Article

A Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Derived from the Niche-Filling Energy Crop Camelina in the USA

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Abstract

Camelina sativa (L.) is a promising crop for biodiesel production that avoids many of the potential pitfalls of traditional biofuel crops, such as land use change (LUC) and food versus fuel. In this study the environmental viability of camelina biodiesel was assessed using life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology. The LCA was conducted using the spreadsheet model dubbed KABAM. KABAM found that camelina grown as a niche filling crop (in rotation with wheat or as a double crop) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel use by 40–60% when compared to petroleum diesel. Furthermore, by avoiding LUC emissions, camelina biodiesel emits fewer GHGs than traditional soybean and canola biodiesel. Finally, a sensitivity analysis concluded that in order to maintain and increase the environmental viability of camelina and other niche filling biofuel crops, researchers and policy makers should focus their efforts on achieving satisfactory yields (1000–2000kg/ha) while reducing nitrogen fertilizer inputs.

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... Interestingly, the present finding agrees with several studies on camelina crop. Krohn and Fripp (2012), calculated that the camelina biodiesel reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 40% to 60% compared with petroleum diesel (Table 4). A different study conducted by Miller and Kumar (2013) found that the GHG reduction and net energy ratio (NER) for camelina-based biodiesel ranged from 30 g CO2 eq/MJ to 82 g CO2 eq/MJ and 1.0 MJ/MJ to 2.3 MJ/MJ, respectively. ...
... Reducing the GHG emissions by 82 g CO2 eq/MJ was found to be very competitive with petroleum-derived diesel and made the whole crop environmentally friendly as an energy crop. However, Krohn and Fripp (2012) calculated that a seed yield of 403 kg/ac to 807 kg/ac must be maintained to sustain a reduction in the GHG. Chen et al. (2015) reported that tuning the practices of a crop management system would lower the production price if a camelina-wheat rotation was implemented. ...
... This would correspond to a monetary value of $1/kg meal of produced oil. Interestingly, both products (meal and glycerin) provided an energy displacement of 42 MJ/lb, according to Krohn and Fripp (2012). ...
Article
Camelina sativa is a cool-season oil seed crop that has been proven to produce various biofuels. The present study investigated the technical possibilities of using whole camelina biomass as a model feedstock in a biorefinery. This investigation examined the possibilities of using camelina seeds as a source of oil for biodiesel, sugars for ethanol, and meal for one-portfolio products. The camelina harvest residues (straw) can serve as the main source for green sugars. This study found that the energy input for the whole biorefinery process was 25.1 MJ/L ethanol, while the energy output was 54.3 MJ/L ethanol. The net energy ratio of 2.16 MJ/L ethanol was found to be competitive with other energy crops. The process was environmentally friendly, and it reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 40% if the produced biodiesel replaced petroleum diesel. The seed meals and glycerin were found to be a good source of revenue as high value-added products and can provide an additional revenue of $1/kg of produced oil.
... Due to its desirable agronomic parameters, including a short growing season, resistance to pests and diseases, as well as low water and fertilizer requirements, camelina is an attractive bioresource not only in small regional farms [51], but also in largearea farms in the Great Plains of the USA [4,6,8e12,16,57] and the Canadian Prairies [19,58,59]. Recent research has demonstrated that camelina can replace food crops such as soya [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], corn (Zea mays L.) and oilseed rape in the production of advanced biofuels (HEFA) for road transport and aviation [60]. Large-scale camelina production delivers environmental benefits because camelina grown in rotation with wheat (Triticum ssp. ...
... Large-scale camelina production delivers environmental benefits because camelina grown in rotation with wheat (Triticum ssp. L.) or as a double crop lowers GHG emissions [36,60,61] and decreases fossil fuel consumption by 40e60% relative to diesel oil [36,60]. Biodiesel and jet fuel produced from camelina oil are characterized by lower GHG emissions than diesel oil [37] or even biodiesel derived from soybean and rapeseed oil [60]. ...
... Large-scale camelina production delivers environmental benefits because camelina grown in rotation with wheat (Triticum ssp. L.) or as a double crop lowers GHG emissions [36,60,61] and decreases fossil fuel consumption by 40e60% relative to diesel oil [36,60]. Biodiesel and jet fuel produced from camelina oil are characterized by lower GHG emissions than diesel oil [37] or even biodiesel derived from soybean and rapeseed oil [60]. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha⁻¹) and sulfur (0, 15, 30 kg ha⁻¹) fertilization on the energy efficiency ratio of spring camelina produced in north-eastern Poland. The energy inputs in the production of camelina ranged from 5.1 (without nitrogen and sulfur fertilization) to 17.7 GJ ha⁻¹ (160 kg N ha⁻¹ and 30 kg S ha⁻¹). The energy output of camelina produced without nitrogen or sulfur fertilizers was determined at 28.38 (seeds) and 61.53 GJ ha⁻¹ (seeds and straw). High rates of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization increased the energy output of camelina seeds and biomass by up to 186% and 155%, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at 120 kg ha⁻¹ decreased the energy efficiency ratio by 49% in seeds and by 55% in total biomass. The application of sulfur increased the energy efficiency ratio of seeds by 1-8%, and the energy efficiency ratio of total biomass by 1-5%. Sulfur enhanced the energy efficiency ratio of camelina in production technologies with high rates of nitrogen fertilization.
... Camelina is drought and cold tolerant, and therefore, can be used as a rotational crop with winter wheat (Ciubota-Rosie et al., 2013). Camelina biodiesel has less life cycle energy and less emissions compared with diesel fuel, and also in the view of land use change emissions, Camelina biodiesel has higher performance compared with that of traditional biodiesel crops (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). However, Camelina oil is faced with some disadvantages, such as presence of high amounts (> 90%) of long-chain (C18 -C22) and unsaturated FAs, which is undesirable for biodiesel and jet fuel production, as it could negatively affect biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value, and oxidation stability (Hu et al., 2017). ...
... In another study, the castor fatty acid hydroxylase gene was transferred to Camelina through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with a vacuum infiltration procedure to enhance hydroxyl fatty acid synthesis in the plant. The transgenic seeds showed the expression of new castor fatty acid hydroxylase (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). ...
... New gene silencing techniques such as RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing have been applied and optimized for Camelina. RNAi suppression of FAD2 and FAE1 genes have resulted in reduced concentrations of linoleic, linolenic, and eicosaenoic acids, whereas oleic acid was accumulated at levels as high as 66% (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). Recently, targeted mutagenesis for three different delta-12-desaturase (FAD2) genes was achieved by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in Camelina. ...
