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CARRAPATOS DE IMPORTÂNCIA MÉDICO-VETERINÁRIA DA REGIÃO NEOTROPICAL: UM GUIA ILUSTRADO PARA IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ESPÉCIES. PREFACIO

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... From economical point of view, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Acari, Ixodidae) is the most important tick of the Neotropical region and one of the most important of the world (Walker et al. 2003; Martins et al. 2006; Jonsson and Piper 2007). In Brazil, based on updated estimates, the economic losses caused by this ixodide reach two billion dollars per year (Grisi et al. 2002). ...
... In this way, the expected results in the combat against this arthropod are not obtained, and the producer, not satisfied, starts performing more frequent treatments. As a result, these actions make it easier the selection of populations of resistant ticks (Martins et al. 2006; Furlong et al. 2007). The use of substances extracted from plants has arisen great interest among the scientific community due to the innumerous advantages, when compared to the use of synthetic chemicals: Natural insecticides are obtained from renewable resources and are rapidly degradable; the development of pest resistance to these substances— E. Daemon : A. M. R. Silva : R. Maturano ...
Article
The present work had the objective of evaluating the influence of different concentrations of thymol on the biological parameters of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and also its ovicide activity on eggs of this tick. In order to carry out the work, four groups were formed, each containing 20 engorged females, which were immersed for 5 min in different concentrations of thymol (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) and a control group (water + dimethylsulfoxide). The following biological parameters were observed: initial weight (mg); egg mass weight (mg); pre-oviposition, oviposition, and survival period (days); hatching percentage (%HP); egg production (%EPI) and nutritional (%NI) indexes; and the percentage of control (%C). In order to perform the second stage, thymol solutions were sprayed on the egg masses (50 mg). The parameters' initial weight and pre-oviposition did not present significant differences (p>0.05) among the groups. Thymol caused alterations in the parameters egg mass weight, oviposition, survival period, hatching percentage, EPI, and NI, presenting highly significant differences between the treatments and the control group (p<0.01). The control efficacy was higher than 95% in all the treatments, reaching 99% in the concentration of 2.0%. In the ovicide test, the hatching percentage was not affected in any of the treatments (p>0.05). In the second experiment, when eggs were treated directly, the thymol did not affect significantly this parameter. These results demonstrate that thymol showed deleterious action on most of the analyzed parameters; thus, it is possible to conclude that, in laboratorial conditions, this monoterpene was efficient in the control of engorged females of R. (B.) microplus.
... Ticks collected after this step (mainly nymphs and larvae) were similarly stored in 70% ethanol. Subsequently, adult ticks were counted and identified using morphological keys (Robinson, 1926;Barros-Battesti et al., 2006;Guzmán-Cornejo et al., 2011) under a stereoscopic microscope (Nikon® SMZ645). After species identification, ticks were deposited at the "Colección del Laboratorio de Acarología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México", in Mexico City (accession numbers: LAFC000257-267). ...
Thesis
An average of 60 to 70 per cent of the biodiversity of the planet is located in only 17 megadiverse countries, including Mexico. In these countries there is a lack of information on the existing biodiversity and also a rapid loss of species due to anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems. Ecosystem degradation has also led to increased contact rates between humans and domestic animals with wildlife, contributing to infection spill-over and the emergence of diseases from wild animals. So, these countries are of special interest for epidemiological surveillance and a source of information of pathogens, including parasites, and its wild hosts. Improving our understanding of wildlife parasitosis is needed to develop sound ecosystems conservation strategies, and also to carry out effective health management in wildlife populations and prevent the emergence and reemergence of diseases. The objectives of this doctoral dissertation were to compile information about parasites from Mexican wildlife, to study a severe case of infection by Pelecitus spp. in the Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway) and to carry out two epidemiological studies concerning Leishmania spp. infection in Pilosa mammals (sloths and anteaters) and infestation with Ixodid ticks on Myrmecophagidae anteaters. As a result of the bibliographic review we have evidenced that the state of knowledge of parasites and parasitic diseases in Mexican wildlife is scant and heterogeneous, since it is limited to certain regions, parasitic groups and host species. The most studied parasitic groups and hosts are helminths in fishes and ectoparasites from mammals, and the least are protozoans. On the other hand, the specific bibliographic search of the protozoan Leishmania spp infecting Pilosa mammals allowed to infer that, to date, the only Pilosa reservoir species is the Two-Toed sloth Choloepus hoffmanni. Regarding tick infestations of Myrmecophagidae anteaters, those caused by Amblyomma spp. are the most common, and this is particularly worrying since many of the recorded species belonging to this genus are vectors