusiasm, etc.) (Council, 2003). Behavioral engagement includes students' attendance and active participation in class activities (Harris, 2011). Also, engagement can be regarded as the driving force of learning and relates to students' personal investment that is affect students' quality of life (Harris, 2011;OECD, 2004). ...
... Behavioral engagement includes students' attendance and active participation in class activities (Harris, 2011). Also, engagement can be regarded as the driving force of learning and relates to students' personal investment that is affect students' quality of life (Harris, 2011;OECD, 2004). ...
Article
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Usage of technology in educational settings is becoming a standard for 21st century's learners. Flipped classroom presents an entirely new learning environment based on technology for students, thus requiring different research for establishing effective learning and teaching. This paper aimed to explore usability of flipped classroom in higher education from the perspective of students' experience. The study participants are undergraduate students who are enrolled department of primary education in faculty of education. In study used a mixed-method to answer research questions. Students were post tested on usage of flipped classroom model in the frame of instructional materials attitude. And, focus group interview used to get students' perceptions. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that students' attitude toward the flipped classroom were positive. The second major finding was that flipped classroom model is effective on: (1) Instruction and learning environment, (2) Individual changes.
... According to Lewis et al. (2011), the cognitive dimension of engagement lacks attention from the literature. Several authors have related cognitive engagement to students' use of cognitive strategies and considered the adoption of a deeper approach to learning, centered on understanding and connecting ideas, as these are both considered signs of students' investment (Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Korhonen et al., 2017). When adopting a deep approach, students attribute a personal meaning to the contents, by relating new ideas to their previous knowledge and experiences in the surrounding world. ...
... -In this study, cognitive engagement was assessed through students' approaches to learning, the surface approach being considered a sign of low cognitive engagement, and the deep approach exemplifying high cognitive engagement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011). Approaches to learning were assessed with the Study Processes Inventory for university students , composed of 12 items, representative of two dimensions: surface approach and deep approach. ...
Article
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The current study aimed to analyze the relationships between students’ background variables (students’ academic preparation and sociocultural status), students’ cognitive and behavioral engagement, and an outcome variable (academic achievement). One sample of 380 first-year students who were studying in different scientific areas participated in the study. Students answered a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of their first semester in college. To increase ecological validity, students’ cognitive and behavioral engagement and academic achievement were assessed using a specific curricular subject of the course as a reference. Students’ grades were collected through academic services. Data from both time points were analyzed with a structural equation model (SEM), and data showed a goodness of fit of SEM in both time points. Findings indicate that cognitive and behavioral engagement mediated the relationship between students’ background variables and their academic achievement. The analysis of both SEM allows us to understand that academic achievement at the end of the semester is closely related to what happens at the beginning of the semester (e.g., approach to learning, study time). Thus, promoting students’ engagement at the beginning of the semester should be considered a priority, as the first part of the first semester represents a critical period for students and for their integration in college. Thus, universities should consider improving their mechanisms of collecting information to allow for early identification, support, and monitoring of students at risk of dropping out, showing high level of disengagement and low academic achievement.
... When analysing the qualitative data and categorising participants under one or another conception, the authors decided to take each participant's response as a whole and neglect the position or order of statements. Some authors (e.g., Harris, 2011) suggested that the most significant elements are found in an answer's beginning, yet in this study the authors decided not to follow this, as many participants mentioned the most complex ideas at their beginning of their discourse while others started with the most basic conceptions. As teaching conceptions and approaches may be hierarchical in nature, it was in the authors' interest not to discard any valuable piece of information. ...
... As teaching conceptions and approaches may be hierarchical in nature, it was in the authors' interest not to discard any valuable piece of information. Future studies may wish to follow Harris's (2011) suggestion about taking those elements placed at the beginning of an answer. ...
Article
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Introduction: This study examined preservice teachers' teaching conceptions and approaches measured quantitatively and qualitatively in order to identify any convergence of findings. Additionally, any changes in conceptions and approaches towards a student-or teacher-centred orientation upon completion of a training course were compared. Method: Preservice teachers completed a scale on approaches to teaching and answered open-ended questions on teaching before and after an initial teacher training programme. Results and conclusions: Inconsistencies in the results suggest that research on teaching and learning should use a combination of techniques in order to ensure that phenomena are accurately examined so that appropriate educational decisions are made.
... Engagement is another theme that is closely related to NVC. Engagement is comprised of three constructs in literature (Anderson, Christenson, Sinclair, & Lehr, 2004;Boykin & Noguera, 2011;Harris, 2011). These three types of engagement are behavioral, cognitive, and affective. ...
... A variety of terms and concepts are used in different disciplines to refer to rapport. These terms include caring (Cooper, 2004;Finn et al., 2009;Morganett, 1991;Nowak-Fabrykowski, 2012;Teven, 2001;Vogt, 2002), relatedness (Bieg, Rickleman, Jones & Mittag, 2013;Roorda et al., 2011;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Vogt, 2002;Wubbels & Brekelmans, 2005), rapport (Tickle-Degnen & Rosenthal,1990;Lammers & Gillaspy, 2013;Zoller, 2015), and engagement (Anderson, Christenson, Sinclair, & Lehr, 2004;Boykin & Noguera, 2011;Harris, 2011). Studies in neuropsychology also support the importance of relationships and their influence on brain development (Adolphs, 2003;Evans & Schamberg, 2009;Leuner, Capaniti, & Gould, 2012;Luby et al., 2012;Spilt, Hughes, Wu, & Kwok, 2012). ...
Article
This study set out to measure the impact of nonverbal communication (NVC) teacher behaviors on student perceptions of rapport and to determine which of these behaviors were conscious. Six teachers at three grade levels were participants in the study. The NV behaviors of teachers were quantified and their effect on student perceptions of rapport was measured by student surveys. Teachers’ awareness of their NVC skills was established thorugh an analysis of interviews. The mixed-methods convergent parallel methodology contributed to a rich collection of data that was analyzed using multiple strategies. The literature provides extensive evidence that NVC behaviors contribute to student perceptions of rapport. Evidence is particularly robust at the college level (Andersen,1980 ; Finn et al., 2009; McCroskey et al., 1995). This study resulted in multiple findings. The teachers in this study shared a wide variety of NV behaviors that contributed to rapport, although with varying levels of awareness. The level of awareness did not have an impact on student perceptions of rapport, consistent with Pentland and Heibeck’s (2010) study. Finally, although the study makes a contribution to future research, teachers’ NV behaviors did not yield significant results when correlated with perceptions of rapport.
... According to Harris (2011), student engagement is often presented within academic literature as a meta- construct with two to four dimensions. Constructs frequently draw on behavioral, academic, psycho- logical, and cognitive dimensions of engagement, each of which is described in turn. ...
... We also analyse the practices that teachers report using in response to their perceptions and as part of their efforts to promote student engagement in mathematics. Despite widespread acknowledgement of its importance to educational success (Reschly and Christenson 2012), and the influential role played by teachers in the promotion of student engagement, there are few studies that have examined teachers' beliefs about the nature and extent of student engagement (Harris 2011) and fewer still on how teacher beliefs about engagement influence their instructional practices (Zyngier 2007). ...
