ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Social media influencers (SMIs) represent a new type of independent third party endorser who shape audience attitudes through blogs, tweets, and the use of other social media. A mature public relations literature has identified the characteristics of effective spokespersons, but relatively little is known about audience perceptions of the SMI. A q-sort technique identified core perceived attributes of four sample SMIs. A better understanding of the perceived personality of SMIs provides tools for optimizing an organization's SMI capital.
Please cite this article in press as: Freberg, K., et al. Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions
of personality. Public Relations Review (2010), doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2010.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
G Model
PUBREL-861; No. of Pages 3
Public Relations Review xxx (2010) xxx–xxx
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Public Relations Review
Research in brief
Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions
of personality
Karen Freberga,, Kristin Grahamb,1, Karen McGaughey c,2, Laura A. Frebergc,3
aUniversity of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States
bUniversity of Virginia, United States
cCalifornia Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, United States
article info
Article history:
Received 7 August 2010
Received in revised form 27 October 2010
Accepted 1 November 2010
Keywords:
Social media influencer
California Q-sort
Social media influencer capital
Public relations
abstract
Social media influencers (SMIs) represent a new type of independent third party endorser
who shape audience attitudes through blogs, tweets, and the use of other social media. A
mature public relations literature has identified the characteristics of effective spokesper-
sons, but relatively little is known about audience perceptions of the SMI. A q-sort technique
identified core perceived attributes of four sample SMIs. A better understanding of the
perceived personality of SMIs provides tools for optimizing an organization’s SMI capital.
© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Social media influencers (SMIs) represent a new type of independent third party endorser who shape audience attitudes
through blogs, tweets, and the use of other social media. Although some scholars appear to view SMIs as competing, possibly
hostile voices (Gorry & Westbrook, 2009), others recognize the possibilities of forging alliances with SMIs to promote a
brand or organization. Just as the contribution of a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to an organization’s bottom line can be
referred to as CEO capital (Gaines-Ross, 2003), we propose that an analogous “SMI capital” exists. To maximize organizational
SMI capital requires methods that provide precise information about relevant influencers and how they are perceived by
audiences.
Because of the persuasive power of social media influencers, technologies have been developed to identify and track the
influencers relevant to a brand or organization. Most of these efforts to identify SMIs rely on factors such as number of daily
hits on a blog, number of times a post is shared, or number of followers. Given the recognition that online influence is about
quality, not quantity, these methods should be viewed as a starting place only (Basille, 2009; Straley, 2010). Public relations
A previous version of this paper was presented at the 14th International Conference on Corporate Reputation, Brand, Identity and Competitiveness,
May 19–21, 2010 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Corresponding author at: School of Advertising and Public Relations, College of Communication and Information, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
37996, United States. Tel.: +1 352 219 7915.
E-mail addresses: kfreberg@utk.edu (K. Freberg), Kristin.graham@yahoo.com (K. Graham), kmcgaugh@calpoly.edu (K. McGaughey),
lfreberg@calpoly.edu (L.A. Freberg).
1Tel.: +1 808 783 3279.
2Tel.: +1 805 756 6578.
3Tel.: +1 805 756 2357.
0363-8111/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2010.11.001
Please cite this article in press as: Freberg, K., et al. Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions
of personality. Public Relations Review (2010), doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2010.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
G Model
PUBREL-861; No. of Pages 3
2K. Freberg et al. / Public Relations Review xxx (2010) xxx–xxx
practitioners need additional tools to evaluate the quality and relevance of particular SMIs to their organizations and brands
and to compare audience impressions of one SMI relative to others.
The California Q-sort (CAQ; Block, 1961, 2008) allows researchers to quantify and compare participants’ subjective impres-
sions of people or entities by ranking a set of 100 attributes standardized and validated over more than 50 years of use by
the scientific community. To demonstrate the potential of the CAQ for evaluating audience perceptions of SMIs, we asked
participants to respond to four sample SMIs selected by the researchers: Brian Solis, Deirdre Breakenridge, Charlene Li, and
Jeremiah Owyang.