of rickettsial pathogens. The description of the Pelecitus infection affecting the Crested Caracara is the first ever in Mexico, it highlights the severity of the condition and according to the literature review, the parasite has a zoonotic potential and ability to cross the species barrier. The epidemiological study of Leishmaniosis in a population of northern tamanduas reveals for the first time L. mexicana-amazonensis in this species, in one out of the 16 (6,3%) individuals studied. We emphasize the need to study the role of this host species as Leishmania reservoir. With respect to the epidemiological investigation of ticks in anteaters four Amblyomma species and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) were identified on 10 out of 23 (43%) examined animals. Moreover, A. auricularium and R. sanguineus s.l. were recorded on T. mexicana for the first time in Mexico. We can conclude that our investigations reveal important knowledge gaps and wildlife vulnerability to parasitic diseases, so research of wildlife parasitic diseases from megadiverse countries must continue in order to ease decision-making on biodiversity conservation and emerging diseases prevention. In this sense, this study also draws attention to the problems related to anthropogenic disturbance of wildlife ecosystems such as road traffic mortality and the illegal wildlife trade and emphasizes the importance of wildlife rescue centers to help preserve endangered species and to monitor diseases.
... For storage and transport, ticks were placed in small containers with porous caps for oxygen exchange. Ticks identification was performed using the taxonomic dichotomous keys [19]. Once taxonomically identified, they were frozen at − 90°C. ...
Article
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Background: Tick-borne phenuivirus (TBPVs) comprise human and animal viruses that can cause a variety of clinical syndromes ranging from self-limiting febrile illness to fatal haemorrhagic fevers. Objective: Detect Phlebovirus (Family Phenuiviridae) in ticks collected from domestic animals in Córdoba, Colombia. Methods: We collected 2365 ticks from domestic animals in three municipalities of the Department of Cordoba, Colombia in 2016. Ticks were identified and pooled by species for RNA extraction. A nested real-time PCR with specific primers for Phlebovirus and a specific probe for Heartland virus (HRTV) formerly a Phlebovirus, now a Banyangvirus were performed. Also, a conventional nested PCR, with the same specific primers was used to detect other Phleboviruses, with positive reactions indicated by an amplified cDNA fragment of approximately 244 bp determined by gel electrophoresis. These bands were gel-purified and sequenced by the Sanger method. Results: Using real-time RT-PCR, no positive results for HRTV were found. However, using conventional nested PCR 2.2% (5/229 pools) yielded a product of 244 bp. One positive sample was detected in a pool of Dermacentor nitens ticks collected from a horse, and the four remaining positive pools were from Rhipicephalus microplus collected from cattle. The five positive nucleotide sequences had identities of 93 to 96% compared to a section of the L-segment of Lihan Tick virus, a Phlebovirus originally detected in R. microplus ticks in China. The strongest identity (96-99%) was with Lihan Tick virus detected in R. microplus ticks from Brazil. Conclusions: This is the first report of viral detection in ticks in Colombia. We detected a Colombian strain of Lihan Tick virus. We recommend expanding the sampling area and carrying out more eco-epidemiological studies related to epidemiological surveillance of viruses on ticks in Colombia.
... Ticks collected after this step (mainly nymphs and larvae) were similarly stored in 70% ethanol. Subsequently, adult ticks were counted and identified using morphological keys (Robinson, 1926;Barros-Battesti et al., 2006;Guzmán-Cornejo et al., 2011) under a stereoscopic microscope (Nikon® SMZ645). After species identification, ticks were deposited at the "Colección del Laboratorio de Acarología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México", in Mexico City (accession numbers: LAFC000257-267). ...
Article
The family Myrmecophagidae contains three anteater species: Tamandua mexicana (Saussure, 1860), Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758). These American anteater species currently face many conservation threats, among which road traffic accidents stand out. Parasitic studies on this family are scarce, and some of them include records of ectoparasites. Specifically for northern tamandua (T. mexicana), there is a lack of studies at population level. The objectives of the present research were to carry out an epidemiological study of tick species and its abundance on road-killed northern anteater specimens and, moreover, to perform a literature review of ticks collected from anteaters of Myrmecophagidae family. Five tick species were identified, including four Amblyomma spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, on 23 road-killed anteaters. Tick infestation prevalence was 43% (10/23), with a median tick infestation intensity of 3.5 per anteater (interquartile range 1-13.7). The bibliographic review highlighted the existence of twenty-nine ixodid species recorded on the three anteater species from 14 countries, mainly Brazil. The most common tick species on the Myrmecophagidae family are Amblyomma nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. cajennense sensu lato and A. auricularium. Some of these ixodids were also described as vector of pathogens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of ticks on anteater fitness, and to assess the role of these mammals as reservoirs of vector-borne diseases.