Article
The importance of promoting student engagement, participation and interest in learning mathematics has long been a concern of mathematics teachers and educators with still too few students choosing not to continue studying mathematics beyond post compulsory requirements. Importantly, the value and importance of mathematics education continues to be emphasised not only as a fundamental discipline for all leaners but for providing core content and thinking habits essential for grounding science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. As STEM education is being shaped, mathematics educators call for a better understanding of the reciprocal relationship between mathematics and other STEM disciplines (English, 2016) and to consider the role of mathematics as the underlying language and tool across STEM learning. It is also envisaged that integrated STEM experiences will provide opportunities to foreground mathematics content and promote thinking processes. Providing settings that illustrate the importance of mathematics helps students understand its relevance and value as well as sparking interest for sustained engagement and participation. Previous research that investigated student engagement in mathematics found that students were more alike in terms of their dis/engagement than their level of achievement (Skilling et al. 2015). These findings have important implications for teachers as understanding why high achieving students are disengaging and low achieving students are engaging in mathematics can influence the instructional choices teachers make in their mathematics classrooms. It is therefore critical to understand teacher beliefs about student engagement. This paper reports on a complementary study that investigated teacher beliefs about student engagement in mathematics. First, literature about engagement is drawn upon to define and conceptualize this construct and to discuss the underlying motivational factors that are likely to influence the way students engage in learning. The second part reports on teacher beliefs about student engagement in mathematics.
... According to Harris (2011), student engagement is often presented within academic literature as a meta- construct with two to four dimensions. Constructs frequently draw on behavioral, academic, psycho- logical, and cognitive dimensions of engagement, each of which is described in turn. ...
... According to Harris (2011), student engagement is often presented within academic literature as a meta- construct with two to four dimensions. Constructs frequently draw on behavioral, academic, psycho- logical, and cognitive dimensions of engagement, each of which is described in turn. ...
... According to Harris (2011), student engagement is often presented within academic literature as a meta- construct with two to four dimensions. Constructs frequently draw on behavioral, academic, psycho- logical, and cognitive dimensions of engagement, each of which is described in turn. ...
... According to Harris (2011), student engagement is often presented within academic literature as a meta- construct with two to four dimensions. Constructs frequently draw on behavioral, academic, psycho- logical, and cognitive dimensions of engagement, each of which is described in turn. ...
... According to Harris (2011), student engagement is often presented within academic literature as a metaconstruct with two to four dimensions. Constructs frequently draw on behavioral, academic, psychological, and cognitive dimensions of engagement, each of which is described in turn. ...
... Of note, this small body of literature on LL engagement is mainly composed of quantitative research collected through cross-sectional designs. Yet, several researchers (Fredricks et al., 2016;Harris, 2011;Zyngier, 2008) have called for welldesigned qualitative studies investigating classroom engagement. Furthermore, although general education research has investigated the impacts of teachers' and students' perceptions of classroom engagement on learning outcomes and the multidimensional nature of classroom engagement, there are also discipline-specific teaching behaviors that warrant further investigation (Bell, 2005). ...
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This study examines the antecedents and outcomes of classroom engagement of 412 Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Grounded in self-determination theory and the self-system model of motivation, this mixed-methods study examined the relations between context (perceived autonomy-support from the instructor), self (basic psychological needs), action (behavioral, emotional, agentic, and cognitive engagement), and outcome (achievement and absenteeism). The results of structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized model and showed that learners’ perception of their teachers’ autonomy-support within the classroom predicted their need satisfaction, which in turn predicted self-determined engagement. Engagement predicted achievement and absenteeism within English courses. Semi-structured interviews showed patterns consistent with the quantitative results, and also that students felt their engagement would best be supported in classes with a positive social atmosphere. As well, their comments underscored the important role of language teachers in supporting learners’ psychological need satisfaction, classroom engagement, and positive academic outcomes. The findings suggest strategies for English language educators to bolster students’ engagement within the classrooms, including students who seem to be unmotivated, reluctant language learners.
... But feelings of engagement need to arise in the students; therefore, we advise teachers to discuss the experienced discrepancies and to ask students what could be changed to alter their feelings of engagement. Constructing an engaging learning environment together with students is also urged by Zyngier (2007Zyngier ( , 2008 and Harris (2010Harris ( , 2011. Furthermore, the discrepancy between teachers emphasizing structure and positive relationships and the experiences mentioned by students indicates that the teachers in the participating teams could be further supported in fostering student engagement. ...
Article
Interest in student engagement has increased over the past decade, which has resulted in increased knowledge about this concept and about the aspects that facilitate engagement. However, as yet, only a few studies have focused on engagement from the perspective of the teacher. In this study, we capture the experiences of teachers who were explicitly working with their teams on fostering student engagement. We used the learning history method to capture those experiences and at the same time to stimulate learning within the participating teams. A learning history includes the voices of the different participants involved in order to stimulate reflection and learning. Three teams of teachers participated in the writing of this learning history. Several teachers (n = 10), students (n = 10), and managers (n = 5) from or related to the teams were interviewed. The learning history shows that, on the one hand, teachers emphasized positive relationships and structure in relation to student engagement, yet, on the other hand, students continued to provide examples of negative relationships and mentioned a lack of structure, although they also mentioned improvements. Furthermore, the learning history showed that teachers in all teams reflected on their experiences and learned from the activities employed to foster student engagement, which included taking a more positive approach, conversations about a skills form, and being more consequent. These results taken together indicate that it is possible for teachers to do a better job of engaging their students and that their repertoire can be expanded to include more engagement-related actions. Finally, the learning history produced offers insight into the difficulties experienced by the teams. An important limitation mentioned by all teams was that teachers found it difficult to address each other’s behavior when someone did not act as agreed upon.
... Emotional engagement is concerned with students' positive and negative affective reactions to teachers, schoolwork, peers and school and reflects emotions and other non-cognitive aspects such as interest, values and attitudes. Cognitive engagement is linked to improving student learning (Harris 2011) and draws from two perspectives: psychological investment in learning, which emphasises the efforts students make; and practices used to enhance learning and instruction, such as self-regulation strategies and metacognitive processes (Fredricks et al. 2004;Fredricks et al. 2016). ...
Article
Student engagement in mathematics in the early secondary years can be fragile. Engagement in learning fluctuates in response to students’ mathematics experiences and is underpinned by numerous adaptive and maladaptive factors. Thirty-seven 11–12 year old students (grades 6–7) responded twice to a questionnaire to measure shifts in their engagement and motivation over a 1-year period as they transitioned from primary to secondary school. When plotted on spider graphs, the results of specific adaptive and maladaptive factors visually demonstrate “in and out” movements as students’ engagement levels shifted from time 1 to time 2. Subsequent semistructured interviews complemented questionnaire data by eliciting student beliefs about their achievement, feelings and behaviours towards mathematics. Interview data shed light on the reasons for individual student shifts in motivation and engagement during the transition. Together, data reveal four unique engagement/achievement characteristics. Significantly, students who were more alike in terms of their engagement reported similar factor patterns regardless of their achievement level. Findings draw attention to the importance of addressing mathematics engagement for students of all achievement levels.
... To use in-class problem-solving activities, the instructor must provide the appropriate environment for the active participation of the students as the learning activities must be completed within the scheduled time. The participation of the learners within the course from an emotional and behavioural point of view is directly related to the interaction between the instructor and the student (Harris, 2011). This interaction also plays an important role in the academic performance of the student (Lee, 2012). ...
Article
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The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effectiveness of blended learning within the context of a science education methods course for early childhood elementary preservice teachers in Turkey. Elementary teachers historically fear science and avoid using it in their classes. This course was blended to allow the students to experience active science learning during face to face sessions. Student perceptions about their experiences in a blended methods course were collected using a previously validated survey. The data analysis of the post-test only survey research design demonstrated that students’ perceptions were positive towards the use of blended learning within their science education methods course. However, the analysis determined that students felt that certain technical aspects of the blended learning environment hindered their learning.
... Lastly, the findings demonstrated that participants' perception in relation to their interest and engagement in the lessons before and after the intervention remained without any change (Heflin, Shewmaker & Nguyen 2017:91). Similarly, researchers such as Liem and Martin (2012), Harris (2011) and Velandia (2008) agree that engagement in learning is closely related to motivation, in which learners are committed to master a task, activity or learning strategy. ...