2. Method
Biographical fact sheets consisting of a color photograph and publicly available information were prepared for each of
the four sample social media influencers. YouTube videos featuring each social media influencer were selected on the basis
of comparable length and context. After viewing the fact sheets and videos, 32 college undergraduates attending a large
public university completed the CAQ for one of the four SMIs. According to Block (2008), 8 participants are sufficient for
constructing a reliable and valid prototype for a person, concept, or entity.
The California Q-sort (CAQ) gives a participant a series of 100 attributes to rank order depending on how well the attribute
describes the target. Attributes were sorted into nine categories (1 =least characteristic or salient to 9 = most characteristic or
salient) using the following quasi-normal distribution of items per category: 5, 8, 12, 16, 18, 16, 12, 8, and 5. All statistical
analyses were conducted using PASW18 with the bootstrapping module. The default value of 1000 bootstrap samples was
used for each analysis.
3. Results
3.1. Inter-judge reliability
Overall SMI Profiles were constructed by averaging the responses of all 32 judges for each of the 100 attributes across the
four targets. Especially considering the diversity represented by the targets (2 males, 2 females; 1 Hispanic, 1 non-Hispanic
Caucasian, and 2 Asians), inter-judge reliability for the profile was strong (Spearman’s rho = .48, p< .01).
Profiles for each individual SMI were constructed by averaging the responses of the relevant 8 judges for each of the
100 attributes. Once again, the resulting profiles enjoyed a high degree of inter-judge reliability. The mean correlation
(Spearman’s rho) among judges was .53 for Solis, .458 for Breakenridge, .524 for Li, and .42 for Owyang. The profiles of the
individual SMIs were highly correlated with each other (Spearman rho ranged from .818 to .889, all p’s < .001).
3.2. SMI prototype
To construct a prototype from the profile, mean item scores were computed and then transformed by a requeuing process
(Block, 2008; Reise & Oliver, 1994; Reise & Wink, 1995). Specifically, the 5 items with the lowest means were assigned a value
of 1, the next 8 items were assigned a value of 2, and so on according to the number of items allowed in each category for
all 100 CAQ items. According to Block (2008), a prototype can be constructed by assembling the top 13 most characteristic
attributes (8’s and 9’s) and the bottom 13 least characteristic attributes (1’s and 2’s). Based on the resulting overall SMI
Prototype, participants viewed the SMIs as verbal, smart, ambitious, productive, and poised. The attributes that were seen
as least characteristic of SMIs were self-pitying, indecisive, easily frustrated, self-defeating, and lacking meaning in life.
3.3. Comparisons between SMI and CEO prototypes
Because CEOs and other internal leaders often play the role of official spokespersons for their organizations, we com-
pared the SMI profile with a CEO profile constructed using the same methodology for a previous study (Freberg, Graham,
McGaughey, & Freberg, 2010). Because the SMIs selected for this study are also high-ranking executives in their respective
firms, the significant overlap between the two profiles (Spearman’s rho = .846, p< .01) was not surprising. The SMIs and CEOs
were perceived as smart, ambitious, productive, poised, power-oriented, candid, and dependable. The SMIs and CEOs were
perceived as NOT being victimized, likely to give up, self-defeating, lacking meaning in life, doubting adequacy, submissive,
fearful, anxious, and thin-skinned.
Possibly more interesting to practitioners’ evaluation of influencers are the discriminate properties of the SMI and CEO
Profiles, which were evaluated using an analysis of absolute differences described by Reise and Oliver (1994). An absolute
difference score between two ranks (1 through 9) is computed for each attribute in the CAQ. An absolute difference of 3 or
more units between ranks was used as a criterion for considering an item to be a discriminate attribute (Block, 1961; Reise
& Oliver, 1994). Three attributes in the current comparison between CEOs and SMIs met the criteria for discriminates. CEOs
were viewed as more critical, skeptical, and difficult to impress than SMIs. SMIs were viewed as more likely to be sought
out for advice and reassurance and more likely to give advice than CEOs.