... La enfermedad de Lyme se ha convertido en una entidad infecciosa de interés para los países de la región de Latinoamérica y El Caribe, dado fundamentalmente por la presencia de garrapatas duras de importancia médica humana y veterinaria, entre ellas las de los géneros Ixodes y Amblyomma. [17][18][19] En Cuba el diagnóstico microbiológico de esta entidad se realiza exclusivamente en el LNRE-IPK, por lo que ante la sospecha clínica y epidemiológica de dicha enfermedad, las muestras del paciente se envían al citado laboratorio. Aunque el número de muestras que se recepciona en el laboratorio es discreto, existe una tendencia ascendente, posiblemente relacionado con el pensamiento clínico de los médicos cubanos que revela un acrecentamiento en la pesquisa de esta enfermedad o su empleo como diagnóstico diferencial de otras, tanto infecciosas como no infecciosas. ...
Article
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Introducción: La borreliosis de Lyme no ha sido notificada oficialmente en Cuba pero existen sospechas clínico-epidemiológicas y evidencias serológicas sugestivas de la infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, su agente causal. Objetivo: Describir aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de pacientes que padecieron la enfermedad y explorar el nivel de conocimientos en personal médico. M étodos: Se realizó revisión documental de los Registros de Diagnóstico de la infección por B. burgdorferi sensu lato, entre 2007-2016, conservados en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí" y se combinó con un estudio exploratorio del nivel de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad en personal médico. Resultados: Hubo incremento discreto en el número de muestras recepcionadas. El suero y el líquido cefalorraquídeo, fueron las muestras de elección para el diagnóstico, realizado por ensayos inmunoenzimáticos. Se confirmó la infección en 10,9 % de las muestras de sueros recibidas. Las lesiones en piel, adenopatías regionales, parálisis faciales, dificultad para la marcha y otras, motivaron la sospecha clínica de esta enfermedad. Predominó el antecedente de picaduras por insectos o garrapatas. El 70 % de los médicos encuestados plantearon conocer sobre la enfermedad de Lyme, pero de ellos solo el 46 % reconoció al menos una de sus manifestaciones clínicas.
... However, heating can cause partial loss of the active ingredient by volatilization (Silva 2011; Hu and Coats 2008). Since thymol can be easily dissolved in ethanol without the need for heating (Reynolds 1996), the aim of the present work was to assess the potential of thymol in ethanol formulations on the larvae of R. microplus, the most harmful cattle pest in Neotropical regions (Martins et al. 2006), responsible for annual losses of some US $2 billion in Brazil alone (Grisi et al. 2002). ...
Article
The aim of the present work was to propose a new method of solubilizing thymol for use as an acaricide and to evaluate the resulting product's efficacy on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae. Two experiments were performed, both employing the larval packet test to evaluate the potential of the solutions formulated. In the first experiment, R. microplus larvae were exposed to three new formulations: formulation 1-distilled water (70%) + ethanol (30%) + thymol (10.0 mg/ml); formulation 2-distilled water (50%) + ethanol (50%) + thymol (10.0 mg/ml); and formulation 3-distilled water (55%) + ethanol (40%) + DMSO (5%) + thymol (10.0 mg/ml). A control was prepared for each formulation (same formulations except thymol), and another control group was formed where the larvae did not receive any treatment. From the results obtained in the first experiment, the formulation with the best performance and cost-benefit relation was chosen and was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on larvae of this tick. In the first experiment, the mortality of the groups treated with thymol was greater than 95% for all three formulations, with significant differences (p < 0.05) in comparison with the control groups, where the mortality was under 1%. In the second experiment, formulation 2 was selected because of its better cost-benefit relation, and the mortality rates were 94.0%, 96.5% and 99.9% for the concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml, respectively, demonstrating that thymol dissolved in ethanol has high acaricide activity on cattle tick larvae.