... As interest in the construct of engagement has proliferated since the 1990s (Skinner & Pitzer, 2012;Zyngier, 2008), so too has the recognition that even though 'we know it when we see it, and we know when it is missing' (Newmann, 1986, p. 242), engagement is a messy construct which is complex and perceptually elusive (Fielding-Wells & Makar, 2008;Harris, 2008Harris, , 2011. Research suggests that this is because substantive engagement, defined by the internal processes which sustain an authentic commitment to academic work (Newmann, Wehlage, & Lamborn, 1992;Nystrand & Gamoran, 1991), is often difficult to distinguish from procedural engagement, which refers to easily visible compliance and competently going through the activities of schooling (Nystrand & Gamoran, 1991). ...
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This chapter presents some innovative educational leadership initiatives and programs designed to support and engage young people in secondary schooling in complex settings. Data from various case studies are shared to demonstrate school-level strategies that help keep students who are in danger of disengaging from education, not only in school but enthused about their learning. In this chapter, we emphasise strategies for school leaders and outline a series of principles for engaging with young people in mainstream school settings that have complex features, including: rural and remote locations; high proportion of students from Indigenous or English as an Additional Language or Dialect backgrounds; low-SES/high-poverty; and drought-affected regions and areas of low employment. We argue for the importance of community connectedness as a core pillar of engaging with young people in meaningful learning, as well as for a variety of deeply contextualised, local practices that best meet the learning needs of students within their local communities.
... In terms of engagement, a distinction needs to be made between school engagement and engagement in learning [57,58]. This research is focused on engagement in learning grounded in the classroom context [59][60][61] as this type of engagement is deemed to be malleable through pedagogical interaction [62]. ...
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Digital video has become a dominant form of student learning in and beyond the classroom, and thus its pervasive nature in contemporary learning environments commands scholarly inquiry. In this paper we explore a participatory design-based research approach to the integration of video hook technology in the post-primary science classroom (students aged 12–15). Video hooks were designed with the intention of engaging students and augmenting their interest in science. Teachers across ten schools voluntarily agreed to implement the video hooks, and with their students (N = 128) engage in a qualitative, observational methodology to ascertain their effect. Triangulated data was collected through teacher interviews (N = 10), structured lesson observation and researcher journal documentation. Results reveal that student reaction was instant and impactful with evidence of both triggered and maintained student interest.
... In terms of engagement, a distinction needs to be made between school engagement and engagement in learning [57,58]. This research is focused on engagement in learning grounded in the classroom context [59][60][61] as this type of engagement is deemed to be malleable through pedagogical interaction [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Digital video has become a dominant form of student learning in and beyond the classroom, and thus its pervasive nature in contemporary learning environments commands scholarly inquiry. In this paper we explore a participatory design-based research approach to the integration of video hook technology in the post-primary science classroom (students aged 12–15). Video hooks were designed with the intention of engaging students and augmenting their interest in science. Teachers across ten schools voluntarily agreed to implement the video hooks, and with their students (N = 128) engage in a qualitative, observational methodology to ascertain their effect. Triangulated data was collected through teacher interviews (N = 10), structured lesson observation and researcher journal documentation. Results reveal that student reaction was instant and impactful with evidence of both triggered and maintained student interest.
... We also analyse the practices that teachers report using in response to their perceptions and as part of their efforts to promote student engagement in mathematics. Despite widespread acknowledgement of its importance to educational success (Reschly and Christenson 2012), and the influential role played by teachers in the promotion of student engagement, there are few studies that have examined teachers' beliefs about the nature and extent of student engagement (Harris 2011) and fewer still on how teacher beliefs about engagement influence their instructional practices (Zyngier 2007). ...
Article
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What teachers’ think about student engagement influences the teaching practices they adopt, their responses to students, and the efforts they make in the classroom. Interviews were conducted with thirty-one mathematics teachers from ten high schools to investigate their perceptions and beliefs about student engagement in mathematics. Teachers also reported the practices they used to engage their students during mathematics lessons. Teacher perceptions of student engagement were categorised according to recognised ‘types’ (behavioural, emotional and cognitive) and ‘levels’ (ranging from disengaged to engaged). The teachers’ reports emphasised immediate attention being paid to students’ behaviours and overt emotions towards mathematics with fewer and less extensive reports made about students’ cognitive engagement. Teachers’ abilities to implement practices considered supportive of student engagement were linked to a number of elements, including their self-efficacy. Perceptions of being powerless to engage their students resulted in many teachers limiting their efforts to attempt some form of intervention. Author shared link: http://rdcu.be/mH7A
... As observers who are also part of the program's organising team, we aim to identify factors of our program that are efficacious and potentially transferable to other programs, as well as to school. An ethnographic approach also allows for insights revealing the researchers' perspectives and experiences, which can result in more educators raising their voices to make sense of the complexities of student engagement (Harris, 2011). ...
Article
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In this article, we reflect on ways that young adolescents learn through embodied practice, which we define as moments when the body is ‘caught up’ in learning activities. Our observations draw from two workshops conducted as part of the IMC Sky High! program which annually involves over 150 Year 7 and 8 students from schools in low socioeconomic areas of south-west Sydney, Australia. The program is delivered on and off campus by a team at the University of Technology Sydney. In addition to building confidence and skill in curriculum areas, the program aims to introduce young high school students to a tertiary environment and motivate them to engage more actively at school. Paying close attention to a classical music encounter and a trip to a museum, we use ethnographic strategies to consider how looking, doing, listening and proximity facilitate feelings of connection and motivation towards learning. We discuss how an educators’ sensitivity to the listening and speaking body, and the learning and caring body can enhance learning design and opportunities for engagement. Greater awareness of embodiment can enable educators to facilitate rich, sensory learning encounters that are empowering and transformative. © 2016, Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Inc. All rights reserved.
... Esto es, precisan de su estudio desde enfoques comprehensivos que permitan conocer y analizar en profundidad sus claves políticas, institucionales, organizativas y pedagógicas, acordes con el propósito de dilucidar en qué medida realmente contribuyen a lograr unos determinados resultados de aprendizaje e implicación de su alumnado. Se sigue así la estela de investigaciones precedentes el ámbito de estudio que aquí concierne, desde las que se reafirma la necesidad de apostar por enfoques más profundos y flexibles (cualitativos), que, junto a las cifras (cuantitativos), permitan dar voz y conocer las propias vivencias de sus principales afectados (Christenson, Reschly & Wylie, 2012;Fredericks, Blumenfiel & Parris, 2004;González, 2015;Harris, 2011;Symonds y Hargreaves, 2016). Asimismo, son diversos los metodólogos que reconocen la pertinencia del Método Mixto de investigación (en adelante, MMI) para el estudio de problemas educativos de tal naturaleza y complejidad como el que aquí nos ocupa (Creswell, 2015;Hernández-Sampieri, Fernández y Baptista, 2014;Merters, Bazeley, Bowleg, Fielding, Maxwel, Molina-Azorín & Niglas, 2016). ...
Article
Se aportan algunas consideraciones sobre la pertinencia del Método Mixto de Investigación (MMI) para el análisis de programas de re-enganche. En particular, las Aulas Ocupacionales en la Región de Murcia (España). A raíz de la revisión bibliográfica, legislativa y metodológica realizada en el contexto de una Tesis Doctoral, se parte de posicionamientos críticos teórico-políticos sobre el empleo predominante de estudios cuantitativos para estudiar problemáticas como fracaso, abandono o desenganche escolar, que pueden proporcionar repuestas simplistas limitando la concreción de metas y responsabilidades. Se sugiere el empleo de enfoques más profundos y flexibles (cualitativos) que, junto a las cifras, permitan dar voz y conocer las vivencias de sus implicados. Los resultados, de una parte, justifican el MMI como una tercera vía de indagación (junto al enfoque cuantitativo y cualitativo) en la investigación social y educativa; aporta, desde una mirada más flexible, funcional, conciliadora y enriquecida, nuevas formas de aproximación y solución. De otro, evidencian diversas dificultades: necesidad de justificar y explicitar su adecuación para mitigar susceptibles cuestionamientos; mayor tiempo y recursos; entrenamiento, conocimientos y habilidades en métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos; diferentes ritmos y tiempos de indagación. Las conclusiones subrayan la importancia y pertinencia del MMI en el estudio de realidades y problemáticas educativas de gran complejidad como las analizadas en el marco del Aula Ocupacional, permitiendo indagar en sus múltiples planos y condicionantes de forma interconectada, en consonancia con los posicionamientos teóricos de partida (enfoque ecológico del riesgo escolar y enfoque multidimensional de School Engagement).