Please cite this article in press as: Freberg, K., et al. Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions
of personality. Public Relations Review (2010), doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2010.11.001
ARTICLE IN PRESS
G Model
PUBREL-861; No. of Pages 3
K. Freberg et al. / Public Relations Review xxx (2010) xxx–xxx 3
4. Discussion
The California Q-sort (CAQ; Block, 2008) successfully quantified subjective perceptions of four demonstration social media
influencers (SMIs), allowing reliable comparisons to be made between this group and entities of interest such as a sample
of CEOs. Obtaining detailed subjective audience impressions of an SMI adds a new dimension to practitioners’ abilities to
assess SMI capital, which heretofore has relied heavily on less precise measures such as number of followers. Once salient
SMIs for a brand or organization have been identified, the CAQ provides practitioners with a method for evaluating and
comparing the subjective impressions of relevant audiences to each SMI.
The current results confirmed the perception of trade analysts that SMIs take pleasure in offering advice (Straley, 2010).
Two CAQ attributes relevant to advice (gives advice, is turned to for advice) were viewed as quite characteristic and salient
for SMIs. In contrast, scores for CEOs on these attributes (Freberg et al., 2010) were 4 and 5, or neutral. Practitioners eval-
uating the impact of messages from traditional spokespersons, such as a CEO, versus an SMI might wish to consider this
perceived difference. Further research on the relationships between spokesperson credibility and being perceived as willing
and interested in sharing advice, as opposed to appearing relatively close-lipped, could be potentially very useful.
Although our focus has been on SMI capital, or the benefits of SMIs to brands, there are also instances in which an SMI
can have a negative effect on a brand, perhaps by writing a negative review (Gorry & Westbrook, 2009). In these cases, it
could be useful to understand how this particular SMI is perceived by audiences before crafting a response. A highly credible,
positively perceived SMI would warrant a different response than one without those qualities.
The current study was viewed as preliminary and exploratory, and thus made use of an arbitrary choice of SMIs for
demonstration purposes, as well as a convenience sample of university students. Although representative of an important
marketing demographic, the participants in this study cannot be considered fully representative of the public at large. In
particular, due to their age and familiarity with social media, their responses to SMIs might be significantly different than
people in different age and education demographics. Practitioners interested in this method would be expected to identify
their own relevant SMIs and audiences.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Rebecca Adams, Brian Werter, Anu Menon, Marisa Blume, and Meg Rust for their assistance
in gathering and recording data for this study.
References
Basille, D. (2009). Social media influencers are not traditional influencers. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://www.briansolis.com/2009/11/social-media-
influencers-are-not-traditional-influencers/.
Block, J. (1961). The Q-sort method in personality assessment and psychiatric research. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Block, J. (2008). The Q-sort in character appraisal: Encoding subjective impressions of persons quantitatively. Washington, D.C: American Psychological
Association.
Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., & Freberg, L. (2010). Leaders or snakes in suits: Public perceptions of today’s CEO. In Poster presented at the 22nd
annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science Boston, MA,
Gaines-Ross, L. (2003). CEO capital: A guide to building CEO reputation and company success. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gorry, G. A., & Westbrook, R. A. (2009). Winning the internet confidence game. Corporate Reputation Review,12(3), 195–203.
Reise, S., & Oliver, C. J. (1994). Development of a California Q-set indicator of primary psychopathy. Journal of Personality Assessment,62(1), 130–144.
Reise, S., & Wink, P. (1995). Psychological implications of the psychopathy Q-sort. Journal of Personality Assessment,65(2), 300–312.
Straley, B. (2010). How to: Target social media influencers to boost traffic and sales. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from http://mashable.com/2010/04/15/social-
media-influencers/.
