Article

An Evolving Science–Society Contract in India: The Search for Legitimacy in Anticipatory Risk Governance

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Abstract

This article analyzes evolving institutions and practices of anticipatory risk governance in India, through the lens of two recent and highly controversial developments in governing genetically modified crops in Indian agriculture. These developments include, first, conflicts over approving (or not) the very first genetically modified food crop in India and a related experiment in participatory decision-making; and second, proposals to revamp the existing biosafety regulatory system (with its checks and balances across diverse sources of authority) with one that elevates scientists and scientific expertise to the pinnacle of decision-making power. The article analyzes the distinct means by which legitimacy is sought to be conferred upon the means and ends of anticipatory risk governance, as reflected in these two examples. I contrast claims to legitimacy deriving from innovative experiments in participatory democracy with legitimacy claims based upon “objective” science, showing that despite acknowledged need for the former, the latter is still being prioritized. The article concludes by identifying the contours of an evolving science-society contract in India, as revealed by these cases.

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... In controversial areas such as introduction of new technologies, generating socially relevant knowledge concerning evidence and risks becomes important for mediating political and normative conflicts. Fundamental questions concerning sources of expertise and problem framing become important (Gupta 2011). To fully understand the story told by proponents and opponents of agricultural biotechnology in the policy process, scholars have to investigate the sources of expertise that they rely on and how risks are articulated by opposing coalitions. ...
... Scientists communicate using terms related to "probability, uncertainty, frequency, and magnitude" while citizens focus on language based on "cultural values, cognitive biases, local knowledge, and experiences" (Raile et al. 2018, 2). Irrespective of the language used, risk communication is essential to political and policy dialogue in diverse policy domains, especially those that are characterized by risk (Golding, Krimsky, and Plough 1992;Gupta 2011;Herring 2015a;Kellens, Terpstra, and De Maeyer 2013;Lawlor and Crow 2018;Wachinger et al. 2013). ...
... The controversy surrounding Bt eggplant was intense and the dialogue often focused on risks from planting the crop. Even though Bt eggplant carried the same transgene for insect resistance as Bt cotton (cry1Ac) and underwent the same regulatory process, its risk assessment for regulation was controversial (Gupta 2011). With Bt cotton, economic interests dominated (see Herring (2015a, b) for a detailed discussion on the Bt cotton controversy) but with Bt eggplant, the politics of risk dominated, especially given the susceptibility of food crops to "anxiety framings" (Herring and Paarlberg 2016, 410). ...
Article
en Although introduced more than two decades ago, agricultural biotechnology remains contentious. New technologies bring uncertainty concerning their risks and promises and create new policy process challenges for governments assessing risks and benefits in the face of contradictory evidence. Stakeholders typically claim to have evidence to support their positions, which often focuses on risks and benefits. Using the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF), this study examines the commercialization process for a genetically modified variety of eggplant in India focusing on evidence in support of claims concerning risks and benefits in policy narratives. It examines how evidence and risk are used within policy narratives and explores possible links with setting and plot since the latest NPF research situates evidence and risk in that context. Findings indicate that stakeholders use evidence, risks, and benefits differently, often in connection with other narrative elements and strategies. Proponents de‐emphasize risks and exclusively highlight benefits while opponents invoke multidimensional risk. Evidence was used to portray heroes, villains, victims, and beneficiaries and, since plot situates characters in time and space, there is some support for situating evidence within plot. Risks and benefits were employed as a narrative strategy to expand or limit the scope of the policy issue and were articulated through policy problems. Setting in policy narratives includes policy problems lending support to situating risks and benefits within setting. Findings have implications on the role of evidence and risks and benefits within policy narratives. Related Articles Crow, Deserai A., Lydia A. Lawhon, John Berggren, Juhi Huda, and Elizabeth Koebele Adrianne Kroepsch. 2017. “A Narrative Policy Framework Analysis of Wildfire Policy Discussions in two Colorado Communities.” Politics & Policy 45 (4): 626‐656. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12207 Shanahan, Elizabeth A., Mark K. McBeth, and Paul L. Hathaway. 2011. “Narrative Policy Framework: The Influence of Media Policy Narrative on Public Opinion.” Politics & Policy 39 (3): 373‐400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747‐1346.2011.00295.x Smith‐Walter, Aaron, Holly L. Peterson, Michael D. Jones, and Ashley Nicole Reynolds Marshall. 2016. “Gun Stories: How Evidence Shapes Firearm Policy in the United States.” Politics & Policy 44 (6): 1053‐1088. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12187 Abstract es Fuentes de evidencia de riesgos y beneficios en la política de biotecnología agrícola en la India: exploración de vínculos con el entorno y la trama en las narrativas de políticas Aunque se introdujo hace más de dos décadas, la biotecnología agrícola sigue siendo polémica. Las nuevas tecnologías generan incertidumbre sobre sus riesgos y promesas y crean nuevos desafíos en los procesos de políticas para los gobiernos que evalúan los riesgos y beneficios frente a pruebas contradictorias. Las partes interesadas suelen afirmar tener pruebas para respaldar sus posiciones, que a menudo se centran en los riesgos y beneficios. Utilizando el Marco de Política Narrativa (NPF), este estudio examina el proceso de comercialización de una variedad de berenjena modificada genéticamente en la India, centrándose en la evidencia que respalda las afirmaciones sobre riesgos y beneficios en las narrativas de las políticas. Examina cómo se utilizan la evidencia y el riesgo en las narrativas de las políticas y explora los posibles vínculos con el escenario y la trama, ya que la última investigación de NPF sitúa la evidencia y el riesgo en ese contexto. Los hallazgos indican que las partes interesadas utilizan la evidencia, los riesgos y los beneficios de manera diferente, a menudo en conexión con otros elementos narrativos y estrategias. Los defensores restan importancia a los riesgos y resaltan exclusivamente los beneficios, mientras que los oponentes invocan riesgos multidimensionales. La evidencia se utilizó para retratar a héroes, villanos, víctimas y beneficiarios y, dado que la trama sitúa a los personajes en el tiempo y el espacio, existe cierto apoyo para ubicar la evidencia dentro de la trama. Los riesgos y beneficios se emplearon como una estrategia narrativa para ampliar o limitar el alcance del problema de política y se articularon a través de problemas de política. El establecimiento de narrativas de políticas incluye problemas de políticas que brindan apoyo para ubicar los riesgos y beneficios dentro del entorno. Los hallazgos tienen implicaciones sobre el papel de la evidencia y los riesgos y beneficios dentro de las narrativas de políticas. Abstract zh 有关印度农业生物技术政策风险与收益的证据来源:探究其与政策叙事中的背景和情节的联系 尽管20多年前就引入了农业生物技术,但其仍存在争议。新技术带来了有关其风险和承诺的不确定性,并在面对矛盾的证据时给评估风险和收益的政府创造了新的政策过程挑战。利益攸关方一般声称拥有支持其立场的证据,这些证据常常聚焦于风险和收益。通过使用叙事政策框架(NPF),本研究分析了一种转基因茄子的商业化过程,聚焦于政策叙事中风险和收益主张的支持证据。本研究分析了证据和风险在政策叙事中的运用方式,并探究了这与背景和情节的可能联系(鉴于最新NPF研究将证据和风险置于此情境中)。研究发现表明,利益攸关方以不同方式使用证据、风险和收益,这经常与其他叙事要素及策略有关。支持者不强调风险,专门强调收益,而反对者则提及多维度风险。证据被用于描述正面人物、反面人物、受害者和受益者,并且由于情节将不同角色置于特定的时间和空间,部分研究认为应将证据置于情节中。风险和收益作为一种叙事策略进行应用,以扩大或限制政策议题的范围,并通过政策问题得以清晰化。政策叙述中的背景包括一系列政策问题,后者支持将风险和收益置于背景中。研究发现对政策叙事中证据、风险和收益所发挥的作用产生了影响。
... The relationship between science and society is an ever-changing contract on what scientific evidence is considered legitimate and how the public perceives the credibility of public institutions (Gupta, 2011). Scientific knowledge in agriculture has become one of the main frontiers of public debate with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO, GM) crops emerging as a controversial topic among many stakeholders including consumers, farmers, industry, NGOs, and government agencies. ...
... The regulatory institution for approving GE crops was immature and limited, and the corporation Mahyco (partially owned by Monsanto) dominated the seed market. Public backlash arose as perceptions of GE crops began to fuel a controversial debate on agricultural biotechnology, dominated by anti-corporate sentiments (Gupta, 2011;R. J. Herring, 2005R. ...
... This superiority complex can result in citizens becoming alienated from policy debates surrounding the conceptualization of issues and ethics of contentious debates about scientific knowledge (Yearley, 2008). The GMO debate in India is a succinct example of a postcolonial society that has remained critical of new technologies introduced by foreign entities (Gupta, 2011;Herring & Paarlberg, 2016). ...