... These emotional connections were evident in the student comments describing how the text made them feel. While Renninger and Hidi (2011) acknowledged that interest is an important part of increasing student engagement, Harris (2011) argued that too much emphasis on students' individual interests could be at the expense of cognitive engagement. Teachers need to find the balance between engaging a student through individual interests, and engaging them in required learning (Renninger & Hidi, 2011). ...
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While our understanding of student engagement in the compulsory schooling sector is well developed in face-to-face contexts, the same cannot be said for online and distance learning environments. Indeed, most of what is currently known about online engagement has come from research with older students in tertiary education contexts. This study directly addresses this gap in the research by exploring student engagement in an online, middle school in a New Zealand distance education context. By considering three key dimensions of student engagement—namely, behavioural engagement, cognitive engagement, and emotional engagement—this in-depth investigation explores what engages middle school students when they learn online. Data collection techniques comprised student and teacher interviews, online asynchronous discussion transcripts, and statistical data from the learning management system (LMS). Results found that students in this study tended to engage behaviourally (i.e., do what was expected of them) with all required activities. Cognitive engagement (i.e., students’ personal investment in their own learning) was evident in the giving and receiving of feedback as well as the interest and relevance certain activities generated for learners. Emotional engagement was elicited through the design and facilitation of the activities, and through the ongoing development of a learning community in which students felt safe to contribute.
... There is a growing international research interest in student engagement and its relationship to learning (Fredricks et al., 2004;Harris, 2011;Lee et al., 2021;Pino-James & Nicolás Pino-James, 2018;Parsons et al. 2018). Research suggests that engagement is a reliable predictor of future academic performance and is associated with long-term positive outcomes (Fredricks et al., 2004;Shernoff, 2013;Upadhyaya & Salmela-Aro, 2013). ...
This article reports on the implementation of a formative assessment tool (the Writing Engagement Scale, or WES) in grades 3–5 in schools in the United States. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to collect validity evidence for the WES for our population. Results demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. In addition, survey results indicated that teachers perceived the WES to be useful as a formative writing assessment. We make the case that the WES provides an opportunity to inform teachers’ practice and help researchers understand the dimensions of students’ engagement in writing.
... It was shown that iPad-SFS fostered participation and collaboration, both of which have been shown to significantly contribute to better student outcomes in the practical teaching space (35). Findings from this study are consistent with studies that show students have a preference for learning platforms that are familiar to them as they find them more engaging (36). While it would be simplistic to assume that all students can be labelled 'digital natives' (37), the majority of students who participated were school leavers and in the age bracket that grew up using digital technology. ...
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p dir="LTR" align="LEFT"> Introduction Paramedicine students are required to develop the skills of assessing and managing clinical presentations to prepare them for practice. Active learning strategies that are student centred, facilitate collaboration and mirror workplace practices can assist the development of requisite skills. iPads provide a portable means of integrating audiovisual material into these clinical scenarios. Use of such material has the potential to add a degree of authenticity to this environment and require students to play a more active part in their learning. Methods This study introduced the ‘iPad-SFS’, a system for using iPads as a platform for introducing audiovisual material into practical classes, as a means of promoting active learning. Students completed a Likert scale survey inviting quantitative and qualitative feedback to evaluate the impact of this intervention on their learning experience. Results The data indicated using iPads promoted engagement, enhanced realism, promoted a more collaborative and authentic learning experience and improved critical thinking. Conclusion Overall, the iPad based system impacted positively on student learning experience. Health professional educators in paramedicine should consider the use of system similar to iPad-SFS in practical classes.</p
Thesis
This study examines the teachers’ perceptions of student engagement, teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, and their interrelation. Affective engagement can be understood as belonging or relatedness as well as identification with school. Cognitive engagement can be conceived as engagement in classroom, self-regulation, learning goals and a student’s overall investment in learning. Measuring students’ engagement is crucial in that it helps educators predict and, by amending current teaching practices and policies, avoid poor performance or even drop-out. The teacher’s belief in herself and her potential is critical for the students’ overall performance in class. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between these two concepts and hopes to reveal their impact on the teaching quality. The participants of this study were upper comprehensive school Greek teachers working in Karditsa and communities around the city. Two questionnaires, the Student Engagement Instrument and the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, were presented as one instrument, translated into Greek. The findings of the study are discussed on the basis of the Identification-Participation model, Self-determination Theory, and Self-efficacy Theory. A six-dimensional construct was found for the teachers’ perception of student engagement. Moreover, years of experience were associated with external motivation, while school location and school size appeared to be associated with the teacher-student relationship. Regarding teacher efficacy, the level of studies and special education training were two determining factors. Finally, apart from external motivation, the sumvariables of student engagement were found to be linked to teachers’ efficacy beliefs. (Available at: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-201412223572)
Thesis
Dans une interaction humain-agent, l’engagement de l’utilisateur est un élément essentiel pour atteindre l’objectif de l’interaction. Dans cette thèse, nous étudions comment l’engagement de l’utilisateur pourrait être favorisé par le comportement de l’agent. Nous nous concentrons sur les stratégies de comportement verbal de l’agent qui concernent respectivement la forme, le timing et le contenu de ses énoncés. Nous présentons des études empiriques qui concernent certains aspects du comportement de politesse de l’agent, du comportement d’interruption de l’agent, et les sujets de conversation que l’agent adresse lors de l’interaction. Basé sur les résultats de la dernière étude, nous proposons un Gestionnaire de Sujets axé sur l’engagement (modèle computationnel) qui personnalise les sujets d’une interaction dans des conversations où l’agent donne des informations à un utilisateur humain. Le Modèle de Sélection des Sujets du Gestionnaire de Sujets décide sur quoi l’agent devrait parler et quand. Pour cela, il prend en compte la perception par l’agent de l’utilisateur, qui est dynamiquement mis à jour, ainsi que l’état mental et les préférences de l’agent. Le Modèle de Transition de Sujets du Gestionnaire de Sujet, basé sur une étude empirique, calcule comment l’agent doit présenter les sujets dans l’interaction en cours sans perdre la cohérence de l’interaction. Nous avons implémenté et évalué le Gestionnaire de Sujets dans un agent virtuel conversationnel qui joue le rôle d’un visiteur dans un musée.
Article
Due to the impact of the internet and technology on the millennials generation, the teaching and learning process must be integrated by both trends, as they can increase university students’ motivation as well as their levels of class participation. This integration can be achieved through potential and authentic pedagogical strategies: warm-up activities using smartphones and a technological tool called Quizizz. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify if students increased their class participation after using quizzes and smartphones as a warm-up strategy, and 2) to explore the perceptions of the students about their level of class participation. Data were collected with the application of three instruments (the teacher's diary, a classroom map, a students' perception scale) and also a combination of a qualitative and a quantitative data analysis. The results of this study pointed out that all of the 47 participants improved their willingness to participate in class. However, their own perceptions about participation did not show any particular change. In other words, the students´ willingness to participate in class positively changed, but their own perceptions about participation remained the same before and after the application of these strategies.