... Nowadays, marketing endorsements have become a key factor in attracting consumers; they are used to achieve a company's goals and good reputation (Lim et al., 2017). In the age of globally connecting technology known as the Internet, media influencers have emerged as endorsers of marketing (Freberg et al., 2011). Media influencer engages the consumers by updating them regularly with the latest knowledge about the most recent information (Liu et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research aims to investigate the impact of social media marketing (SMM) on youth buying behavior in Pakistan. This study is empirically supported by the results of a survey conducted by the authors in ten universities in Lahore city (Pakistan) in March-June 2020 on a sample of 244 students (social media users) aged from 18 to 35. By conceptually dividing social media marketing into SMM advantages and website design & features, the purpose of this study became more specific: (1) to find the relationship between SMM advantages (convenience, timesaving, security of knowledge) and youth buying behavior; (2) to find the relationship between website features & design and youth buying behavior. Results of the analysis of the aggregate influence of SMM advantages on Pakistani youth buying behavior showed that they increase the intention to purchase by 42.9%. At the same time, website design & features used within social media marketing have even more positive effects on youth buying behavior, increasing the intention to purchase by 55.2%. Young buyers in Pakistan prefer attractive and well-designed websites or social media with many unique features for buying products and services. Thus, all research hypotheses are proved based on the survey data: social media marketing raised by unit positively affects Pakistani youth buying behavior by 53.5%, and the rest 46.5% could be conditioned by other non-market external and internal factors. The novelty of this study lies in investigating behavior patterns of the fast-growing segment of consumers of Pakistan, which, are the most active consumers of goods and services and social media users today and in the future.
... The shared travel experiences on social media play a vital role in shaping tourists' awareness, expectations, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors (Liu et al. 2018). Freberg et al. (2011) consider influencers on social media as new forms of third-party endorsers who build audience attitudes via tweets, blogs as well as other social media usage. The role of product/company-related contents produced by social media users in affecting consumer attitudes has been acknowledged by previous authors (Xia and Bechwati 2008;Chevalier and Mayzlin 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of user-generated content (UGC) on intention to select a travel destination (ISTD) in the context that Internet users passively access to travel-related UGC. The paper further examines the mediating role of desire to visit a travel destination (DVTD), destination image, attitude toward visiting a travel destination (AVTD), and envy. This study developed a theoretical model on the basic of existing literature and empirical studies on consumer behavior and UGC. An online questionnaire was used to organize empirical research, and the structural equation model (SEM) method was employed to test the data of 407 respondents. The empirical results suggest that passive access to travel-related UGC (PAU) positively influences ISTD, DVTD, AVTD, and envy. Destination image significantly impacts DVTD, AVTD, and ISTD. DVTD, AVTD, and envy positively affect ISTD. DVTD, AVTD, and envy mediate the relationship between PAU and ISTD. This paper enriches the online consumer behavior research by contributing a predictive model of influence process of the exposure to UGC on user’s intention in the background of tourism industry.
... Influencers, also referred to as "opinion leaders", regularly share their daily life activities, opinions, expertise and recommendations with a large community following them on social networking sites (De Veirman et al., 2017). They also share recommendations and feedback about a specific brand or product (Freberg et al., 2011). In general, influencers are perceived as more trustworthy than traditional ads and other advertising tools (De Veirman et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Instagram health and wellbeing influencers (HWIs) have been increasingly considered as important sources of information and advice for their followers. This study aims to investigate the key antecedents of followers' attitude towards HWIs as well as their influence on their followers' intent to purchase organic products. The moderating effect of gender is also taken into account. Design/methodology/approach Based on data collected from 251 Instagram HWIs followers, the authors empirically tested the conceptual model using structural equation modeling. Findings First, the authors demonstrate that attitude towards HWIs positively impacts followers' attitude towards the promoted brands as well as their intention to purchase organic food brands. Second, followers' attitude towards HWIs is mainly influenced by perceived congruence, influencer credibility, and physical attractiveness. Finally, gender acts as a moderator, e.g. attitude towards HWIs is more likely to be influenced by perceived congruence and physical attractiveness among female followers. Practical implications The findings allow organic brands' managers to understand the key antecedents of followers' attitudes toward HWIs, and therefore, better select talented influencers who are able to create purchase intentions among both existing and potential customers. Originality/value This original research bridges a gap pertaining to the potential use of HWIs to shape consumer intention to purchase organic products. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to investigate the impact of attitudes toward influencers on both brand attitude and purchase intention in the organic food industry.
