Article

How public relations executives perceive and measure the impact of social media in their organizations

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Several studies investigated SM systems and documented how users establish friendships and close peer relationships (Constantinides et al., 2008;Hanna et al., 2011;Karoui et al., 2015;Leidner, Gonzalez, & Koch, 2018;Shareef, Mukerji, Alryalat, Wright, & Dwivedi, 2018); create and share content (Alalwan, 2018;Hanna et al., 2011;Treem & Leonardi, 2012;Zeng & Wei, 2013); manage information and knowledge (Cao & Ali, 2018;Diga & Kelleher, 2009;Xiang & Gretzel, 2010); and express personalities, authentic emotions and close relationships (Hughes, Rowe, Batey, & Lee, 2012;Leidner et al., 2018;Shareef et al., 2018;Susarla, Oh, & Tan, 2012). While purposeful, these studies highlight the breadth and depth of SM system uses and functions available to individuals and organizations (Briones et al., 2011;DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011;Effing, 2013;Kane, 2015). ...
... design, resourcing). Unsurprisingly, the former contained several studies exposing IT levers (Mergel, 2012) and capabilities (Kane et al., 2014) in the areas of customer relations and influence (Safko & Brake, 2009;Tajudeen et al., 2018;Trainor, 2012;Trainor et al., 2014); performance forecasting and improvement (Asur & Huberman, 2010;Braojos et al., 2019;Hoffman & Fodor, 2010;Parveen, Jaafar, & Ainin, 2014); social network collaborations (DiStaso et al., 2011;Hanna et al., 2011;Quan-Haase & Young, 2010); content management (Hanna et al., 2011;Kietzmann et al., 2011;Zeng & Wei, 2013); and, information quality (Singh, Dwivedi, Rana, Kumar, & Kapoor, 2017) and management (Treem & Leonardi, 2012). However, the use of IT in SM also brought potential challenges, such as data security risks, privacy breaches, trust deficits and technical skills shortages (DiStaso et al., 2011;Mills & Plangger, 2015), coupled with the regular systems auditing (Safko & Brake, 2009) and ongoing funding for upgrades (Claussen, Kretschmer, & Mayrhofer, 2013;DiStaso et al., 2011;Miller & Tucker, 2013). ...
... Unsurprisingly, the former contained several studies exposing IT levers (Mergel, 2012) and capabilities (Kane et al., 2014) in the areas of customer relations and influence (Safko & Brake, 2009;Tajudeen et al., 2018;Trainor, 2012;Trainor et al., 2014); performance forecasting and improvement (Asur & Huberman, 2010;Braojos et al., 2019;Hoffman & Fodor, 2010;Parveen, Jaafar, & Ainin, 2014); social network collaborations (DiStaso et al., 2011;Hanna et al., 2011;Quan-Haase & Young, 2010); content management (Hanna et al., 2011;Kietzmann et al., 2011;Zeng & Wei, 2013); and, information quality (Singh, Dwivedi, Rana, Kumar, & Kapoor, 2017) and management (Treem & Leonardi, 2012). However, the use of IT in SM also brought potential challenges, such as data security risks, privacy breaches, trust deficits and technical skills shortages (DiStaso et al., 2011;Mills & Plangger, 2015), coupled with the regular systems auditing (Safko & Brake, 2009) and ongoing funding for upgrades (Claussen, Kretschmer, & Mayrhofer, 2013;DiStaso et al., 2011;Miller & Tucker, 2013). Hence, the IT segment of SM systems required ongoing management and resources. ...
Article
With global reach of over 2 billion active users, the evolution of Social Media (SM) systems has provided organizations with sophisticated tools and technologies for delivering business objectives. Importantly, while marketers and public relations experts have taken leading positions in promotion and advancement of SM, project managers are often tasked with delivering SM systems. In this study, a sample of 127 project managers were asked to evaluate and recommend modes of SM development for six diverse firms using a four-part taxonomy. The results show that firms of varying size can employ narrowly focused and low cost SM development modes to meet their business objectives, with well-resourced firms able to use experimental modes to deliver widespread and higher cost ‘listen and learn’ SM systems. Alternatively, in addition to achieving groundswell promotions and broader business marketing and sales influencing objectives, firms that engage in large scale SM developments can document and implement SM best practices and apply multi-organizational collaborations required for information exchange, customer feedback and experience sharing. These managerial perspectives expose the intrinsic connections between SM systems and information messaging and management within firms. The article builds further into cumulative studies directed at SM systems construction, deployment, and firm capability affordances.
... For example, organisations have used social media for their communication with customers, competitors, and employees in order to create a dynamic, synchronised, and multidirectional dialogue (Reitz, 2012). In another study, social media are considered a cost effective tool in public relations research and for timely targeted dialogue with a wide range of stakeholders (DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011). Sweetser and Kelleher (2011) claimed that public relations practitioners can reap the rewards of social media by opening a conduit between an organisation and its publics. ...
... In Leong, Krishnan and Lee's (2012) study, public relations practitioners in Malaysia acknowledged the importance of evaluation research, yet the lack of budget and support from the top management had hamper the measurement of public relations practices. DiStaso, McCorkindale and Wright (2011) further concluded that organisations should conduct training on 'how to determine what tools to use and how to effectively measure their use' because 'social media measurement was a topic that many of the participants felt they had more questions than answers' (p. 327). ...
... In addition, the respondents claimed that their organisation had conducted research on what people have communicated about their organisation with slightly more than half of them had measured the amount of communication disseminated (60%), the content of communication through social and other emerging media (65.3%), the impact of social and emerging media communication has on influential, opinion leaders and members of strategic audiences (56.8%), as well as the impact of social and emerging media communication on the formation, change and reinforcement of attitudes, opinions and behaviours (53.7%). DiStaso, McCorkindale and Wright (2011) agreed that evaluating social media content enables public relations practitioners to better understand the effectiveness of social media in driving employee engagement and consumer purchases or actions. The authors further stated that social media measurement could identify the 'noise and what is of substance or has the potential to emerge as a substantive issue' (DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011, p. 327). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that social media has been widely discussed among public relations practitioners and scholars in relation to how it has changed public relations practices. A study by Wright and Hinson (2017) revealed that public relations practitioners continue to strongly agree that social and other emerging media technologies have brought dramatic changes to how public relations is practiced in the United States of America. In the Malaysian context, the explosion in social media, especially social networking site such as Facebook, has caused many public relations practitioners to recognise the need to embrace these new media for effective communication with the internal and external audiences. Drawing on Wright and Hinson's (2016) survey instrument, this study measured the actual use of social and other emerging media by public relations practitioners in Malaysia, and explored its impact on public relations practices. Through a web-based survey, this study found evidence that public relations practitioners in Malaysia have frequently used social media especially Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn. On average, they spent approximately 26% to 50% of their working time using social and emerging media for public relations and communications activities. The results of this study provide useful insights for academics, researchers and public relations practitioners on how social and emerging media technologies are used in the Malaysian public relations industry.