Thesis
This research investigates the public controversy of three GE crops in India over time and the resulting regulatory debate. A combined approach of political ecology (PE) and science and technology studies (STS) guides analysis on how politics influence stakeholder representations of scientific knowledge on GE crops in relation to human-environment interactions.The introduction of Bt cotton cultivation signified the first transgenic crop approved after pressure from corporate-led and farmer-mobilized actors, but adverse consequences continue to shape the debate for future seed introductions. Subsequently, immense public opposition instigated a moratorium on Bt brinjal in 2010, a result of the regulatory clash of scientific expertise and public opinion. This research expands on the literature using a PE/STS lens describing the current regulatory approval process for a biotech mustard variety and potential costs and benefits, paying specific attention to farmer representation. Despite the differences in characteristics and risks of insect resistant Bt crops compared to hybrid biotech mustard, GE crops opponents homogenize the various technology due to fears of consumption and environmental risks, building on the mixed legacy of Bt cotton and Bt brinjal. Consumer opposition takes precedence in the eyes of policymakers while farmer voices remain essentialized and marginalized despite their intrinsic vulnerability to regulatory failures and the unintended consequences of introducing novel technology to crop production. The overall evolution of the GE debate in India through this analysis of three crops provides insight into current regulatory indecision and the future of transgenic technology in Indian agriculture.
... However, as with climate change, different political dynamics produce different outcomes. As Aarti Gupta (2011) argues from work on India, a viable 'science-society contract' is elusive, and contested on grounds of the credibility of state institutions in which science is done and evaluated. Without such a contract, the legitimacy of state sciencewhatever its 'objective' standing in the epistemic community of scientistswill prove unstable. ...
... There is adequate supply and great diversity of the brinjal crop in India. Risk thus presents a difficult question for promoters of biotechnology; as Gupta (2011) argues, the political problem for transgenics is that governance must inevitably deal with 'anticipatory risk'. Since the Bt brinjal is a transgenic crop, assessment of its risk and safety was delegated by statute to the GEAC of the Ministry of Environment. ...
... The NGO FBAE (Foundation for Biotechnology Awareness and Education) presented its global petition from scientists defending GEAC conclusions to the Minister of Agriculture, not Environment, but the tactic failed because the forum itself lacked statutory power. The new institution promised by Minister Rameshnow the Biosafety Regulatory Act of India, or BRAIremained in 2014 stalemated in Parliament, precisely for the reason identified by Aarti Gupta (2011): the absence of any workable 'science-society contract'. One dimension of this stalemate has been the specific location of regulatory science in the state: whether under the ministry of science and technology or environment and forests. ...
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Article
Agricultural biotechnology has been a project of India's developmental state since 1986, but implementation generated significant conflict. Sequential cases of two crops carrying the same transgene – Bt cotton and Bt brinjal (eggplant/aubergine) – facing the same authorization procedures produced different outcomes. The state science that approved Bt cotton was attacked as biased and dangerously inadequate by opponents, but the technology spread to virtually universal adoption by farmers. Bt aubergine was approved by the same Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), but the decision was overruled, the GEAC downgraded and a moratorium imposed on the crop. Resultant conflicts engaged international networks, expanded the domestic arena in which science is contested and instigated restructuring of institutions for governance of genetic engineering. Divergent trajectories of the two crops corresponded to global patterns, but also reflected differences in agro-ecologies and state interests. In Bt cotton, state and cultivator interests dominated precautionary logics; in Bt eggplant, politics of risk dominated questions of agro-economics. The cases illustrate both the inherent vulnerability of science in politics and specific vulnerabilities of science embedded in particular institutions. Differences in institutional specificity of state science matter politically in explaining variation across countries in adoption and rejection of genetically engineered crops.
... Whether and how to systematically include socio-economic factors in domestic decision-making is related, more broadly, to debates about democratic modes of risk governance as a way to lend legitimacy to contested risk and safety decisions (Jasanoff 2004(Jasanoff , 2005Lövbrand et al. 2011). In a recent analysis of the evolving domestic biosafety regime in India, Gupta (2011), for example, identifies two contrasting (and contradictory) sources of legitimacy that the Indian governance architecture has relied upon in reaching contested biosafety decisions: objective science versus democratic deliberation. ...
... This paradoxical outcome -namely relying on democratic deliberation as a way to legitimize risk-related decisions, but nonetheless calling on objective science to serve as ultimate arbiter of conflicting views -highlights the continued deference to science as a way to legitimize contested risk decisions. Yet, as Gupta (2011) concludes, the brinjal experience makes clear that biosafety governance in India will perforce have to engage with (potentially messy) democratic decision-making processes, even if these are seen as ad hoc in a global context. The challenge lies in how to institutionalize deliberative processes so as to rely on them in a systematic manner in making risk-related societal choices. ...
... Jasanoff (2005) analyzes, for example, the distinctive evolution of biotechnology and biosafety trajectories across OECD countries, and the role of distinct risk rationalities and political cultures therein. Building on this, a future global biosafety research agenda requires further delineation of what democratizing risk governance can mean in diverse global and national contexts (Jasanoff 2004(Jasanoff , 2006Gupta 2011;Lövbrand et al. 2011) and how it might be linked to imperatives of sovereignty and markets that shape technological trajectories. ...
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Chapter
Biosafety: An Anticipatory Governance Challenge Use of the techniques of modern biotechnology in agriculture and food produc-tion has given rise to impassioned debates over the last two decades about the benefits versus the risks posed by genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and prod-ucts thereof. So-called transgenic varieties now constitute significant percentages of important globally traded commodity crops, such as maize, canola, soybean, and cotton (James 2011). Governance of such products and ensuring their biosafety (i.e. safe uptake and use) remains a quintessentially anticipatory challenge, one where the very existence and nature of risk and harm remains scientifically and normatively contested (Gupta 2001; see also Guston 2010). Its anticipatory nature is related to the existence of "epistemological uncertainty" in this domain, whereby uncertainty and outright unknowability "lies at the core of a problem" (Funtowicz and Ravetz 1992: 259). Such uncertainty complicates the process of devising appropriate, adaptable, and stable biosafety governance arrangements. Anticipatory governance has to co-evolve with rapid socio-technical and environmental change, the contours of which are not easily discernible. Global governance of GMOs has thus been shaped by the contested nature of con-cerns over potential environmental, human health, and socio-economic risks posed by GMOs and the resultant diverse framings of the nature of the governance chal-lenge. This chapter reviews current global policy approaches to biosafety, including their central elements as well as potential conflicts between the global institutions wherein they take shape. It also reviews the national ramifications of existing global biosafety policy approaches.
... Fourth, there is a more critical line of research with explicit reference to anticipatory governance in global environmental governance and environmental policy literatures (Gupta, 2001(Gupta, , 2004(Gupta, , 2011Jansen & Gupta, 2009;Mittelstadt et al., 2015;Talberg, Thomas, Christoff, & Karoly, 2018; see also Low, 2017). Anticipatory governance is understood here as the attempt to govern under conditions of extreme scientific uncertainty and normative conflict over the very existence and nature of future environmental and technological risk and harm (Gupta, 2001(Gupta, , 2004(Gupta, , 2013. ...
... In discussing the role of science in responses to climate change (Hulme, 2010), climate engineering (Gupta & Möller, 2018;Low, 2017), or other domains of sustainability, such an approach to anticipation questions whether expert-driven visioning is merely a technical process that can objectively and neutrally engage with the future (see also Mittelstadt et al., 2015). In this view, claim-making about the future must instead be analyzed as a site of political negotiation and conflict (Gupta, 2011; see also Jansen & Gupta, 2009;Talberg et al., 2018). The key focus is to identify the discursive effects of frames or fabrications of the future as they are generated and advanced through practices of anticipation; and to study how these exert power over the present. ...
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Article
In times of accelerating earth system transformations and their potentially disruptive societal consequences, imagining and governing the future is now a core challenge for sustainability research and practice. Much social science and sustainability science scholarship increasingly engages with the future. There is, however, a lack of scrutiny of how the future is envisioned in these literatures, and with what implications for governance in the present. This article analyses these two aspects, building on the concept of “anticipatory governance.” We understand anticipatory governance to broadly mean governing in the present to adapt to or shape uncertain futures. We review perspectives within public policy, futures studies, social–ecological systems, environmental policy and governance, transition studies, science and technology studies, and responsible research and innovation literatures. All these literatures engage explicitly or implicitly with the notion of anticipatory governance, yet from distinct ontological and epistemological starting points. Through our review, we identify four approaches to anticipatory governance that differ with regard to (a) their conceptions of and engagement with the future; (b) their implications for actions to be taken in the present; and (c) the ultimate end to be realized through anticipatory governance. We then map onto these four approaches a diverse set of methods and tools of anticipation that each engages with. In concluding, we discuss how these four approaches provide a useful analytical lens through which to assess ongoing practices of anticipatory governance in the climate and sustainability realm. This article is categorized under: Policy and Governance > Multilevel and Transnational Climate Change Governance
... Furthermore, the BRAI bill is contested for compromising diverse perspectives on regulatory decisions that affect the livelihoods of millions of farmers for the sake of speed and ease for the industry. The controversies associated with the different phases of agribiotechnology in India suggest an evolving science-society relationship (Gupta, 2011). These sustained debates and contestation, going on for almost two decades now, have proven to be a very important exercise for not only the scope and role of science in politics but also the democratic imagination of science itself (Bijker, 2006;Jasanoff, 2005). ...
... With the experience of the previous years of interaction with each other, both pro-and anti-GM groups had evolved their strategies and mechanisms of engagement. The pro-GM scientific establishment and technocracy worked toward building more opaque walls around science for excluding the "outsiders" through the establishment of a single-window system for regulatory approval and clearance of GMOs in the form of BRAI (Gupta, 2011). Dissatisfied by the interference of the MoEF and other government agencies, BRAI was proposed to work under the DBT, as compared with the multiple ministerial governance mechanisms originally put in place. ...