... Moreover, these individuals maintain their connection to their followers by regularly updating their status (Liu et al., 2012). On social media, influencing can be defined as the capability to stimulate and motivate UGC followers (Freberg et al., 2011). ...
Article
This research investigated the relationship between social media credibility dimensions (trustworthiness and expertise) and online purchase intentions of young Muslim consumers. An additional effect examined was the mediating role of attitude. The study critically analysed the literature and developed a model to conceptualise the relationships among variables and provide theoretical and empirical evidence. The quantitative design was applied using a cross-sectional survey method. The sample data was N=409. The questionnaire was designed based on the analysis of the literature. Furthermore, Smart PLS 3 and IBM SPSS 25 were used to conduct the analysis. The analysis indicated that the measurement model met all requirements. The results showed that trustworthiness positively influences online intentions and is fully mediated by attitude. Expertise positively influences online intentions, which is partially mediated by attitude. Finally, the study recommends that other features of social media influencers need to be investigated such as the attractiveness of a social media influencer.
Article
Full-text available
EN: In keeping with the trend of the attention economy, social media influencer marketing is a growth market that runs across the lifestyle themes of beauty, luxury, fashion, travel, and food. This article explores the status quo of this phenomenon and highlights current trends and the resulting challenges for marketers and influencers. DE: Social-Media-Influencer-Marketing ist ganz im Trend der Aufmerksamkeitsökonomie ein Wachstumsmarkt, der über die Lifestyle-Themen Beauty, Luxury, Fashion, Travel und Food hinweg verläuft. Dieser Beitrag erforscht den Status quo dieses Phänomens und zeigt aktuelle Trends sowie die daraus resultierenden Herausforderungen für Marketers sowie Influencerinnen und Influencer auf.
Article
Dramaturgical analysis has been applied by scholars to social media influencers, but how props and settings are used to signal identity is understudied. This study uses a series of in-depth interviews with Latina influencers who live and work in a mid-size city on the U.S./Mexico border and an analysis of corresponding posts to explore how props and settings can be used to signal gender and race while also communicating authenticity. The findings show that influencers have to carefully and strategically navigate the use of props and settings not to appear fake and contrived. They blend the use of frontstage props with calibrated sharing of backstage settings to approximate an authentic online performance of their branded identity that is approachable but also monetizable. When performing their gender, the influencers adopt a having-it-all performance, balancing family, beauty, career success, and health while using backstage settings to create connection. Finally, Latina influencers on the border portray it as a setting that differs from its mainstream representation as a place to avoid. They also strategically deploy Latina identity to market themselves and localize national trends.
Article
Full-text available
Günümüzde, tüketicilerin sosyal medyada geçirdiği sürenin artması, sosyal medya fenomenlerinin takipçileri üzerindeki etkisini arttırmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, bir mesaj kaynağı olarak görülen Instagram fenomenlerinin, çekicilik, güvenilirlik ve uzmanlık özelliklerinin, tanıtmış oldukları markaya karşı tutum ve satın alma niyeti oluşturmaya yönelik etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırmanın evrenini, Instagram üzerinden ürün tanıtan en az bir fenomeni takip eden Karabük Üniversitesi öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Bu evrenden kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle elde edilen 343 veri yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, fenomenin tanıtmış olduğu markaya yönelik tutum üzerinde, fenomenin uzmanlık ve güvenilirlik özelliklerinin, pozitif yönde anlamlı etkisi bulunmuştur. Markaya yönelik satın alma niyeti üzerinde ise fenomenin çekicilik özelliğinin ve markaya karşı oluşan tutumun anlamlı ve pozitif bir etkisinin olduğu görülmüştür. Bu nedenle, reklam verenler, markaya karşı tutum oluşturmak için tercih edecekleri fenomenleri, alanında uzman ve güvenilir olarak algılanan kişilerden seçmeye dikkat etmelidir. Satın alma niyeti oluşturmak için ise çekici olarak algılanan fenomenler ile çalışmayı tercih edebilirler.