... Failure to do so may provoke criticism from stakeholders (Illia et al., 2013;Morsing et al., 2008). In this sense, social networks have provided many opportunities to interact with stakeholders (Aced-Toledano & Lalueza, 2018;DiStaso et al., 2011), as they allow companies and users to share their concerns and express their feelings and opinions (Pavlíček & Doucek, 2015). Additionally, companies have the opportunity to obtain valuable information about the expectations or Rangel-Pérez, C., Monfort, A. & Miquel, S. Thematic dis/connection of Ibex35 companies to generate dialogue with their stakeholders via Twitter during the pandemic concerns of their stakeholders simply by analyzing the "likes" or interactions of users on posted content (Lyes et al., 2012). ...
... This supports previous studies on corporate communication in social networks, as it has been observed that social media can be used to explain business decisions and points of view, as well as to understand stakeholders (Du et al., 2010). The increase in posts and interactions compared to pre-pandemic numbers underscores that social media is a clear tool for interacting with stakeholders (Aced-Toledano & Lalueza, 2018;DiStaso et al., 2011;Pavlíček & Doucek, 2015) and increase the pride of belonging to the organization (Eberle et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of corporate communication and intangible management are especially interested in knowing how to establish a proper dialogue with stakeholders to integrate their concerns into internal management and to be able to have greater corporate legitimacy. The lockdown and the following months of the pandemic allow to know if the firms have succeeded in applying the principles of corporate communication and if there have been new strategies that should be known in future crises. This research wants to know what topics and contents have been communicated by the companies to promote dialogue and to detect if their strategies have influenced their audiences by promoting engagement. To this end, the behavior on Twitter of the 27 IBEX35 companies with verified corporate accounts has been analyzed using statistical methods. The results show that companies have communicated more and have generated more engagement than before the pandemic. It is also observed that they have increased their efforts to publish specific content for each stakeholder group. Finally, the results indicate that the topics most communicated were not the ones that generated the most engagement, which shows that despite the interest in dialoguing with stakeholders, companies are not able to communicate what is of real interest to their audiences. The study presents practical implications and discussions with the previous literature on online communication management and stakeholder dialogue.
... Social media are collaborative technological tools that have penetrated and altered workspace activities and interactions, allowing user generated content to be circulated and exchanged on an insurmountable scale (DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011;Qin & Men, 2019;Yang & Kent, 2014). Since the late 1990s, studies (Coombs, 1998;Kent & Taylor, 1998) have examined the application of digital technologies to the public relations practice and have extolled the interactive capability of the Internet. ...
... In this regard, employers of university graduates, from a range of sectors were surveyed to examine the areas of social media proficiency they considered important for entry level graduates. Earlier studies (Curtis et al., 2010;DiStaso et al., 2011) examined public relations practitioners' use of social media and their tendencies to adopt new technology in everyday communication activities. This study however considered employer views on social media and graduate employability from a wide range of industry sectors. ...
Article
Social media has enhanced integration between marketing and public relations. As such, public relations professionals have had to adapt and grow their knowledge and skillsets to stay relevant and current throughout the evolution of the digital landscape (Gesualdi, 2019). One of the growing areas of focus for public relations professionals has been customer service skills online. This specialization, often referred to as social care or social customer service, has been promoted and discussed heavily in industry circles and publications, but not in academic research. This study focuses on the survey results from 396 employers exploring the social media skills they most prefer university graduates to possess when entering the workforce. The results indicate that public relations and customer service are the social media skills most sought after by employers of university graduates ahead of proficiency in areas such as social media content production, strategy development and analytics. The potential implications of these findings to the public relations profession are examined and future research is also discussed.
... If this popularity continues, social media will be a leader channel for many communication activities. Social media channels reshape all rules in traditional public relations methods (DiStaso, McCorkindale & Wright, 2011) and are likely to be the main channels of PR practices. However, a few studies have focused on these tools in the field of public relations, and also, they have claimed that social media tools are essential for many organizations. ...
... However, a few studies have focused on these tools in the field of public relations, and also, they have claimed that social media tools are essential for many organizations. Some researchers argue that social media provides benefits for non-profit and profit institutions that cannot be used effectively (Allagui & Breslow 2016;Valentini, 2015), while others claim the opposite (DiStaso et al., 2011;Dougall, 2006). Nevertheless, some studies aim to determine the quality requirements for achieving success PR works by non-profit institutions (Kent, 2010;Sanderson, Barnes, Williamson & Kian, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media is among the most important digital platforms that bring together individuals and institutions. In the digital age, universities use social media to share news and updates about the institution, research, teaching and social activities. Perhaps, one of the most important indicators of success in the university account management process in the social media might be the number of followers. Hence, this study examined whether there is a relationship between universities’ Facebook official account follower counts and universities’ position in the Webometrics university success ranking scale, which is an indicator of institutional success for universities. The present study focused on 139 universities located in Turkey. The official Facebook accounts of these institutions were examined for two years and recorded within 6-month intervals. The assumed relations were tested through correlation analyses and by using SPSS 20 statistical software. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between universities’ follower counts on Facebook pages and Webometrics ranking scores. Keywords: Institutional Success, Social Media Popularity, Universities, Webometrics
... Although social media is widely used as a social interaction platform by general public but many a firms are also using social media to get benefitted from the ease of communication and interaction. Many organizations are adopting social media and a number of researches have been done to analyse the importance and role played by social media in various organizations [5,6,7]. Organizations are projected to modify in future with this concern towards social media [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology is playing a crucial role in defining ways to perform various tasks in an efficient and effective way. Web technology, specifically social media networking is now a widely used and accepted phenomenon for social interaction. Organizational usage of social media (for official communication) has limited literature. This paper presents a conceptual framework which incorporates the usage of WhatsApp within organisations with the application of revised social media technology acceptance model.
... Indeed, companies are accountable for the social consequences of their activities, and advertising is integral to most businesses, producing positive or negative social impact (Porter and Kramer, 2006). A scholarly consensus exists on the fundamental importance of social media for organizational communication and media relations, and its usefulness as a strategic asset for relationship-building (Lee and Park, 2013;Mangold and Faulds, 2009;DiStaso and McCorkindale, 2012;DiStaso et al., 2011;Smith, 2013). Organizational social media activities should include CIC on SNS and be seen as part of brand PR. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to focus on customer-initiated contact (CIC) discourse on Facebook brand pages. It concentrates on how brands manage CIC on Facebook when customers are more concerned with brand communications than product-related issues, price or distribution. A research framework from the perspective of consumer-initiated touch-point communication model is proposed. Design/methodology/approach Two case studies of Israeli TV ads are examined. Discourse between customers and brands on the Facebook pages of the latter are analyzed. Research was conducted in three phases: data collection, quantitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Findings It was demonstrated that customers use Facebook as a discourse platform for TV commercial brand advertising. However, brands are not always prepared to engage in online CIC involving advertising issues. The reply rate is moderate and the reply manner is not consistent, tending to be characterized as “official and dismissive.” Research limitations/implications Data collection used a sample of two case studies. However, they generated rich findings, enough to support the purpose of the study. Originality/value This paper expands the contemporary CIC point of view and adds an integrated marketing communications (IMC) perspective. It extends the perception of CIC from product-level customer service to brand-level discourse. Finally, it fills the research gap by using a research tool based on consumer-initiated touch-point communication model. Theoretical and practical implications are presented.
... Secondly, social media also poses challenges to the PR industry in the process of crisis communications; therefore, crisis communication was also the focus of exploration. Finally, even though social media is already a component of the PR practices, practitioners still have questions, concerns, and continuously seek related knowledge on using social media for PR (DiStaso et al., 2011); therefore, academics devoted time to explore practitioners' perceptions and use of this tool. ...
