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Ruminant livestock systems emit CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere. Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Spain is reported annually in the National Emission Inventory. The objective of this study was to update the annual CH4 and N2O emissions by dairy and beef cattle, and dairy ewes in the Basque Country of Northern Spain according to the recommendations of IPCC (2006) (Tier 2) using regional farm management data. A mathematical approach was used to assess uncertainties of estimated emission factors (EF). CH4 EF from enteric fermentation was 107kg CH4/hd/yr for dairy cattle with a milk yield of 7870kg milk/hd/yr. The corresponding values for beef cows and dairy ewes were 60 and 8.4kg CH4/hd/yr. Emission of CH4 from enteric fermentation accounted for 87% of total CH4 emissions in ruminant production, with dairy and beef cattle the main contributors. The regional contribution of beef cattle to enteric CH4 emissions has become important recently as many farmers have changed from dairy to beef cattle production. CH4 EF (Tier 2) from manure management was 33.2, 2.0 and 0.3kg CH4/hd/yr for dairy cattle, beef cattle and dairy ewes. From 2005, many small dairy cow farms (

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... where F means total amount of synthetic fertilizer N were used (kg N·yr -1 ), is total amount of animal manure N were used to soils (kg N·yr -1 ), F is sum amount of N in crop residues returned to soils (kg N·yr -1 ), EF 1 is the factor for N2O emissions from N inputs (kg N2O-N·kg -1 N input) [7]. Indirect N2O emissions from the use of agricultural land result from atmospheric deposition of N volatilized and transport of N into ground and surface waters through drainage and surface runoff [7]. ...
... where F means total amount of synthetic fertilizer N were used (kg N·yr -1 ), is total amount of animal manure N were used to soils (kg N·yr -1 ), F is sum amount of N in crop residues returned to soils (kg N·yr -1 ), EF 1 is the factor for N2O emissions from N inputs (kg N2O-N·kg -1 N input) [7]. Indirect N2O emissions from the use of agricultural land result from atmospheric deposition of N volatilized and transport of N into ground and surface waters through drainage and surface runoff [7]. The emissions from atmospheric deposition of N volatilized is due to the 20% grazing animals manures and NH3, NO3-N volatilizing which accounting for 10% of the use of agricultural land, were calculated multiplying the amount of N volatilized by the default EF (EF 2 ) provided by IPCC [7]. ...
... Indirect N2O emissions from the use of agricultural land result from atmospheric deposition of N volatilized and transport of N into ground and surface waters through drainage and surface runoff [7]. The emissions from atmospheric deposition of N volatilized is due to the 20% grazing animals manures and NH3, NO3-N volatilizing which accounting for 10% of the use of agricultural land, were calculated multiplying the amount of N volatilized by the default EF (EF 2 ) provided by IPCC [7]. To estimate indirect N2O emissions from leaching and runoff that accounting for 20% of the total nitrogen input in agricultural land, IPCC methodology proposes a default N2O emission factor (0.0075 kg N2O-N/kg N leaching). ...
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The output of greenhouse gases resulting from Tibet’s crop farming over the years 1991 to 2015 has been estimated, and the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index model was used to deduce the influence of the various factors underlying these greenhouse gas emissions. From 1991 to 2015, the overall carbon emissions of the Tibetan plantation industry showed a “U” -shaped change trend. Carbon emissions from plantation mainly include nitrogenous oxide and rice field methane. The LMDI decomposition results showed the economic factor (SI) and the efficiency factor (CI) determined the development trend of the total effect. The CI is an important contributor to the reduction of carbon emissions, whereas CI is important inhibiting carbon emissions. Labor factors (AL) contribute to agricultural carbon emissions. SI and AL have an upward trend in promoting agricultural carbon emissions.
... However, amount GHG percentages originating from enteric fermentation of ruminants often differ. While [20] indicated 87%, [21] inform that enteric CH 4 was the largest contributing source of GHG judging for 63% of total emissions. Study [8] indicated enteric CH 4 was 12% of the global, 19% of the anthropogenic, and 36% of the agricultural CH 4 emissions. ...
... These emission factors may include emissions from feces deposited on the barn floor, which would be much less than emissions from enteric fermentation [40]. Authors [20] recorded annual CH 4 emissions from enteric CH 4 fermentation 107 kg for dairy cow with a milk yield of 7870 kg·head −1 . The corresponding value for dairy ewe was 8.4 kg·head −1 . ...
... On average, mature beef cows emit CH 4 from 240 g·day −1 to 350 g·day −1 [78] [79]. Authors [14] found that the CH 4 emission rates corresponding to values of 190 g·day −1 per beef cattle head and [20] recorded annually 60 kg·head −1 . The results of [87] show that daily CH 4 emissions differed about 7% according to technique (185 vs. 199 g·day −1 per animal). ...
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The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of methane (CH4) production from ruminants. The objectives are to identify the factors affecting CH4 production. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Ruminant livestock constitute worldwide the most important source of anthropogenic emissions of methane. There are two main factors influencing global warming change, an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of the ozone layer. Methane is associated with both factors. Ruminants (dairy, beef, goats, and sheep) are the main contributors to CH4 production. Their CH4 production is a natural and inevitable outcome of rumen fermentation. Feed is converted into products such as milk and meat. Many factors influence ruminant CH4 production, including level of intake, type and quality of feeds, energy consumption, animal size, growth rate, level of production, and environmental temperature. The methane emissions in dairy cows represent values from 151 to 497 g·day−1. Lactating cows produced more CH4 (354 g·day−1) than dry cows (269 g·day−1) and heifers (223 g·day−1). Dairy ewe generates 8.4 kg·head−1 annually. Holstein produced more CH4 (299 g·day−1) than the Crossbred (264 g·day−1). Methane emission by heifers grazing on fertilized pasture was higher (223 g·day−1) than that of heifers on unfertilized pasture (179 g·day−1). The average CH4 emissions are from 161 g·day−1 to 323 g·day−1 in beef cattle. Mature beef cows emit CH4 approximately from 240 g·day−1 to 396 g·day−1. Suffolk sheep emit 22 - 25 g·day−1. The bison’s annual CH4 emissions per year were 72 kg·head−1. The CH4 emission from manure depends on the physical form of the feces, the amount of digestible material, the climate, and the time they remained intact. The annual emissions from the pens and storage pond at dairy farm were 120 kg·cow−1.
... However, amount GHG percentages originating from enteric fermentation of ruminants often differ. While [20] indicated 87%, [21] inform that enteric CH 4 was the largest contributing source of GHG judging for 63% of total emissions. Study [8] indicated enteric CH 4 was 12% of the global, 19% of the anthropogenic, and 36% of the agricultural CH 4 emissions. ...
... These emission factors may include emissions from feces deposited on the barn floor, which could be less than emissions from enteric fermentation [40]. Reference [20] recorded annual CH 4 emission from enteric fermentation 107 kg for dairy cow with a milk yield of 7870 kg/head. The corresponding value for dairy ewe was 8.4 kg/head. ...
Article
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The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of livestock and climate change particularly methane (CH 4) production from ruminants. The objectives are to assess the scope of livestock and climate change, enteric methane production, identify the factors affecting CH 4 production and mitigation strategies to reduce methane emission. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas which has a global warming potential 23 times that of carbon dioxide. Agriculture contributes 27% in emission of green house gas (GHG) and out of this, livestock is responsible for the largest part at nearly 80-92% of total agricultural GHG emissions. This is specifically due to methane emission from enteric fermentation and manure handling. Many factors influence ruminants methane production, including type and quality of feeds, level of feed intake, animal size, energy consumption, growth rate, level of production, environmental temperature and humidity. The methane emission values in dairy cows range from 151 to 497 g/day, lactating cows 354 g/day than dry cows 269 g/day and heifers 223 g/day. Dairy ewe emits 8.4 kg/head annually. Holstein emitted 299 g/day CH 4 more than the crossbred cow 264 g/day. The amount of CH 4 emission by heifers grazing on fertilized pasture was higher 223 g/day than heifers grazed on unfertilized pasture 179 g/day. Beef cattle emit 161-323 g/day and Sheep 22-25 g/day. The annual emissions from the pens and storage pond at dairy farm approaches 120 kg/cow. The five methane measuring techniques from the rumen of ruminants are Respiration calorimeter, Ventilated hood, Facemask, Backpack and Tracer gas techniques. The needful methane mitigation strategies are supplying protein rich diet, vaccine and antibiotics treatment, capturing manure and convert into natural gas and improving the genetic makeup of livestock that ensures both economic benefit and environmental health.
... The amount of N 2 O produced from manure storage depends on the amount of N excreted and duration of storage (Merino et al 2011). Solid manure rich in high fiber bedding material has a high porosity that promotes aerobic fermentation, and heat, which can stimulate N 2 O emissions (Petersen et al 1998). ...
... The type of manure can be crucial factors in reducing the extent of nitrogen lost (Bell et al 2016). The amount of N 2 O produced from manure storage depends on type of manure management (Yamulki 2006;Merino et al 2011;Rzeźnik and Mielcarek 2014). Total manure emissions are the product of the amount of N excreted during storage multiplied by the associated emission factor for that manure management system and animal population (Crosson et al 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of nitrous oxide (N2O) production from manure. The article investigates the scientific literature regarding N2O emissions according to different factors, such as microclimate, season, manure composition, microbial population, management, storage conditions, and type of digestion. Nitrous oxide is formed through the microbiological processes of nitrification and denitrification. The amount of N2O produced from manure storage depends on type of manure management. The anaerobically stored farm yard manure (FYM) emitted more N2O emissions than the composted FYM. The anaerobic storage of liquid manure reduces N2O production. Covering the slurry store (SLR) with a chopped straw increased N2O emissions. Finally, emission factors from manure treatment and management are listed in table.