Article
It is difficult to provide disengaged youth, who are at risk of not fulfilling their potential, with the social support necessary to remain active contributors to society. They are more likely to fail and drop from education greatly reducing the prospect of becoming constructive, productive community members. Consequently strategies to promote engagement with learning and education need to be investigated. This study explores the impact on an individual’s self-concept and social networking skills through participation in an experiential learning program at sea conducted in Australia’s national sail training ship STS Young Endeavour and how this may influence student engagement with learning and education. Using qualitative interviews, engagement with learning and education of five participants from different educational backgrounds was examined pre and post voyage. The results suggest participation in the Young Endeavour program had a positive effect on development of social relationships, general self-concept, motivation to study, and sense of purpose for learning. Key contributing factors appear to be experiential learning activities specifically designed to support the development of greater self-concept and social skills such as climbing aloft, working together as a ‘watch’ and taking control of the vessel.
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief review of current research models on learning engagement, highlighting the distinction between indicators and facilitators of engagement. In relation to engagement indicators, this chapter discusses research that has examined behavioral, cognitive, and affective dimensions of engagement. Alongside these indicators, we add social engagement wherein students collaborate and work with others as an important indicator of engagement. In relation to facilitators of engagement, this chapter briefly discusses the importance of a list of cognitive enablers for promoting learning engagement. These cognitive enablers include achievement goals, self-efficacy, self-determination, self-regulation, and personal interest. It also discusses the importance of social influences derived from sociocultural, institutional, and classroom dimensions on sustaining learning engagement. Linking to the discussion in Chap. 1, we argue that many students from disadvantaged backgrounds lack these cognitive enablers and specific attention is needed to create learning opportunities to engage these students in meaningful participation. To do this, we argue that there is a need to consider the dynamic interplay of cognitive and social influences, disadvantaged students’ perspectives, and the negotiated nature of engagement.
Article
Study abroad programs offer undergraduate students multiple benefits by providing academic, professional and personal learning experiences that cannot be fully replicated in the domestic university setting. Recognizing the unique positioning of preservice English teachers participating in a London summer study abroad program, the author created a qualitative study to explore the implications of the preservice teachers’ experiences. This article begins by connecting the potential benefits of study abroad, generally, to preservice teachers, specifically. A description of the summer study abroad program in London is followed by an explanation of the qualitative study used to examine preservice English teachers’ experiences in the program. Three themes are identified and discussed – personal independence, engagement in learning and pedagogical connection – as well as the implications of the independence, engagement and connection developed during study abroad when the preservice teachers enter the classroom as secondary English teachers.
Article
While student engagement has been the subject of increasing attention in the field of education, attempts to translate research findings into practice have been hindered by a lack of clarity and consensus around the concept. It is generally agreed that teachers have an important role to play in promoting the engagement of students in classroom learning, however, little is know about how teachers think about student engagement or their experiences of engaging students in the classroom. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 upper-primary teachers to explore their perspectives on student engagement in learning. The data showed teachers described six qualitatively different forms of engagement and disengagement that vary in terms of the perceived degree of active involvement of the student. Teachers described three forms of engagement: Participating, Investing and Driving. They also described three forms of disengagement: Withdrawing, Avoiding and Disrupting. The proposed continuum offers some clarity about the range of meanings that teachers may have when using the broad terms ‘engagement’ and ‘disengagement’, and offers an alternative perspective on the concept of student engagement that might aid in future efforts to connect research with practice.
Article
This paper examined Australian distance education teachers’ perspectives about how they drew on technological tools to support their primary and secondary students’ learning. Via two focus groups (n = 9, n = 7), teachers identified that technology greatly assisted them in relation to developing relationships with students and families, creating interactive lessons, differentiating learning, providing quality feedback, and connecting peers. However, they also reported experiencing ongoing challenges and constraints related to gaining technology expertise, overcoming technology faults, and coping with additional accountability. Data made it clear that teacher use of technology was driven by specific student needs and that teachers drew heavily on both core pedagogical knowledge and technological pedagogical content knowledge. Findings suggest the need for more distance education specific professional development to ensure that teachers have the knowledges needed to support diverse learners in this context.
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Within the context of eHealth interventions, a shared understanding of what constitutes engagement in and with eHealth technologies is missing. A clearer understanding of engagement could provide a valuable starting point for guidelines relating to the design and development of eHealth technologies. Given the cross-disciplinary use of the term “engagement,” investigating how engagement (and its components) is conceptualized in different domains could lead to determining common components that are deemed important for eHealth technological design. As such, the aim of this paper was 3-fold: (a) to investigate in which domains engagement features, (b) to determine what constitutes engagement in these different domains, and (c) to determine whether there are any common components that seem to be important. A comprehensive systematic scoping review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify the domains in which engagement is used, to extract the associated definitions of engagement, and to identify the dimensionality or components thereof. A search of five bibliographic databases yielded 1,231 unique records. All titles, abstracts, and full texts were screened based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. This led to 69 articles being included for further analyses. The results showed that engagement is used in seven functional domains, categorized as follows: student (n = 18), customer (n = 12), health (n = 11), society (n = 10), work (n = 9), digital (n = 8), and transdisciplinary (n = 1) domains. It seems that some domains are more mature regarding their conceptualization and theorizing on engagement than others. Further, engagement was found to be predominantly conceptualized as a multidimensional construct with three common components (behavior, cognition, and affective) shared between domains. Although engagement is prolifically used in different disciplines, it is evident that little shared consensus as to its conceptualization within and between domains exists. Despite this, engagement is foremost seen as a state of being engaged in/with something, which is part of, but should not be confused with, the process of engagement. Behavior, cognition, and affect are important components of engagement and should be specified for each new context.
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Several key teacher learning paradigms have supported the expediency of collegial work and peer support for learning and development among teachers. Amongst other domains, one significant collaborative model in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) is peer observation where there are ample opportunities for professional growth. There is much research on peer observation among pre-service EFL teachers in which efficiency of modelling and constructive feedback is evident. In-service teachers has had little attention in relation to teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards the collaborative model of peer observation at later stages of teachers’ careers. This study examines how in-service EFL teachers perceives peer observation and its impact on their development within this collaborative framework. It also investigates the factors that contribute to the formation of these beliefs and perceptions. Three semi-structured interviews were conducted with a number of experienced EFL teachers in a Saudi higher education institute and an IPA approach was used to interpret the personal lived experiences of the research participants. The results revealed that (i) teachers’ beliefs and perceptions are mainly informed by their past experiences and professional coursework, (ii) the conflict between the multiple identities of the teachers interrupted their perceptions and influenced their beliefs about peer observation as an ongoing learning tool, (iii) there is a number of external and internal factors that affect teachers’ perceptions of peer observation and internal ones are more domineering, (iv) teachers undergo psychological and emotional tensions that may apprehend their practice of the peer collaborative work within the classroom context and (v) that those tensions are eluded by teachers by adopting other self-development activities.
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Team intuition and creativity are growing research areas in the new product development (NPD) literature. However, past studies superficially investigated the relationship between team intuition and team creativity, in terms of team outcome, based on the narrow conceptualization and operationalization of team intuition in the NPD literature. In this study, we first explore the different aspects of team intuition by conducting 18 interviews on 4 different NPD projects in a phenomenographic study. We discover that team intuition has different aspects, namely, the holistic, affective, inferential, attitudinal, free, social, and moral in this qualitative study. We also noticed that each aspect has different features that distinguish it. Second, we tested the effect of team intuition aspects on team creativity, using a fuzzy-sets qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) in a quantitative study. By investigating 148 NPD teams, we found that affective intuition is a core and yet still an absent condition for full higher team creativity. Inferential intuition is a core and necessary condition for higher team creativity. In a complementary Partially Least Square (PLS) analysis, we found that the positive influence of affective intuition on team creativity is achieved by using other team intuition aspects (i.e., social, free and attitudinal aspects). We also determined that moral and social intuition are the gateways between affective intuition and other intuitions, i.e., free, inferential, holistic, and attitudinal. Further, we found that inferential intuition is positively associated with team creativity. We then discussed the theoretical and managerial implications of all our findings.