Article
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and scientific controversies are often the common denominators in most of the cases that have significantly shaped science and society relationships in the Global South during the past two decades. National and international NGOs and their network have often facilitated the “opening up” of regulatory governance in multiple sectors. This article draws from three cases—the bottled water controversy, the agribiotechnology debates, and the nanotechnology initiatives—and charts out the role of the NGOs and controversies in (re)defining the science-society relationship in India. The three cases illustrate how NGOs and controversies by their presence or absence at various stages of technology development shape the regulation-making exercise and the overall regulatory governance of science and technology.
... The inability of emerging technologies to take account of this complex and interconnected global-local context keeps them from engaging with the broader socio-cultural milieu in which they are supposed to operate. The situation of 'policy-logjam' (Chaturvedi and Srinivas 2013) in the case of agribiotechnology in India asserts a need for re-thinking the existing models of governance and the instruments of trust and legitimacy in the science-society relationships (Gupta 2011). In this regard, the next section focuses on what constitutes the agri-food system in India? ...
... In India, the relationship between science and society is at the crossroads. The indeterminacy of the state actors to address issues of legitimacy concerned with science and expertise in the controversies surrounding Bt cotton, Bt brinjal and BRAI bill supports this claim (Pandey 2013;Gupta 2011). Despite being in a situation of constant flux, the dominant understanding of the science-society relationship, in framing nanotechnology initiatives and missions still seem to stem from the 'deficit-model' where the 'public' needs to be informed (Nanomission 2007). ...
... This is a serious problem, because science is given an instrumental role in legitimating policy, and competing knowledge is usually used solely for questioning the presented data and facts, not for questioning the reasons for policies or the specific ways in which the science is being framed, specific models are employed and its results are articulated. If the development plans can only be contested on scientific grounds without debate on political aspects, then the opponents have to argue over scientific facts even though they might be actually opposing the plans for other reasons such as political one (Demeritt, 2006;Gupta, 2011;Gupta et al., 2012). Such an approach hides politics behind the employed models or results, and can finally result in a problematic "technicalization" of politics (Gupta, 2011), "politicization" of science (Gupta et al., 2012), or "de-politicization" of development decisions (Käkönen and Hirsch, 2010). ...
... If the development plans can only be contested on scientific grounds without debate on political aspects, then the opponents have to argue over scientific facts even though they might be actually opposing the plans for other reasons such as political one (Demeritt, 2006;Gupta, 2011;Gupta et al., 2012). Such an approach hides politics behind the employed models or results, and can finally result in a problematic "technicalization" of politics (Gupta, 2011), "politicization" of science (Gupta et al., 2012), or "de-politicization" of development decisions (Käkönen and Hirsch, 2010). If this paradigm is not opened, the politics behind seemingly science-based decisions are not really brought into the debate. ...
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Conference Paper
The “Rivers without Boundaries” International Coalition Coordinator describes modes of NGO involvement in solving environmental problems in the region, make suggestions on coordination and cooperation between green groups and expert community. Examples of projects on climate adaptation, assessing hydropower impacts, preventing mining damage to rivers, comprehensive planning for future NGO activities show that NGO work is utilizing diverse scientific knowledge and needs constant support from expert community. The author argues that with current unfavorable trends in the region cooperation between expert community and environmental civil groups should be strengthened.
... The inability of emerging technologies to take account of this complex and interconnected global-local context keeps them from engaging with the broader socio-cultural milieu in which they are supposed to operate. The situation of 'policy-logjam' (Chaturvedi and Srinivas 2013) in the case of agribiotechnology in India asserts a need for re-thinking the existing models of governance and the instruments of trust and legitimacy in the science-society relationships (Gupta 2011). In this regard, the next section focuses on what constitutes the agri-food system in India? ...
... In India, the relationship between science and society is at the crossroads. The indeterminacy of the state actors to address issues of legitimacy concerned with science and expertise in the controversies surrounding Bt cotton, Bt brinjal and BRAI bill supports this claim (Pandey 2013;Gupta 2011). Despite being in a situation of constant flux, the dominant understanding of the science-society relationship, in framing nanotechnology initiatives and missions still seem to stem from the 'deficit-model' where the 'public' needs to be informed (Nanomission 2007). ...
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Article
In India and other developing countries water security and food and nutrition security are intricately connected. Developments in nanotechnology can have significant implications for water resources augmentation, conservation and use. A framework for assessment of the potential of nanotechnology applications for enhancing water security is developed. Water filtration, waste water treatment and remediation, monitoring water quality and soil moisture and irrigation systems are identified as key determinants of water security that have significant implications for food and nutrition security, which can be impacted by developments in nanotechnology. Using literature and patent data, a model to organise and map nanoresearch areas to the water security determinants is developed. The model is based on a specially designed database, which allows identification and prioritisation of nanotechnologies to enhance water security. The potential for commercialisation of some promising nanotechnologies is also assessed.
... The inability of emerging technologies to take account of this complex and interconnected global-local context keeps them from engaging with the broader socio-cultural milieu in which they are supposed to operate. The situation of 'policy-logjam' (Chaturvedi and Srinivas 2013) in the case of agribiotechnology in India asserts a need for re-thinking the existing models of governance and the instruments of trust and legitimacy in the science-society relationships (Gupta 2011). In this regard, the next section focuses on what constitutes the agri-food system in India? ...
... In India, the relationship between science and society is at the crossroads. The indeterminacy of the state actors to address issues of legitimacy concerned with science and expertise in the controversies surrounding Bt cotton, Bt brinjal and BRAI bill supports this claim (Pandey 2013;Gupta 2011). Despite being in a situation of constant flux, the dominant understanding of the science-society relationship, in framing nanotechnology initiatives and missions still seem to stem from the 'deficit-model' where the 'public' needs to be informed (Nanomission 2007). ...
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Food packaging is an important factor in maintaining the quality of the food. The environmental concerns on using synthetic petrochemical based packaging materials due to their non-biodegradable nature necessitated in developing biodegradable films from natural polymers such as cellulose, starch, gelatin and chitosan. However, owing to their inherent limitations of poor mechanical and barrier properties, the bio-polymer based packaging films could not replace the synthetic packaging materials. The need to improve the properties of these biopolymer films has been fulfilled by nanotechnology interventions leading to the development of nanocomposite films incorporated with nano materials in the form of either nano-fibers or nano-whiskers. In last decade, several bionanocomposite films have been developed and evaluated for food packaging. Recent advances in the development of food packaging films allowed integrating bioactive molecules (active packaging) to extend the shelf-life of food and incorporating biosensors (smart packaging) to recognise spoilage of food. Additional efforts are needed for commercial production of bionanocomposite films to realise the importance of food packaging in reducing the colossal wastage of food and food products without causing any environmental concerns.
... The inability of emerging technologies to take account of this complex and interconnected global-local context keeps them from engaging with the broader socio-cultural milieu in which they are supposed to operate. The situation of 'policy-logjam' (Chaturvedi and Srinivas 2013) in the case of agribiotechnology in India asserts a need for re-thinking the existing models of governance and the instruments of trust and legitimacy in the science-society relationships (Gupta 2011). In this regard, the next section focuses on what constitutes the agri-food system in India? ...
... In India, the relationship between science and society is at the crossroads. The indeterminacy of the state actors to address issues of legitimacy concerned with science and expertise in the controversies surrounding Bt cotton, Bt brinjal and BRAI bill supports this claim (Pandey 2013;Gupta 2011). Despite being in a situation of constant flux, the dominant understanding of the science-society relationship, in framing nanotechnology initiatives and missions still seem to stem from the 'deficit-model' where the 'public' needs to be informed (Nanomission 2007). ...
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Article
FAO recently commissioned a unique series of 19 case studies where agricultural biotechnologies were used to serve the needs of smallholders in developing countries. Most involved a single crop, livestock or fish species and a single biotechnology. The biotechnologies covered include some that are considered quite traditional, such as artificial insemination and fermentation, as well as other more modern ones, such as the use of DNA-based approaches to detect pathogens, but not genetic modification. From the case studies, we have drawn ten general and interrelated lessons which can be used to inform and assist policy-makers when deciding on potential interventions involving biotechnologies for smallholders in developing countries. These include: the absolute necessity for government commitment and backing from donors and international agencies, and of partnerships, both nationally and internationally, and also with the farmers themselves in the planning and implementation of programmes while bearing in mind also the need to retain flexibility in order to respond appropriately to evolving circumstances; and the recognition that while long-term investments in science and technology are critical, the successful use of biotechnologies also requires their appropriate integration with other sources of science-based and traditional knowledge. For the 19 case studies, there were no indications that intellectual property issues, access to genetic resources or specific regulatory mechanisms constrained use of any of the biotechnologies or their products. It was also concluded that planning, monitoring and evaluation of biotechnology applications was weak and should be strengthened. Document can be downloaded from http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/as351e/as351e.pdf
... Only after the village government agreed upon the village boundaries as well as the new land use plan, focusing in particular on the separation of designated pastures from agricultural land, the final step of the LTSP's interventions can begin: the mapping and data collection of all the land holdings of each villager. This is meant to be done in a participatory process to increase the legitimacy of the data and related decision-making (see Gupta 2011). To ensure this, the mapping practice happens in a very specific constellation of people who accompany the tablet, the GPS and the App MAST through a village. ...