... En la actualidad existe un creciente interés por temas ambientales, en especial los relacionados con el cambio climático. La ganadería es considerada como uno de los principales sectores de producción de gases de efecto invernadero (Merino et al., 2011). Estos sistemas se estiman contribuyen con cerca del 80% de las emisiones de metano (CH 4 ) y óxido nitroso (N 2 O) de todo el sector agrícola (Havlik et al., 2014), generando hasta un 9% de todas las emisiones antropogénicas de CO 2 , 37-52% de CH 4 y 65-84% de N 2 O (Peters et al., 2012). ...
... El metano es producido principalmente por la descomposición bacteriana anaerobia de los compuestos orgánicos de los alimentos en el tracto digestivo de los bovinos (Merino et al., 2011). Los productos de la fermentación son principalmente ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV´s-acetato, propionato y butirato), formato, etanol, lactato, succinato y acidos grasos ramificados. ...
Article
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Currently, there is a great concern for the greenhouse gas emissions and their contribution to global warming. Ruminants contribute to the emission of these gases through the production of enteric methane, a gas whose warming potential is 21 times higher than CO2, and is considered an energy loss for the animal. The use of antibiotics have been helpful in reducing ruminal methanogenesis, however, the use of these compounds have been banned in some countries, in addition, current market requirements are aimed at obtaining healthy animal products with low environmental impact. A natural mitigation alternative that is gaining attention in animal nutrition is the use of plant secondary metabolites. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain compounds to reduce methanogenesis through different modes of action. The present review will describe in detail the characteristic of the most studied secondary metabolites that have been shown to reduce enteric methane production and their effects on fermentation parameters. Finally, it is highlights the need to identify new compounds and methodological aspects to consider are suggested.
... One of the more simple models to estimate enteric CH4 is the IPCC (2006) tier 2 approach, which is based on a linear relationship between CH4 and feed intake. It has been used for estimating the emission factors for enteric fermentation for ruminants in The Basque Country by Merino et al. (2011). These factors have been used to estimate CF in sheep farms in this territory (Batalla et al., Paper II). ...
... According to the system boundary, all GHG emissions that take place on the farm are shown in Table 2 and the equations and emissions factors that have been used. Most of them correspond to IPCC guidelines (IPCC 2006); data from national statistics to estimate average N excreted and other literature sources for local values (Merino et al., 2011). Off farm emissions correspond mainly with the processing and transporting of all the inputs. ...
Thesis
Sustainability has an important role on development and assessment of viability in livestock sector. To measure sustainability, a holistic vision has to take into account to provide a more comprehension. There is a need to understand where livestock can help and where they hinder the goals of resilience of global ecosystems and livelihoods to ensure they contribute to a sustainable future. The purpose of the present study was two-pronged, (i) develop a model to assess sustainability of sheep farms with a wide perspective and (ii) focus on climate change as a key point to draw future actions to the sector to mitigate and avoid some impacts using Life Cycle Assessment https://prezi.com/7fm1q1h_4hwt/opportunities-and-challenges-of-sheep-milk-systems-towards-s/
... Other variables, such as dry matter intake digestibility (DMID), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and crude protein (CP), were calculated for each dairy system according to the NRC (2001), Peripolli et al. (2011) andValadares Filho et al. (2011) and complemented by discussions with cow feed experts (see Table 1). These variables were chosen because, according to several authors (Beever and Doyle 2007;Flysjö et al. 2011b;Henriksson et al. 2011;Kristensen et al. 2011;Merino et al. 2011;Primavesi et al. 2012;Yan et al. 2011), the composition of feed, consumption, and ECM production are the main drivers of enteric CH 4 emissions, along with energy utilization efficiency. The main differences among the systems in feed intake occur because the confined feedlot and semi-confined feedlot systems are using some by-products of other agricultural products in the animal diet. ...
... For heifers, a calculated value for enteric CH 4 emissions was of 22.1 kg CH 4 head − 1 year − 1 to confined system, 26.27 kg CH 4 head −1 year −1 to semi-confined system, and 28.81 kg CH 4 head −1 year −1 to pasture system. Several nutritional factors have been identified in literature which affect the rate of enteric CH 4 production in dairy cattle, and the key factors are related to FCE (DMI and ECM) (Beever and Doyle 2007;Flysjö et al. 2011b;Henriksson et al. 2011;Martin et al. 2010;Merino et al. 2011). Similar to Swedish studies (Henriksson et al. 2011), it is difficult to estimate how much the FCE can be improved to reduce milk CF due to lack of reference data in Brazil. ...
Article
Methods: The dairy production systems were confined feedlot system, semi-confined feedlot system (including some grazing), and pasture-based grazing system. A sensitivity analysis of the dry matter intake (DMI) in each farming system and an uncertainty analysis based on a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation were performed to complement the discussion. The standards ISO 14040: 2006 and ISO 14044: 2006 were used for the comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) focused on the CF. The LCA software tool SimaPro 7.3.3 was used. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on input data for total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) based on values from the literature.
... Over the past three decades, scholars have realized the importance of qualitative assessments of CH 4 emission inventories, and many studies on CH 4 emissions have been performed around the world. In addition to research on CH 4 emissions from natural sources (Simon et al., 2004), such as wetlands, soil oxidation, termites, forest fires, etc., recent studies have mainly focused on accounting for CH 4 emissions from a single anthropogenic source Singh et al., 2018;Zhou et al., 2017), and the scale of this research is generally at the national (Gawlik and Grzybek, 2003), regional, and provincial level (Merino et al., 2011). ...
Article
China attaches great importance to methane (CH 4) emissions, and the "14th Five-Year Plan" will formulate actions related to CH 4 emission reduction. Accounting for and understanding CH 4 emissions at the city level are of great importance because cities are the focus of future mitigation and adaptation activities to address climate change, especially in developing nations. However, existing studies have not yet provided a complete and updated emissions database of city-level CH 4 emissions for China. To promote research on CH 4 emissions accounting , this paper applies a production-based method to calculate anthropogenic CH 4 emissions for 340 Chinese prefecture-level administrative units in 2015 based on multisource statistical information. The CH 4 emission sources considered in this paper are mainly divided into five categories: underground coal mining, rice cultivation, livestock management, straw burning, and waste treatment. The results show that the characteristics of CH 4 emissions in Chinese cities vary significantly and different emission sources present different spatial distribution characteristics. Moreover, there is an obvious single-source dominant pattern in the CH 4 emission structure of Chinese cities. More than 50% of the total CH 4 emissions in more than two-thirds of Chinese cities are from a single source. The accounting results are basically consistent with the official results, and the error range is within 20%, which is within the emission uncertainty range. The main contribution of this paper is the construction of a basic database to support China's efforts to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
... The study analysed the net energy requirement (MJ/sheep/year) and the levels of CO 2 , CO 2 eq, CH 4 and N 2 O emitted (kg/sheep/year). While CH 4 from enteric fermentation was calculated following Merino et al.'s [29] procedure, the rest of the GHG mentioned were estimated according to IPCC guidelines [26], considering the latest updates [30]. CH 4 from enteric fermentation was calculated using the following equation: According to the latest Synthesis Report (SYR) of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) [31], NO 2 and CH 4 Global Warming Potential (GWP) values, i.e., values for cumulative forcing over 100 years, are 28 and 265, respectively. ...
Article
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Currently, there are very few studies in the dairy sheep sector associating milk quality and indicators regarding carbon footprint and their link to grazing levels. For 1 year, monthly milk samples and records related to environmental emissions and management systems were collected through surveys from 17 dairy sheep farms in the region of Castilla y León (Spain), in order to relate this information to the use of natural pastures under free grazing. Indicators were constructed on the collected data and subjected to a multivariate statistical procedure that involved a factor analysis, a cluster analysis and a population canonical analysis. By applying multivariate statistical techniques on milk quality and carbon footprint indicators, it was possible to identify the management system of the farms. From an environmental point of view, farms with a higher grazing level (cluster 4) were more sustainable, as they had the lowest carbon footprint (lower CO2, N2O and CO2 equivalent emissions per sheep and year) and the lowest energy consumption levels, which were gradually lower than those of farms in cluster 3; both indicators were much lower than those of farms in clusters 1 and 2. The milk quality of cluster 1 and 2 farms was significantly lower in terms of total protein and fat content, dry extract, omega-3 fatty acid levels and α-tocopherol content than farms in clusters 3 and 4, which had higher accessibility to grazing resources. In sum, the higher the use of natural resources, the lower the external inputs the farms required and the lower environmental impact and energy costs they have.
... Kebreab et al. (2008), using a mechanistic model (COWPOLL) for dairy cows, reported a lower value for CH 4 emissions (5.6% of GE, on average) than IPCC (2007). Merino et al. (2011) reported that Ym ranged from 4% to 7% in dairy ewes. The Ym value in goats at mid-lactation from the studies mentioned above (Bava et al., 2001;Tovar-Luna et al., 2010) ranged from 3.9% to 5%. ...