Article
Biodiesel has huge potentials as a green and technologically feasible alternative to fossil diesel. However, biodiesel production from edible oil crops has been widely criticized while nonedible oil plants are associated with some serious disadvantages, such as high cost, low oil yield, and unsuitable oil composition. The next generation sequencing (NGS), omics technologies, and genetic engineering have opened new paths toward achieving high performance-oil plants varieties for commercial biodiesel production. The intent of the present review paper is to review and critically discuss the recent genetic and metabolic engineering strategies developed to overcome the shortcoming faced in nonedible plants, including Jatropha curcas and Camelina sativa, as emerging platforms for biodiesel production. These strategies have been looked into three different categories. Through the first strategy aimed at enhancing oil content, the key genes involved in triacylglycerols (TAGs) biosynthesis pathway (e.g., diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1)), genes affecting seed size and plant growth (e.g., transcription factors (WRI1), auxin response factor 19 (ARF19), leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1), purple acid phosphatase 2 (PAP2), G-protein c subunit 3 (AGG3), and flowering locus T (FT)), as well as genes involved in TAGs degradation (e.g., sugar-dependent protein 1 triacylglycerol lipase (SDP1)) have been deliberated. While through the second strategy targeting enhanced oil composition, suppression of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acids (e.g., fatty acid desaturase (FAD2), fatty acid elongase (FAE1), acyl-ACP thioesterase (FATB), and ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII)), suppression of the genes encoding toxic metabolites (curcin precursor and casbene synthase (JcCASA)), and finally, engineering the genes responsible for the production of unusual TAGs (e.g., Acetyl-TAGs and hydroxylated fatty acids (HFA)) have been debated. In addition to those, enhancing tolerance to biotic (pest and disease) and abiotic (drought, salinity, freezing, and heavy metals) stresses as another important genetic engineering strategy to facilitate the cultivation of nonedible oil plants under conditions unsuitable for food crops has been addressed. Finally, the challenges faced prior to successful commercialization of the resultant GM oil plants such have been presented .
... Camelina is considered a better oilseed crop than many others because of its short life cycle of 85-100 days and its ability to grow under stress conditions, in low fertility soils and temperate climate with low water and fertilizer inputs (Moser, 2010;Yuan & Li, 2020). Camelina has high seed yield of 1500-3000 kg ha −1 year −1 and contains 30%-43% of oil having about 45% linoleic and linolenic acid (polyunsaturated acids) and 17% oleic acid (monounsaturated acid) (Gugel & Falk, 2006;Krohn & Fripp, 2012). Furthermore, the availability of various genetic resources is resulting in generation of newer and better engineered Camelina lines with improved oil yield (to up to 26%) and composition where the oleic acid contents are significantly enhanced to >60% (Morineau et al. 2017) and amount of di-and tri-unsaturations are reduced dramatically Ciubota-Rosie et al., 2013;Jiang et al., 2017;Kagale et al., 2014;Zhu et al., 2018). ...
... There are several evaluations of the environmental influence of camelina seed oil used for biodiesel production (Bacenetti et al., 2017;Dangol et al., 2015Dangol et al., , 2017Krohn & Fripp, 2012;Li & Mupondwa, 2013). The environmental impact of COB production is mainly related to seed production (85%-90%), whereas the part of the seed pressing and transesterification is usually limited (2% and 2%-10%, respectively) (Bacenetti et al., 2017). ...
... Camelina avoids many of the possible traps of wellestablished biodiesel crops like food versus fuel controversy and land-use change. The LCA methodology with the help of a spreadsheet model shows that, when grown as a double crop or in rotation with wheat, camelina decreases GHG emissions by 40%-60% compared to petrodiesel (Krohn & Fripp, 2012). Besides that, by avoiding land-use-change emissions, COB generates less GHGs than canola and soybean biodiesels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop with favorable potentials for biodiesel production, such as the high plant yield, high oil content in the seed, high net energy ratio, and low oil production cost. This review paper deals with the present state and perspectives of biodiesel production from camelina oil. First, important issues of camelina seed pretreatment and biodiesel production are reviewed. Emphasis is given to different biodiesel technologies that have been used so far worldwide, the economic assessment of the camelina oil biodiesel (COB) production, the camelina-based biorefineries for the integrated biodiesel production, the COB life cycle analysis, and impact human health and ecosystem. Finally, the perspectives of COB production from the techno-economic and especially genetic engineering points of view are discussed.
... Camelina has short growth cycle suitable for shorter growing seasons (Shonnard et al., 2010). With all these promising characteristics, camelina has an excellent potential to supply the fuel needs of air transportation in the U.S. Currently, there are no large-scale camelina cultivation within the U.S., notably in the Great Plains where camelina has been claimed to grow well (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). Key barriers to large-scale camelina bioeconomy are issues in agronomy and technology. ...
... First, camelina biorefinery is still an emerging technology (Allen et al., 2010;USAF, 2010) and most of the environmental impact analyses centered on conventional hydrotreating (Shonnard et al., 2010;Li and Mupondwa, 2014;Dangol et al., 2017;Gutiérrez-Antonio et al., 2017;Why et al., 2019) or a combination of hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming (Gutiérrez-Antonio et al., 2017;Why et al., 2019). Some of the other recent life cycle assessments on camelina focused solely on biodiesel generated through transesterification of lipids; the biodiesel was intended for land transportation on a MultiJet diesel engine (Krohn and Fripp, 2012;Miller and Kumar, 2013;Oni and Oluwatosin, 2020). While these previous analyses are noteworthy, their scope is limited in terms of production process, and because HRJ is a long-established biomass conversion scheme, reductions in both energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have conceivably reached their optimum limit. ...