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Article
In light of climate change, projected population growth, increasing conflicts over land and the question of food security, the Tanzanian government takes the respective visions of environmental futures as a cause and justification for particular measures in the here and now. One such modality through which agricultural futures in the Kilombero Valley are currently made present and decided upon is the use of the Mobile Application to Secure Tenure (MAST). Through the use of this application, on the one hand, a more capital-friendly land legislation should be developed. On the other hand, by issuing Certificates of Customary Rights of Occupancy (CCRO), which are supposed to offer a certain security to current land users, expected conflicts are sought to be reduced and prevented. Thus, by examining the use of MAST and the particular ways in which it renders possible futures actionable, we contribute to ongoing research that aims to illustrate how “humans [...] do not own and shape ‘their’ future alone” (Granjou et al. 2017: 8). While such technologies are generally developed and employed to increase certainty, following the implementation and effects of MAST, in particular, we will show how the specific materiality of this mobile application not only allows to secure tenure, but at the same time creates new insecurities that contribute to the complex emergence of environmental futures in this part of rural Tanzania.
... They turn the future into an object of enquiry and potentially political intervention (Aykut, Demortain, and Benboudiz, 2019). Thus, anticipation and anticipatory governance, have entered into a variety of academic fields in recent years including sociology of science (Borup et al., 2006) and sociology of future (Selin, 2011), adaptive governance (e.g., Boyd et al., 2015), risk management and resilience (Gupta, 2011;Linkov, Trump and Hynes, 2019), not to mention technology assessment around responsible research and innovation (e.g., ). Yet, these concepts did not emerge into policymaking from a blank slate. ...
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Technical Report
Today's challenges-such as automation, climate change, ageing populations, pandemics, and deployment of artificial intelligence-have unpredictable and unintended consequences at both global and individual levels. Complex systems have become the norm rather than the exception. In this environment, "reactive" approaches to policy making have increasingly proven ineffective. Waiting until a crisis has struck to start imagining a way out of it can be far most costly (in both human and financial terms) than anticipating and preparing for the crisis before it occurs. As the health crisis due to the spread of COVID-19 has clearly demonstrated, we need to invest in anticipation. To bridge this gap, governments need a new approach to policymaking that enables them to effectively address complex problems and uncertainty with new tools and instruments. This approach should be future-oriented, but also involve an action-oriented, innovation function based on anticipation. Despite the fact that foresight tools are increasingly integrated into policymaking, governments often lack a practical understanding of how to anticipate uncertain futures but also how to act on them today to achieve desired outcomes. This paper introduces the concept of anticipation and discusses the emerging practice around anticipatory innovation governance as a broad-based capacity governments can use to spur on innovations (defined as novel to the context, implemented and value shifting products, services and processes) connected to uncertain futures in the hopes of shaping the former through the innovative practice. This makes it different from traditional anticipation approaches: the aim is to not only create knowledge about what might happen, but also shape and prepare for it through innovation. This paper provides an initial overview of anticipatory innovation governance within the context of academic and policy discussions on the future of policymaking. It discusses how such an approach turns the policymaking process on its head. Rather than policy determining the activities of individuals and groups within a system, individual experiments contribute to shaping policy and its effectiveness. This is done by outlining the parameters around which policymakers wish to make change and then by conducting one or more series of experiments testing and iterating on these parameters continuously with individuals or groups that would be affected and in a real world setting. As a result, governments are able to move towards their ideal future not by simply anticipating potential outcomes and developing innovative policy approaches to address them, but by taking action to ensure that these policy approaches work. This paper builds on an extensive literature review on complexity and policymaking and OECD work in the area of policy innovation, system thinking, anticipation, emerging technology and foresight. The paper also draws on the discussion with experts from national governments and international organisations conducted by the Observatory of Public Sector Innovation.
... Determining hazard definitively is problematic: how many "unknown unknowns" escape conventional science, how many black swans? Moreover, at the frontiers, there is no way to predict unknown future hazards; "risk" in this sphere can be socially constructed only in hypothetical or "anticipatory" terms, generating a distinctive politics of precaution (Gupta 2011). Even if there is no new hazard at all, proving the absence of risk is impossible for science (Giddens 1999). ...
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Chapter
Genetic engineering has created potential for moving medical and agricultural research and application frontiers forward in unprecedented ways. Despite its accepted use as a powerful tool in medical research, genetic modification and genome editing technologies remain controversial in large-scale ecological intervention and open-field agriculture. Gene drive is a technology based on genome editing that enables a trait to be pushed through a given population at a greater than expected rate. While gene drives show enormous promise as a way to address a number of challenges, such as the reduction of populations of disease-spreading pests and invasive species, they also incite great social unease because of unknown risks. The following chapter describes the mechanics of gene drives and how they could be utilized to control vector-borne diseases, weeds, and crop pests and even protect populations of endangered species. Limitations and risks associated with gene drive technologies, such as containment strategies and potential resistance, are discussed. Finally, the social impacts of gene drives with respect to international governance and public acceptance are considered.
... Determining hazard definitively is problematic: how many "unknown unknowns" escape conventional science, how many black swans? Moreover, at the frontiers, there is no way to predict unknown future hazards; "risk" in this sphere can be socially constructed only in hypothetical or "anticipatory" terms, generating a distinctive politics of precaution (Gupta 2011). Even if there is no new hazard at all, proving the absence of risk is impossible for science (Giddens 1999). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we acknowledge the slow development of modern biotechnology in Ecuador. Some research projects have used molecular tools mainly to study the genetic diversity of several plant and animal species of importance for conservation or agriculture. To our knowledge, there could be a few cases, or none at all, in which the use of modern biotechnology is applied for industrial purposes. In this context, we describe an example of a research project related to the genetic transformation of bananas, an important agricultural crop for the country. The current regulations related to this subject are analyzed, and the lack of a National Biosafety Framework that ensures the development and proper use of these technologies in Ecuador is highlighted. The lack of political decision and the correct understanding of modern biotechnology and its implications for various sectors of society represent the greatest challenges that Ecuador has to face in order to be able to handle this issue adequately, promote the development of this type of biotechnology, and preserve the country’s biodiversity.
... Seeking to steer (or govern) an unknown and largely unknowable future is fraught with normative and scientific uncertainties and conflicts (hUlme, 2010;nordmann, 2014). Anticipatory governance entails the evolution of steering mechanisms in the present to govern future earth system transformations, in the face of extreme normative and scientific uncertainty and conflict over the very existence, nature and distributive implications of such transformations (GUPta, 2001(GUPta, , 2011GUston, 2010). As such, it is a politically charged and challenging endeavour. ...
... 355 This has been termed 'an unprecedented exercise in direct, participatory democracy'. 356 Ramesh also consulted the Chief Ministers of India's major brinjal-producing states; wrote letters to international scientists seeking their views; and received numerous other letters and emails from Chief Ministers and other politicians, research institutes, NGOs and individuals. 357 The consultation exercise exposed a significant degree of public, 358 scientific and governmental concern. ...
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Preprint
This review was originally prepared in 2012 as a background paper, but never published. I was asked to gather and review a broad range of academic research and grey literature on the status and impacts of transgenic crops and other agricultural biotechnologies worldwide, with special attention to the ‘developing world’. While the work was under way, I was asked to include some information about transgenic fish and about alternative agroecological approaches to agricultural improvement. Although the contents of the document are now out of date, the large body of literature and materials gathered and reviewed here may still be useful to others. I am therefore publishing the document online, so that it may be freely available to readers around the world.
... The Punjab Seed Council gave approvals to Bt cotton varieties in Pakistan until 2014, and there is uncertainty on the competent authority at the moment (Spielaman et al. 2015). In India, permissions from respective state governments are required to undertake trials since 2010 (Gupta 2011), and only eight of them have allowed trials since then. The moratorium imposed in 2010 continues in India and probably subject to the verdict of a case in the Supreme Court. ...
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Chapter
This chapter has examined the nature and adoption of biotechnologies, socio-economic impacts, regulatory frameworks and concerns for rising farm incomes in a cross-country perspective. The product development in biotech has been moving from just insect/herbicide resistance to breaking yield barriers, drought tolerance and quality enhancing traits, just from 3 to 31 crops, a large share of acreage in developing countries and increasing penetration of public sector. The frontiers have been moving forward with the fundamental breakthrough in the form of CRISPR-Cas 9 technique with wide-ranging applications. A rigorous study of peer-reviewed literature shows that GE crop cultivation has increased yields and net income, reduced pesticide usage and helped conserve tillage. Biosafety laws have been stifling product development, and therefore harnessing biotechnologies necessitate enabling policies like a legal framework for biosafety, labelling and trans-boundary movement. Developing countries need to put in place regulations for the new plant breeding techniques on par with the conventional plant breeding techniques. The policy implications have been then drawn for utilization of opportunities in advancement of biotechnology for developing country agriculture.
... Seeking to steer (or govern) an unknown and largely unknowable future is fraught with normative and scientific uncertainties and conflicts (Hulme, 2010;Nordmann, 2014). We define Anticipatory governance as the evolution of steering mechanisms in the present to govern future earth system transformations, in the face of extreme normative and scientific uncertainty and conflict over the very existence, nature and distributive implications of such transformations (Gupta, 2001(Gupta, , 2011Guston, 2010). As such, it is a politically charged and challenging endeavour. ...