Article
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The main objective of this study was to develop a dynamic energy balance model for dairy goats to describe and quantify energy partitioning between energy used for work (milk) and that lost to the environment. Increasing worldwide concerns regarding livestock contribution to global warming underscore the importance of improving energy efficiency utilization in dairy goats by reducing energy losses in feces, urine and methane ( CH 4 ). A dynamic model of CH 4 emissions from experimental energy balance data in goats is proposed and parameterized ( n = 48 individual animal observations). The model includes DM intake, NDF and lipid content of the diet as explanatory variables for CH 4 emissions. An additional data set ( n = 122 individual animals) from eight energy balance experiments was used to evaluate the model. The model adequately (root MS prediction error, RMSPE ) represented energy in milk ( E-milk; RMSPE = 5.6%), heat production ( HP; RMSPE = 4.3%) and CH 4 emissions ( E-CH 4 ; RMSPE = 11.9%). Residual analysis indicated that most of the prediction errors were due to unexplained variations with small mean and slope bias. Some mean bias was detected for HP (1.12%) and E-CH 4 (1.27%) but was around zero for E-milk (0.14%). The slope bias was zero for HP (0.01%) and close to zero for E-milk (0.10%) and E-CH 4 (0.22%). Random bias was >98% for E-CH 4 , HP and E-milk, indicating non-systematic errors and that mechanisms in the model are properly represented. As predicted energy increased, the model tended to underpredict E-CH 4 and E-milk. The model is a first step toward a mechanistic description of nutrient use by goats and is useful as a research tool for investigating energy partitioning during lactation. The model described in this study could be used as a tool for making enteric CH 4 emission inventories for goats.
... Grasslands have a large potential of storing C in plant biomass and soil organic matter through C sequestration (Wang et al., 2014). Grazing management influences the GHG emission intensity from beef production through diet quality (McCaughey et al., 2010), animal performance (Thornton and Herrero, 2010), nitrogen (N) fertilizer use (Merino et al., 2011), and soil C change (Alemu et al., 2017b). ...
Article
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Emission intensities from beef production vary both among production systems (countries) and farms within a country depending upon use of natural resources and management practices. A whole-farm model developed for Norwegian suckler cow herds, HolosNorBeef, was used to estimate GHG emissions from 27 commercial beef farms in Norway with Angus, Hereford, and Charolais cattle. HolosNorBeef considers direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from on-farm livestock production and indirect N2O and CO2 emissions associated with inputs used on the farm. The corresponding soil carbon (C) emissions are estimated using the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM). The farms were distributed across Norway with varying climate and natural resource bases. The estimated emission intensities ranged from 22.5 to 45.2 kg CO2 equivalents (eq) (kg carcass)⁻¹. Enteric CH4 was the largest source, accounting for 44% of the total GHG emissions on average, dependent on dry matter intake (DMI). Soil C was the largest source of variation between individual farms and accounted for 6% of the emissions on average. Variation in GHG intensity among farms was reduced and farms within region East, Mid and North re-ranked in terms of emission intensities when soil C was excluded. Ignoring soil C, estimated emission intensities ranged from 21.5 to 34.1 kg CO2 eq (kg carcass)⁻¹. High C loss from farms with high initial soil organic carbon (SOC) content warrants further examination of the C balance of permanent grasslands as a potential mitigation option for beef production systems.
... On average, mature beef cows emit CH 4 from 240g/day to 350g/day [41]. Huarte et al. [42] found that the CH 4 emission rates corresponding to values of 190g/day per beef cattle head, and [43][44][45][46] recorded annually 60kg/head. The results of McGinn et al. [44] show that daily CH 4 emissions differed about 7% according to different techniques used (185 vs. 199g·day −1 per animal). ...
Article
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Agriculture accounts for about 47%-56% of the total anthropogenic methane (CH4) emission. It is known that from the agricultural sector, ruminant livestock (dairy, beef, goats, and sheep) substantially contributes to the increase in CH4 production through continuous natural rumen fermentation process. Methane emission is now the second contributor to global warming, which it has 23 times more influence than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Many factors affect the amount of ruminant CH4 production, including level of feed intake, type and quality of feeds, energy consumption, animal size, growth rate, level of production, and environmental temperature. Methane also produced from manure of animals depending on the physical form of the faeces, the amount of digestible material, the climate, and the time they remained intact. The major part of methanogenesis in ruminants occurs in the large fermentative chamber, which is rumen. Ruminal digestion of feed by microorganisms, under anaerobic conditions, results in the production of acetate, propionate and butyrate (volatile fatty acids) which are used by the animal as energy source, and production of ruminal gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4, which eliminated through eructation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize the current status of methane production from ruminants and its implication for their impact on climate changes.
... Kebreab et al. (2008), using a mechanistic model (COWPOLL) for dairy cows, found a lower value for CH 4 emissions (5.6% of GE, on average) than IPCC (2007). Merino et al. (2001) reported that Ym ranged from 4 to 7% for dairy ewes. The Ym value in goats at mid lactation from the studies mentioned above (Bava et al., 2001;Tovar-Luna et al., 2010) ranged from 3.9 to 5%. ...
Article
Full-text available
A dynamic model of methane (CH4) emission in goats was proposed and parameterized from energy balance experimental data. The model focused on dry matter intake and fat content of the diet as explanatory variables for CH4 emission. Experimental and literature data were used to develop the model. Then, data (n = 123) from five energy balance experiments were used to evaluate the model. The model was adequate to represent energy in milk, heat production and CH4 emissions. Residual analysis showed that most of the prediction errors were due to unexplained variations with small mean and slope bias (around zero with exception of CH4; <6%). The model tends to over-predict energy in CH4 at higher energy intake and, energy in milk and heat production at lower energy intake. Random bias was greater than 90%, signifying than more than 90% of the error was non-systematic indicating the mechanism in the model are properly represented. The model is a first step towards a mechanistic description of nutrient use by goats and, useful as a research tool for investigating energy partition in dairy goat systems. The model described in this study should be considered for preparation of enteric CH4 emissions inventories for goats.
... The conversion of digestible energy (DE) to metabolizable energy (ME) may introduce uncertainty and induce a slight overestimation of energetic requirements leading to higher CH 4 emissions. Finally, enteric CH 4 emission estimates in the present study are in line with literature data (Merino et al., 2011;Patra et al., 2016;Ramin and Huhtanen, 2013), and lie between those of IPCC (2006) and the French national inventory (Vermorel et al., 2008). Patra et al. (2016) developed a database of 80 studies on CH 4 emissions of sheep fed mostly forages (> 75%). ...
Article
Ruminant livestock systems are significant sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Livestock farming in regions with extreme climatic events have to face both scarcity and variability in feed resources. Herd mobility is a known major adaptation strategy to address seasonal availability of forage resources: it allows an increase in herd size, thereby improving labor productivity. The present study quantifies enteric methane (CH4) emissions from French Mediterranean sheep farming systems, focusing on the use of diversified pastoral feed resources, and developing a calculator (Diversity of feed REsources and Enteric Methane emissions, DREEM). The DREEM calculator was developed to estimate at the animal level enteric CH4 emissions (g/day) from empirical equations and be subsequently integrated, as a sub-table, into an economic and GHG (kg/year) balance model (Outil de Simulation du TRoupeau ovin ALaitant, OSTRAL) at the whole farm level. Several equations were taken from the literature to estimate enteric CH4 emissions in DREEM calculator. Nature of forage and feed, animal feeding levels and performance were referenced according to the animal feeding system and tables in France and taking into account the French Mediterranean area studied. DREEM was used to estimate enteric CH4 emissions from four sheep farming systems covering the main contrasting mobility and situations, from sedentary to highly mobile pastoral systems, in the French Mediterranean area. At the individual level, enteric CH4 emissions (g/day) of ewes in the sedentary system were slightly higher than those of ewes in other systems. These differences were due mainly to differences in animal feeding level (intake / body weight) and feed resources characteristics. Overall, enteric CH4 emissions of ewes and rams were slightly lower than French national inventory estimates. When enteric CH4 emissions of lambs were expressed in g/kg of carcass, were lower in the less pastoral farming systems than in the other systems, because lambs’ average daily gains were higher. In double transhuming farming systems, lambs late slaughtering age led to lamb's CH4 contribution of 15% vs 2–5% in the other systems. Flock management, which depends on land use and ownership, greatly contributed to these results.
... Emisi gas CH4 dari pengelolaan kotoran dihasilkan pula dari pengelolaan kotoran ternak sapi potong yaitu tertinggi di Jawa Timur diikuti Jawa Tengah. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan Merino et al. (2011) bahwa emisi CH4 dari kotoran sapi potong hanya 6,02% nya dari CH4 yang dihasilkan dari kotoran sapi perah. Demikian juga kambing dan domba hanya menghasilkan CH4 dari kotoran sebesar 0,91% dari CH4 yang dihasilkan oleh kotoran sapi perah. ...
... This emission factor was based on the Tier 1 IPCC (2006) method, the most simplified approach in the IPCC scale, which considers three increasing levels of detail. A similar rate, equal to 8.2 kg CH 4 ewe −1 year −1 , was used by Batalla et al. (2015) according to values estimated by Merino et al. (2011) for methane emissions from ruminant livestock in the Basque Country. In this case, a Tier 2 approach was applied, considering the average gross energy intake (GE) according to ewes liveweight, and a IPCC (2006) default value for the conversion factor (proportion of GE in feed converted to CH 4 ). ...