Conference Paper
This study examined the development of social media PR research by analyzing 189 articles published between 2008 and 2018 from two leading PR academic journals through quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Quantitative findings suggested a steady increase in scholarly attention on this topic, an international development of social media research, and a shift of perspectives used to examine this topic. Qualitative findings revealed themes on prominent results and practical implications from the examined articles.
... An organization's corporate reputation can be influenced by electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and user-generated content (UGC). While EGC can help build positive employee emotions toward the organization (Duncan et al., 2019;Holland et al., 2016), it can also pose as a threat to the organization if the content is negative (Berthon et al., 2012;DiStaso et al., 2011). Hence, an organization should engage on digital and social media to keep track of its corporate reputation (Baka, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between employee-generated content (EGC) and firm-generated content (FGC) in the form of LinkedIn posts, employer brand perception, and the effect of employer's attractiveness and corporate reputation on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach This study comprises two phases. In phase 1, the focus was on stimuli selection through an online questionnaire on favourability. In phase 2, for the main study, data were gathered through an online survey from 214 information technology (IT) employees via a survey. Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Findings The results show that EGC and FGC have a positive influence on employer brand perception, and the relationship is positively mediated by employer attractiveness and corporate reputation. These findings suggest that organizations can strategically use their own as well as employees' LinkedIn accounts, and encourage employee advocacy initiatives to attract new talent, enhance attractiveness and corporate reputation. Originality/value The study covers two different categories of content – employer and employee-generated – and examines both content types' influence on employer brand perception. It adds to the body of literature regarding employee branding and paves the way for further research in employee advocacy.
... This has encouraged many organizations to use social media networks as communication tools (Linke & Zerfass, 2012). The growth of interactive technologies, their ease of use, accessibility and popularity represent an opportunity for organizations to foster greater interactions with the different stakeholders (DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011). Zerfass et al. (2017) noted that the online dimension is top on the list of communication channels. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Web 2.0 and the social networks have changed how organizations interact with their publics. They enable organizations to engage in symmetric dialogic communications with individuals. Various organizations are increasingly using different social media to enhance their visibility and relationships with their publics. They allow them to disseminate information, to participate, listen and actively engage in online conversations with different stakeholders. Some social networks have become a key instrument for corporate communication. Therefore, this chapter presents a critical review on the organizations' dialogic communications with the publics via social networks. It puts forward a conceptual framework that comprises five key dimensions including 'active presence', 'interactive attitude', 'interactive resources', 'responsiveness' and 'conversation'. This contribution examines each dimension and explains their effect on the organizations' dialogic communication with the publics. Hence, this contribution has resulted in important implications for corporate communication practitioners as well as for academia. Moreover, it opens future research avenues to academia.
... Reasons for the slow adoption of social media use include "risk aversion, time constraints, fear of negative feedback, and a lack of a social media strategy" (Brandfog, 2013, p. 1). Likewise, scholars (e.g., Alghawi et al., 2014;DiStaso et al., 2011) have concurred that a shortage of established rules and strategies about how to communicate on social media contributes to the reluctance of executives to adopt social media. Despite the low participation, there is a growing consensus on the value of social media among senior leaders. ...
Article
Full-text available
How does a chief executive officer (CEO)’s social media content disclosure on Twitter affect perceived CEO attributes, relationship investment, and public engagement, and to what extent does the CEO’s gender (male vs. female) moderate how publics evaluate content disclosures? A 2 (CEO gender: male vs. female) × 4 (level of disclosure: 100% corporate vs. 70% corporate and 30% personal vs. 30% corporate and 70% personal vs. 100% personal disclosure) between-subject experimental design was used to address these questions with a random sample of 465 adult Twitter users in the United States. Results showed that posts that featured high personal disclosure did not increase the perceived likability or competence of the CEO. Nor did CEO gender impact these outcomes. However, CEO professional disclosure proved to be an effective means to gain high levels of perceived relationship investment from publics. Finally, publics may hold implicit gender bias in cognitive (i.e., perceived relationship investment) and behavioral evaluation (i.e., engagement intention) of a female CEO.
... En este contexto, generar comunicaciones dialógicas debería ser el enfoque principal de las relaciones públicas digitales para recuperar el significado original de estas, en la que la conversación y el encuentro eran el motor de las acciones comunicativas [17] Existe una amplia literatura que analiza el rol de los Social Media en la búsqueda de la interacción con los públicos [18]; ; [19]; [20]; [21], entre otros). Por su parte, el estudio de la comunicación de las páginas web en particular tiene varios enfoques, ya sea desde el punto de vista del diseño gráfico [22] la experiencia del usuario [23] o desde la calidad de la información [24]; [25] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Existe una amplia literatura que analiza el rol de los Social Media en la búsqueda de la interacción con los públicos, y el estudio de la comunicación de las páginas web en particular tiene varios enfoques, ya sea desde el punto de vista del diseño gráfico, la experiencia del usuario o la calidad de la información. Esta investigación busca hacer foco en los sitios corporativos de los think tanks que se destacan por su accionar en redes sociales según el Informe McGann de 2018, y evaluar el nivel de interactividad que ofrecen desde los recursos y herramientas que disponen, y conocer, en última instancia, el tipo de comunicación digital que proponen más allá de las redes sociales. Palabras clave: Interactividad, comunicación digital, think tanks, análisis de contenido. Abstract: There is a large literature that analyzes the role of Social Media in the search for interaction with audiences, and the study of the communication of web pages in particular has several approaches, whether from the point of view of graphic design, the user experience or from an information quality perspective. This research seeks to focus on the corporate sites of think tanks that stand out for their actions in social networks according to the 2018 McGann Report, and evaluate the level of interactivity they offer from the resources and tools they have, and in the end instance, the type of digital communication that they propose beyond social networks.
... Therefore, studies involving measurements of user engagement may go beyond analysis of profile pages by assessing unique social media functions such as the "like", "comment" and "share" features of Facebook. These data points can then be used to make inferences on the level of dialogue or participation on behalf of the work advocated for by ENGOs and their goals of meaningful social change, respectively (DiStaso et al., 2011 ...
Article
Climate change is of global concern as it affects all aspects of human society. Climate change communication is, therefore, the purview of many stakeholders, including organisations in the non-profit sector. This study seeks to examine climate change communication efforts by Malaysian environmental non-governmental organisation (ENGO) EcoKnights ® in fostering patterns of pro-environmental behaviours among local communities. The study specifically described the strategic use of social media platforms such as Facebook to communicate content designed to foster sustainable behaviours. Content analysis and expert interviews revealed that this ENGO primarily utilises Facebook for relaying information to target audiences. The results are consistent with prior research of climate change communication on social media in different socio-cultural contexts and, furthermore, they provided descriptions on the level of public engagement with the contents published on Facebook. User engagement was greater for information or action-oriented posts, compared to posts that primarily functioned for community-building. Posts promoting an organisational event, for example, elicited a large number of likes, comments and shares compared to posts giving recognition and thanks to stakeholders for their work at EcoKnights ®. A clear picture of the actual influence of contemporary social media use by ENGOs in Malaysia on public behavioural patterns is, therefore, possible with future research that build upon the descriptions provided here.