... In this study, the Integrated Rotational Cycle (IRC) of wheat-camelina cultivation was modeled. As shown in Table 2, winter wheat was seeded and harvested from October of Year 1 to August of Year 2. It was then rotated with camelina, seeded, and harvested from April to July of Year 3, followed by spring wheat, seeded, and harvested from April to August of Year 4. The cycle was repeated by Year 5. Note that from January to September (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). Wheat is a non-irrigated crop typically found in the Great Plains of the U.S. Camelina cultivation modules include tilling, seeding, spreading, harvesting (through combine), seed drying, and cleaning. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study performed a holistic assessment of a novel cracking alternative (olefin metathesis or OMT) that converts plant oil to aviation biofuel using lipids from Camelina sativa L. (camelina). A high-resolution spatially explicit life cycle assessment and technoeconomic analysis (HR + LCA + TEA) was employed to elucidate cam-elina's sustainability case. The potential camelina land was determined via the wheat-fallow Integrated Rotational Cycle (IRC) at county level for the 48 lower states in the U.S. Results revealed these lands were aggregated on the top wheat producing states of respectively. If the high producing wheat lands (counties with >60,000-80,000 ha) in those states were grown with camelina at U.S. average yield of 1.2 Mg/ha, around 6.35 million m 3 (1.68 billion gal) of advanced biofuel will be produced, equivalent to 11.18 % of the expanded Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) volume mandate for advanced biofuel (15 billion gal). LCA results using 1 MJ functional unit and "well-to-air" (WTA) system boundary showed that the operations cumulative energy demand (CED) for the OMT case producing simultaneous biojet, avgas, and diesel was 0.75 MJ/MJ, lower than for hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) fuel (0.77 MJ/MJ) but 6.8 times higher than for petroleum jet (PTJ) fuel (0.11 MJ/MJ). The entire OMT energy demand was offset by the bioelectricity produced (0.57 MJ/MJ) from burning the meal. OMT's net GHG reduction relative to PTJ was 23.34 % but increasing camelina yield from 1.2 to 1.8 Mg/ha increased reduction to 75.71 %. TEA results adapting 100,000 m 3 /yr biofuel throughput showed that OMT and HRJ had profits of $21.94 M and $24.13 M, respectively, using mass product allocation. The limiting metric for OMT and HRJ was net present value (NPV), and the minimum camelina yield to ensure profit was 1.18 Mg/ha. OMT can achieve maximum profit by selling biojet fuel at a price not lower than $2.75/gal and selling camelina meal feed pellets at a minimum price of $330/Mg. No tax incentive was needed for biojet and avgas because even at their base median values (biojet = $2.19/gal, avgas = $2.59/gal), NPV is still positive.
... Previous LCA or energy balance analysis including camelina as a biodiesel or jet fuel feedstock, out-performed other common biodieselfeedstocks, reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions (Krohn and Fripp, 2012;Miller and Kumar, 2013;Li and Mupondwa, 2014). Life cycle emissions in the agricultural phase of crops are greatly influenced by N 2 O field emissions. ...
... Life cycle emissions in the agricultural phase of crops are greatly influenced by N 2 O field emissions. Krohn and Fripp (2012) reported that double cropping camelina with soybean resulted in increased N 2 O emission compared with single-season crops because of the addition of N fertilizer for camelina cultivation. However, camelina-based jet fuel had lower impact on human health and ecosystem toxicity than conventional fuels. ...
... The seed LHV energy values for camelina and soybean were from Petre et al. (2013) and Pimentel and Patzek (2005), respectively. The LHV value for sorghum and maize seed were obtained from Monti et al. (2009), Krohn and Fripp (2012), and Patzek (2006). The variability in the energy value of camelina seed reported by different authors was high. ...
Article
Recent findings indicate that double- or relay-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) with, forage, or food crops can increase yield per area, improve energy balance, and provide several ecosystem services. Double-cropping can help balance food and energy production. The objective of this study was to determine the environmental impact of double- and relay-cropping systems as compared with monocultured maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the Midwest, USA. Ten crop sequences composed of double- and relay-cropped forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and soybean with winter camelina were evaluated and compared with their monoculture counterparts. The environmental aspects evaluated included global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, and human toxicity. Additionally, provisioning and regulating ecosystem services were estimated, including: primary aboveground productivity, soil erosion, and biodiversity in each crop sequence. The analysis was conducted from ‘cradle-to-gate’, including only the agricultural phase. Global warming potential estimated by three different methods indicated that winter camelina as a monocrop had a GWP of 579 to 922 kg CO2e ha− 1. Maize in monoculture had higher GWP than all other double- and relay-cropping systems studied. The higher emissions of double- and relay-cropping systems and maize can be explained by higher N fertilizer application, which led to greater field N2O emissions. Also, the additional sowing and harvesting of the double- or relay-crop increased CO2 emissions due to increased diesel use. Winter camelina as a monocrop had the lowest values in all impact categories, indicating camelina agricultural production phase has low environmental impact compared with maize and soybean in monoculture. Double- and relay- cropping systems increased primary productivity per unit area and biodiversity and reduced soil erosion potential. Increasing productivity with the additional environmental benefits of these systems may encourage more farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural practices.
... In addition to traditional biodiesel, C. sativa can be used to produce hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) or green diesel, which generally has chemical properties more similar to that of petroleum diesel and improved cold-flow characteristics [256], yet is more sustainable than fossil diesel based upon emission parameters [257]. Life cycle analysis of C. sativa for biodiesel production showed that it produces lower greenhouse gas emissions than soybean-or Canola-derived biodiesel through reduced impacts on land-use changes [258]. ...
... While genetic engineering and genome-editing approaches have yielded great improvements in its oil content and fatty acid profiles, C. sativa can also be outcrossed with related species [103], raising the possibility of targeted breeding programs to improve its yield and trait diversity. Improvements in agronomic management and commercial investments are also needed to reduce production costs and inputs and improve its overall seed yield and seed oil content relative to competing oilseeds [1,258]. In addition, improved valorization of the C. sativa value chain, from seed processing, oil extraction and refinement methods [321] to its co-products and lignocellulosic crop residues, is needed to better understand its integrated economic value [322] within the framework of the biorefinery concept and the bio-based economy for C. sativa [270,323]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. is an annual oilseed crop within the Brassicaceae family. C. sativa has been grown since as early as 4000 BCE. In recent years, C. sativa received increased attention as a climate-resilient oilseed, seed meal, and biofuel (biodiesel and renewable or green diesel) crop. This renewed interest is reflected in the rapid rise in the number of peer-reviewed publications (>2300) containing “camelina” from 1997 to 2021. An overview of the origins of this ancient crop and its genetic diversity and its yield potential under hot and dry growing conditions is provided. The major biotic barriers that limit C. sativa production are summarized, including weed control, insect pests, and fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. Ecosystem services provided by C. sativa are also discussed. The profiles of seed oil and fatty acid composition and the many uses of seed meal and oil are discussed, including food, fodder, fuel, industrial, and medical benefits. Lastly, we outline strategies for improving this important and versatile crop to enhance its production globally in the face of a rapidly changing climate using molecular breeding, rhizosphere microbiota, genetic engineering, and genome editing approaches.