Article
Sardinia (Italy) plays a relevant role on EU sheep milk production. In Sardinia, as well as in other Mediterranean regions, there is a range of different dairy sheep farming systems and an effective renovation process is needed to tackle the deep structural crisis of the sector. The eco-innovation of production processes and the valorisation of pasture-based livestock systems can be a key strategy to improve the farms competitiveness and to promote the environmental sustainability of the typical Mediterranean dairy sheep products. For these reasons, research studies based on holistic and site-specific approaches are needed to assess the environmental implications of Mediterranean sheep systems. The main objective of this study was to compare the environmental performances of two contrasting sheep milk production systems through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was carried out on a farm where changes in land use (from arable and irrigated crops to native and artificial pastures) occurred over a 10-year period, in conjunction with a reduction of total supply of mineral fertilizers. The analysis was performed using IPCC and ReCiPe methodologies, and a functional unit of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The LCA analysis showed that the change from semi-intensive to semi-extensive production system had only a slight effect on the overall environmental performances of 1 kg FPCM, due to the dominant impact of enteric fermentation in both systems. The Carbon Footprint was on average 3.12 kg CO2-eq per kg FPCM and the average score of the ReCiPe Endpoint was 461 mPt per kg FPCM. Methane enteric emissions and the use of imported soybean meal were identified as the main environmental hotspots.
... Few studies have estimated GHG emissions from livestock sector that follow the IPCC guidelines. Merino et al. (2011) inventoried the regional methane and nitrous oxide emissions from ruminant livestock in Basque country, and Patra (2014) studied the trends and projected estimation of GHG emissions from Indian livestock in comparison with the global GHG emissions and those from developing countries. In South Korea, Ji & Park (2012) found that the annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6% and 3.2%, respectively. ...
... El metano es el principal gas de efecto invernadero que se genera durante la fermentación de los compuestos orgánicos de los alimentos en el tracto digestivo de los rumiantes (Brouce, 2014;Merino et al., 2011). Este gas, cuyo potencial de calentamiento es 25 veces superior que el CO2, persiste en la atmosfera entre 9 a 15 años, y es considerado como el que más aporta al calentamiento global. ...
Article
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Se evaluó el efecto sobre la producción de metano de la inclusión creciente (25, 50 y 75 %) de cinco plantas nativas de sabanas inundables (Senna occidentalis, Enterolobium schomburgkii, Galactia jussiaeana, Belencita nemorosa y Ambrosia peruviana), sobre una dieta base de Brachiaria humidicola. Los tratamientos fueron incubados anaeróbicamente con fluido ruminal a 39°C por 24 h y después del proceso de fermentación, se determinó la producción de gas, metano, ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV), amonio y degradación de la materia seca (MSD). La inclusión en la dieta de 50 y 75% de todas las plantas, incrementaron el contenido de amonio ruminal, con valores entre 189 - 282 mg/L. Ninguna de las plantas modificó la concentración de AGVT (44-62 mmol/L). La producción de metano no se redujo significativamente con ningún tratamiento (p>0,05), aunque con S. occidentalis (75%) este parámetro fue inferior en un 18%, además, se incrementó la MSD y los niveles de butirato, isobutirato y valerato. Con E. schomburgkii (75%), la metanogénesis también se redujo en un 15%, sin embargo, este efecto estuvo acompañado de una disminución en la MSD y producción de gas. En conclusión, ninguna de las plantas mostró potencial para reducir la producción de metano, no obstante, las especies se convierten en alternativas nutricionales útiles para complementar el aporte proteico de la dieta en los sistemas ganaderos ubicados en condiciones de sabanas inundables.
... The more the animal accurate data are available, the lowest the uncertainty is expected. This is the case in the intensified production systems (Merino et al. 2011). Several flow models were used to calculate GHGs and NH 3 emissions from litter-based systems and slurry-based systems. ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the emission abatement techniques of gases: manure management inside livestock buildings, additives, covering manure storages, aerobic and anaerobic treatment of manure, dietary manipulation. Additionally, the chapter illustrates the dust emission abatement techniques: spraying oil and water, oxidizing agents, ionization systems, aerodynamic dedusters, bioscrubbers, and windbreak trees and walls. Furthermore, biofiltration for odor control was discussed with specification of biofilter design and media. The chapter has been concluded with recent advancements and perspectives of future research.
... Few studies have estimated GHG emissions from livestock sector that follow the IPCC guidelines. Merino et al. (2011) inventoried the regional methane and nitrous oxide emissions from ruminant livestock in Basque country, and Patra (2014) studied the trends and projected estimation of GHG emissions from Indian livestock in comparison with the global GHG emissions and those from developing countries. In South Korea, Ji & Park (2012) found that the annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6% and 3.2%, respectively. ...
Article
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p class="abstrak2">South Korea has declared to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% compared to the current level by the year 2020. The greenhouse gas emissions from the cattle production sector in South Korea were evaluated in this study. The greenhouse gas emissions of dairy cattle, Non-Korean native cattle, and Korean native (Hanwoo) cattle production activities in 16 local administrative provinces of South Korea over a ten-year period (2005–2014) were estimated using the methodology specified by the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of the IPCC (2006). The emissions studied herein included methane from enteric fermentation, methane from manure management, nitrous oxide from manure management and carbon dioxide from direct on-farm energy use. Over the last ten years, Hanwoo cattle production activities were the primary contributor of CH<sub>4</sub> from enteric fermentation, CH<sub>4</sub> from manure management, NO<sub>2</sub> from manure management and CO<sub>2</sub> from on-farm energy use in the cattle livestock sector of South Korea, which comprised to 83.52% of total emissions from cattle production sector.</p
... The final products of enteric fermentation include acetate, formate, methanol, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas, all of which are substrates for methanogenesis (Johnson and Johnson, 1995;Moss et al., 2000;Merino et al., 2011). It was found that 89 % gases are excreted through the breath and only 11 % through the anus (Madsen et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Global methane (CH 4) concentrations are increasing in all parts of the world. This review study intends to provide an integrative approach to the complex relationships between environmental systems of farm animals. It reveals that more data are needed to better quantify CH 4 emissions from farms. Methanogenic microbial functional groups play an important role in total methane flux from agroecosystems. The factors that regulate the activity of these organisms (temperature, diet composition, feeding technique, manure management) have been documented. The research based on the literature available presented was conducted under extensive and intensive management conditions. In principle, the approaches discussed can be applied to any dairy, beef or sheep production system because their aim is increasing productivity at the herd level. Recent studies on the effects of environmental temperature, feeding, internal and genetic factors, and emission from excrements on CH 4 production are discussed. Finally, emission factors for dairy and beef cattle, as well as goats and sheep, are listed in tables.
... The final products of enteric fermentation include acetate, formate, methanol, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas, all of which are substrates for methanogenesis (Johnson and Johnson, 1995;Moss et al., 2000;Merino et al., 2011). It was found that 89 % gases are excreted through the breath and only 11 % through the anus (Madsen et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Global methane (CH 4) concentrations are increasing in all parts of the world. This review study intends to provide an integrative approach to the complex relationships between environmental systems of farm animals. It reveals that more data are needed to better quantify CH 4 emissions from farms. Methanogenic microbial functional groups play an important role in total methane flux from agroecosystems. The factors that regulate the activity of these organisms (temperature, diet composition, feeding technique, manure management) have been documented. The research based on the literature available presented was conducted under extensive and intensive management conditions. In principle, the approaches discussed can be applied to any dairy, beef or sheep production system because their aim is increasing productivity at the herd level. Recent studies on the effects of environmental temperature, feeding, internal and genetic factors, and emission from excrements on CH 4 production are discussed. Finally, emission factors for dairy and beef cattle, as well as goats and sheep, are listed in tables.
... According to the system boundary, all GHG emissions that take place on the farm are shown in Table 2 and the equations and emissions factors that have been used. Most of them correspond to IPCC guidelines (IPCC, 2006); data from national statistics to estimate average N excreted (Magrama, 2012) and other literature sources for local values (Merino et al., 2011). ...
... [12] obtained 118 kg CH 4 hd -1 yr -1 , when milk yield ranged from 5000 to 10000 kg milk hd -1 yr -1 (in Galicia, 5400 kg milk hd -1 yr -1 ); Berra et al. [13] reported that the average emission of CH 4 per animal in dairy cattle is much higher than in beef cattle: 91.79 and 51.78 kg CH 4 hd -1 yr -1 , respectively. DeRamus et al. [14] provided values ranged from 83 kg CH 4 hd-1yr-1 for beef cows to 95 kg CH 4 head-1yr-1 for dairy cows; Merino et al. [15] obtained 107 kg CH 4 hd -1 yr -1 and 60 kg CH 4 hd -1 yr -1 for dairy and beef cattle, respectively, under conditions very similar to Galicia. Those differences can be explained by specific Galicia conditions. ...
Conference Paper
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Cattle production has a significant contribution to the total GHGs emissions, particularly, CH4 and N2O. Also, other air pollutants, as NH3 and NMVOC, are emitted. As a European region with significant dairy and beef farms, Galicia (NW of Spain) is suitable to assess the contribution of cattle production to the regional livestock air pollutants emissions (namely, EMEP S10 in SNAP classification), considering up to date activity data. Therefore, the objective of this study is to update the annual emissions by dairy and beef cattle in Galicia, according to the different bottom-up methodologies: IPCC (Tier 1 and Tier 2) and EMEP/CORINAIR. This inventory is compared to both EMEP and E-PRTR emissions inventories: NH3 cattle emissions are around half of EMEP S10, taking into account that EMEP S10 also includes other agriculture sources. NMVOCs cattle emissions are strongly higher than EMEP S10 emissions; moreover, there is no agreement in this region between S10 EMEP emissions and cattle farms geographical distributions. Besides E-PRTR does not include cattle farms emissions, CH4 and NH3 cattle emissions are 900 and 8 times higher than total current E-PRTR declared emissions at the same region: to add cattle farms in E-PRTR activities is highly recommended.