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Article
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
... GEAC (Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee) gave green signal to GM Mustard for field trial, but SC stayed the order and sought public opinion on the same. The Supreme Court is expected to give a decision on the matter on April 12 th , 2017 [7] . ...
... Climate engineering had been defined as the 'deliberate, large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment in order to counter anthropogenic climate change' (Shepherd et al. 2009, p. ix). It is a quintessential anticipatory governance challenge (Gupta 2011), wherein the perils and promises associated with a suite of CE options remain uncertain, contested and to large extent unknowable (Foley et al. 2015). ...
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Article
Analyses of climate engineering (CE) governance have accelerated in the last decade. A key claim is that CE remains a largely ungoverned space, with shared norms, institutional arrangements, and formal rules to regulate CE not yet present. In contrast, here it is argued that de facto governance of CE is underway, discernible in an ordering of this nascent field of inquiry by unacknowledged sources of steering. One key source of de facto governance is analyzed: high-level 'authoritative assessments' of CE. The focus is on how these assessments are constructing CE as an object of governance through demarcating and categorizing this emerging field of inquiry, and how this contributes to normalizing and institutionalizing CE research (and CE research communities). Scrutinizing the distinct nature and political implications of de facto governance, particularly of novel and speculative technological trajec-tories not yet subject to formal steering, remains a key task for governance scholars.
... Anticipatory governance of climate futures: what, how and why Numerous academic communities have addressed various dimensions of anticipatory governance in the last decades, including scholars of science studies and the sociology of science [10,11,12 ,13 ,14], sociology of the future [15,16 ], risk governance [17 ], anticipatory technology assessment and/or responsible research and innovation [18][19][20][21], adaptive governance and resilience [22 ,23] and anticipation as a field in its own right [24]. Yet the notion is understood within these communities in different ways. ...
Article
The Paris Agreement's aspirational 1.5 degree temperature target has given further impetus to efforts to imagine (and seek to govern) transformative and uncertain climate futures. This brings to the fore multiple challenges in the search for anticipatory governance and the role herein for climate foresight. Foresight entails processes to envision challenging futures and question limiting assumptions about what futures are possible, but these processes also impact upon present-day politics. While foresight-related activities are proliferating in sustainability research and planning, critical social science scrutiny of such processes remains minimal. Two key gaps in understanding are: (a) the link between foresight, planning and policy change; and (b) the very prospects of relying on foresight in the present to steer largely unknowable futures. In addressing these gaps, we review the field of climate foresight research here, situating it within a broader interdisciplinary body of literature relating to anticipation and anticipatory governance. In doing so, we identify a conceptual lens through which to analyze the political implications of foresight processes, and apply it to the case of two ongoing foresight initiatives. We conclude with noting the urgent need for further research on the role of foresight within anticipatory climate governance in a post-Paris era.
... As could be seen from et al., 2015). In India, permissions from respective state governments are required to undertake trials since 2010 (Gupta, 2011) and only eight of them have allowed trials since then. The moratorium imposed in 2010 continues in India and probably subject to the verdict of a case in the Supreme Court. ...
... The Punjab Seed Council gave approvals to Bt cotton varieties in Pakistan until 2014 and there is uncertainty on the competent authority at the moment(Spielman et al., 2015). In India, permissions from respective state governments are required to undertake trials since 2010(Gupta, 2011) and only eight of them have allowed trials since then. The moratorium imposed in 2010 continues in India and probably subject to the verdict of a case in the Supreme Court. ...
Full-text available
Article
Tools of biotechnology provide the chances of infusing a new round of technology into the agricultural sector of developing countries, for raising farmers income and for accelerating poverty reduction. This paper has examined the nature and adoption of biotechnologies, socioeconomic impacts, regulatory frameworks and concerns for rising farm incomes, in a cross country perspective. The product development in biotech has been moving from just insect/herbicide resistance to breaking yield barriers, drought tolerance and quality enhancing traits; and just from three crops to 28 crops. Contrary to the standard narrative, the developing countries in 2016 accounted for a larger share of the area under genetically engineered (GE) crops. The public sector has been making inroads in developing biotech crops. Rigorous study of peer-reviewed literature shows that GE crop cultivation has increased yields and net income, reduced pesticide usage, and helped conserve tillage. On the downside are instances of resistance development in pink bollworm in India and in weeds to glyphosate in other countries. Harnessing biotechnologies necessitate enabling policies like legal framework for biosafety, labelling and transboundary movement in consonance with Cartagena Protocol. Continuing consolidation, driven by higher needs of investments is transforming the seed sector and raises concerns for small-farm agriculture through "tragedy of the anti-commons". The possible countervailing forces and ways to strengthen them have been discussed. The policy implications have been then drawn for utilization of opportunities in advancement of biotechnology for developing country agriculture.
... As scholars of science and technology studies have long noted, decisions about the kinds of evidence seen as authoritative and choice of appropriate methodologies in processes of risk assessment are often as much political as technical (Jasanoff 2010;Gupta 2011;Dooley and Gupta 2017). If so, framing risk assessment as an epistemic matter can reify an assumed division of labor, where science is the institution most capable of steering technological emergence, and issues of broader governance are pushed downstream, with implications for who is empowered (or not) in shaping the terms of debate (Jasanoff 1999) and for the kinds of questions deemed relevant to ask (Sarewitz 2015). ...
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Article
This paper examines how notions of equity are being evoked by expert advocates of more research into solar geoengineering. We trace how specific understandings of equity figure centrally—although not always explicitly—in these expert visions. We find that understandings of equity in such “vanguard visions” are narrowly conceived as epistemic challenges, answerable by (more) scientific analysis. Major concerns about equity are treated as empirical matters, requiring scientific assessment of feasibility, risks, or “win–win” distributive outcomes and optimizations, with concurrent calls to delimit risk or reduce scientific uncertainties. We argue that such epistemic framings sidestep, inter alia, the inequality in resources available to diverse non-experts—including the “vulnerable” evoked in expert visions—to project their own equity perspectives onto imagined technological pathways of the future. These may include concerns relating to moral or historical responsibility and/or lack of agency in shaping the directions of innovation. We conclude that the performative power and political implications of specific expert visions of equity, evoked as a rationale to undertake solar geoengineering research, require continued scrutiny.
... While in India, a viable "science-society contract" is elusive, and contested on the grounds of the credibility of state institutions in which science is conducted and evaluated. Without such a contract, the legitimacy of state science, whatever its 'objective' standing in the epistemic community of scientists, will prove unstable (Gupta 2011). Because GM crops are highly debated and controversial India, the country plays a major role in forming the debate globally. ...
The construal of genetically modified (GM) crops is not just scientific or technological, but also inherently political. This article attempts to understand the implications of proprietary technologies in agriculture in India where two GM crops namely Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) brinjal are analyzed. It critically examines how different normative institutional frameworks and ideologies are deeply embedded in the way diverse actors select their research questions. Further, an attempt is made to unfurl the debates on the policies of biotechnology, in general and Bt crops, in particular. It then moves onto capturing the networking between the government, academia and industry with reference to GM crops, particularly Bt cotton and Bt brinjal. In-depth personal interviews with 81 plant biotechnologists in the government, academic, and private research and development (R&D) institutions in India were conducted to ascertain the views of various stakeholders about Bt crops in agriculture in India.
... In South Asia a lot of work has been carried out on participatory forms of forestry, drawing on multidisciplinary understandings and additionally emphasizing the importance of interests and subjectivities in shaping resource uses (Nightingale and Ojha 2013). Attempts have also been made to broaden the narrow science of pollution control (Narayan and Scandrett 2014) or GM food (Gupta 2011). Core industrial development and mining projects, however, continue to largely be governed by technical experts. ...
Article
This article identifies the two dominant discourses that attempt to explain socioenvironmental change from bauxite mining in Eastern India and compares them to empirical material from three proposed mining locations. The anti-mining “life-giving hills” discourse understands the bauxite-bearing hills as an essential part of a wider ecosystem that supports sustainable, indigenous communities. The pro-mining “treasure chest” discourse, on the other hand, sees barren, uninhabited hilltops with rich ore deposits possible to extract for the benefit of the nation without harming nearby forests or communities. It is found that both discourses hold universalizing aspirations not backed up by available evidence. The technical rationality of mining proponents create sweeping generalizations resulting in unmitigated socio-environmental change, while the eco-romanticist opposition fails to see how communities and environments are differentially affected by mining. Two untenable discourses at present underpin seemingly intractable conflict without addressing wider resource politics dominated by political and business elites.
... Relatedly, there is a growing literature on the risk governance that is required because of the introduction of novel technologies such as biotechnology, on whether and how the risk and uncertainties pertaining to biotechnology and the release of gMos can be regulated through a participatory framework in which all affected parties can be included to address problems of legitimacy in risk governance (De Marchi 2003;Levidow 2007;Borras 2006;Gupta 2011). However, the question of how and to what extent public participation in decisionmaking about biotechnology policies is facilitated, which is also mandated in the Cartagena Protocol, is a contested terrain. ...