... This methodology has been established as a key framework for assessing environmental impacts and it has been applied for the evaluation of numerous agroecosystems (Liang et al., 2013;Notarnicola et al., 2017). It has also been applied to investigate the environmental performance of camelina for biodiesel production in different regions (Bacenetti et al., 2017;Krohn and Fripp, 2012) and dual cropping systems (Berti et al., 2017). Research conducted by Li and Mupondwa (2014) showed that the type of fertilizer applied could lead to the reduction of environmental impacts exhibited by camelina's production. ...
... Measures have been proposed to try and avoid the increase in land use change emissions, such as using waste products as feedstock for biofuels or growing crops in lands with low carbon content, which will not have a great impact from land use change (Searchinger et al., 2008). In this respect, camelina crop has been identified to be a suitable niche filling crop, meaning it can be grown during fallow periods or as a double crop with other crops and therefore, minimizing land use change impacts (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). ...
... Commonly, short-chain alcohols are methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol that Methanol is used commercially because of its low price (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). Biodiesel compared to solid fuels have the following advantages: convenient and low-cost transportation to fossil fuel consumption centers, very low ash production after combustion compared to vegetable oils, easier storage and easier control heat and flame (de Lima and Mota, 2019). ...
... Recent investigations have introduced camelina sativa as a renewable and a promising oilseed harvest for biodiesel production in North America (Krohn and Fripp, 2012;Urbaniak et al., 2008). Yang J et al. investigated biodiesel production from camelina seed oil grown in Nova Scotia. ...
Article
Many investigations have introduced MgO as a favorable solid base catalyst. Although magnesium oxide catalyst does not have as strong of basic sites as calcium oxide catalyst, it is stable under ambient conditions. Furthermore , magnesium oxide catalyst activity is not sensitive to the water content of the reactants, which makes magnesium oxide catalyst possible for commercial purposes. In addition, the use of the non-magnetic catalyst could be facilely recovered by magnetic and reusable several times without a notable decrease in catalytic activity. In the present study, MgO /Fe 2 O 3-SiO 2 core-shell magnetic nanocatalyst was synthesized by precipitation method for biodiesel production. This nanocatalyst was characterized by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) to recognize functional groups, measurement magnetic characteristics by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), identification of the phase and crystalline structure of nanocatalysts using X-radiation (XRD) and a survey of morphology and surface properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the synthesized catalyst was utilized to synthesis biodiesel from the transesterification reaction of camelina seed oil with methyl alcohol. A high biodiesel efficiency (99 %) was obtained under optimized conditions using the central composite design (CCD) based on the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization was carried out in two separate parts; the initial part focuses on the optimization of the variables affecting the catalytic performance and the second part includes optimizing the variables affecting the reaction conditions of biodiesel production. The biodiesel was examined by GC-Mass spectra and physicochemical characteristics such as viscosity and refractive index. The optimum performance was achieved over MgO /Fe 2 O 3-SiO 2 core-shell magnetic nanocatalyst at calcination time 2.29 h, calcination temperature 650 ͦ C, 55.25 % w/w MgO to Fe 2 O 3-SiO 2 core-shell magnetic nanocatalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio 12/1, the catalyst to oil weight ratio 4.9 % w/w, reaction temperature 70 ͦ C and reaction time 4.1 h. Moreover, MgO /Fe 2 O 3-SiO 2 core-shell magnetic nanocatalyst could be removed facilely from the reaction system by a magnet and catalytic performance maintained for the four reused cycles. Based on the results, camelina seed oil could be utilized as a promising alternative biofuel for impressive, renewable and green production of biodiesel.
... This pathway was selected as the base scenario (namely, BD). Miller at al. [15] and Krohn at al. [16] studied the same solution, and a comparison with their results is proposed in the Results section. ...
... This latter biofuel has also been assessed by Miller and Kumar [15], who calculated a rough averaged value of about 40 gCO2eq MJ −1 , i.e., a value close to our estimate of the BD scenario. Khron and Fripp [16] studied the biodiesel production from camelina in the USA. Their computation amounts to about 40 gCO2eq MJ −1 , less than 10% lower than our value. ...
Article
Full-text available
Growing energy needs and medium‐term weakening of fossil energy reserves are driving forces towards the exploitation of alternative and renewable energy sources, such as biofuels from energy crops. In recent years, Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz has been rediscovered and is gaining popularity worldwide. The present work reports the results of a study on the life cycle, from cradle‐to‐gate, of C. sativa oil as a raw material for the production of biofuels in northern Italy, considering two scenarios, namely, the production of biodiesel (BD) and the extraction of pure vegetable oil (PVO). The functional unit was 1 megajoule of biofuel. A life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) was calculated according to the ILCD2011 procedure. Focusing on the global warming potential, the PVO scenario performs better than the BD scenario, with around 30 g CO2eq MJ−1. The net energy ratio (NER) exceeds unity for BD (approximately 1.4) or PVO (approximately 2.5). The same general trend was recorded for all calculated LCIA indicators; the common evidence is a generalized worse performance of the BD scenario, with indicators always scoring higher than the PVO. In particular, the two human toxicity indicators—carcinogenic and fresh water—eutrophication represent a significant difference, attributable to the refining process. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, respectively, underline the generalized importance of agricultural performances in the field and of allocation choices. Specifically, the importance of the grain yield and seed oil content in determining the environmental performance of the two scenarios was evident. As far as allocation is concerned, mass allocation provides the most favorable results, while on the other hand, the expansion of the system was the most penalizing alternative.
... In this study, diesel consumption was 35% lower than that reported for sunflower cultivated in a similar area (Spugnoli et al., 2012) and it was similar to the reference value reported in the RED for sunflower. In a study conducted by Bacenetti et al. (2017), camelina cultivation under Mediterranean conditions required a lower amount of diesel, roughly 7%, but, in our trials, the contribution in terms of N-fertilizer were from 40 to 60% lower than average values reported in other experimental trials performed in Italy (Zanetti et al., 2017), United States of America (Krohn and Fripp, 2012) and ...
... The cultivation output materials and their corresponding energy were notably lower than those reported by other authors (Masella et al., 2012;Krohn and Fripp, 2012;Miller and Kumar, 2013) or in the RED for sunflower. ...