... kg head À 1 yr À 1 for dairy cattle. In addition, Merino et al. (2011) estimated the N 2 O emission factor from the manure management system of dairy and beef production in Basque Country to be 0.89 kg head À 1 yr À 1 (Tier 1) and 1.02 kg head À 1 yr À 1 (Tier 2) for dairy cattle and 0.62 kg head À 1 yr À 1 (Tier 1) and 1.39 kg head À 1 yr À 1 (Tier 2) for beef cattle, and 0.13 kg head À 1 yr À 1 (Tier 1) and 0.12 kg head À 1 yr À 1 (Tier 2) for dairy ewes. The estimated values in this study are lower than these previous studies but similar to the emission factor for dairy ewes. ...
... Quantifying GHG emissions from in regional and national livestock agriculture have been studied worldwide (Zhou et al., 2007;Aljaloud et al., 2011;Merino et al., 2011). Previous researches on GHG emissions from livestock agriculture in Korea have been focused on the quantifying CH 4 emission during enteric fermentation for national inventory for CH 4 (Lee and Lee, 2003), the evaluation of GHG emissions during main processes in public livestock manure treatment facilities (Lim et al., 2011), and the evaluation of GHG emissions from livestock manure and food waste co-digesting biogas facility with the life cycle assessment (Nam et al., 2008). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%-114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (-63%), Seoul (-36%) and Gyeonggi (-7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%-124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (-77%), Busan (-60%), Gwangju (-48%) and Seoul (-8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%-153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (-60%), Seoul (-4.0%), and Gwangju (-0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%-120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (-65%), Seoul (-24%), Busan (-18%), Gwangju (-8%) and Gyeonggi (-1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The annual growth rate of total CO2-Eq was 2.2%. Efforts by the local administrative offices to improve the accuracy of activity data are essential to improve GHG inventories. Direct measurements of GHG emissions from enteric fermentation and manure treatment systems will further enhance the accuracy of the GHG data. (Key Words: Greenhouse Gas, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emission, Climate Change).
... Na Dinamarca, por exemplo, as explorações de menor dimensão recorrem aos estrumes sólidos, enquanto as de grande dimensão utilizam chorume (Happe et al., 2011). Na região de Entre Douro-e-Minho (EDM), tal como em Espanha (Merino et al., 2011), muitas explorações com menos de 20 CN encerraram a produção na última década, passando a gestão de efluentes a realizar-se quase exclusivamente através do chorume. Nesta região, as explorações possuem um efectivo leiteiro médio de 50 cabeças normais (CN), o qual é inferior à média de países como o Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Irlanda ou Norte da Alemanha (Kristensen et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The primary milk production zone (PMPZ) of the region of Entre Douro e Minho (EDM), Portugal is under strong environmental pressure caused by intensive dairy cattle farms (DCF) in high-density population areas. Arable land (AL) of these DCF is around 10 ha, of which 97% is irrigated land. The number of milking cows (Livestock unit, LU) is greater than 5 LU/ha and its variability does not depend upon the AL/DCF. The slurry is mainly applied to the soil surface (95 m3/ha) before sowing maize in the spring, and Italian ryegrass in autumn, at rates of 266 kg/ha per year. Slurry tanks have a mean capacity of almost 40 m3/ha or 7.6 m3/LU, enough for a 5 month storage period, for the overall 10 districts of the PMPZ. To minimize environmental impacts and increase the use efficiency of slurry a series of good farming practices and strategies are discussed.
... Several nutritional factors have been identified in the literature, which affect the rate of enteric CH 4 production in beef cattle; the key factors are related to DM intake, DM digestibility, and animal productivity (Merino et al., 2011). ...
... Several nutritional factors have been identified in the literature, which affect the rate of enteric CH 4 production in beef cattle; the key factors are related to DM intake, DM digestibility, and animal productivity (Merino et al., 2011). ...
Data
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The carbon footprint (CF) of beef production is one of the most widely discussed environmental issues within the current agricultural community due to its association with climate change. Because of these relevant and serious concerns, the beef cattle industry is under increasing pressure to reduce production or implement technological changes with significant consequences in terms of beef marketing. The goals of this study were to evaluate the CF per 1 kg of live weight gain (LWG) at the farm gate for different beef production systems in the southern part of Brazil. Aberdeen Angus beef-bred cattle were assigned to one of seven categories: natural grass; improved natural grass; natural grass plus ryegrass; improved natural grass plus sorghum; cultivated ryegrass and sorghum; natural grass supplemented with protein mineralised salt; and natural grass supplemented with protein-energetic mineralised salt. Monte Carlo analysis was employed to analyse the effect of variations of dry matter intake digestibility (DMID), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) parameters in methane (CH4) enteric, CH4 manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) manure and N2O N-fertiliser. The method used was a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) centred on the CF. The CF varied from 18.3 kg CO2 equivalent/kg LWG for the ryegrass and sorghum pasture system to 42.6 kg CO2 equivalent/kg LWG for the natural grass system, including the contributions of cows, calves and steers. Among all grassland-based cattle farms, production systems with DMID from 52 to 59% achieved the lowest CO2 emissions and the highest feed conversion rate, thereby generating lower CH4 and N2O emissions per production system. Because the feed intake and feed conversion rate are one of the most important production parameters in beef cattle production with an obvious risk of data uncertainty, accurate feed data, which include quantity and quality, are important in estimates of CF for LWG. The choice of adequate feeding strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may result in better environmental advantages.
... Several nutritional factors have been identified in the literature, which affect the rate of enteric CH 4 production in beef cattle; the key factors are related to DM intake, DM digestibility, and animal productivity (Merino et al., 2011). ...
... Torres et al. (2006), using IPCC (2007) methodology suggested Ym values of 5.5% for dairy cattle with high DE diets, as in our situation. Merino et al. (2001) reported that Ym ranged from 4% to 7% for dairy ewes. When the predicted CH 4 production was expressed as percentage of GEI, the average value obtained in our goat mathematical simulation model was 5.3%, lower than the IPCC (2007) recommendation. ...
Article
Ruminants may contribute to global warming through the release of methane (CH4) gas by enteric fermentation. Most CH4 emissions from ruminants are estimated using simple regression equations. Thus a mechanistic dynamic model to predict CH4 output by goats was developed by using a computer-aided simulation device via object-oriented modeling. The model was structured into seven stocks; body weight, feed, metabolism, milk, methane and reserves (with two stocks). The goat model was set up to simulate indoor facilities in which the goat was fed a mixed ration. Then, 24 goats were used to evaluate the model during 150 days of lactation. A calorimetry system based on an open circuit respiration mask was used for quantification of respiratory CH4 production, as a way to validate the CH4 simulated. The mathematical simulation model estimated an average CH4 conversion factor (Ym) value of 5.3%, and an average daily CH4 production of 1.55 MJ/d. The average daily CH4 production for the validation group of goats was 1.51 MJ/d. Based on our simulation over 5 months of lactation for a mixed diet, use of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change values (Ym = 6.5) could result in an overestimation of enteric CH4 for dairy goats fed concentrate diets.
Preprint
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The issue of air pollutants from livestock buildings is prevalent in the literature. Because they and their emissions impact both animal production and livestock building users as well as the outdoor environment. This paper aims to compile and review data available in the scientific literature on the types of pollutants for a better understanding of their generation form, their distribution according to the kind of animal, and the main factors affecting their generation and concentration, i.e., the rearing system, the indoor microclimate, and the manure management. The elevated generation of pollutants in animal buildings is tied to the dense occupancy in this industrial activity. The indoor air quality is defined according to the type of livestock in animal housing, considering its welfare needs, and the types and concentrations of pollutants generated as a function of the family of animal and the management used in production. The main gases generated are CH4, CO2, H2S, NH3, N2O, in addition to particulate matter and airborne microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria that very negatively affect the health of animals and users of the animal buildings. Furthermore, knowledge about the main contaminants generated, the form of generation, their origin, their concentrations, and their distribution throughout the shed is essential to achieve a permanent and adequate indoor air quality and, with that, a high-quality product that will lead to high production yield without neglecting animal welfare.
Preprint
Full-text available
The issue of air pollutants from livestock buildings is prevalent in the literature. Because they and their emissions impact both animal production and livestock building users as well as the outdoor environment. This paper aims to compile and review data available in the scientific literature on the types of pollutants for a better understanding of their generation form, their distribution according to the kind of animal, and the main factors affecting their generation and concentration, i.e., the rearing system, the indoor microclimate, and the manure management. The elevated generation of pollutants in animal buildings is tied to the dense occupancy in this industrial activity. The indoor air quality is defined according to the type of livestock in animal housing, considering its welfare needs, and the types and concentrations of pollutants generated as a function of the family of animal and the management used in production. The main gases generated are CH4, CO2, H2S, NH3, N2O, in addition to particulate matter and airborne microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria that very negatively affect the health of animals and users of the animal buildings. Furthermore, knowledge about the main contaminants generated, the form of generation, their origin, their concentrations, and their distribution throughout the shed is essential to achieve a permanent and adequate indoor air quality and, with that, a high-quality product that will lead to high production yield without neglecting animal welfare.