... En este contexto, generar comunicaciones dialógicas debería ser el enfoque principal de las relaciones públicas digitales para recuperar el significado original de estas, en la que la conversación y el encuentro eran el motor de las acciones comunicativas [17] Existe una amplia literatura que analiza el rol de los Social Media en la búsqueda de la interacción con los públicos [18]; ; [19]; [20]; [21], entre otros). Por su parte, el estudio de la comunicación de las páginas web en particular tiene varios enfoques, ya sea desde el punto de vista del diseño gráfico [22] la experiencia del usuario [23] o desde la calidad de la información [24]; [25] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Existe una amplia literatura que analiza el rol de los Social Media en la búsqueda de la interacción con los públicos, y el estudio de la comunicación de las páginas web en particular tiene varios enfoques, ya sea desde el punto de vista del diseño gráfico, la experiencia del usuario o la calidad de la información. Esta investigación busca hacer foco en los sitios corporativos de los think tanks que se destacan por su accionar en redes sociales según el Informe McGann de 2018, y evaluar el nivel de interactividad que ofrecen desde los recursos y herramientas que disponen, y conocer, en última instancia, el tipo de comunicación digital que proponen más allá de las redes sociales. Palabras clave: Interactividad, comunicación digital, think tanks, análisis de contenido. Abstract: There is a large literature that analyzes the role of Social Media in the search for interaction with audiences, and the study of the communication of web pages in particular has several approaches, whether from the point of view of graphic design, the user experience or from an information quality perspective. This research seeks to focus on the corporate sites of think tanks that stand out for their actions in social networks according to the 2018 McGann Report, and evaluate the level of interactivity they offer from the resources and tools they have, and in the end instance, the type of digital communication that they propose beyond social networks.
... Considering this, we hypothesize that FCC affects brand equity and, in particular: A very rapid growing number of people enjoy spreading and collecting information, as well as sharing emotions or ideas on social media channels (Kemp, 2016). For firms, it is also necessary to check peer-to-peer communication in order to collect information about the strengths and weaknesses that are perceived by consumers, as market trends, in a quick and efficient way (DiStaso et al., 2011;Godes and Mayzlin, 2009;Hanna et al., 2011). Many authors suggest that UGC are evaluated by users as a more reliable source of information rather than contents published through traditional channels by the firm (Logan et al., 2012;Mangold and Faulds, 2009). ...
Article
Purpose-From literature, an uncovered issue around the customer-based brand equity (CBBE) is detected: the influence of sensorial preferences on the relationship between social media communication and CBBE. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects produced by social media brand communication-both firm-created content (FCC) and user-generated content (UGC)-on CBBE, according to the sensorial preferences in the beer industry. Design/methodology/approach-A literature review has been used to develop a research model and hypotheses. The research is based on online survey carried out on a sample of 183 valid questionnaires of Italian active fans and followers in the beer industry. A multi-group analysis applied to structural equation modeling is used. Findings-The sensory dimension prevails limiting the operating range of brand awareness that does not strongly affect CBBE. In brand equity development' process, non-sensorial users do not consider sensorial preferences. The brand equity can become stronger by stimulating the reaction of customers through firms' communication by using social media platforms. Therefore, the quality of peer interactions in the social media communication has a positive impact on brand loyalty. When firms use social media communication to increase overall brand equity, they have to foster and monitor FCC and UGC responses that affect different CBBE components. Originality/value-The paper provides empirical evidence about the relationship between social media communication and CBBE, according to the importance given to sensorial preferences by beer lovers. This can be considered as the first study on this specific topic focused on the CBBE issue.
... Practitioners believe social media will help establish direct dialogue with the public from the spontaneous, direct and interactive nature of online media. Practitioners can circumvent media gatekeepers and filters to reach clients directly, augment market visibility and boost corporate branding and image (DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011). Porter, Sweetser, and Chung, (2009) suggested practitioners believe online blogs are important for public relations but felt unprepared to make a full use of them. ...
Article
This study examines the public relations functions of eight Kuwaiti banks listed in the Kuwait Stock Exchange Market (KSEM) that post on their Instagram accounts. It also uses market-size, organization, and individual level predictors to model Instagram postings. A content analysis of 1502 posts revealed the banks use Instagram for promotion, information dissemination, community building, and interactive engagement, in that order of prominence. The findings suggest banks operate at the confluence of visual communication through Instagram and integration of religious symbolism to serve a public relations function predicated on image and influence. In doing so, the banks tap into the wellspring of social media use by target publics by navigating a balance between obedience to Allah and meeting bank business objectives. The resulting tension between sacred and secular highlights Arab cultural values and suggests Instagram fosters individualism, which challenges Arab emphasis on collectivism and fractures the notion online platforms can effectively build meaningful relationships that characterize Arab culture. The study posits Instagram is more effective in an Arab context at image building than relationship building, threading the importance of visual communication through social media across Arab culture and global public relations practices.
... Organizations are no longer in control of their information as other media users are now capable to respond to the information online. Literature affirmed that among PR practitioner's main challenged was not having the sole control over the information posted on social media (Wright & Hinson, 2008;Macnamara, 2010;McLennan & Howell, 2011;DiStaso, McCorkindale & Wright 2011). In other words, organizations' stakeholders could actively communicate about the organizations on their social media account or by making comments on organizations' official social media. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research is not intended to examine on the advantages of using social media at work but to explore the constraint and challenges imposed by social media to PR practitioners at work. The study argues that beside positive effects, social media could also bring great challenge to PR practices that are often taken for granted. At present, there is a dearth of research conducted to examine the usage of social media among PR practitioners in developing nations, the challenges and possible disruptions they imposed on PR practices. In view of this gap, this study aims to address the following objectives: (i) to examine the social media usage among PR practitioners at work; (ii) to identify PR practitioners’ perception on the effectiveness of social media as a tool to engage with stakeholders and (iii) to explore plausible risks imposed by social media on PR roles and practices. This study was part of PR profile research project conducted in 2018. More than 300 PR practitioners working in various organizations in Malaysia took part in the survey. The findings among others affirmed that despite a moderate use of social media, PR practitioners continue to perceive social media as effective tools to engage with stakeholders. Ironically, social media were also seen as imposing threats to organizations’ reputation. This study is significant as it contributes to existing literature on the implications of social media use in PR roles and practice in Malaysia. © 2019, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Press. All rights reserved.
... Social media has provided an opportunity to really put the public in Public Relations by providing a mechanism for organizations to engage in real-time one-on-one conversations with officeholders (Wright & Hinson, 2008). From interviews with 25 executive public relations practitioners, it was found that apart from 'getting into important conversations', organizations also use social media to increase understanding of the market, consumers, competitors, and employees (DiStaso, McCorkindale, & Wright, 2011). In this sense, social media is considered an effective way to achieve research targets and organizational dialogue, especially from a financial perspective. ...
Article
Full-text available
Public Relations have evolved adjusting its practices to fulfill the needs of its users. In this case, technology possesses a great influence on how PR operates and interacts within society. Various institutions move to digital Public Relations, relying heavily on digital platforms, forcing Public Relations practitioners to master a new set of skills. This research aimed to map digital public relations trends and investigate the digital public relations competencies needed. A number of public relations practitioners from various institutions were interviewed to meet the objectives. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to answer the research questions. The research found that today traditional and digital public relations work synergically and are still needed by organizations. Apart from having good communication, interpersonal, writing, analytical thinking, and soft skills, a public relations practitioner is expected to be familiar with the digital platform and have the ability to design digital content.