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Book
Exploring the divergent aspects of the rule of neoliberalism in Turkey since 1980s, each chapter in this book highlights a specific dimension of this socio-economic process and together, these essays construct a thorough examination of the whirlwind of changes recently experienced by Turkish society. With particular focus on the new ways in which social power operates, expert contributors explore new discourses and subjectivities around environmentalism, health, popular culture, economic policies, feminism and motherhood, urban space and minorities, class and masculinities. By questioning the primary influence of the state in these micro-political matters, they engage with concepts of neoliberalism and governmentality to provide a fresh, grounded and analytical perspective on the routes through which social power navigates the society. This sustained examination of the new axes of power and subjectivity, with a particular eye on the formation of new political spaces of governance and resistance, deepens the analysis of Turkey’s experiment with neoliberal globalization. © Cenk Ozbay, Maral Erol, Aysecan Terzioglu and Z. Umut Turem 2016. All rights reserved.
... The first, politicization of science, refers to the selective evoking of technical knowledge to further specific political interests and agendas, which we refer to here as governing expertise. Its mirror process, scientization (or technicalization) of politics, draws attention to how key morally charged and politically contested questions become translated into, and debated within, the potentially exclusionary, arcane, and technically impenetrable language of science, which may be accessible only to a select elite group of experts (see also Jasnoff 2003;Gupta 2011;Gupta et al. 2012). ...
Article
p>This article analyzes the contested politics of including (and accounting for) land-based mitigation in a post-2020 climate agreement. Emissions from land have been only partially included to date within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. The Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015 and “applicable to all” for the post-2020 period, raises the possibility of unprecedented reliance on land-based mitigation. This has significant consequences for furthering both ambition and equity in global climate mitigation efforts. Yet, what are these consequences, and how have they manifested themselves in the existing (pre-2020) multilateral climate regime? What role do accounting rules for land-based mitigation play herein? In addressing these questions, we identify key dimensions of what we term the “governance by expertise” approach taken to land-based mitigation to date, which has served to reduce the environmental integrity of existing (developed country) mitigation efforts. Specifically, we analyze land-use accounting rules as a site of politics and highlight the “technicalization of politics” underway in this realm, which obscures the political implications of how land has been included to date. We conclude by considering whether the Paris Agreement institutionalizes similar dynamics, and the environmental integrity and equity implications of doing so.</p
... The first, politicization of science, refers to the selective evoking of technical knowledge to further specific political interests and agendas, which we refer to here as governing expertise. Its mirror process, scientization (or technicalization) of politics, draws attention to how key morally charged and politically contested questions become translated into, and debated within, the potentially exclusionary, arcane, and technically impenetrable language of science, which may be accessible only to a select elite group of experts (see also Jasnoff 2003;Gupta 2011;Gupta et al. 2012). ...
Full-text available
Article
This article analyzes the contested politics of including (and accounting for) land-based mitigation in a post-2020 climate agreement. Emissions from land have been only partially included to date within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. The Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015 and “applicable to all” for the post-2020 period, raises the possibility of unprecedented reliance on land-based mitigation. This has significant consequences for furthering both ambition and equity in global climate mitigation efforts. Yet, what are these consequences, and how have they manifested themselves in the existing (pre-2020) multilateral climate regime? What role do accounting rules for land-based mitigation play herein? In addressing these questions, we identify key dimensions of what we term the “governance by expertise” approach taken to land-based mitigation to date, which has served to reduce the environmental integrity of existing (developed country) mitigation efforts. Specifically, we analyze land-use accounting rules as a site of politics and highlight the “technicalization of politics” underway in this realm, which obscures the political implications of how land has been included to date. We conclude by considering whether the Paris Agreement institutionalizes similar dynamics, and the environmental integrity and equity implications of doing so.
... Yet risk is a pervasive theme in politics and regulation of GMOs (Lewontin 2001). Second, there is no way to predict unknown future hazards; risk in this sphere can be socially constructed only in hypothetical or anticipatory terms, generating a distinctive politics of science (Gupta 2011). Even without a new hazard, proving the absence of risk is impossible for science (Giddens 1999). ...
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Article
The political economy of agricultural biotechnology is addressed in this review through three puzzles. First, why were new crop technologies of the Green Revolution readily accepted, versus today's considerable blockage of genetically engineered crops? Second, why has genetic engineering in medicine and pharmaceuticals been normalized, whereas recombinant DNA technology in agriculture is highly restricted? Finally, why is there greater political acceptance of agricultural biotechnology in some countries versus others, for some crops versus others, and for some crop traits versus others? Explanation requires an extended theoretical framework of regulation that goes beyond a vector sum of weighted material interests. Consideration must also be given to the social construction of risk, political structure, and social psychology. A full political economy of agricultural biotechnology must consider not only costs and benefits to multiple actors in different societies within the classic interest-group and regulator model but also the transnational diffusion of ideologies, with attendant costs to poorer farmers and countries.
... Although some trait-specific (e.g., high-oleic) alternative oils use GM varieties, there are ways of creating oils such as high-oleic sunflower oil using selective breeding, which was the case in Argentina. This is particularly important in India, given its strong resolve to avoid the use of GM crops (Fuchs and Glaab 2011;Gupta 2011). CONCLUSIONS India's low domestic supply of oils, along with its reliance on palm oil imports, will affect its ability to reformulate products high in trans fat with oils rich in polyunsaturated fats. ...
Article
The national Government of India has published draft regulation proposing a 5% upper limit of trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with unsaturated fat but it is not known whether this will be feasible in India. We systematically identified policy options to address the three major underlying agricultural sector issues that influence reformulation with healthier oils: the low productivity of domestically produced oilseeds leading to a reliance on palm oil imports, supply chain wastage, and the low availability of oils high in unsaturated fats. Strengthening domestic supply chains in India will be necessary to maximize health gains associated with product reformulation.
... Politics in this period likewise led to a restructuring of state science for regulating biotechnology in India, a process still contested in the Parliament. 15 India from Bt cotton to Bt Brinjal India supported biotechnology for its potential benefits, like China and Brazil, as a project of the developmental state. Nevertheless, state backing for biotechnology did not result in publicwww.landesbioscience.com ...
Article
Genetic engineering in agriculture raises contentious politics unknown in other applications of molecular technology. Controversy originated and persists for inter-related reasons; these are not primarily, as frequently assumed, differences over scientific findings, but rather about the relationship of science to 'risk.' First, there are inevitably differences in how to interpret 'risk' in situations in which there are no established findings of specific hazard; 'Knightian uncertainty' defines this condition. Science claims no method of resolution in such cases of uncertainty. Second, science has no claim about risk preferences in a normative sense. In genetic engineering, Knightian uncertainty is pervasive; declaring uncertainty to constitute 'risk' enables a precautionary politics in which no conceivable evidence from science can confirm absence of risk. This is the logic of the precautionary state. The logic of the developmental state is quite different: uncertainty is treated as an inevitable component of change, and therefore a logic of acceptable uncertainty, parallel to acceptable risk of the sort deployed in cost-benefit analysis in other spheres of behavior, dominates policy. India's official position on agricultural biotechnology has been promotional, as expected from a developmental state, but regulation of Bt crops has rested in a section of the state operating more on precautionary than developmental logic. As a result, notwithstanding the developmental success of Bt cotton, Bt brinjal [eggplant, aubergine] encountered a moratorium on deployment despite approval by the regulatory scientific body designated to assess biosafety.
... Studies that emphasize the unique accountability challenges of what has been termed earth system governance are still relatively new [28]. In this section, we draw on social critiques of REDD+, as well as debates in science and technology studies on the accountability of expertise [29,30] to examine what carbon accountability as a normative imperative implies for an emerging REDD+ regime. ...
Article
This article reviews critical social science analyses of carbon accounting and monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems associated with reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and conservation, sustainable use and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+). REDD+ MRV systems are often portrayed as technical. In questioning such a framing, we draw on perspectives from science and technology and governmentality studies to assess how MRV systems may exercise disciplinary power (through standardization, simplification and erasing the local) but also mobilize counter-expertise, produce resistance and thus have necessarily contingent effects. In doing so, we advance the concept of 'carbon accountability' to denote both how forest carbon is accounted for in REDD+ and the need to hold to account those who are doing so.
Article
Methods and tools to anticipate futures are growing in prominence to guide decision-making under climate change. A research agenda into the steering effects of these processes is growing but has largely ignored how imagined futures impact present-day actions beyond the Global North. This paper presents a case study analysis of anticipatory governance in a highly climate-vulnerable area - West Africa. It examines processes of anticipation through an analytical framework that identifies four distinct approaches to anticipatory governance in terms of their conceptualization of the future, implications for actions in the present, and ultimate aims intended to be realized. The study finds two dominant approaches that appear in hybrid forms which are quite technocratic in character. These hybrids assess probable or plausible futures to inform and build capacities for strategic risk reduction. Many anticipation processes are participatory, but often focus on transferring expert-based knowledge to stakeholders or discussing adaptation options rather than opening up dialogue on what and whose futures to engage with. The paper argues that more plural and critical dialogue is needed in which stakeholders have agency to shape futures and address power imbalances, particularly in these contexts where anticipation relies on western funding and science.