... In Brazil, this ixodid is considered a potential vector of this latter agent (Rozental et al. 2002), a fact that has been reinforced by recent reports on human parasitism by this tick (Dantas-Torres et al. 2006; Louly et al. 2006; Guglielmone et al. 2006). The use of synthetic acaricides is the traditional method for the control of this arthropod; yet, currently, there are reports related to R. sanguineus populations resistant to different chemical bases commercially available (Miller et al. 2001; Martins et al. 2006; Borges et al. 2007). Besides the aspect of the resistance, the demand in the search for new pest-control alternatives is increasing, aiming to minimize the use of chemicals, in order to reduce the quantity of residues in the environment (Baladrin et al. 1985; Chagas 2004). ...
Article
The present work was aimed at evaluating the "in vitro" efficacy of different concentrations of thymol on engorged nymphs and females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The nymphs were separated in seven groups and immersed in different concentrations of thymol (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) for 5 min. A control group was established (water + dimethylsulfoxide) together with a positive control group (Amitraz*), and mortality was evaluated after 15 days. In order to perform the experiment with females, the same methodology was used, and the following concentrations were tested: 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. After 5 min of immersion, the engorged females were fixed on Petri dishes with the aid of a double-sided adhesive tape and kept in a climatized room regulated at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and UR >80 +/- 10%, and different parameters referring to the biology of the non-parasitary phase were evaluated daily. The values found for thymol efficacy on nymphs were 0.0%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% in concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, respectively. In the experiment with engorged females, thymol did not induce any significant alterations (p < 0.05) in the parameters of weight alteration, egg mass weight, pre-oviposition period, hatching percentage, egg production index and nutritional index; however, it affected the engorged females final weight in all treatments (p > 0.05). The concentration of thymol 2% was the one that showed a better efficacy (41%). It was concluded that thymol had a more accentuated deleterious effect on engorged nymphs, and it might be a promising supporting agent for the control of this ixodid.
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The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of emerging arthropod-borne pathogens Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) collected from dogs and horses within municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro State, Southern Brazil. Samples from 280 ticks and two fleas were subjected to family or/and genus specific PCR for Anaplasmataceae, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. In ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from dogs the DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis was detected in 6.8% and 2.2% samples respectively. In two R. sanguineus confection with two pathogens was observed. In Dermacentor nitens ticks, collected from horses Francisella-like endosymbiont was found in 42.8% samples. DNA of Rickettsia felis and Wolbachia pi-petens was detected in fleas Ctenocephalides canis fleas. No DNA of Rickettsia was found in tested ticks. The findings contribute to our knowledge of tick-borne bacteria, ticks and endosymbionts distribution in Brazil.
Article
Resumo: Carrapatos são artrópodes ectoparasitas, da classe Arachnida, de distribuição mundial, que parasita vertebrados terrestres, anfíbios, répteis, aves e mamíferos. No mundo são encontrados aproximadamente 860 espécies de carrapatos, e no Brasil cerca de 54 e em Rondônia 22. O Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho tem área total de 390,821 hectares, situando-se 15km ao norte da Capital. Durante o período de Julho a Outubro de 2007, dez (10) coletas de duas horas cada (total de 1200 minutos) com a técnica de "Busca visual" pelas trilhas do Parque. Foram coletados 135 exemplares de carrapatos (49 machos e 71 fêmeas), identificados e acondicionados em tubo eppendorf contendo álcool 70% para futuros estudos e determinados em 5 espécies diferentes: Amblyomma scalpturatum (30 M e 36 F) (A. M: 55 cm), A. naponense (13 M e 28 F) (A.M: 45 cm), Amblyomma latepunctatum (03 M e 03 F) (A. M 45 cm), A. oblongoguttatum (03 M e 03 F) (A. M: 35 cm), Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (1 F) (A. M: 45 cm) e apenas 04 ninfas de Amblyomma sp (A. M: 25 cm). A altura média de cada espécie foi relacionada com o possível hospedeiro, sendo possível afirmar a fauna de mamíferos que ocorrem na área de estudo. ABSTRACT: Ticks, artopodes ectoparasites, classified as Arachinidia, are found all over the world, just as vertebated earth parasites, anfíbians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Aproximatly 860 species can be found in the world, while about 54 species can be found in Brazil, and in the state of Rondonia, 22 different species of ticks can be found. The Municipal Natural Park of Porto Velho has a total area of 821 hectares, located 15km north of the state capital. Between the months of July and October 2007, ten (10) collections having a duration of two hours each (total of 1200 minutes) using a "Visual Search" technique throught the paths of the Park. 135 samples of ticks were collected (49 males and 71 females), identified and conditioned in eppendorf tubes containing 70% alcohol for future studies and 5 different species were found: Amblyomma scalpturatum (30 M e 36 F) (A. M: 55 cm), A. naponense (13 M e 28 F) (A.M: 45 cm), Amblyomma latepunctatum (03 M e 03 F) (A. M 45 cm), A. oblongoguttatum (03 M e 03 F) (A. M: 35 cm), Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (1 F) (A. M: 45 cm) and only 04 nymphs de Amblyomma sp (A. M: 25 cm). The average height of each species was recored with the possible hosts, making it possible to state the fauna of the mammals that appear in the studied area.