Article
Camelina can be considered a valuable crop for bio-based products and biofuels, but, to date, there are still many uninvestigated aspects concerning the optimization of its agricultural management and its environmental impact. Consequently, a low-input camelina cultivation has been realized, in northern Italy environment, through a 4-year camelina-wheat rotation in open field. In these conditions, camelina was grown as winter crop. Camelina reached, over the years, a variable (CV=28%) mean seed yield of 0.82 Mg ha-1. This notwithstanding, the oil content - 39.17% (CV=3%) - and its related quality were rather stable, reaching an oil yield of 320 kg ha-1 particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acid. The low input cultivation system here adopted implied an energy ratio (output energy/input energy) of 4 and a 30% decrease in Global Warming Potential per hectare, compared to the standard value reported by the European Renewable Energy Directive for sunflower, reducing, at the same time, other relevant environmental burdens. However, due to its relatively low oil production, the full use of all camelina co-products should be considered in order to fulfill the sustainability requirements for European jet fuel production. In fact, stability of yields and quality of oil, oilcake and straws makes low-input camelina eligible for many other novel green chemistry applications.
... First, more research is needed to identify optimal agronomic management practices for using camelina and pennycress as cover crops to minimize farmer's economic risk. Additionally, although their use in the biofuel and food industry could potentially be a viable option, the market for these oilseed species is still limited (Berti et al. 2016;Fan et al. 2013;Krohn and Fripp 2012;Moser 2012;Obour 2015;Sindelar et al. 2017). Highlighting broader potential environmental and ecosystem benefits provided through integrating these winter cover crops in a relay-cropping system might foster their possible adoption by farmers for large-scale cultivation. ...
... However, to date, only one study investigated the LCA of relay-cropping camelina with soybean in the U.S. upper Midwest (Berti et al., 2017a). A number of agricultural LCA studies on spring camelina (Krohn and Fripp 2012;Miller and Kumar 2013) and pennycress (Fan et al. 2013) have been carried out previously to assess their environmental impact when grown as main full-season crops for biofuel production. ...
Article
Winter camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] and field pennycress [Thlaspi arvense L.] are oilseed feedstocks that can be employed as winter-hardy cover crops in the current cropping systems in the U.S. upper Midwest. In addition to provide multiple ecosystem services, they can be a further source of income for the farmer. However, using these cover crops is a new agricultural practice that has only been studied recently. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the environmental performance of a maize [Zea mays L.]-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cropping system with different winter cover crops-camelina, pennycress, and rye (Secale cereale L.)-in the U.S. upper Midwest. Field experiments were carried out from 2016 to 2017 (2-year maize-soybean sequence) at three locations: Morris (Minnesota), Ames (Iowa), and Prosper (North Dakota). The environmental impact assessment was carried out using a "cradle-to-gate" life cycle assessment methodology. Four impact categories were assessed: global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication, soil erosion, and soil organic carbon (SOC) variation. Two functional units (FU) were selected: (1) 1 ha year − 1 , and (2) $1 net margin. When expressed with the FU ha yr − 1 , across the three locations cover crops had (a) lower eutrophication potential and water soil erosion, and (b) lower GWP if the cover crop was not fertilized with nitrogen. Camelina and pennycress were more effective than rye in reducing soil losses, while the three cover crops provided similar results for eutrophication potential. The results for the SOC variation were mixed, but the sequence with rye had the best performance at all locations. When expressed with the FU $ net margin, sequences including camelina and pennycress were overall the worst sequences in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient and soil losses. This negative performance was mainly due to the seed yield reduction in the second year of the sequence for both the main cash crop (soybean) and the relayed-cover crop compared with the conventional sequence maize-soybean. Such result led to a lower net margin per hectare in the sequences including camelina and pennycress when compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of camelina and pennycress as winter-hardy cover crops has a strong potential for reducing the environmental impacts of the maize-soybean rotation. However, a field management optimization of these cover crops in a relay-cropping system is needed to make them a sustainable agricultural practice.
... Further, camelina has a relatively short growing season (85-100 days), and possesses winter and spring varieties, making this crop very attractive for integrating into existing agricultural practices as a relay crop. Camelina can be grown as a rotation crop during fallow years with wheat and other dryland cereals, without affecting the yield of these crops, thus making roughly 5-7 million acres of fallow land available in the U.S. each year, allowing the production of 750,000, 000-1 billion gallons of camelina oil per year (Shonnard et al., 2010;Krohn and Fripp, 2012). Camelina oil has also been used as a feedstock for jet fuel production through conversion methods such as hydroprocessing, and life cycle analyses show that production and use of jet fuel from camelina results in 75 % lower greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum-derived fuel (Shonnard et al., 2010;Li and Mupondwa, 2014). ...
Article
Modifying oilseeds to obtain a desired fatty acid composition is often necessary to enable use as feedstocks for specific applications such as food processing, biofuels, or biolubricants. A mutant population of camelina (Camelina sativa), an emerging specialty oilseed crop, was screened by high-throughput gas chromatography for lines with altered seed oil fatty acid composition. By leveraging knowledge of fatty acid synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in orthologs of FATTY ACID ELONGASE1 (FAE1), FATTY ACID DESATURASE2 (FAD2), FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3), and β-KETO-ACYL-ACP SYNTHASE II (KASII; FAB1) were identified. The mutations altered conserved amino acid residues in the encoded proteins. The ability of the mutations in FAE1, FAD2 and FAD3 to affect enzyme function was demonstrated by comparing in vivo activities of wild-type and mutant alleles in yeast. In addition, expression of wild-type cDNA in camelina complemented fatty acid phenotypes of these mutants. As camelina has a hexaploid genome, the effect of a mutation in one of the three homeologs for each gene resulted in no or less severe growth phenotypes compared to similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Mid-oleic oils with nearly 40 % oleic acid and reduced very long-chain (≤C20) fatty acid content were obtained by crossing to obtain a fae1c/fad2a/fae1a/fad3a quadruple mutant. Little effect on total seed oil content was observed in the stacked mutant line. The resulting mid-oleic acid oil had improved oxidative stability due to reductions in polyunsaturated fatty acid content, increasing its utility for biofuels and other applications.