Article
Full-text available
Dijital dönüşüm tüketicileri de birer içerik üreticisi konumuna taşıyarak markalar ve tüketiciler arasında gerçekleşen iletişim sürecinin dinamiklerinin değişmesine neden olmuştur. Bu sürecin bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkan etkileyici pazarlama, markalar ve tüketiciler arasında samimi ve güvenilir ilişkilerin inşa edilmesini kolaylaştıran bir pazarlama stratejisidir. Diğer yandan dijitalleşme ile hayatımıza giren ve sosyal hayatın hemen her alanında etkisini hissettirmeye başlayan bir diğer kavram olan post-hakikat, kamuoyu oluşturmada kişisel inanç, duygu ve düşüncelerin nesnel gerçeklerden daha etkili olması durumu olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Etkileyici pazarlama ve post-hakikat ile ilgili literatür incelendiğinde bu kavramların ortaya çıkmasına ve yükselişe geçmesine zemin hazırlayan unsurların benzerlik gösterdiği görülmektedir. Buradan hareketle bu çalışma ile ilk olarak post-hakikat olgusunu etkileyici pazarlama açısından analiz etmek, ikinci olarak ise etkileyici pazarlama uygulamalarının hedef kitle üzerindeki etkilerini post-hakikat bağlamında tartışmak amaçlanmaktadır. Bu amaçlar doğrultusunda çalışmanın literatür taraması bölümünde etkileyici pazarlama ve post-hakikat kavramları ele alınarak uygulama kısmında 14 katılımcı ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmış ve elde edilen veriler betimsel analiz yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda katılımcıların takip ettikleri etkileyiciler bağlamında kişisel inanç, duygu ve düşünceleri ile hareket ettikleri, takip edilen etkileyicilerin samimi ve güvenilir bir bilgi kaynağı olarak kabul edildiği ve WOM’un başlatıcısı ve dağıtıcısı konumunda oldukları tespit edilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda post-hakikatin etkilerinin etkileyici pazarlama uygulamaları aracılığıyla tüketicilerin davranışlarına da yansıdığı ve etkileyicilerin doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak post-hakikat olgusunun meşrulaşmasına ve pekişmesine zemin hazırlayabilecekleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Article
Small stories research has recently been extended as a paradigm for interrogating the current storytelling boom on social media, which includes the design of stories as specific features on a range of platforms. This algorithmic engineering of stories has led to the hugely popular feature of Stories on Snapchat and Instagram (also Facebook and Weibo). This article offers a methodology for studying such designed stories, underpinned by a technographic, corpus-assisted narrative analysis that tracks media affordances, including platforms’ directives to users for how to tell stories and what stories to tell, discourses about stories as platformed features, and communicative practices. The article specifically focuses on the directive of authenticity in the storytellers’ self-presentation with data from influencers’ Instagram Stories. Authenticity is attestable in the values underlying the design of stories, the affordances offered, and the storytelling practices that these commonly lead to. The article singles out three constituents of authenticity vis-à-vis each of the above: the design of stories as vehicles for “imperfect sharing” and an amateur aesthetic; visual and textual affordances for sharing life-in-the moment; and the deployment of specific genres of small stories that anchor the tellings onto the here and now. These enregister a type of teller who offers a believable account of themselves and their life through affording an eyewitnessing quality to their audiences and access to their everyday.
Chapter
The research aims to understand the degree of acceptance of biodigital influencers by communication and marketing professionals. The semi-qualitative methodological approach is based on 2 group interviews spaced 3 weeks apart with communication and marketing professionals. The first survey proves that in France in 2021, the majority of respondents do not know these characters. They first express a feeling of fear and lack of ethics at the idea of considering promoting a company or a product and influencing their targets through this virtual technological means. In a second step, a month of reflection later, the second results show that professionals agree to work with biodigitals to stay in step with the market in a digitized and innovative world. The limits of the study consider a context of French culture. The results therefore underline the perception of an innovative digital culture by communication professionals in France. This study proves the existence of an initial reluctance to use biodigitals, but that it is mitigated by a period of reflection. In conclusion, these innovative results allow to understand that a professional in communication or marketing may face a latency period before agreeing to work with biodigitals. This unique research also makes it possible to initiate the literature review concerning biodigitals and to note their potential breakthrough in the field of communication and marketing.