... And yet organizations remain unsure about the impact of new forms of ICT on organizational effectiveness, particularly with regard to external communication with clients [1]. In turn, recent studies investigate how organizations cultivate relationships with external stakeholders via social media tools [5,6], but the impact of social media on client communication is still unclear as is the process by which sellers utilize specific social media [7]. Given the significant financial investment by organizations, and the lack of empirical clarity with regards to the impact of social media use, it is clear that further work is needed to understand the impact of ICTs. ...
... Social media policies can provide guidelines among employees, customers, and different groups of stakeholders in how to address the risks that social media communication presents in terms of privacy, data security, and disclosure. According to DiStaso et al. (2011), companies fear that employees can leak sensitive information or criticism via social media that could cause some damage or embarrassment to the organization. Therefore, companies need to develop policies to protect privacy issues, specifically for CSR communication, that could put in danger the personal information of stakeholders (Digital Marketing Institute n.d.). ...
Chapter
Social media has brought opportunities for individuals to access news, data, and information immediately. These interactive platforms are a fundamental part of people’s everyday life where they can create, share, and curate content. There is no doubt that social media has changed the way organizations and companies communicate and cultivate relationships with stakeholders. Due to this immediacy in communication, companies must be honest, be reputable, and behave as good citizens. Firms should keep publics informed about their CSR initiatives for encouraging their loyalty and commitment to environmental and socially responsible efforts. This chapter discusses the state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication through social media, explaining main contributions in the field. Social media is an excellent and cost-effective tool for communicating economic, social, and environmental issues with different groups of stakeholders. Communicating CSR through social media demonstrates commitment, influence, and reputation. It provides immediate feedback from publics, which can instantly lead a company to success or failure due to word-of-mouth and viral information. This exploratory study employs a thematic analysis of studies about CSR communication and social media published in the past 10 years. It highlights the main themes and trends in the literature, making emphasis on the importance of interactivity and stakeholder engagement. The chapter concludes with a discussion of both key opportunities and challenges for firms and stakeholders in the communication of CSR through social media, focusing on how interactivity is a way to transform CSR online communication.
... Organizations utilize social media to create brand image, recruit new employees, and obtain information about people, products and services in the marketplace (Schultz et al., 2015). Social media are seen as a cost effective tool to enhance understanding about markets, customers, and competitors (DiStaso et al., 2011). Social media are not only a communication platform; it is a huge marketplace too. ...
Chapter
This chapter empirically investigates the Turkish chambers of commerce and industry's social media usage. Specifically, the research explores the prevalence, types, frequency, reasons, and the most importantly effectiveness of social media usage among the Turkish Chambers of Commerce and Industry (TCCI). A web based survey conducted to gather data from the TCCI. The chapter consists of five main parts: Introduction, social media as a modern business imperative, survey about social media usage in Turkish chambers of commerce and industry, and conclusion.
... Así, los resultados del European Communciation Monitor 2014 (Zerfass et al., 2014) indican claramente este trasvase de lo analógico a lo digital, resaltando que la tendencia en comunicación estratégica en Europa muestra que su dimensión online está liderando claramente la lista de los principales canales de comunicación, y que su importancia es reconocida por el 85,9 % de los directivos de comunicación. Distaso et al. (2011) consideran este trasvase (el creciente acceso y popularidad de los social media) como una consecuencia de las oportunidades que ofrece la red a los profesionales para una mayor interacción con un amplio grupo de públicos. ...
Article
Full-text available
as redes sociales han alcanzado una presencia muy relevante en la comunicación de las organizaciones y están cambiando su forma de difundir información y relacionarse con sus públicos. Los museos también están utilizando estas plataformas de comunicación, acercándose a la idea de “museo social” o “museo 2.0”. En este sentido, el principal objetivo de este artículo es evaluar la presencia y actividad en Facebook (la red social más importante) de los museos de arte más visitados en España y a nivel mundial. Los resultados de este texto indican que los museos españoles se encuentran en una situación similar y, en algunos aspectos, mucho mejor que los museos internacionales, aunque es cierto que todavía existe un amplio margen de mejora en la medida en la que no se está explorando suficientemente la capacidad de diálogo de estas herramientas tecnológicas
... A second limitation concerns our focus on a single of the many important challenges facing communication practitioners-the issue of measurement. While this decision moved us away from other challenges facing communication practitioners in the space, it is undeniable that measurement is a paramount challenge facing public relations as a global industry (Almansa-Martinez and Fernandez-Souto, 2020;DiStaso et al., 2011). More importantly, we viewed garnering a more nuanced and in-depth look at that specific challenge as more valuable than having a broader, but ultimately more superficial look at a host of different challenges facing the industry. ...
Article
This research is motivated to advance our understanding of measurement challenges in communication practice and coping strategies from a global perspective. To do so, we relied on data from a global online survey of communication practitioners in more than 20 countries, which result in five country clusters for final analysis and comparisons. Communication practitioners across investigated country clusters shared different strategies used to cope with measurement challenges. Our results also confirmed that certain leadership qualities (i.e., strategic decision-making, possessing communication knowledge) are particularly important in managing measurement challenges. Our findings provide solutions, leadership skills, and prioritization to improve the measurement of communication effectiveness. Keywords: communication, public relations, measurement, coping strategies, global Survey
... In the digital age, transparency and interactivity are the core dimensions of creating an authentic dialogue between governments and constituents. The advent of digital media has seismically shifted communication paradigms (DiStaso et al., 2011), with expanded opportunities to build relationships more deeply than through traditional media channels. In explicating how responsive governments and elected officials are to constituents, Ben-Aaron et al. (2017) defined reactive transparency as "covering information that is made available to individual members of the public in response to specific requests" (p. ...
Article
Purpose: Email communication is indispensable for US state agencies to respond to citizen requests and engage with constituents, contributing to building trust in local governments. While prior studies examine the responsiveness of elected officials, the quality of virtual interactions between government organizations and citizens is often overlooked. This study aims to investigate how US government agencies capitalize on the potential of online interactions with constituents to manage generic queries and introduce the response engagement index (REI) consisting of response time, reactive transparency and message interactivity to evaluate levels of communicative engagement. Design/methodology/approach: The authors conducted a field experiment encompassing emailing a request to 547 state agencies based in the five largest states and one small state. A total of 377 organizational responses were manually analyzed to reveal the usages of six communicative engagement strategies. Findings: The results show the potential of online communication is underutilized as the average score of response engagement remains low. Human responses are less engaging than auto-reply messages and require a one-day waiting period, if not longer. Response types and gender of government communicators significantly differ in response time and engagement strategies. The findings identify divergent patterns of response engagement and provide practical implications for facilitating citizen engagement. Research limitations/implications: This research fills a critical gap by investigating the quality of online interactions between US government agencies and citizens. The authors develop a theory-grounded tool of response engagement to identify three features: response speed, reactive transparency and interactivity. The findings can improve the quality of email communication in state agencies, enhancing governance quality. The REI proposed here addresses what Pfau (2008) deemed problematic for communication scholarship: research is sparse on “functional issues” that examine the communication process. Pfau argued for research that provides knowledge of interest across disciplines so as to “cross-fertilize” ideas between political communication and public relations; this study sought to bridge that gap with a theoretical and practical tool for building public trust in governments.