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This study assessed the impact of the Leadership Training program using Appreciative Inquiry to continue the positive impact in a car dealership on the east coast of the United States. Seven participants interviewed described the strengths and opportunities of the program as transformational leadership through mindfulness and communication. The study may contribute to the use of AI in other program assessments.
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This study investigated how Turkish mathematics teachers evaluate the effectiveness of classroom teaching in terms of improving students’ mathematical proficiency. To this purpose, teachers were asked to evaluate a mathematics lesson as presented them in a vignette. By means of cluster analysis, the participants’ evaluations of the lesson were described in five thematic dimensions, which could be further assembled into two overriding categories: students’ understanding of the subject, and teachers’ classroom practices. The overall aim of the current paper is to propose a preliminary model of the framework that Turkish mathematics teachers use to evaluate a mathematics lesson.
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This paper examines two kinds of student engagement: "procedural," which concerns classroom rules and regulations; and "substantive," which involves sustained commitment to the content and issues of academic study. It describes the manifestations of these two forms of engagement, explains how they relate differently to student outcomes, and offers some empirical propositions using data collected on literature instruction, collected during 1987-88 from 58 eighth-grade English classes (N=1,041 students). The results provide support for the following three hypotheses: (1) disengagement adversely affects achievement; (2) procedural engagement has an attenuated relationship to achievement because its observable indicators conflate procedural and substantive engagement; and (3) substantive engagement has a strong, positive effect on achievement. Features of substantively engaged instruction include authentic questions or questions that have no prespecified answers; uptake or the incorporation of previous answers into subsequent questions; and high-level teacher evaluation or teacher certification and incorporation of student responses in subsequent discussion. Each of these features is noteworthy because it involves reciprocal interaction and negotiation between students and teachers, which is said to be the hallmark of substantive engagement. (Author/TJH)
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, we examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher (n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3-5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student-teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted.
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Internationally, educational stakeholders are concerned with the high levels of student disengagement, evidenced by early school leaving, poor student behaviour, and low levels of academic achievement. The solution, student engagement, is a contested concept, theorised in a variety of different ways within academic literature. To further understand this concept, a phenomenographic study was conducted to map secondary school teachers’ conceptions of student engagement. Six qualitatively different ways of understanding student engagement were found. This research indicates that teachers do not hold similar understandings of what student engagement means. If the concept of engagement is to become educationally fruitful, the term must be more explicitly defined in educational research and government policy documents to promote shared understandings amongst stakeholder groups.
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Science educators have long been concerned that many students fail to engage in academic tasks with the goal of achieving better understanding of science. This study examined two research questions. First, what patterns of students' task engagement emerge as they work on science classroom tasks? Second, how are patterns of students' task engagement related to factors involving their cognition (i.e., knowledge and achievement), motivation (e.g., goals in science class), and affect (i.e., attitudes toward science)? The study involved 12 sixth-grade students in two classrooms where the teachers and instructional materials provided students with extensive support to understand science better. The results indicated that some students recognized the value of science learning and demonstrated high quality of cognitive engagement, whereas others pursued alternative agendas. The results are used to explore two research traditions that offer different explanations for the failure of students' task engagement: (a) cognitive science or conceptual change research and (b) motivation research.
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This article examines contemporary research and debates about pedagogies of engagement that challenge the traditional assumptions and understandings of engagement. Three contesting epistemological constructions of student engagement are identified and examined through the contesting and resisting voices of teachers and students. The article's research suggests that an empowering and resistant pedagogy can (re)conceive student engagement so that it achieves the twin goals of social justice and academic achievement.
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Drawing on the 'sociology of pedagogy', the present article addresses a continuing challenge for teachers and policy-makers. The challenge is how to encourage disengaged learners to take up offers of educational success. The article brings important theoretical frames from the sociology of pedagogy into current research debates about 'productive pedagogies'. Focusing on the social relations of pedagogy, the article promotes a theoretical and empirical imperative to look keenly to the insights provided by students to construct clearer solutions to the challenge of providing engaging pedagogies.
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The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the measurement of school engagement in prior research that used the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), (b) systematically develop an improved measurement model for school engagement, and (c) examine the measurement invariance of this model across racial and ethnic groups. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that school engagement should be measured as a multidimensional concept. A higher order measurement model in which behavioral and psychological engagement are second-order latent variables that influence several subdimensions is consistent with the data. Results from a series of multiple group analyses indicated that the proposed measurement model exhibits measurement invariance for White, African American, Latino, and Asian students. Therefore, it is appropriate to compare the effects of the dimensions of engagement across these groups. The results demonstrate the advantages of confirmatory factor analysis for enhancing the understanding and measurement of school engagement.
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Student engagement has been identified as an important precursor to student learning. Engagement, especially in the so-called problematic middle years, is now at the centre of mainstream education discussion and debate. Each discourse produces its own distinct understanding of what really defines student engagement. Three contesting epistemological constructions of student engagement are identified, seeking to answer three linked questions: whose conception of engagement is most worthwhile; what actually are the purposes of engagement and who benefits (and gets excluded) from these purposes; and finally how might we conceive of student engagement in order to achieve the twin goals of social justice and academic achievement?
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The main purpose of this research is analysed the student engagement. The engagement possesses a behavioural component (the participation) and a psychological component (the identification with the school). The sample is composed by 656 students of 14 schools of Basque country and Catalonia, divided in different typology of centres: 179 in public elementary schools, 151 students in private elementary schools, 203 students in public secondary schools and 123 students in private secondary schools. The results indicate that the perceptions in the participation and identification scales are higher in the elementary private centres with an educational single line and linguistic model. Likewise we have checked that exist correlation between the two dimensions of the implication and the independent analyzed variables: academic self concept and motivation, typology of centres, the teachers' work and the family environment.
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The challenge of student engagement has been recognised as a serious issue in both Australian and Canadian education. This empirical and qualitative study seeks to understand the experiences of two groups of students; the first beginning their high school years and the second reflecting back on successful university and less than successful high school experiences. Students are traditionally objectified and omitted from the discourse on student engagement. Providing a forum for student voice in both continents, we compare and contrast the various and sometimes contested understandings of what an authentic or generative student engagement might mean for both school leadership and classroom practice. Adopting a critical pedagogical perspective, this descriptive article seeks to compare answers to the following question: How is engagement defined and enacted by students within these different environments? (Contains 7 notes.)