Chapter
The modern era is facing unprecedented governance challenges in striving to achieve long-term sustainability goals and to limit human impacts on the Earth system. This volume synthesizes a decade of multidisciplinary research into how diverse actors exercise authority in environmental decision making, and their capacity to deliver effective, legitimate and equitable Earth system governance. Actors from the global to the local level are considered, including governments, international organizations and corporations. Chapters cover how state and non-state actors engage with decision-making processes, the relationship between agency and structure, and the variations in governance and agency across different spheres and tiers of society. Providing an overview of the major questions, issues and debates, as well as the theories and methods used in studies of agency in earth system governance, this book provides a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers, as well as practitioners and policy makers working in environmental governance. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance.
Article
The Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) focuses attention on the importance of narratives in policy debates and on their empirical analysis. While NPF has become an increasingly important and accepted approach to studying the policy process, the vast majority of research applies it to the policy contexts of the United States, which limits tests of its potential generalizability and responsiveness to cultural specificity. To broaden the contextual scope of the approach, this study applies the NPF to a non-U.S. policy context through examining the controversial issue of agricultural biotechnology policy in India. It analyzes media coverage from leading English newspapers in India to explore the strategic use of narrative variables in policy narratives. In doing so, it highlights the important role of incomplete policy narratives in policy debates and outcomes. Policy narratives do not always contain a full suite of narrative components, and yet they may be among the most common messages received by the public and political actors. Through an analysis of incomplete narratives, this study attempts to further refine the definition of policy narratives and consider which narratives are important from empirical and audience reception perspectives. Results show that incomplete narratives occur more frequently and contain relevant narrative variables.
Chapter
Bringing together the ideas of experts from around the world, this incisive text offers cutting-edge perspectives on the risk analysis and governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), supporting effective and informed decision-making in developing countries. Comprised of four comprehensive sections, this book covers: integrated risk analysis and decision making, giving an overview of the science involved and examining risk analysis methods that impact decision-making on the release of GMOs, particularly in developing countries; diversification of expertise involved in risk analysis and practical ways in which the lack of expertise in developing countries can be overcome; risk analysis based regulatory systems and how they can be undermined by power relationships and socio-political interests, as well as strategies for improving GMO policy development and regulatory decision-making; and case studies from developing countries providing lessons based on real-world experience that can inform our current thinking.
Chapter
This chapter explores how the legitimation of democracy involves attempts to secure justice in the exercise of power with regard to redistribution, recognition and representation in the negotiation of risk. This is depicted using Habermas’ (Between facts and norms. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996: 356) core-periphery model to illustrate the vital function of social movements within the legitimation process which is central to democratic political practice. The chapter examines how the attempt to legitimate Bt cotton is embedded within efforts to enhance democratic legitimacy at local, national and global levels. At the local level, the research investigates democratic practice in the villages and explores how this is mediated through village power relations. The chapter discusses the role of NGOs in the current study and argues that their activity serves to enhance the legitimacy of democratic practice.
Chapter
This book explores the conflict surrounding genetically modified (GM) crops in three Indian villages using the concept of legitimation. It focusses on Bt cotton, currently India’s only GM crop, and examines how power relations in the villages impact upon the way in which Bt cotton is variously legitimated or delegitimated by cultivators themselves. The book argues that the findings from the villages provide significant insights for the global legitimation struggle which the negotiation of a world at risk entails and within which the conflict surrounding GM crops is embedded.
Chapter
Bringing together the ideas of experts from around the world, this incisive text offers cutting-edge perspectives on the risk analysis and governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), supporting effective and informed decision-making in developing countries. Comprised of four comprehensive sections, this book covers: integrated risk analysis and decision making, giving an overview of the science involved and examining risk analysis methods that impact decision-making on the release of GMOs, particularly in developing countries; diversification of expertise involved in risk analysis and practical ways in which the lack of expertise in developing countries can be overcome; risk analysis based regulatory systems and how they can be undermined by power relationships and socio-political interests, as well as strategies for improving GMO policy development and regulatory decision-making; and case studies from developing countries providing lessons based on real-world experience that can inform our current thinking.
Article
The agribiotechnology debates in India over the last decade have set precedents for reflecting on the changing relationship between science and society. This article tries to engage with these lessons in order to stress the need to assimilate them while imagining new technological interventions such as nanotechnology for agriculture and their governance. While searching for an appropriate governance mechanism, the artilce opens up the parallel international debate on 'Responsible Innovation' (RI) in the context of emerging technologies, for scrutiny in the Indian context. In doing so, the article highlights the neglected power dynamics in the overall debates on responsible innovation and proposes a 'beam-balance' metaphor to engage with the idea of 'Responsible Innovation' in order to take the inequalities and alternative perspectives into account.
Chapter
Commentary on the research reported in the same volume. Please contact me if you would like a copy for personal use.
Article
This article explores the struggle for legitimation associated with the attempt to define the risk of Bt cotton, a genetically modified crop, in Andhra Pradesh, India. Beck asserts that, given the uncertainty associated with risk society, efforts to define risk are creating the need for a new political culture. This article argues that this political culture emerges from attempts to legitimate power within risk definition. This is examined using critical discourse analysis on interview excerpts with key figures in the Bt cotton debate. Legitimation is explored using the categories of legitimation developed by Van Leeuwen. These are (a) authorisation; (b) moral evaluation; (c) rationalisation; and (d) mythopoesis. The analysis highlights that the political culture which emerges in response to risk society is in a state of constant flux and contingent upon the ongoing struggle for legitimation with regard to the definition of risk.
Article
This article explores Ulrich Beck’s theorisation of risk society through focusing on the way in which the risk of Bt cotton is legitimated by six cultivators in Bantala, a village in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, in India. The fieldwork for this study was conducted between June 2010 and March 2011, a duration chosen to coincide with a cotton season. The study explores the experience of the cultivators using the ‘categories of legitimation’ defined by Van Leeuwen. These are authorisation, moral evaluation, rationalisation and mythopoesis. As well as permitting an exploration of the legitimation of Bt cotton by cultivators themselves within the high-risk context of the Indian agrarian crisis, the categories also serve as an analytical framework with which to structure a discourse analysis of participant perspectives. The study examines the complex trade-off, which Renn argues the legitimation of ambiguous risk, such as that associated with Bt technology, entails. The research explores the way in which legitimation of the technology is informed by wider normative conceptualisations of development. This highlights that, in a context where indebtedness is strongly linked to farmer suicides, the potential of Bt cotton for poverty alleviation is traded against the uncertainty associated with the technology’s risks, which include its purported links to animal deaths. The study highlights the way in which the wider legitimation of a neoliberal approach to development in Andhra Pradesh serves to reinforce the choice of Bt cotton, and results in a depoliticisation of risk in Bantala. The research indicates, however, that this trade-off is subject to change over time, as economic benefits wane and risks accumulate. It also highlights the need for caution in relation to the proposed extension of Bt technology to food crops, such as Bt brinjal (aubergine).
Article
The notion of global governance is widely studied in academia and increasingly relevant to politics and policy making. Yet many of its fundamental elements remain unclear in both theory and practice. This book offers a fresh perspective by analyzing global governance in terms of three major trends, as exemplified by developments in global sustainability governance: the emergence of nonstate actors; new mechanisms of transnational cooperation; and increasingly segmented and overlapping layers of authority. The book, which is the synthesis of a ten-year “Global Governance Project” carried out by thirteen leading European research institutions, first examines new nonstate actors, focusing on international bureaucracies, global corporations, and transnational networks of scientists; then investigates novel mechanisms of global governance, particularly transnational environmental regimes, public-private partnerships, and market-based arrangements; and, finally, looks at fragmentation of authority, both vertically among supranational, international, national, and subnational layers, and horizontally among different parallel rule-making systems. The implications, potential, and realities of global environmental governance are defining questions for our generation. This book distills key insights from the past and outlines the most important research challenges for the future.
Full-text available
Article
The study analyzes ex ante the adoption of insect-resistant Bt eggplant technology in India. Farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) is estimated using the contingent valuation method. Given the economic importance of insect pests in eggplant cultivation, the average WTP for Bt hybrids is more than four times the current price of conventional hybrid seeds. Since the private innovating firm has also shared its technology with the public sector, proprietary hybrids will likely get competition through public open-pollinated Bt varieties after a small time lag. This will reduce farmers’ WTP for Bt hybrids by about 35%, thus decreasing the scope for corporate pricing policies. Nonetheless, ample private profit potential remains. Analysis of factors influencing farmers’ adoption decisions demonstrates that public Bt varieties will particularly improve technology access for resource-poor eggplant producers. The results suggest that public–private partnership can be beneficial for all parties involved.
Book
The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk: Issues, Methods, and Case Studies Vincent T. Covello and Branden B. Johnson Risks to health, safety, and the environment abound in the world and people cope as best they can. But before action can be taken to control, reduce, or eliminate these risks, decisions must be made about which risks are important and which risks can safely be ignored. The challenge for decision makers is that consensus on these matters is often lacking. Risks believed by some individuals and groups to be tolerable or accept­ able - such as the risks of nuclear power or industrial pollutants - are intolerable and unacceptable to others. This book addresses this issue by exploring how particular technological risks come to be selected for societal attention and action. Each section of the volume examines, from a different perspective, how individuals, groups, communities, and societies decide what is risky, how risky it is, and what should be done. The writing of this book was inspired by another book: Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technoloqical and Environmental Dangers. Published in 1982 and written by two distinguished scholars - Mary Douglas, a British social anthropologist, and Aaron Wildavsky, an American political scientist - the book received wide critical attention and offered several provocative ideas on the nature of risk selection, perception, and acceptance.