Article
While public relations practitioners may use any number of channels to accomplish organizational objectives, research has focused on the use of single communication channels in isolation from other available channels. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the common combinations of channels or “channel repertoires” that practitioners use to reach their publics. Analyses of survey data (N = 504) of practitioners from five countries revealed four distinct patterns or repertoires of channels. The results also indicated that many public relations functions predict the use of certain repertoires, and explained which functions of public relations use more channels than others. The findings have implications for theory building, practice, and pedagogy on planning and engagement with publics.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the usage of enterprise social media (ESM) affects eventual employee turnover. Design/methodology/approach This study developed a theoretical model based on the proposition that different ESM usage behaviors (utilitarian use, hedonic use and social use) have different effects on employee turnover, and job type and job level can moderate the effect of ESM usage on turnover. The model was examined empirically using 1,791 employee samples from a large high-tech manufacturing enterprise deploying ESM. Findings The results indicate that the utilitarian and social use of ESM has negative effects on turnover, but the hedonic use of ESM has positive effects on turnover. Furthermore, for employees working in different job types and job levels, there are significant differences concerning the effect of ESM usage on their turnover. Practical implications ESM managers should encourage employees to use ESM for utilitarian needs and social support but restrict excessive use of ESM for leisure. In addition, different ESM use policies depending upon job types and job levels could be adopted to retain valuable employees. Originality/value Few studies have focused on how usage of ESM affects eventual employee turnover. Given the lack of theoretical research and empirical evidence, the authors developed a theoretical model and conducted an empirical study to fill the research gap.
Article
Full-text available
With the rapid growth of the Internet, the globalization of the market and the intensification of competition, companies have relied on information and communication technology to perform their various activities and not just to support traditional activities. These have also contributed to the development of the traditional relationship between companies and their customers, the emergence of the so-called social consumer / customer, and the concept of social customer relationship management (SCRM). Most companies have set up their websites, Social networking sites. These means have become new channels of communication, marketing, transactions, dialogue with customers and consumers, and access to the global market. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze samples of Arab and foreign studies in the field of social media uses in the integrated marketing communications for profitable companies, in order to monitor the scientific developments and valuable results in this field and to identify the theoretical and cognitive frameworks that have been relied upon. In attempt, to introduce a scientific addition and a vision for the future development in this area of research. This study belongs to the studies of the second-level meta-analysis, a method that relies on the analytical review of the studies and researches published in a given area over an extended period of time and from a variety of sources. This study was applied to a sample of Arab and foreign researches about the use of social media in integrated marketing communications for profitable companies between 2007 and 2018. The sample included (132) researches. The researcher suggested a future vision to develop research in this field at the level of the agenda of research issues, theoretical frameworks, and research methodologies. Keywords: Social Media - Integrated marketing communications – Meta-analysis
Article
Full-text available
İletişimde dijital uygulamaların yaygınlaşması, uygulamaları bilen ve kullanan nitelikli insan kaynağına ihtiyacı artırmıştır. Dijitalleşmeye yönelik artan eğilim üniversitelerdeki eğitim içeriğini de buna uygun hale getirmeyi gerekli kılmıştır. Dijitalleşmenin ortaya çıkması halkla ilişkilerde yeni ihtiyaçları beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu nedenle halkla ilişkiler eğitimi alan öğrencilerin de ortaya çıkan bu ihtiyaçlara cevap vermesi gerekmektedir. Bunun yolu ise ancak üniversitelerde dijitalleşmeye yönelik farkındalığı sağlayacak alınan derslerle mümkündür. Bu çalışmada Türkiye ve ABD’de halkla ilişkiler eğitimi veren üniversitelerin derslerinde dijitalleşmeye yönelik eğitimlerin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu sayede halkla ilişkiler eğitiminde iki ülke arasındaki benzerlik ve farklılıklar ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmış ve karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Araştırmada üniversiteleri belirlemek için iki liste seçilmiş ve üniversitelerin web sayfalarında ders içeriklerine yönelik veriler toplanmıştır. Çalışmada betimleyici araştırma tasarımı yöntemi kullanılmıştır. İncelenen üniversitelerin eğitim içerikleri, içerik analizi yöntemi ile belirlenen başlıklar altında değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre her iki ülkede dijital odaklı verilen derslerin sayıları arasında farklılık bulunmaktadır. Dersler seçmeli ders olarak öğrencinin tercihine bırakılmıştır. Dijital içerikli dersler çoğunlukla üçüncü sınıfta öğrencilere verilmektedir. Sosyal medya dersleri daha ön planda öğrencilere sunulmaktadır. Her iki ülkede devlet üniversitelerinde dijital içerikli derslerin oranı daha fazladır. ABD’deki üniversitelerde dijital dersleri alabilmek için öğrencilerin önkoşul gerektiren dersleri tamamlamaları gerekmektedir. Türkiye’de ise böyle bir ön koşul bulunmamaktadır.
Chapter
Social media facilitates and enhances communication between businesses and customers. Nowadays, although it is commonly recognised that companies implement social media into their marketing activities, it is also acknowledged that companies struggle to calculate the return on investment (ROI) from social media marketing efforts as most of them focus only on certain tangible outcomes such as the impact on sales and purchases. Attempts have been made by researchers to identify how to measure key impacts of social media in relation to marketing; however, there remains a lack of empirical data and no comprehensive overview of what “ROI” can mean for an organisation seeking returns on their social media adoption. By knowing how to measure ROI from social media, companies can produce valuable insights which can help enhance marketing strategies in promoting their products/services. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to provide a review of ROI in social media marketing with a particular focus on intangible outcomes such as brand awareness, customer engagement/relationship and eWOM.
Article
Full-text available
In the era of industry 4.0, technology is projected to dominate all aspects of human life. As a consequence, various industries must be prepared and adapt to technological developments, if they do not want to be left behind and lose. Technological development and information flow are identified as environmental factors that influence the corporation as an organization both internally and externally. This article was created using qualitative analysis methods where the literature approach is the basis for analysis. The purpose of this discussion is to find out the conceptual understanding of communication in the industrial era 4.0. The conclusion of this article is strategic and adaptive corporate communication is very important, given the exchange of information between corporations, the public and the environment will create organizational harmony so that plans and activities can be coordinated and environmental uncertainty can be reduced. The right media identification and analysis will have an impact on effective and on target corporate communication.
Article
Full-text available
The explosive growth of social media has changed the communication environment in which customers and employees as users of these media can post and broadcast their opinions about the company. This translates into a number of potential threats to corporate image and reputation. This article seeks to highlight the importance of reputation management in the age of social media due to its benefits related to improving brand trust, increasing profits, attracting talent and the reduction of risks in an environment of uncertainty by relying on specific strategies linked to employees and customers. and the business.