Article
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary forage:concentrate ratios on growth performance and enteric and faecal greenhouse-gas emissions from growing buffalo calves. Fifteen Murrah male calves (bodyweight = 233.35 ± 30.92 kg; 8–12 months age) were randomly assigned to three dietary groups that were fed a mixture of berseem fodder, wheat straw and concentrate at the ratios of 20:60:20 (C20), 20:40:40 (C40) and 20:20:60 (C60) respectively, for 120 days. Enteric methane (CH4) production was estimated by the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Faeces were stored for 12 weeks and CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from stored faeces were estimated every 14 days. Dry-matter intake, feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen retention were not affected (P > 0.05) but average daily gain and urinary nitrogen loss (g/day) were higher for C60 than the C20 diet (P < 0.05). Daily enteric CH4 emission (g/day) was not affected but CH4 yield (g/kg dry-matter intake) and energy loss through CH4 as a proportion of energy intake were lower for C60 than the C20 diet (P < 0.05). Faeces composition was not affected, and large variations of greenhouse-gas emissions were observed for first 10 days of storage. Methane emissions from stored faces were 1.28 ± 0.40, 1.94 ± 0.34 and 3.90 ± 0.27 mg/kg faeces per day for C20, C40 and C60 diets respectively, being higher for C60 than the C40 and C20 diets (P < 0.05). Methane-flux rate from faeces was greater for C60 than the C20 and C40 diets (0.75 vs 0.26 and 0.37 g/animal respectively; P < 0.05). Diet C60 increased N2O fluxes from stored faeces by 63% and 58% respectively, expressed in mg/kg faeces per day and mg/animal per day, compared with C20 diet (P < 0.05). Overall, dietary concentrate proportion of up to 60% in growing buffalo calf diets improved growth performance without increasing enteric CH4 emission, but CH4 and N2O production from faeces were increased. This work has provided information for gas emissions factors from open storage of faeces. More detailed studies on gaseous emissions from open lots on farms are required.
Chapter
Enteric methane emission in ruminants in addition to being an environmental pollutant causes a loss of 10–11% of the total gross energy intake of the animal. The various strategies available to mitigate enteric methane emission include management strategies, feeding strategies, rumen manipulation and advanced strategies. Feeding strategies are practical approaches to mitigate enteric methane emission and can be practiced with ease by farmers under field conditions. Various approaches that cause rumen manipulation and thereby reduce enteric methane emission are supplementation of bacteriocins, ionophores, fats, oils, organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, sulphate, halogenated methane analogues, nitroxy compounds, fungal metabolite, secondary plant metabolites, microalgae and exogenous enzymes. In the Indian context, ruminant livestock are grazed in wastelands or fed with poor-quality agricultural waste, whose digestibility is low, and the nutritional requirement of the animals is not met resulting in poor productivity. Improving per animal productivity is a potent tool to reduce enteric methane emission per unit of product produced, and this can be achieved through ration balancing. As regards the greenhouse gas abatement opportunities, measures to reduce enteric methane production have immense economic and ecological benefits to the farmers.
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Určenie množstiev emisií škodlivých plynov z chovov hospodárskych zvierat na Slovensku. Nehmotný realizačný výstup z riešenia úlohy odbornej pomoci č. 56 podľa kontraktu č. 471/2014-310/MPRV SR.
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The identification and use of plants secondary metabolites is a research area with great projection for reducing ruminal methanogenesis. Plants with antimethanogenic properties becomes a feasible mitigation alternative of enteric methane for countries and regions where livestock activity is based on grazing like the case of the floodable savannas in the Colombian Orinoco. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the in vitro antimethanogenic potential and phytochemical composition of floodable savanna plants adapted to drought conditions. Using the gas production technique it was evaluated the addition of five plants (A. peruviana, B. nemorosa, B. virgilioides, C. americana y S. multijuga) to a basal diet (Axonopus purpussi 60% + Paratheria prostrata 40%) and their effects on gas production, methane and dry matter degradation at 12, 24 and 48h were recorded. The evaluated plants did not produce changes in methane production across the time; however they increased the volume of gas production from the diet. The specie A. peruviana increased digestibility while B. virgilioides promoted greater microbial protein synthesis. It was found the presence of alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins, in all the evaluated plants, except B. Nemorosa that not presented saponins. Further studies are required to characterize the antimethanogenic potential of the evaluated plants individually, and to quantify the secondary metabolites found.
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This study focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from livestock manure. In addition to the global warming potential of the GHGs (e.g., CH4, N2O, NO, CO2), ammonia (NH3) emissions contribute to global warming when NH3 is converted to nitrous oxide (N2O). Therefore, this chapter addresses in detail the GHG and NH3 emissions from livestock manure and their mitigation strategies. This chapter illustrates several mitigation strategies for reducing emissions from manure management continuum, for example, manure storage abatement techniques, use of additives, manipulation of manure pH, implementation of inhibitors, anaerobic treatment, thermochemical conversion of manure, and implementation mitigation policies (e.g., emission tax, emission cap, livestock extensification). Additionally, several innovative mitigation strategies were discussed, for instance, manure treatment methods to produce value-added products and bioenergy and abate emissions, the biorefinery approach, and life cycle analysis to improve the productivity and use of resources and abate emissions.
Article
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An emission inventory is a database on the amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere. The anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases are detrimental to the environment and the ecosystems. Therefore, reducing emissions is crucial. One key issue is to inventory these emissions, and consequently databases on anthropogenic emissions will be available for making decisions on implementing suitable mitigation strategies. Such investigations aim at developing national emissions inventory for domestic livestock and to identify possible abatement techniques in order to reduce these emissions. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to introduce and define the emissions inventories, review the emission inventory guides, introduce the relation between the emissions inventory and livestock buildings and manure stores and the relevant emission factors and algorithms, review the tools for processing the emissions inventories (e.g. models, software), show the evaluation and improvement methods of emissions inventories, review the emissions abatement techniques, and present examples and paradigms of available national emissions inventories for several countries.
Article
There is world-wide concern for the contribution of dairy farming to global warming. However, there is still a need to improve the quantification of the C-footprint of dairy farming systems under different production systems and locations since most of the studies (e.g. at farm-scale or using LCA) have been carried out using too simplistic and generalised approaches. A modelling approach integrating existing and new sub-models has been developed and used to simulate the C and N flows and to predict the GHG burden of milk production (from the cradle to the farm gate) from 17 commercial confinement dairy farms in the Basque Country (northern Spain). We studied the relationship between their GHG emissions, and their management and economic performance. Additionally, we explored some of the effects on the GHG results of the modelling methodology choice. The GHG burden values resulting from this study (0.84-2.07kg CO2-eqkg(-l) milk ECM), although variable, were within the range of values of existing studies. It was evidenced, however, that the methodology choice used for prediction had a large effect on the results. Methane from the rumen and manures, and N2O emissions from soils comprised most of the GHG emissions for milk production. Diet was the strongest factor explaining differences in GHG emissions from milk production. Moreover, the proportion of feed from the total cattle diet that could have directly been used to feed humans (e.g. cereals) was a good indicator to predict the C-footprint of milk. Not only were some other indicators, such as those in relation with farm N use efficiency, good proxies to estimate GHG emissions per ha or per kg milk ECM (C-footprint of milk) but they were also positively linked with farm economic performance.
Article
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Enteric methane accounts for 45 and 65% of total methane emissions, and is responsible for about 5% of global warming in France. The objective of the present paper was to update the annual enteric methane emissions by farm animals of the various categories in each involved species in France according to the recommendations of IPCC 2006 (Tier 3). Methane emissions have been assessed using the net energy requirements of animals converted to Metabolisable Energy Intake (MEI), and conversion factors (Y'm = kcal methane per 100 kcal MEI). Conversion factors and emission factors (kg methane/animal/y) were computed for the various species and categories of animals. The emission factor averaged 117.7 for dairy cows yielding 6300 kg milk/y, and ranged from 90 to 163 when milk yield increased from 3500 to 11 000 kg/y. It averaged 86.7 for beef cows, and 43.0 for ruminant growing cattle. The corresponding values were 14.4 and 11 for dairy and suckling ewes, 14.3 for goats, 20.7 for equines and 0.8 for pigs. Total enteric methane emissions in France amounted to 1.41 million tons. Dairy cows, beef cows and growing cattle contributed for 32-25 and 34%, respectively, to total methane enteric emission. Contributions of sheep, goats, equines and pigs were 6.2, 1, 1.5 and 0.8%, respectively, of total enteric methane emissions.
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The aim of this paper is to review the role of methane in the global warming scenario and to examine the contribution to atmospheric methane made by enteric fermentation, mainly by ruminants. Agricultural emissions of methane in the EU-15 have recently been estimated at 10.2 million tonnes per year and represent the greatest source. Of these, approximately two-thirds come from enteric fermentation and one-third from livestock manure. Fermentation of feeds in the rumen is the largest source of methane from enteric fermentation and this paper considers in detail the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fact that the molar percentage of the different volatile fatty acids produced during fermentation influences the production of methane in the rumen. Acetate and butyrate promote methane production while propionate formation can be considered as a competitive pathway for hydrogen use in the rumen. The many alternative approaches to reducing methane are considered, both in terms of reduction per animal and reduction per unit of animal product. It was concluded that the most promising areas for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products/delivery systems for anti-methanogenic compounds or alternative electron acceptors in the rumen and reduction in protozoal numbers in the rumen. It is also stressed that the reason ruminants are so important to mankind is that much of the world's biomass is rich in fibre. They can convert this into high quality protein sources (i.e. meat and milk) for human consumption and this will need to be balanced against the concomitant production of methane.