Article
Governing safe use of biotechnology in agriculture is a controversial new regulatory challenge facing developing countries such as India. This article identifies short- and long-term challenges to biosafety governance in India and emphasises the need for institutional mechanisms to ensure that use of biotechnology can fulfil desired societal goals. Although biosafety regimes are critical, they cannot substitute for broad institutional fora to debate the social implications of the use of biotechnology in agriculture.
Article
Attempts to alter the range of expertise represented on some US advisory committees have raised questions of accountability in the selection and deployment of expert advice. Governments seem sometimes to adopt the relativist position that all expertise is biased, and that political considerations may therefore determine the official selection of experts; at other times, they endorse the elitist view of expertise as superior knowledge. This paper argues instead that experts exercise a form of delegated authority and should thus be held to norms of transparency and deliberative adequacy that are central to democratic governance. This theoretical perspective should inform the practices of expert deliberation. Copyright , Beech Tree Publishing.
Article
What is the role of participatory processes in decision-making related to science and technology and in any other area where knowledge and expert advice play an important role? Can expert advice to policy makers be more transparent and accountable? This introduction discusses these and other connected questions under the provocative label of ‘democratising expertise’. It highlights and explores the variety of linkages between governance and knowledge that are presented by the authors of this special issue. The result is a complex landscape of still unresolved issues of coexistence and conflict. Copyright , Beech Tree Publishing.
Article
Drawing on case studies from the STAGE research network, this article explores a possible new 'European mode' of scientific governance associated with participation and deliberation. The article presents a typology of governance styles: discretionary, corporatist, educational, market, agonistic and deliberative. Despite a widespread interest in deliberative forms of governance, the article argues that there are no clear patterns of convergence. Rather, European scientific governance is characterised by a coexistence of diverse forms. The article subsequently explores the deliberative mode in European practice and identifies a number of differences in relation to the purpose, the actual conduct and the outcome of deliberative engagement. A crucial conclusion is that deliberation is not a shortcut to the creation of social consensus. The case studies instead suggest a partiality within the conduct of deliberation across Europe, a persisting conflict in the case stories, and a fragility in the institutionalisation of initiatives.
Article
This article explores the prospects for transparency to be a transformative force in global biosafety governance. It analyzes whether information disclosure can further a right to know and choose, and hence facilitate oversight over transnational transfers of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It examines the question of "Whose right to know what and why?" with regard to GMOs in the agricultural commodity trade in relation to the global Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. I argue that the limited disclosure obligations in this global context follow rather than shape market developments, and that complex infrastructures of sampling, testing and detection are required to put disclosed information to use. If so, rather than a normative right-to-know of importing countries, a competing norm of caveat emptor (let the buyer beware) prevails. I conclude that the potential of transparency to empower remains unrealized, particularly for the poorest countries most reliant on globally-induced disclosure. (c) 2010 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Article
Long before the terrorist atrocities of 11 September 2001 in New York, Washington, DC, and Pennsylvania, the anthrax attacks through the US mail, and the US-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, signs were mounting that America’s ability to create and operate vast technological systems had outrun her capacity for prediction and control. In a prescient book, published in 1984, the sociologist Charles Perrow forecast a series of ‘normal accidents’, which were strung like dark beads through the latter years of the twentieth century and beyond — most notably, the 1984 chemical plant disaster in Bhopal, India; the 1986 loss of the Challenger shuttle and, in the same year, the nuclear plant accident in Chernobyl, USSR; the contamination of blood supplies with the AIDS virus; the prolonged crisis over BSE (‘mad cow disease’); the loss of the manned US space shuttle Columbia in 2003; and the US space programme’s embarrassing, although not life-threatening, mishaps with the Hubble telescope’s blurry lens, and several lost and extremely expensive Mars explorers (Perrow 1984). To these, we may add the discovery of the ozone hole, climate change, and other environmental disasters as further signs of disrepair. Occurring at different times and in vastly-different political environments, these events nonetheless have served collective notice that human pretensions of control over technological systems need serious re-examination.
Article
This article analyses visions of the future articulated by proponents of ‘biotechnology for the poor’, those who claim that an embrace of transgenic technology in agriculture is critical to alleviating poverty in developing countries. Specifically, we analyse how such ‘biotechnology for the poor’ proponents represent a future with or without transgenic crops. Such representations include visions of a beckoning (promising) future, where much is to be gained from an embrace of transgenic technology in agriculture, and an onrushing (threatening) future, where much will be lost if the technology is not embraced. The article shows that claims about a beckoning or onrushing future by ‘biotechnology for the poor’ proponents are based upon unexamined or problematic assumptions about the poor and poverty. As such, poverty becomes merely a moral backdrop against which visions of a future are articulated. Furthermore, ‘biotechnology for the poor’ writings do not engage in dialogue with alternative voices in articulating their perspectives on the future, losing a key opportunity to democratize debate about this crucial issue. We conclude by considering the policy consequences (in regulatory and institutional terms) of ‘biotechnology for the poor’ depictions of the future, particularly for the global South where such consequences will be felt.
Article
Although transparency is a key concept in the social sciences, it remains an understudied phenomenon in global environmental governance. This paper analyzes effectiveness of ‘governance by transparency’ or governance by information disclosure as a key innovation in global environmental and risk governance. Information disclosure is central to current efforts to govern biosafety or safe trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Through analyzing the dynamics of GMO-related information disclosure to the global Biosafety Clearing House (BCH), I argue that the originally intended normative and procedural aims of disclosure in this case—to facilitate a GMO-importing country’s right to know and right to choose prior to trade in GMOs—are not yet being realized, partly because the burden of BCH disclosure currently rests, ironically, on importing countries. As a result, BCH disclosure may even have market-facilitating rather than originally intended market-regulating effects with regard to GMO trade, turning on its head the intended aims of governance by disclosure.
Article
AN APPROACHED IS PRESENTED FOR ESTABLISHING A QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF BENEFIT RELATIVE COST FOR ACCIDENTAL DEATHS ARISING FROM TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN PUBLIC USE. THE ANALYSIS IS BASED ON TWO ASSUMPTIONS: (1) HISTORICAL NATIONAL ACCIDENT RECORDS ARE ADEQUATE FOR REVEALING CONSISTENT PATTERNS OF FATALITIES IN THE PUBLIC USE OF TECHNOLOGY, AND (2) THAT SUCH HISTORICALLY REVEALED SOCIAL PREFERENCES AND COSTS ARE SUFFICIENTLY ENDURING TO PERMIT THEIR USE FOR PREDICTIVE PURPOSES. SOCIETAL ACTIVITIES FALL INTO TWO GENERAL CATEGORIES--THOSE IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPATES ON A "VOLUNTARY" BASIS AND THOSE IN WHICH THE PARTICIPATION IS "INVOLUNTARY" IMPOSED BY THE SOCIETY IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL LIVES. ALTHOUGH THIS STUDY IS EXPLORATORY, IT REVEALS SEVERAL INTERESTING POINTS: (1) THE INDICATIONS ARE THAT THE PUBLIC IS WILLING TO ACCEPT "VOLUNTARY" RISKS ROUGHLY 1000 TIMES GREATER THAN "INVOLUNTARY" RISKS. (2) THE STATISTICAL RISK OF DEATH FROM DISEASE APPEARS TO BE A PSYCHOLOGICAL YARDSTICK FOR ESTABLISHING THE LEVEL OF ACCEPTABILITY OF OTHER RISKS. (3) THE ACCEPTABILITY OF RISK APPEARS TO BE CRUDELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE THIRD POWER OF BENEFITS (REAL OR IMAGINED). (4) THE SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE OF RISK IS DIRECTLY INFLUENCED BY PUBLIC AWARENESS OF THE BENEFITS OF AN ACTIVITY, AS DETERMINED BY ADVERTISING, USEFULNESS, AND THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE PARTICIPATING. (5) IN A SAMPLE APPLICATION OF THESE CRITERIA TO ATOMIC POWER PLANT SAFETY, IT APPEARS THAT ENGINEERING DESIGN OBJECTIVELY DETERMINED BY ECONOMIC CRITERIA WOULD RESULT IN A DESIGN-TARGET RISK LEVEL VERY MUCH LOWER THAN THE PRESENT SOCIALLY ACCEPTED RISK FOR ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS. THIS METHODOLOGY FOR REVEALING EXISTING SOCIAL PREFERENCES AND VALUES MAY BE A MEANS OF PROVIDING THE INSIGHT IN SOCIAL BENEFIT RELATIVE TO COST THAT IS NECESSARY FOR JUDICIOUS NATIONAL DECISIONS IN NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS. THE APPENDIX CONTAINS THE DOCUMENTATION FOR RISK BENEFIT ANALYSIS CALCULATED FOR MOTOR-VEHICLE TRAVEL, TRAVEL BY AIR ROUTE CARRIER, GENERAL AVIATION, RAILROAD TRAVEL, SKIING, HUNTING, SMOKING, VIETNAM, ELECTRIC POWER, NATURAL DISASTERS, AND DIEASES AND ACCIDENTS. /SRIS/
Ramesh 'Disagrees Completely' with Pawar over Bt Brinjal
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Brai Bill leaves biotech commercialization in limbo India Today (IT), 2010. Bt Brinjal divides science and health ministries
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Jairam Ramesh Evasive on Bt Brinjal
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