Article
• In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In major organizations today, senior management is increasingly apprehensive about the threats to company reputation from Internet criticism and rumor rapidly spreading through online communities. We believe the source of the threat lies in the emerging culture of the Internet, which has been largely ignored by practitioners and academics alike. In particular, the Internet has fundamentally altered the notion of authority. Where it once vested in the few, authority has now become the claim of many, who are empowered and emboldened by the Internet. Managing damage to company reputation, however, requires more than adapting traditional media relations to the Internet. In addition, we believe it requires business leaders to re-invigorate their connections with customers and encourage their employees to speak to customers directly and forthrightly about their own work, plans and aspirations related to company's products and services.
Article
For over half a century, the Q-sort procedure has been fruitfully used to quantitatively and systematically characterize individual personalities in a variety of clinical and other settings. Through the years, the technique has been greatly enhanced by subsequent conceptual and methodological developments and has gained wide currency in a host of appraisal settings. In this long-awaited expansion of his classic 1961 monograph, Jack Block traces the history, rationale, and productive ramifications of the Q-sort technique, as implemented by the long-established California Q-sort. Major versions of the Q-sort currently in use are included, complete with detailed instructions, empirically based savvy, and descriptive "prototypes" especially apt for the individual sorter's reference frame. Clinical and personality psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and graduate students will find this book to be the definitive work on an important and underused personality assessment tool. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Seven judges described the personality characteristics of the primary psychopath by sorting the 100 items of the California Q-set in a forced-normal distribution. Item scores resulting from these sorts were aggregated across judges to form a Psychopathy Prototype. The reliability of the seven-judge aggregate prototype was .90. To examine the reliability of scores derived from the prototype, the personalities of 65 target subjects were described by two peer judges using the California Q-set (Block, 1961). For each subject, Psychopathy Prototype scores were derived by correlating each judge's Q-sort profile with the Psychopathy Prototype. Findings indicated that the peer-generated psychopathy scores correlated r = .61 between judges. Using the Spearman-Brown formula, Psychopathy Prototype scores have reliabilities of .75, .82, and .86 when aggregated over two, three, and four peer judges, respectively. To further explore properties of the measure, the Psychopathy Prototype was compared with independently developed California Q-set prototypes describing the narcissist and the female hysteric. The results revealed some interesting contrasts among these concepts and serve to support our contention that the Psychopathy Prototype has utility in regard to distinguishing between pathologies with overlapping features.
Article
The construct validity of the Psychopathy Q-sort (PQS; Reise & Oliver, 1994) was investigated by correlating it with an array of observer-based and self-report personality measures in a sample of 350 men and women assessed at the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR). High discriminant validity of the PQS was indicated by a pattern of significant correlations with self-report measures of the Cluster B personality disorder scales of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and the absence of correlations with scales belonging to Clusters A and C of the manual. The PQS also correlated positively with the California Psychological Inventory measures of social poise and assurance and correlated negatively with measures of normative control of impulse. Gender differences in psychopathy were explored using Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983) ratings provided by IPAR staff observers and by 76 pairs of spouses.
Leaders or snakes in suits: Public perceptions of today's CEO CEO capital: A guide to building CEO reputation and company success
  • K Freberg
  • K Graham
  • K Mcgaughey
  • L Science Freberg
  • Ma Boston
  • L Gaines-Ross
Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., & Freberg, L. (2010). Leaders or snakes in suits: Public perceptions of today's CEO. In Poster presented at the 22nd annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science Boston, MA, Gaines-Ross, L. (2003). CEO capital: A guide to building CEO reputation and company success. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Social media influencers are not traditional influencers
  • D Basille
Basille, D. (2009). Social media influencers are not traditional influencers. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from http://www.briansolis.com/2009/11/social-mediainfluencers-are-not-traditional-influencers/.
How to: Target social media influencers to boost traffic and sales
  • B Straley
Straley, B. (2010). How to: Target social media influencers to boost traffic and sales. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from http://mashable.com/2010/04/15/socialmedia-influencers/.