Article
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Ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) emissions were monitored in two different buildings for laying hens in Italy, both housing approximately 60,000 hens each. The first unit had an in-house prolonged droppings storage (deep-pit), the ground floor was for manure storage and the hens were housed on the first floor. The second unit had a manure removal system for lower environmental impact, where the droppings are dried on ventilated belts. The data were collected continuously in six periods of approximately 1 week each, over one whole year, using a photoacoustic detector (Bruel&Kjaer) to measure NH3, CH4 and N2O and an on-line instrument to measure PM. The ventilation rate was also continuously recorded in order to determine emissions. NH3 emission factors were 0.163 kg yr−1 hen place−1 for the deep-pit system and 0.062 kg yr−1hen place−1 for the ventilated belt. The ventilated belt emission factor is significantly higher than that given for the corresponding technique reported in the IPPC ILF BREF (0.035 kg yr−1 hen−1 place−1), based on Dutch studies. The emission factor for the deep-pit house is fully compatible with the value assessed by Italy in the IPPC-TWG, 2002 (0.154 kg yr−1 hen−1 place−1), but much lower than the Dutch value (0.386 kg yr−1 hen−1 place−1) for the same technique. This result confirms that the technique can reduce NH3 emissions in countries with warmer climates, where higher temperatures and ventilation rates lead to faster and improved drying of the manure in the pit. The NH3 emission reduction factor for the ventilated belt technique, compared to the deep-pit technique, was 61%.The CH4 emission factors measured in our work were 0.08 kg yr−1 hen place−1 for the ventilated belt technique and 0.03 kg yr−1 hen place−1 for the deep-pit technique. No significant emissions were registered for N2O, which was consistently close to zero for both techniques. PM emissions were greater from the deep-pit system in comparison with the ventilated belt system.
Article
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Dairy farm activities contribute to environmental pollution through the surplus N and P that they produce. Optimization of animal feeding and management has been described as a key strategy for decreasing N and P excretion in manure. Sixty-four commercial dairy farms were studied to assess the efficiency of N and P use in lactating herds and to identify dietary and management factors that may contribute to improving the efficiency of nutrient use for milk production, and decrease N and P excretion. The average ration was formulated to 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio with grass silage and corn silage as the main forage sources. Mean N and P intakes were 562 g/d [16.4% crude protein (CP)] and 84.8 g/d (0.40% P), respectively. Milk yield averaged 29.7 kg/d and contributed to 25.8% (standard deviation +/- 2.9) of N utilization efficiency (NUE) and 31.9% (standard deviation +/- 4.5) of P utilization efficiency (PUE). Dietary N manipulation through fitting the intake of CP to animal requirements showed a better response in terms of decreasing N excretion (R(2) = 0.70) than that estimated for P nutrition and excretion (R(2) = 0.30). Improvement in NUE helped increase PUE, despite the widespread use of feedstuffs with a high P content. Management strategies for lactating herds, such as the use of different feeding groups, periodical ration reformulation, and selection of feeding system did not show any consistent response in terms of improved NUE and PUE. The optimization of NUE and PUE contributed to decreasing the N and P excretion per unit of milk produced, and therefore, reductions in N and P excretion of between 17 and 35%, respectively, were estimated. Nevertheless, nutritional and herd management strategies were limited when N and P excretion were considered in relation to the whole lactating herd and farmland availability. Dietary CP manipulation was estimated to decrease herd N excretion by 11% per hectare, whereas dietary P manipulation would be decreased by no more than 17%. We conclude that the correct match between the ingested and required N and P, together with an increase in milk productivity, may be feasible strategies for decreasing N and P excretion by lactating herds on commercial farms.
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Methane (CH4) is one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction by the Kyoto protocol. The focus of recent research in animal science has thus been to develop or improve existing CH4 prediction models to evaluate mitigation strategies to reduce overall CH4 emissions. Eighty-three beef and 89 dairy data sets were collected and used to develop statistical models of CH4 production using dietary variables. Dry matter intake (DMI), metabolizable energy intake, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ether extract, lignin, and forage proportion were considered in the development of models to predict CH4 emissions. Extant models relevant to the study were also evaluated. For the beef database, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 2.94 (+/- 1.16) + 0.059 (+/- 0.0201) x metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d) + 1.44 (+/- 0.331) x acid detergent fiber (kg/d) - 4.16 (+/- 1.93) x lignin (kg/d) resulted in the lowest root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) value (14.4%), 88% of which was random error. For the dairy database, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 8.56 (+/- 2.63) + 0.14 (+/- 0.056) x forage (%) resulted in the lowest RMSPE value (20.6%) and 57% of error from random sources. An equation based on DMI also performed well for the dairy database: CH4 (MJ/d) = 3.23 (+/- 1.12) + 0.81 (+/- 0.086) x DMI (kg/d), with a RMSPE of 25.6% and 91% of error from random sources. When the dairy and beef databases were combined, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 3.27 (+/- 0.79) + 0.74 (+/- 0.074) x DMI (kg/d) resulted in the lowest RMSPE value (28.2%) and 83% of error from random sources. Two of the 9 extant equations evaluated predicted CH4 production adequately. However, the new models based on more commonly determined values showed an improvement in predictions over extant equations.
Article
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Methane production from enteric fermentation in cattle is one of the major sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission in the United States and worldwide. National estimates of methane emissions rely on mathematical models such as the one recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC). Models used for prediction of methane emissions from cattle range from empirical to mechanistic with varying input requirements. Two empirical and 2 mechanistic models (COWPOLL and MOLLY) were evaluated for their prediction ability using individual cattle measurements. Model selection was based on mean square prediction error (MSPE), concordance correlation coefficient, and residuals vs. predicted values analyses. In dairy cattle, COWPOLL had the lowest root MSPE and greatest accuracy and precision of predicting methane emissions (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.75). The model simulated differences in diet more accurately than the other models, and the residuals vs. predicted value analysis showed no mean bias (P = 0.71). In feedlot cattle, MOLLY had the lowest root MSPE with almost all errors from random sources (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.69). The IPCC model also had good agreement with observed values, and no significant mean (P = 0.74) or linear bias (P = 0.11) was detected when residuals were plotted against predicted values. A fixed methane conversion factor (Ym) might be an easier alternative to diet-dependent variable Ym. Based on the results, the 2 mechanistic models were used to simulate methane emissions from representative US diets and were compared with the IPCC model. The average Ym in dairy cows was 5.63% of GE (range 3.78 to 7.43%) compared with 6.5% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. In feedlot cattle, the average Ym was 3.88% (range 3.36 to 4.56%) compared with 3% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. Based on our simulations, using IPCC values can result in an overestimate of about 12.5% and underestimate of emissions by about 9.8% for dairy and feedlot cattle, respectively. In addition to providing improved estimates of emissions based on diets, mechanistic models can be used to assess mitigation options such as changing source of carbohydrate or addition of fat to decrease methane, which is not possible with empirical models. We recommend national inventories use diet-specific Ym values predicted by mechanistic models to estimate methane emissions from cattle.
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A new methodology based on (1) national data concerning livestock and rearing practices and (2) a mass-flow approach was developed to quantify ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting frommanure management in France. A literature review was performed to determine emission factors for each animal type and eachmanagement stage. A MicrosoftAccess® database containing these emission factors, the census data and manure compositions was then developed, allowing the calculation of gaseous emissions by the mass-flow approach. From this database, a national gas emissions inventory resulting from manure management was drawn up for the year 2003. Total NH3 emissions were estimated at 382 kt N, mainly arising from cattle (72%). Greenhouse gas emissions were estimated at 14.0 Tg CO2-eq. for N2O and 10.2 Tg CO2-eq. for CH4. Most of the N2O emissions occurred after the deposition of manure on soil during cattle grazing, while the CH4 was mainly produced during the period where cattle manure remained in livestock buildings and in outside storage facilities. Moreover, an evaluation of the uncertainty was performed considering the standard deviation obtained for the emission factors.
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Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, NâO production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of NâO lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NHâ{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both NâO production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Qââ-values for the COâ production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, NâO production and denitrification had Qââ-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.
Article
A new methodology based on (1) national data concerning livestock and rearing practices and (2) a mass-flow approach was developed to quantify ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting from manure management in France. A literature review was performed to determine emission factors for each animal type and each management stage. A Microsoft Access® database containing these emission factors, the census data and manure compositions was then developed, allowing the calculation of gaseous emissions by the mass-flow approach. From this database, a national gas emissions inventory resulting from manure management was drawn up for the year 2003. Total NH3 emissions were estimated at 382 kt N, mainly arising from cattle (72%). Greenhouse gas emissions were estimated at 14.0 Tg CO2-eq. for N2O and 10.2 Tg CO2-eq. for CH4. Most of the N2O emissions occurred after the deposition of manure on soil during cattle grazing, while the CH4 was mainly produced during the period where cattle manure remained in livestock buildings and in outside storage facilities. Moreover, an evaluation of the uncertainty was performed considering the standard deviation obtained for the emission factors.
Article
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) standard methodology to conduct national inventories of soil N2O emissions is based on default (or Tier I) emission factors for various sources. The objective of our study was to summarize recent N2O flux data from agricultural legume crops to assess the emission factor associated with rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Average N2O emissions from legumes are 1.0 kg N ha−1 for annual crops, 1.8 kg N ha−1 for pure forage crops and 0.4 kg N ha−1 for grass legume mixes. These values are only slightly greater than background emissions from agricultural crops and are much lower that those predicted using 1996 IPCC methodology. These field flux measurements and other process-level studies offer little support for the use of an emission factor for biological N fixation (BNF) by legume crops equal to that for fertiliser N. We conclude that much of the increase in soil N2O emissions in legume crops may be attributable to the N release from root exudates during the growing season and from decomposition of crop residues after harvest, rather than from BNF per se. Consequently, we propose that the biological fixation process itself be removed from the IPCC N2O inventory methodology, and that N2O emissions induced by the growth of legume crops be estimated solely as a function of crop residue decomposition using an estimate of above- and below-ground residue inputs, modified as necessary to reflect recent findings on N allocation.