... Additionally, more than 95% of biodiesel worldwide is currently derived from traditionally edible vegetable oils such as soybean, canola and sunflower [26,27]; this competes with the food and feed supply, raising a heated debate on "fuel vs. food." Recent research has identified Camelina sativa, as a promising and sustainable oilseed crop for biodiesel production in North America [28,29]. Camelina seed has a fairly high oil content (35-43% on a dry matter basis) [30,31], has a short growing season and is tolerant to drought, cool weather and insect pests [32,33]. ...
Article
Biodiesel has received great interest as a promising substitute for petrodiesel. Biodiesel purification which follows the transesterification process is typically carried out using a wet washing process that generates large amounts of wastewater. Consequently, alternative methods are emerging as sustainable options for biodiesel purification. One of such methods is a dry washing process. In this paper, the performance of three dry washing media (commercially available BD-Zorb, sawdust and wood shavings) were evaluated as potentially suitable options for the purification of biodiesel derived from Camelina sativa. The results indicate that for the crude camelina biodiesel with an initial soap content of 9007 ppm, BD-Zorb exhibited the best purification performance. The soap removal capacity of BD-Zorb, sawdust, and wood shavings was 51.1 mL/g, 24.4 mL/g, and 9.4 mL/g respectively. The primary mechanism of soap removal using sawdust and wood shavings media was physical filtration and adsorption. While for adsorbent BD-Zorb, soap removal mechanism included adsorption and ion exchange due to the existence of a small amount of resins. The ion exchange led to a high acid number (1 mg KOH/g) of the purified biodiesel, and failed to meet the ASTM D6751 specifications (<0.5 mg KOH/g).
... e Source:Kitani and Jungbluth (1999). f Source:Sheehan et al. (2000) andKrohn and Fripp (2012). g Source:Reusch (1999). ...
Article
In this study, a method for assessing the costs of biodiesel production from waste frying oils in Beirut, Lebanon, was investigated with the aim of developing an economic evaluation of this alternative. A hundred restaurant and hotel enterprises in Beirut were surveyed for promoting them in participating in the biodiesel supply chain, and for data collection on waste frying oils generation, disposal methods and frequency, and acquisition cost. Also, waste frying oils were collected and converted into biodiesel using a one-step base catalyzed transesterification process. Physicochemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were conforming to international standards. Data produced from laboratory scale conversion of waste frying oils to biodiesel, as well as data collected from the only biodiesel plant in Lebanon was used to determine the production cost of biodiesel. Geographic Information System was used to propose a real-time vehicle routing model to establish the logistics costs associated with waste frying oils collection. Comparing scenarios of the configuration collection network of waste frying oils, and using medium-duty commercial vehicles for collection, a logistics cost of US$/L 0.08 was optimally reached. For the calculation of the total cost of biodiesel production, the minimum, average, and maximum values for the non-fixed cost variables were considered emerging 81 scenarios for possible biodiesel costs. These were compared with information on the commercialization of diesel in Lebanon for the years 2011 through 2017. Although competitive with petroleum diesel for years 2011 to 2014, the total biodiesel cost presented less tolerance to declining diesel prices in the recent years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the acquisition cost of waste frying oils is the key factor affecting the overall cost of biodiesel production. The results of this study validate the economic feasibility of waste frying oils' biodiesel production in the studied urban area upon enforcement of low waste frying oils' acquisition costs, and can help spur food service enterprises to become suppliers of biodiesel production feedstock and support a healthy development of the biodiesel industry in Lebanon.
... Camelina can be grown in low fertility soils, with low water and fertilizer inputs, under stress conditions in temperate climate regions (Zubr, 1997;Putnam et al., 1993;Yuan and Li, 2020). Camelina yields annually around 1500-3000 kg/ha (Krohn and Fripp, 2012;Zanetti et al., 2020;Zanetti et al., 2017), and its seed contains about 38-43% of oil (Gugel and Falk, 2006;Walia et al., 2021) with a high fraction of unsaturated acids (Yuan and Li, 2020). It has an economic value as an industrial oilseed feedstock to produce biodiesel and bio-jet fuel (Gesch and Archer, 2013;Fröhlich and Rice, 2005;Li and Mupondwa, 2014;MPPU, 2013), a replacement of fish oil in aquaculture (Toyes-Vargas et al., 2020), a raw material for agrochemical products (Pernak et al., 2018), a heart-healthy edible oil (Hines and Travis, 2016), and an ingredient for animal feed (Aziza et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] is cultivated worldwide as a rotational oilseed crop under a range of agronomic and environmental conditions. In recent years, interest in camelina has increased due to its short vegetation season, modest agricultural and environmental requirements for cultivation, high seed and biomass (straw) yield, high seed oil content, high polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the oil, and multiple uses. This paper is an overview of the initial steps of any camelina-based production process, such as plant cultivation and harvesting, seed pretreatment, and oil recovery. The main features of the camelina plant and seed are shortly described. The prominent issues of harvesting, cleaning, drying, storing, and pretreating of camelina seed are discussed. The main part of the paper is focused on oil recovery from the pretreated seed. The traits of various camelina oil recovery methods are stressed. The physicochemical properties and composition of camelina oil, with an emphasis on fatty acid profile and bioactive substances (tocopherols, vitamins, polyphenols, sterols, glucosinolates, etc.) contents, are considered. The traditional, actual, and prospective uses of camelina seed, oil, meal, and straw are briefly overviewed. Based on the fatty acid profile of the oil, the bioactive constituents of the meal, and the lignocellulosic content of straw, the camelina plant can be utilized in the biofuels, food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries. Future valorization of camelina should be based on full exploitation of its whole biomass in a biorefinery as it will give the high-added-value to its oil, meal, and straw.
... The outputs of the TOA-MD analysis are the adoption rate of the alternative system, the economic impacts of adoption, and the associated environmental outcomes, as shown in Fig. 2. 3.4 Incorporating spatially-explicit life-cycle assessment into regional RIA According to ISO 14040 (2006), LCA is a systematic set of procedures for compiling and examining the inputs and outputs of materials and energy and the associated environmental impacts directly attributable to the functioning of a product or service system throughout its life cycle. LCA has been used to assess the environmental impacts of agricultural products and biofuel by several studies within the last decade (Tabatabaie and Murthy 2016; Krohn and Fripp 2012;Miller and Kumar 2013). The majority of GHG emissions from dryland crops is from soil emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. ...