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Scientific papers about research demands and perspectives on acarology in Brazil are scarce. This article aims to prospect and characterize former developed research, as well as identify actual and future demands on research in acarology in Brazil. To achieve these goals, a bibliographic review of papers published between 1996 and 2006 was done and the First Brazilian Symposium of Acarologia was organized. Studies about mites of medical- veterinarian and agricultural represent the majority of the reviewed papers, and the families Ixodidae, Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae were the most studied. These studies were developed chiefly in the Brazilian Southeast region. Among the main research demands, especial attention was given to the training of taxonomists to identify new important agricultural and medical-veterinary species, the survey of new predatory mites species for biological control, the role of the mites in the nutrients cycling in ecosystems, and the mitigation of the negative impacts cause by synthetic acaricides.
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In the toads there have been recorded several endo and ectoparasites: bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths and arthropods. However, despite the hundreds of species of ticks described, only six were recorded from toads of the genus Rhinell. in Brazil, Amblyomma dissimile and Amblyomma rotundatum are the most common. Both species have three stages in their life cycle larva, nymph and adult), all of which are active and depend on a blood meal to perform its biological functions. There are several groups of ectoparasites in amphibians acting as vectors of infectious agents: Batracobdella picta transmitting trypanosomes to R. clamitans, R. catesbeiana and R. setentrionales, Hyla crucifer, R. americanus, R. sylvatica and Plethodon cinereus. Mosquitoes of the genus Phlebotomus transmiting trypanosomes to frogs in china, A. rotudatum transmitting Hemolivia and Hepatozon and A. dissimile vectoring Hepatozoon fusifex.. Besides the protozoa, there are also reports of infection by Rickettsia belli in both A. rotundatum and A. humerale. Ticks can also cause lesions in toads during the blood meal resulting in the development of ulcerative lesions and bleeding.
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This is a report of tick species, parasite prevalence and infestation intensity of birds in a forest fragment (18° 56' 57'' S and 48° 12' 14'' W) within the Brazilian cerrado (savanna), in the municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 162 birds from 26 species were captured. One adult tick, 296 larvae and 67 nymphs were found on passerine birds. Of these, it was identified 31 larvae and 27 nymphs of Amblyomma longirostre, 17 nymphs of A. nodosum, one A. cajennense larvae and one male of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. All other ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp. larvae (n = 264) or nymphs (n = 26). Overall tick infestation intensity and prevalence were 4.32 ticks/infested bird and 52%, respectively. Sampling of host-seeking ticks on the ground within the forest during a two-year period showed only five Amblyomma sp. nymphs and one adult male of A. nodosum whereas a search for ticks on domestic animals (cattle, horses and dogs) found Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Although identification was possible in only 27% of bird ticks there seemed to be no correlation between environmental and domestic animal and bird infestation. It can be assumed that bird infestation may occur above the ground or at specific sites not sampled.
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A total of 232 individuals representing 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks in a region of the Atlantic Forest, State of Bahia, Brazil. Thirty-eight (16.4%) of these birds representing 17 species were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks, namely, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844) (15 larvae and seven nymphs), Amblyomma nodosum (Neumann, 1899) (nine nymphs), Amblyomma calcaratum (Neumann, 1899) (five nymphs), Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (seven larvae), and Amblyomma parkeri (Fonseca and Aragão, 1952) (four larvae). Overall, 21 larvae and five nymphs collected from birds could not be identified to species and were morphologically identified as Amblyomma spp. Among 13 A. longirostre larvae and two A. parkeri larvae, two individuals of A. longirostre (15.4%) were found infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This study provides some bird species found infested by A. longirostre, A. parkeri, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, or A. cajennense for the first time and expands the distribution of R. amblyommii-infected A. longirostre ticks.
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