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Anecdotal reports of students working more in paid employment and studying less have been coming from academics in Australia in recent years. Researchers there are seeing patterns of student disengagement and new forms of engagement to which institutions have not adapted. This paper explores the nature of the shift in forms of student engagement and what it means for universities. Previous research findings have suggested that younger college students who work part-time are likely to spend fewer days on campus, spend less time with other students, and study less consistently throughout the semester. Australia is not alone in these trends. Australian studies mirror those of substantial research from the United States that show a decline in the percentage of students who say that university has had an impact on their personal lives. Recent reports from the American Council on Education confirm the significant impact of paid work on study for U.S. students. The increase in student work is not the only cause of student disengagement. Young people today have a different perspective about their futures and the place of the university experience in their lives. It will be important for policy and practice to reconceptualize the undergraduate experience as a process of negotiated engagement rather than assuming that disengagement is an intractable problem and that students are to blame. A more sophisticated approach to structuring and delivering the curriculum is required. (Contains 12 references.) (SLD)
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Examined ways in which student beliefs and goals distinguish different styles of engagement with learning and how such styles are associated with both the strategies students report using when preparing for exams and school achievement. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with similar patterns of beliefs about their own learning. Within a cohort of 137 female 11th-grade students, 6 styles of engagement were identified. Analysis of the influence of these styles on strategies adopted for exam preparation indicated differences in the strategies reported. Styles of engagement were also significantly related to school achievement. Findings are discussed in terms of insights achieved through adopting methods of analysis that preserve the multidimensional character of student engagement with learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, the authors examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher ( n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3–5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student–teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Student engagement is a prerequisite for student learning and retention. Unfortunately, the number of disengaged students may exceed two-thirds of the high school popUlation. Although there are many reform efforts to increase engagement, participants' perspectives on the topic are often ignored. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' and students' perspectives on engagement. Four teachers and 51 students from three urban high schools were observed and inter­ viewed. The data were analyzed via constant comparison. Teachers'discussions focused on barri­ ers that they perceived restrained their ability to engage students. Although students also noted bar­ riers. they reported that their own engagement levels were flexible and responsive to teachers'ac­ tions. From the students' perspectives. engaging teachers communicated, cared, and enthusiastical­ ly presented active learning opportunities. Educational engagement is a prerequisite for acad­ constructivists focus on the sensory-motor and con­ emic success (Montgomery & Rossi, 1994). Even ceptual activity of the student (Cobb, 1994). From a quality curriculum guided by a knowledgeable both theoretical perspectives, however, the student's teacher, will not result in student learning unless stu­ active engagement is a key concept in the learning dents first are engaged in the learning process. process. Unfortunately, the number of disengaged students In addition to its importance to learning, educa­ may exceed two-thirds of the student population in tional engagement is also a key component in high schools (Sedlak, Wheeler, Pullin, & Cusick, student retention. Finn's (1989) review of the litera­ 1986). Some of these students may be at risk for ture related to student withdrawal and disengagement dropping out of school and most are at risk for mini­ from schools described two primary models posited to mal involvement and therefore minimal learning in explain this phenomenon. The frustration self-esteem school. model was developed primarily from work with juve-· Engagement is defined as the willingness of stu­ nile delinquents. The model's components involve dents to make the "psychological investment required student difficulty in attaining success in school and to comprehend and master knowledge and skills" the resulting negative self-view that contributes to the (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, Lesko, & Fernandez, 1989, student's rejection of and disengagement from p.177). The importance of student engagement in achievement settings, such as school. In contrast, the learning is a common theme in the educational litera­ participant-identification theory model stresses stu­
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In the last decade educational research about school improvement and effective schools increasingly identifies the significance of student engagement especially in relation to the academic success of students. There are several issues and concerns, relating both to the meaning and justification or aims of student engagement, that arise from this work that call for a philosophical inquiry. This paper offers an initial philosophical inquiry of student engagement. The paper is divided into two sections. The first section critically examines meanings and definitions of student engagement from current literature. The second section addresses several related issues, such as concerns of the purpose of student engagement, and the criteria, standards, and norms used to determine the quality and degree of engagement. It is argued that without considering such philosophical issues, empirical and psychological work on student engagement could simply, and at times unwittingly, reproduce existing dominant views that promote a deficient and exclusionary mentality. In contrast, we propose a conception of student engagement based on critical-democratic practice which entails the enactment of a curriculum of life.
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Research supports the connection between engagement, achievement, and school behavior across levels of economic and social advantage and disadvantage. Despite increasing interest and scientific findings, a number of interrelated conceptual and methodological issues must be addressed to advance this construct, particularly for designing data-supported interventions that promote school completion and enhanced educational outcomes for all students. Of particular concern is the need to (a) develop consensus on the name of the construct, (b) identify reliable measures of the dimensions of the construct, and (c) complete the construct validation studies needed to move research and intervention forward. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A sample of 1,803 minority students from low-income homes was classified into 3 groups on the basis of grades, test scores, and persistence from Grade 8 through Grade 12; the classifications were academically successful school completers (''resilient'' students), school completers with poorer academic performance (nonresilient completers), and noncompleters (dropouts). Groups were compared in terms of psychological characteristics and measures of ''school engagement.'' Large, significant differences were found among groups on engagement behaviors, even after background and psychological characteristics were controlled statistically The findings support the hypothesis that student engagement is an important component of academic resilience. Furthermore, they provide information for designing interventions to improve the educational prognoses of students at risk.
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The main purpose of this research is analysed the student engagement. The engagement possesses a behavioural component (the participation) and a psychological component (the identification with the school). The sample is composed by 656 students of 14 schools of Basque country and Catalonia, divided in different typology of centres: 179 in public elementary schools, 151 students in private elementary schools, 203 students in public secondary schools and 123 students in private secondary schools. The results indicate that the perceptions in the participation and identification scales are higher in the elementary private centres with an educational single line and linguistic model. Likewise we have checked that exist correlation between the two dimensions of the implication and the independent analyzed variables: academic self concept and motivation, typology of centres, the teachers' work and the family environment.
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We used structural equation analysis to test the validity of a goal mediational model for conceptualizing the influence of individual and situational variables on students' cognitive engagement in science activities. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 275) from 10 classrooms completed a set of questionnaires designed to assess their goal orientations and their use of high-level or effort-minimizing learning strategies while completing six different science activities. Results indicate that students who placed greater emphasis on task-mastery goals reported more active cognitive engagement. In contrast, students oriented toward gaining social recognition, pleasing the teacher, or avoiding work reported a lower level of cognitive engagement. The relative strength of these goals was related to differences in students' intrinsic motivation and attitudes toward science. Our analyses also suggested that these variables exerted a greater influence in small-group than in whole-class activities.
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Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is important to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particularly in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns are consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3.669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.
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Phenomenographic research (especially that which aims to uncover student conceptions of key disciplinary concepts) is subjected to critical review on two main fronts. (1) We consider the adequacy with which research procedures for revealing student conceptions are stipulated. There are clear methodological requirements for the study of life worlds, not all of which phenomenography consistently meets. (2) The product of phenomenographic research is to arrive at a structure of categories of description. This aim threatens to subvert entry into the actual student life world, which may well have less coherence than phenomenography requires. Additionally, phenomenography can show over‐concern with ‘authorized conceptions’: student perceptions of the world are implicitly seen as deficient versions of the official views. The article advocate that phenomenographic research should give more active consideration to the process of research in revealing the actual lived worlds of students.
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In this article the concepts of research tradition, research programme, research tool and research orientation are used to clarify the character of phenomenography. Phenomenography is said to be fundamentally a research orientation and to be characterised by the delimitation of an aim in relation to a kind of object. The aim is to describe and the kind of object is a conception. Phenomenographic research also has common characteristics of method of a general kind related to the orientation and these are called a research approach. The orientation and approach together are said to represent a research specialisation. The historical roots and the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of this research specialisation are described and summarised. Lastly, phenomenography is described as a reaction against and an alternative to dominant positivistic, behaviouristic and quantitative research and as making its own ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions with inspiration from, and similarities to, several older and concomitant traditions, without agreeing entirely with any of those.
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Article
Although student engagement with the intellectual work of school is import taut to students' achievement and to their social and cognitive development, studies over a span of two decades have documented low levels of engagement, particular v in the classroom. Examining several theoretical perspectives that attempt to explain engagement through comprehensive frameworks, this study evaluates the effect on engagement of school reform initiatives that are consistent with the theories. The study also investigates whether patterns exist in students' engagement, whether the patterns arc, consistent across grade levels, and whether class subject matter (mathematics or social studies) differentially affects engagement. The sample includes 3,669 students representing 143 social studies and mathematics classrooms in a nationally selected sample of 24 restructuring elementary, middle, and high schools. Because of the nature of the nested data (students nested within classrooms nested within schools), the analysis is conducted using hierarchical linear modeling in its three-level application (HLM3L). The reform initiatives, which are consistent with the theories, eliminate personal background effects. Together with classroom subject matter, they substantially influence engagement. The results are generally consistent across grade levels.