Article
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In 2015, the United Nations challenged the scientific community to evaluate development pathways consistent with the goal of limiting global average temperature increase to 1.5 °C. This study reports analysis that was carried out as part of a project responding to that challenge. Using recently developed methods for regional integrated assessment of agricultural systems, this study evaluates the economic and environmental performance of dryland farming systems in the United States of America (U.S). Pacific Northwest, a major wheat (Triticum aestivum) production region, under greenhouse gas mitigation and policy scenarios consistent with the 1.5 °C goal. A novel feature of this study is to combine bio-physical and economic models with site-specific life cycle analysis to evaluate both the economic performance of current and possible alternative farming systems. The analysis shows that these farming systems could be adapted through changes in management to reduce soil emissions of greenhouse gases and incorporation of new biofuel crops, and could be affected by changes in prices and costs of production associated with greenhouse gas mitigation policies. These changes could result in a win-win outcome for those farms in the Pacific Northwest region where site-specific conditions are suited to these adaptations, providing both higher farm incomes and contributing to greenhouse gas emissions reductions. A key implication for mitigation and adaptation strategies is the need to coordinate climate policy design and development of technologies needed to achieve policy goals.
... Over the last two decades due to growing concerns over the negative social, political and environmental impacts of fossil fuels and increase in consumption of fossil energy, governments have created policies to develop alternative energy sources which are both domestic and renewable (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). While agriculture consumes energy, it also supplies the energy in the form of bio-energy (Tabatabaie et al., 2012). ...
Article
The primary goal of this study was to model the soil emissions during camelina and wheat production in a three-year cycle in the Pacific North West region of the United States considering spatial variations in agro-climatic factors. The second goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of regional agro-climatic variations on the life cycle impact of biofuel production from camelina. DNDC (Denitrification-Decomposition) model was used to estimate the soil emissions in different regions, and openLCA software was used to quantify the environmental impacts of camelina biodiesel production in the State of Oregon. The suitable lands for the cropping system were lands with winter wheat-fallow cropping system and rainfall of 20-40 cm. The model was run for 60 years to reach to the soil organic carbon (SOC) equilibrium point. The results from the cycle with the SOC equilibrium were used to conduct life cycle assessment (LCA). Energy allocation method was selected to allocate LCA results based on the energy content of products and co-products. The results showed that the global warming potential of camelina biodiesel produced under two scenarios was significantly different (P-value < 0.01) such that no-tillage practice had lower GHG emissions compared to conventional tillage system. Uncertainty analysis was carried out using Monte Carlo method, and the results showed that there could be up to 23% variation in soil emissions due to variation in air temperature and SOC. The break-even cost for a three-year crop rotation (winter wheat-fallow-camelina) was estimated to be 1715 $/ha/3y; therefore, locations with income equal or more than the break-even cost and low environmental impacts are suitable for the winter wheat-fallow-camelina rotation system.
... The outputs of the TOA-MD analysis are the adoption rate of the alternative system, the economic impacts of adoption, and the associated environmental outcomes, as shown in Fig. 2. 3.4 Incorporating spatially-explicit life-cycle assessment into regional RIA According to ISO 14040 (2006), LCA is a systematic set of procedures for compiling and examining the inputs and outputs of materials and energy and the associated environmental impacts directly attributable to the functioning of a product or service system throughout its life cycle. LCA has been used to assess the environmental impacts of agricultural products and biofuel by several studies within the last decade (Tabatabaie and Murthy 2016; Krohn and Fripp 2012;Miller and Kumar 2013). The majority of GHG emissions from dryland crops is from soil emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates climate change adaptation through agricultural land uses under three regional representative agricultural pathways, using data from the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America. The three pathways are bottom-up projections of local biophysical and socioeconomic conditions, and they are consistent to downscaled regional climate scenarios. Results show that changes in agricultural land uses under future climate change and representative agricultural pathways are substantially different, compared with results not considering representative agricultural pathways. This finding suggests that climate change impacts and adaptation may be underestimated or overestimated if future biophysical and socioeconomic developments are not incorporated, particularly in regional agricultural assessments of climate change adaptation. One implication from this analysis for global adaptation strategies is the need for future infrastructure supports to maintain a climate-resilient agricultural production system due to changes in agricultural land uses.
... Oilseed feedstocks including camelina are expected to contribute 0.5 billion gallons, of the 36 billion gallons of transportation fuel needed by the US economy by 2022 (USDA 2010; Mohammed et al. 2017). Previous studies showed that camelina is suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel production (Shonnard, Williams, and Kalnes 2010;Krohn and Fripp 2012;Gesch 2014;Keshavarz-Afshar and Chen 2015;Yang et al. 2016). In the US, research efforts aimed at characterizing the agronomic potential of camelina have been undertaken over the years, but mostly in the northern Great Plains such as Minnesota (Gesch 2014), Montana (Pilgeram et al. 2007;McVay and Khan 2011;Chen et al. 2015;Mohammed et al. 2017), North Dakota (Gilbertson et al. 2007;Berti et al. 2017), Wyoming , and the Pacific North West (Schillinger et al. 2012;Guy et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] has been identified as a potential oilseed crop for fallow replacement in cropping systems in the semiarid US Great Plains. However, camelina production is limited to the northern Great Plains region. We investigated the effects of three planting dates [mid-March, early-April, and mid-April] and three cultivars (Blaine Creek, Pronghorn, and Shoshone) on spring camelina seed yield and oil quality under non-irrigated conditions in western Kansas. Results showed planting in April increased seed yield by 34% compared with mid-March planting date. Blaine Creek produced greatest seed yield among the cultivars. Planting in mid-March increased oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and linolenic acid concentrations compared with April planting dates. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration increased with an April planting date. Heat stress in the growing season reduced seed yield, oil, PUFA, linoleic, and linolenic acid concentrations. However, increase in precipitation amounts improved seed yield, oil, PUFA, and linolenic acid concentrations. Our findings showed early- to mid-April is the best-planting window for optimum spring camelina stands and seed yield in this environment. © 2019
... Krohn and Fripp studied the environmental feasibility of Camelina biodiesel and revealed that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel use have been reduced up to 40-60% by Camelina biodiesel as compared to petroleum diesel [96]. As well, Camelina biodiesel has been demonstrated to have better performance in decreasing GHG emissions than traditional Soybeans and Canola biodiesel [73]. ...