Article
Full-text available
Keberadaan media social saat ini tidak bisa diabaikan peranan dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan termasuk dalam bidang public relations. Bagi praktek public relations, kehadiran media social bukan saja menambah media baru sebagai media komunikasi untuk kegiatan public relations, tetapi juga mengubah praktek public relations secara radikal. Praktek public relations sebelum kehadiran media social cenderung bersifat komunikasi satu arah. Dengan kehadiran media social, praktek public relations tidak lagi hanya mengandalkan komunikasi searah, tetapi juga komunikasi yang bersifat interaktif. Artikel ini mendiskusikan berbagai dimensi media social dan pengaruhnya pada aspek interaktivitas dalam dunia public relations.
Article
Full-text available
Keberadaan Program Studi Hubungan Masyarakat di Jurusan atau Departemen Ilmu Komunikasi diharapkan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan industri akan profesional di bidang Hubungan Masyarakat, yang mampu menjalin hubungan baik antara perusahaan, pemerintah dan masyarakat, Mengembangkan Hubungan Masyarakat Kurikulum diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan persiapan manajemen komunikasi untuk perusahaan, lembaga pemerintah dan masyarakat yang mampu meningkatkan tata kelola perusahaan, lembaga pemerintah dan masyarakat di era informasi dan keterbukaan saat ini. Selain itu, juga mendukung Peraturan Menteri Komunikasi dan Informasi Republik Indonesia Nomor 12 Tahun 2015 tentang standar kompetensi Posisi Fungsional Lembaga Hubungan Masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kelayakan kurikulum yang diterapkan dalam proses pembelajaran di Program Studi Hubungan Masyarakat dalam menghadapi Revolusi Indonesia 4.0 yang ditandai dengan persaingan yang ketat dan arus informasi yang cepat di semua sektor. Profesional Hubungan Masyarakat dituntut memiliki daya saing yang kuat untuk dapat menyelaraskan diri dengan profesional Hubungan Masyarakat negara lain. Inovasi adalah kunci untuk meningkatkan produktivitas berkelanjutan, yang pada gilirannya dapat mempercepat pertumbuhan ekonomi bangsa. Untuk meningkatkan kualitas dan kuantitas inovasi di era Revolusi Industri 4.0, universitas perlu mengarahkan kembali kurikulum agar tetap relevan dengan zaman. Data yang diperoleh dari penelitian diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi dan input pada bahan yang dapat mendukung proses pembelajaran, sehingga hal-hal yang perlu ditangani dan ditingkatkan dapat diidentifikasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan evaluatif dengan metode studi kasus, yang bertujuan untuk menggambarkan situasi atau mencari fakta dan fakta secara faktual.
Article
The scope of this study is to examine the relationship between message strategies and stakeholders’ responses on Facebook. Data on 20 non-governmental organizations’ Facebook pages was collected by simple random sampling to examine their communication practices on social media. It was found that those organizations were more likely to adopt Public Information (PI) model to transmit information to their stakeholders. Organizational messages based on Two-way symmetry model (TWS) can generate the greatest number of Likes which is significantly larger than Press Agentry (PA), Public Information (PI), and Two-way asymmetry (TWA) models. The multi-way (MW) model was proposed in order to extend Grung & Hunt’s framework in the digital era.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the development of social media public relations research by analyzing 189 articles published between 2008 and 2018 from two leading academic public relations journals. It focused on research topics, research subjects, theoretical frameworks, methodological approaches, and research perspectives. Key findings suggest a boom in production, a trend toward more theoretical rigor, a set of newly favored theories, a more balanced methodological approach, and a multi-perspective orientation on research in social media public relations research. The findings depict the status of social media public relations research to date and provide a macro-level understanding of social media public relations. They also inform possible future development of this line of research.
Article
Facebook es la red social con mayor interacción para la promoción y comercialización de bienes y servicios, por lo que el “usuario” es el protagonista principal, dejándose influenciar por los comentarios y opiniones que se generan en esta red. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el uso del Facebook como herramienta de social media marketing en la promoción de bienes y servicios en tiempos de pandemia. Se utilizó metodología descriptiva, de corte documental–bibliográfica, desplegando un caso de análisis particular a través del diseño de un Fanpage para la promoción de bienes y servicios ofertados por las micro, medianas y pequeñas empresas (Mipymes) de la provincia de Manabí. Los resultados obtenidos determinan que Facebook, como red social, impacta en la decisión de compra, permite potenciar estrategias de promoción como vinculo interactivo entre empresas y consumidores. Se concluye que las redes sociales se potencian en tiempos de pandemia producto del confinamiento social declarado en el ámbito mundial.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of social media guidelines (SMGs), as well as their impact on control mutuality, a sub-dimension of the organization–employee relationship (OER). A total of two studies compare guidelines with a focus that is either predominantly incentive or restrictive. In addition, they investigate the moderating effect of guideline writing style and enforcement. Design/methodology/approach In total, two online experiments were conducted among Belgian employees. Participants read a social media policy manipulated in terms of focus (restrictive vs incentive) and style (conversational vs corporate; Study 1) or enforcement (signature requested vs not requested; Study 2). Findings Incentive guidelines increase employee branding behavior more than their restrictive counterparts, while also safeguarding employees' perceived control mutuality. However, solid SMGs will not compensate for an organization's bad reputation among employees. The guidelines' style and manner of enforcement did not seem to matter. Practical implications Communication executives can use our findings to draft SMGs in a way that increases opportunities (e.g. ambassadorship) and reduces risks (e.g. criticism) associated with employee social media use. Originality/value Prior research on SMGs is predominantly descriptive and focused on the organizational perspective. This research paper contributes to both theory and practice by studying the causal impact of these guidelines on employees.
Article
Full-text available
The media channels through their applications can be implemented for marketing communications are increasing day by day as a result of the development in communication technologies. However, these developments also make the work of firms and marketers more difficult. Because of this technological rising, it makes competition fiercer. Social networks are becoming more and more attractive every day as a new marketing communication element in which businesses can conduct their marketing activities. In this paper, we tried to see how attractive the social applications are for the network members. Instagram was selected as a sample social network for research and a survey of the researcher for Instagram users was carried out. The research questions were sent to Instagram users by creating a link. Within the findings, it has come to the conclusion that branded ads are more striking, that their ads are more memorable, and that if they are shared by users, other users are motivating to buy that product.
Article
Full-text available
Public relations (PR) plays a dynamic role in any organization, and it aspires to maintain the mutual long-term between the organization and the beneficial public relationships through achieving a balance between the interests of each party. in addition, PR have an influential role in improving relations between countries and global organizations. As has become known, the Internet has changed not only the world radically but also the practices of pr. Especially that two-thirds of the world's population use networking sites. Indeed, online PR restructuring of the radical practices of public relations. Due to the increasing popularity of the online PR role, this article intends to discover the research gaps that effect on the online PR practice in the world. Review of the literature found that there are a lot of gaps, researchers must discovered in the future to enhance the global online PR practice , such as: conceptualize online PR among practitioners, the technical skills that PR practitioner should have, the antecedent factors influencing the practice, the consequences of the ability to adequately utilize online PR, the current use of online PR tools, Mechanisms for the development the performance and additional qualitative research that offers potential contributions to an increased understanding of social media's role in PR and organizational communication.