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The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions
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‘Conception’ is the unit of description in Phenomenography. It has two intertwined aspects: the referential aspect, which denotes the global meaning of the object conceptualized; and the structural aspect, which shows the specific combination of features that have been discerned and focused on. We define a feature of an object as a way in which the object appears to be different from other objects, and argue that the discernment of a feature is a function of the variation experienced by the subject. The purpose of the paper is to empirically illustrate the intertwined nature of the referential and structural aspects of a conception on the one hand, and the variational origin of the discernment of features, on the other hand.
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This paper is based upon the findings of an interpretative, school‐based study of pupil, teacher and parent perceptions of disengagement within the primary classroom. It examines how pupil and parent perceptions support or challenge professional discourses about pupil behaviour, raising questions about the nature of disengagement and the intervention strategies used to manage it. The central finding of the study is that pupil, teacher and parent perceptions show a striking lack of intersubjectivity. Though there are some commonalities of perception between participants, most of these commonalities are shared by pupils and parents, rather than pupils and teachers. It is argued that the underlying lack of shared meaning between teachers and pupils skews classroom interaction and obfuscates teacher intervention, accounting for the poor relationships, and the breakdown of teaching and learning, in the classrooms observed. The explanatory concept of pupil and teacher ‘survival strategies’ is used to explore this negative dynamic.
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Phenomenography is a methodology which has been quietly influential in research on higher education, having been the basis of many studies of approaches to learning and student understandings of a wide range of concepts in a variety of disciplines. There is a need to clarify important aspects of the methodology so that it can be used with increasing effectiveness. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion and clarification of the phenomenographic research approach in two ways. Firstly, it is argued that phenomenography would benefit from a more rigorous consideration of how to engage with the student's lived experience. Secondly, drawing on that discussion, the article sets out a series of guidelines for the conduct of phenomenographic research, and demonstrates how these might be achieved in practice by drawing on the experience of two higher education research studies: one into students' experiences of cheating and the other into lecturers' and students' experiences of the teaching and learning of accounting.
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Student motivation is an important concern for all teachers. Recent research on student motivation has provided evidence for the development of important constructs and generalizations that have direct application to the classroom. Although there are many motivational constructs, self-efficacy is one that is key to promoting students' engagement and learning. Self-efficacy is discussed in terms of how it may facilitate behavioral, cognitive, and motivational engagement in the classroom. Specific suggestions for teacher practice are also provided.
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Phenomenographers have developed two frameworks to enhance the study of conceptions. The first framework creates a distinction between what and how aspects; the second level of this framework also includes the act, direct object, and indirect object. This framework allows the conception to be analysed separately from the actions and intentions related to it. The second framework creates a distinction between referential and structural aspects which allows the parts and contexts of the conception to be identified; its second level includes the internal and external horizons.This article traces the origins of these frameworks and reviews 56 studies that have utilised them, examining similarities and differences in their usage. The review found heterogeneous definitions and usages of these frameworks, often with weak links to theory. It concluded by evaluating the utility of these frameworks, identifying that while they may not be strongly grounded in theory, when clearly defined, they can provide a method to ‘think apart’ important distinctions within conceptions.
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Research on dropping out of school has focused on characteristics of the individual or institution that correlate with the dropout decision. Many of these characteristics are nonmanipulable, and all are measured at one point in time, late in the youngster’s school career. This paper describes two models for understanding dropping out as a developmental process that may begin in the earliest grades. The frustration-self-esteem model has been used for years in the study of juvenile delinquency; it identifies school failure as the starting point in a cycle that may culminate in the student’s rejecting, or being rejected by, the school. The participation-identification model focuses on students’ “involvement in schooling,” with both behavioral and emotional components. According to this formulation, the likelihood that a youngster will successfully complete 12 years of schooling is maximized if he or she maintains multiple, expanding forms of participation in school-relevant activities. The failure of a youngster to participate in school and class activities, or to develop a sense of identification with school, may have significant deleterious consequences. The ability to manipulate modes of participation poses promising avenues for further research as well as for intervention efforts.
Article
Argues that interrater reliability, traditionally used in phenomenographic research, is unreliable for establishing the reliability of research results; it does not take into account the researcher's procedures for achieving fidelity to the individuals' conceptions investigated, and use of interrater reliability based on objectivist epistemology is theoretically and methodologically inconsistent. Argues for reliability as interpretive awareness, maintained through phenomenological reduction. (Author/MSE)
Article
Across Australia, recent policy initiatives have focused on student engagement in school and in learning. Although teachers play a significant role in the implementation of these policy reforms, little research has looked at student engagement from teachers’ perspectives or sought to identify and understand the strategies teachers report using to promote engagement in their classrooms. The study reported in this paper utilised a phenomenographic approach to investigate teacher conceptions of how to facilitate student engagement. Semi‐structured interviews were used to gather data and a phenomenographic process of analysis was employed to identify qualitative differences between participant understandings. The data from this qualitative study indicated that teachers hold diverse understandings about how to facilitate student engagement; three categories described teachers’ ways of engaging students. In the first category, teachers conceptualised delivering set activities and discipline to students to promote engagement. In the second category, teachers suggested that they must modify curriculum and class activities. In the third category, teachers proposed that genuine collaboration with students was necessary to truly engage them in learning; in this category, teachers reported the deepest levels of student engagement. Teacher self‐reports of success when using a collaborative approach suggest that more research should be conducted using a range of approaches to investigate the fruitfulness of this strategy.
Article
Describes an attempt to identify different levels of processing of information among groups of Swedish university students who were asked to read substantial passages of prose. Ss were asked questions about the meaning of the passages and also about how they set about reading the passages, thus allowing for the examination of processes and strategies of learning and the outcomes in terms of what is understood and remembered. It was posited that learning has to be described in terms of its content. From this point differences in what is learned, rather than differences in how much is learned, are described. It was found that in each study a number of categories (levels of outcome) containing basically different conceptions of the content of the learning task could be identified. The corresponding differences in level of processing are described in terms of whether the learner is engaged in surface-level or deep-level processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We used structural equation analysis to test the validity of a goal mediational model for conceptualizing the influence of individual and situational variables on students' cognitive engagement in science activities. Fifth- and sixth-grade students ( N = 275) from 10 classrooms completed a set of questionnaires designed to assess their goal orientations and their use of high-level or effort-minimizing learning strategies while completing six different science activities. Results indicate that students who placed greater emphasis on task-mastery goals reported more active cognitive engagement. In contrast, students oriented toward gaining social recognition, pleasing the teacher, or avoiding work reported a lower level of cognitive engagement. The relative strength of these goals was related to differences in students' intrinsic motivation and attitudes toward science. Our analyses also suggested that these variables exerted a greater influence in small-group than in whole-class activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The processes of conducting and reading interviews are important in phenomenographic research, as well as other qualitative research orientations making significant contributions in higher education research and development. This paper aims to contribute to an ongoing conversation about the quality of research in higher education by exploring the interview, transcription and analysis processes through the experiences of the writer in a phenomenographic study conducted at Macquarie University last year. Transcription is explored as a transformative process, a bridge between interview and analysis across which the data, as well as the interviewer-researcher, are re-orientated towards the process of analytical reading. The critical aspects of interviews as living conversations are identified, namely that they are productive interactions in which the data is constituted, that the interviewee and interviewer negotiate on several levels to produce a shared meaning, and that meaning production in interviews is achieved through language. Finally, the interpretive reading of the artefacts of living conversations is considered, and some difficulties are identified.