Chapter
2006 IPCC Guidelines for preparation of National Greenhouse Gas Inventories -- guidelines for Petrochemical and Carbon Black Production (Principal Author) https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol3.html
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Intensively managed grasslands are potentially a large source of N2O in the North Coast of Spain because of the large N input, the wet soil conditions and mild temperatures. To quantify the effect of fertilizer type and management practices carried out by farmers in this area, field N2O losses were measured over a year using the closed chamber technique. Plots received two types of fertilizer: cattle slurry (536 kg N ha–1) and calcium ammonium nitrate (140 kg N ha–1). N2O losses were less in the slurry treatment than after mineral fertilizer. This was probably due to high, short-lived peaks of N2O encountered immediately following mineral N addition. In contrast, the seasonal distribution of N2O losses from the slurry amended plot was more uniform over the year. The greater N2O losses in the mineral treatment might have been enhanced by the combined effect of mineral fertilizer and past organic residues present from previous organic amendments. Weak relationships were found between N2O emission rates and soil nitrate, soil ammonium, soil water content and temperature. Better relationships were obtained in the mineral treatment than in the slurry plots, because of the wider range in soil mineral N. Water filled pore space (WFPS) was a key factor controlling N2O emissions. In the > 90% WFPS range no relationships were found. The best regressions were found for the mineral treatment in the 40–65% WFPS range, 49% of the variance being explained by soil nitrate and ammonium content. In the 65–90% WFPS range, 43% of the variance was explained by nitrate only, but the inclusion of soil ammonium did not improve the model as it did in the 40–65% WFPS range. This fact indicates that nitrification is likely to be an important process involved in N2O emissions at the 40–65% WFPS.
Article
Seasonal and interannual variations in nitrous oxide (N2O) losses from agricultural soils hamper the accurate quantification of the N2O source strength of these soils. This study focuses on a quantification of seasonal and interannual variations in N2O losses from managed grasslands. Special attention was paid to N2O losses during the growing season and off-season as affected by grassland management. Fluxes of N2O from grasslands with three different types of management and on four different soil types in the Netherlands were measured weekly during two consecutive years, using flux chambers. There were distinct seasonal patterns in N2O losses, with large losses during spring, summer, and autumn but relatively small losses during the winter. These seasonal variations were related to fertilizer N application, grazing and weather conditions. Measurements of N2O concentrations in soil profiles showed that a rise in groundwater level was accompanied by increased N2O concentrations in the soil. Disregarding off-season losses would underestimate total annual losses by up to 20%, being largest for unfertilized grassland and smallest for N-fertilized grazed grassland. Total annual N2O losses ranged from 0.5 to 12.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for unfertilized grasslands to 7.3 to 42.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for N-fertilized grazed grasslands. Despite the considerable interannual variations in N2O losses, this study indicates that the results of measurements carried out in one year have predictive power for estimating N2O losses in other years.
Article
The in vitro gas production technique was used to study the dose–response effects of three chitosans on rumen fermentation of three mixtures differing in their forage-to-concentrate ratio (80:20, 50:50 and 20:80). Four concentrations (0, 325, 750 and 1500mg/l of culture fluid) for each chitosan (CHI1, CHI2, and CHI3) were incubated for 24h in diluted ruminal fluid with three different mixtures. Samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia–N concentrations. Methane concentration was estimated stoichiometrically, and in vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was calculated. In the high-forage mixture, no differences were found between additives except for propionate molar proportion, for which CHI1 showed a lower proportion than CHI2 or CHI3. Increasing doses of chitosans did not affect total VFA or acetate molar proportions, but decreased IVOMD as well as butyrate and branch-chained volatile fatty acid (BCVFA) molar proportions, and increased propionate molar proportion as well as ratios of C3:C2 and VFA to truly degraded substrate (VFA:TDS). In the medium-forage mixture, no differences were found between additives. Increasing doses of chitosan did not affect total VFA or acetate molar proportions or methane production compared to control, but decreased IVOMD as well as butyrate and BCVFA molar proportions, and increased propionate molar proportion as well as C3:C2 and VFA:TDS ratios. In the low-forage mixture, increasing doses did not reduce total VFA, but decreased IVOMD, acetate, butyrate, and BCVFA molar proportions and methane production, and increased propionate molar proportion as well as C3:C2 and total VFA:TDS ratios compared to control. No differences were found between additives in IVOMD or butyrate molar proportion, but differences were found in acetate molar proportion, with CHI1 showing a higher proportion than CHI2 or CHI3. Differences between additives were also found for propionate molar proportion, C3:C2 ratio, and methane production, and an additive×dose effect was found, with CHI1 showing a weaker response than CHI2 or CHI3 at all tested doses. Differences were found between additives for BCVFA molar proportion, with CHI1 and CHI2 showing greater production than CHI3, and for VFA:TDS ratio, with CHI1 showing a higher ratio than CHI2 or CHI3. These results indicate that chitosans affect rumen microbial fermentation in a dose-dependent manner and that the optimum dose depends on the nature of the incubated substrate and the chitosan's characteristics.
Article
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose atmospheric abundance has grown 2.5-fold over three centuries, due in large part to agricultural expansion. The farming of ruminant livestock, which generate and emit methane during digestion (‘enteric fermentation’), is a leading contributor to this growth. This paper overviews the measurement or estimation of enteric methane emissions at a range of spatial scales. Measurement of individual animal emissions focuses particularly on grazing livestock for which the SF6 tracer technique is uniquely appropriate. Gaining insight into factors that influence methane production requires that feed intake and feed properties be determined, enabling the methane emitted to be expressed per unit of intake. The latter expression is commonly encapsulated in the ‘methane conversion factor’, Ym, an entity that enables small-scale methane emission estimates to be extrapolated to national and global enteric methane inventories. The principles of this extrapolation and sources of uncertainty are discussed, along with the significance of this global source within the global methane cycle. Micrometeorological and similar measurement techniques over intermediate spatial scales are also surveyed.
Article
N2O emissions were measured from cattle dung and urine applied to six separate experimental areas over a period of 15 months, to represent distinct components of a grazing season. Application of livestock excreta increased N2O emissions significantly over that measured from control (untreated) plots and fluxes up to 290 μg N m−2 h−1 from dung and 192 μg N m−2 hr−1 from urine were measured. No significant correlations were observed between N2O fluxes and environmental factors, such as rainfall and soil mineral-N. This was attributed to the specific physical and biogeochemical processes in the excreta that might override other environmental factors at our plots. Total N2O—N losses from dung and urine patches over 100 d represented up to 0.53% and 1% respectively, of the N excreted. The average annual N2O fluxes were approximately five times greater from the urine patches than from the dung, and from the excreta deposited during wet conditions (autumn) than during dry conditions (summer). Our results suggest that excreta deposited on grassland from grazing animals is an important source of N2O, and can contribute up to 22% of the total N2O emission from U.K. grassland.
Chapter
Statistics is a subject of many uses and surprisingly few effective practitioners. The traditional road to statistical knowledge is blocked, for most, by a formidable wall of mathematics. The approach in An Introduction to the Bootstrap avoids that wall. It arms scientists and engineers, as well as statisticians, with the computational techniques they need to analyze and understand complicated data sets.
Article
This chapter deals with statistical methods that, in some way, avoid mathematical difficulties that one would be facing using traditional approaches. The traditional approach of mathematical statistics is based on analytic expressions, or formulas, so avoiding these might seem itself a formidable task, especially in view of the chapters that so far have been covered. It should be pointed out that we have no objection of using mathematical formulas—in fact, some of these are pleasant to use. However, in many cases, such formulas are simply not available or too complicated to use.
Article
Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.
Article
This paper reports a desk study to quantify the total-nitrogen (N) and ammoniacal-N contents of livestock excreta, and to compare them with estimates of N losses to the environment from that excreta. Inventories of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), dinitrogen (N2), and nitric oxide emissions (NO), together with estimates of nitrate (NO3-) leaching and crop N uptake were collated. A balance sheet was constructed to determine whether our estimates of N in livestock excreta were consistent with current estimates of N losses and crop N uptake from that N, or whether emissions of N compounds from livestock excreta may have been underestimated. Total N excretion by livestock in England and Wales (E&W) was estimated as 767-816 x 10(3) t of which 487-518 x 10(3) t was estimated to be total ammoniacal-N (TAN). Estimates of NH3 and N2O losses during housing and storage were derived from the difference between the total amount of TAN in excreta deposited in and around buildings, and the total amount of TAN in manure (i.e. the excreta deposited in and around buildings after collection and storage) prior to spreading and were ca. 64-88 x 10(3) t. The NH3-N emission from livestock buildings and manure storage in E&W quoted in the UK Emission Inventory (Pain et al., 1999. Inventory of Ammonia Emission from UK Agriculture, 1977. Report of MAFF contract WAO630, IGER, North Wyke) is ca. 80 x 10(3) t. Losses from NO3- leaching in the season after manure application and grazing were estimated as 73 and 32 x 10(3) t, respectively. Other gaseous losses of N were estimated as ca. 54 x 10(3) t. Crop uptake of manure N was estimated to be between 7 and 24 x 10(3) t. For manures, estimated N losses, immobilization and crop uptake total 326 x 10(3) t compared with estimates of 293-319 x 10(3) t TAN in excreta. Total N losses and crop uptake from TAN deposited at grazing were estimated to be 179-199 x 10(3) t compared with ca. 224 x 10(3) t TAN excreted. Thus all the TAN in manures appears to be accounted for, but ca. 25-45 x 10(3) t of TAN in urine deposited at grazing were not, and could be an underestimated source of gaseous emission or nitrate leaching.
mass-flow Goiri, forage-to-concentrate IPCC
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