Article
Is social media a new element in the marketing communication process or it’s nothing but an innovative media for communication? Does social media only plays a role of enhancing the marketing communication mix? Can social media be used in the same way as traditional communication tools? Or Is social media is taking over the traditional marketing communication mix. In order to find answers to these questions, we will revisit the marketing communication mix and will try to find our answers through the content analysis of the definitions of each element of the communication mix. We will find out if Social media fits in any of the five elements of the marketing communication mix. Based on our analysis we will formulate a theory at the end of our research paper.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to conduct a literature review on the barriers and opportunities of social media communication of content related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and sustainability management. To this end, 466 articles from the Web of Science have been selected with keywords related to the objective. Only those publications in scientific journals and written in English have been considered for analysis. The total number of articles analyzed after this filter has been 72. The main interests of CSR in social networks are: i) the dialogue of stakeholders, ii) gaining credibility, legitimacy and reputation, iii) improving engagement and iv) the communication impact of CSR and sustainability in marketing and social marketing.
Article
Social media have changed the way salespeople communicate with and build relationships with clients. This study explores how social media are integrated into the communication strategies of sellers in a business-to-business e-commerce context using an affordances approach to analysis. Seller strategies used to build and develop relationships with clients were analyzed based on data collected from a large multinational corporation. Data were collected through a series of interviews and ethnographic observations and were analyzed as part of a multimethod case study. The findings show that employees strategically select media to build stronger client relationships. Contrasting prior work on the topic, we find that sellers are more likely to use media sequentially than simultaneously, and sellers often leverage social media because of the searchability and immediacy of the platform compared with other tools. The concluding section outlines practical implications for managers and illustrates how the process of social media use in sales aligns with key stages of the sales process.
Chapter
Social networks have proven to be very convenient and effective medium for the spreading of marketing messages, advertising, branding and promotion of products and services. Social networks offer companies, nonprofit organizations, political parties etc. sending certain messages for free. In addition, they allow companies access to a wide range of characteristics of their users. Developing appropriate, the winning strategy for marketing in social media is a comprehensive, time-intensive process therefore it is important to know to manage their content. Social networks transform certain classical approaches to marketing. They provide creative and relatively easy way to increase public awareness of the company and its products, and facilitate obtaining feedback and decision making. These are sources of different information about users and groups that they've joined. The success itself of marketing performance on a social network depends on the readiness and training of organizations to perform on them.
Article
Full-text available
Social media have opened up new opportunities for the creation of innovative public relations strategies focused on establishing and cultivating relationships with stakeholders on the basis of meaningful dialogue. Consideration of the interrelation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and public relations highlights new areas for exploration and engagement. Both the dialogical and semantic perspectives reveal the performative and conversational aspects of social media. In general, both the linguistic panorama of CSR and digital media as part of a PR strategy open new possibilities for a dialogical, interactive, meaningful relationship strategy for corporate image management. Based on the linguistic approach to CSR and the Communication Management Approach, this paper explores the linguistic use of Twitter as a primary dialogical strategy to effectively enhance interactive dialogue-based relationships with the stakeholders of the top 50 companies in the energy sector based on tweet data from 2016. Semantic analysis was conducted by advanced text mining and clustering techniques on 3042 tweets monitored in 2017 that contained the leading CSR-related hashtags and keywords. The results demonstrated that the top energy companies apply a defensive and symbolic perspective, mainly for branding purposes. The corporate discourse dominates over a meaningful conversational strategy to foster interaction with stakeholders around sustainability issues on Twitter. The study reveals a homogenized interrelation between CSR, social media, and public relations. The results reveal a tendency for isomorphy in the communication models applied by the companies in the energy sector. Furthermore, similarities in semantics and thus strong tendencies to mutually mimic dialogical strategies are also observed. The semantic narrative built around the brand indicates a limited orientation towards CSR and sustainability. As such, it does not contribute to the creation of a dialogical interaction and meaningful relationships with multiple stakeholders on Twitter, in the high-risk sector represented by the energy industry.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cypher Loffing is a collection of work behaviors in which the employee does not have centralized electronic activity, especially through the use of the Internet, which is not related to the task assigned. It can include online gambling, stock trading, chat, visiting YouTube watch websites, checking and checking out Facebook, and so on. So CyberLife takes a great deal of staff time to work. In this research, To measure cyber-lobbies, computers are connected to a central hub as an Internet connection. The amount of time spent searching and surfing on unrelated sites, as well as the effectiveness of personal e-mail and other personal use, was measured. Of course, Luffing's cyber measure is only for employees who use the company's computer. For other employees, such as engineers working in construction workshops, it is not possible. In this study, 150 social workers were interviewed to examine social networks and its role in development companies, the impact of social networks in several parts Describes: Social networks and its role in employing social networks Its impact on efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace-teamwork environment and the collaboration of personnel-culture personnel and the identity of the organization-Cyber-Luffing study. In some areas, social networks have had a positive impact and, in some respects, had a negative impact. The results of this study, which monitored the amount of time spent on the Internet, indicate an average of about 30 minutes per employee in CyberLife. The interesting point is that there is a significant relationship between the questionnaire and the amount of social networking and cyberlofying. In other words, a large number of social workers, there are a lot of internet surfing on the Internet.
Article
Full-text available
As publics and journalists increasingly turn to social media as sources of information and consumer commentary, the importance of practitioners’ monitoring their organizations’ presence on social media will continue to increase. As a domain where publics have unrestrained voice, social media present interesting challenges to practitioners monitoring organizational reputation. Through survey interviews with practitioners at Fortune 500 and 1000s, this study explores current trends in social media management, use, monitoring, and importance in public relations departments at the nation’s leading corporations. Findings reveal a large gap in use and perceived importance between practitioners and a slow awakening among even non-users reticent to adopt as they realize its potential value. Further, new directions for research and practice on use of social media for issues management are revealed
Article
Full-text available
Key features of blog-mediated public relations are conducive to initiating and nurturing relationships with publics. As a result, blogs have emerged as a new venue for public relations in recent years. Many public relations practitioners have come to realize that blogging is not just a fad and have recognized a growing trend of blogging adoption in the industry—suggesting a need for common principles of successful public relations blogging practices. This study selected the following critical features of effective blog-mediated public relations: salience of narrative structure, dialogical self, blogger credibility, and interactivity. Using these concepts, the researchers proposed a theoretical model in explaining relational trust as a central outcome of effective blog-mediated public relations. Findings showed that dialogical self in blog posts enhanced interactivity, which, in turn, led to an increase in relational trust. Additionally, this study found that blogger credibility played a positive role in relational trust.
Twitter me this, Twitter me that: A quantitative content analysis of the 40 best Twitter brands. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for How to set benchmarks in social media: Exploratory research for social media
  • T Mccorkindale
McCorkindale, T. (August 2010). Twitter me this, Twitter me that: A quantitative content analysis of the 40 best Twitter brands. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for Educators in Journalism and Mass Communication, Denver, CO. Paine, K. D. (2009). How to set benchmarks in social media: Exploratory research for social media. Paper presented at the 12th International Public Relations Research Conference, Coral Gables, FL.
How new communications media are being used in public relations: A longitudinal analysis
  • D K Wright
  • M D Hinson
Wright, D. K., & Hinson, M. D. (2010). How new communications media are being used in public relations: A longitudinal analysis. Public Relations Journal, 4(3), 1-27.
How to set benchmarks in social media: Exploratory research for social media
  • K D Paine
Paine, K. D. (2009). How to set benchmarks in social media: Exploratory research for social media. Paper presented at the 12th International Public Relations Research Conference, Coral Gables, FL.