Thesis
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The objective of this study was to compare the production of biodiesel from Camelina seeds using conventional methods or assisted/intensified by Instant Controlled Pressure-drop DIC. Camelina is one of the most suitable feedstocks for biodiesel production as it does not compete with food crops and/or agricultural land use. Its interest lies in its high oil content, short growing season, and great ability to enrich poor, arid or semi-arid soils. The insertion of texturing by DIC allows the intensification of both 1/ extraction of the oil followed by transesterification and 2/ a single step in-situ transesterification process. In both cases, using the response surface method (RSM), statistical analyzes have led to adequate empirical mathematical models capable of better developing experimental results, optimizing treatment parameters and better define the scaling-up. The DIC process stands out for its ability to successfully achieve the structural expansion of natural products without affecting the quality of sensitive compounds such as oils and fuels produced. The increase in the amount of oil extracted after DIC texturing of seeds was 38% and 22% for pressing and solvent extraction, respectively. In ISTE mode, DIC texturing approximately doubled FAMEs yields (98% increased yields). In addition, DIC technology is a very economical technique due to its high processing capacity, low operating time, and weak energy consumption.
... Scholars generally agree that Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) are one of the most effective approaches for evaluating the environmental influences of bioenergy production (Campbell et al., 2011;Krohn & Fripp, 2012;Liang et al., 2013;Rocha et al., 2014;Varanda et al., 2011). The scientific literature includes many LCA studies that evaluate the environmental impact of rapeseed-based biodiesel systems (Table 1). ...
Article
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Rapeseed is the dominant feedstock for biodiesel production in Germany, however, significant decline in crop yields observed during the 2018 drought in Europe pose economic and environmental risks for its sustained use as a fuel crop. Many Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies were conducted to quantify the potential environmental impacts of biodiesel production; however, only a few studies have considered the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the studied regions. Furthermore, previous studies have usually only focused on the GHG savings of biodiesel and have ignored the environmental burden and economic profits of biodiesel production. For the first time, we combined the Regional Environmental LCA model with an economic analysis to evaluate both the environmental impact and the economic benefits of biodiesel production in Central Germany (CG). Our results showed that emissions from rapeseed cultivation were the largest contributor to both global and regional environmental impact categories. In our study region, we found that GHG emissions were around 56% to 71% lower for rapeseed-based biodiesel than for fossil fuels. Due to the drought in 2018, we also observed that the regional rapeseed supply could not meet the demand of biodiesel production in CG. An economic analysis of biodiesel production found significant economies of scales effect in the biodiesel industry. In addition, none of the studied biodiesel plants were able to operate at their designed installed capacities without causing indirect land use change. Furthermore, the profitability of biodiesel production was closely related to the feedstock cultivation cost. Based on these findings, we concluded that a regionalized LCA model would be able to more accurately evaluate the environmental influence of biodiesel production by taking site-specific conditions into consideration. We also suggest that potential biodiesel plant operators take the regional biodiesel production density and feedstock cultivation conditions into account when deciding on plant size.
... For industrial uses, Camelina has application in cosmetics and bio-diesel fuels (Bernardo et al., 2003). Camelina has been studied for its biofuel potential and is considered to be better due to its lower life-cycle energy than traditional bio-diesel crops like soybean and canola (Krohn and Fripp, 2012). ...
... Various indicators have been used in LCA studies to quantify energy use in the life cycle of biofuels, including fossil energy consumption, primary, secondary or cumulative energy demand and net energy ratio [218]. However, many focused on fossil energy consumption, given that [17][18][19]40,47,48,54,55,57,58,60,68,76,77,80,85,89,92,93,95,96,98,108,[113][114][115]120,121,129,132,133,136,138,139,143,144,147,[152][153][154]156,159,161,162,[164][165][166][167][169][170][171]175,176,[179][180][181]187,[190][191][192][195][196][197][198][199]204,206,208,[219][220][221][222][223]. For the box plot legend, see electronic supplementary material, figure S1 and for the data used to plot this graph, see electronic supplementary material, figure S7. ...
Article
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Biofuels are being promoted as a low-carbon alternative to fossil fuels as they could help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the related climate change impact from transport. However, there are also concerns that their wider deployment could lead to unintended environmental consequences. Numerous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have considered the climate change and other environmental impacts of biofuels. However, their findings are often conflicting, with a wide variation in the estimates. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review and analyse the latest available evidence to provide a greater clarity and understanding of the environmental impacts of different liquid biofuels. It is evident from the review that the outcomes of LCA studies are highly situational and dependent on many factors, including the type of feedstock, production routes, data variations and methodological choices. Despite this, the existing evidence suggests that, if no land-use change (LUC) is involved, first-generation biofuels can—on average—have lower GHG emissions than fossil fuels, but the reductions for most feedstocks are insufficient to meet the GHG savings required by the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED). However, second-generation biofuels have, in general, a greater potential to reduce the emissions, provided there is no LUC. Third-generation biofuels do not represent a feasible option at present state of development as their GHG emissions are higher than those from fossil fuels. As also discussed in the paper, several studies show that reductions in GHG emissions from biofuels are achieved at the expense of other impacts, such as acidification, eutrophication, water footprint and biodiversity loss. The paper also investigates the key methodological aspects and sources of uncertainty in the LCA of biofuels and provides recommendations to address these issues.
... There are many examples of LCA studies that compare crop cultivation at different fertiliser intensities, where crude models are used for estimating soil 54 nitrogen emissions (e.g. Noorhosseini & Damalas, 2018;Reckling et al., 2016;Krohn & Fripp, 2012). If soil N2O emissions and nitrogen leaching are modelled using fixed and site-generic emissions factors related to fertiliser rates, such as the widely used IPCC Tier 1 model (Hergoualc'h et al., 2019), then fertiliser use per unit mass of yield becomes crucial for the outcomes in these impact categories. ...
Thesis
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[The thesis is available for download here: https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/16426/ ] Use of mineral nitrogen fertilisers in crop cultivation has enabled substantial yield increases, strengthening global food security. High yields also allow better resource efficiency and result in higher organic matter inputs to soil, increasing the potential for soil carbon sequestration. However, nitrogen fertilisers cause substantial greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient losses to water bodies when the excess nitrogen leaves the field in reactive form. Thus nitrogen fertiliser can either increase or decrease the environmental impact of crop cultivation, depending on soil management, site characteristics and the aspects considered. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a commonly used tool to assess the environmental impact of crop cultivation. In LCA, the impacts of all or part of the life cycle of a product, process or service are compiled. For crop cultivation, this generally includes production of inputs, machinery use and soil emissions. However, reactive nitrogen emissions, yield response and soil organic carbon dynamics are highly dependent on site conditions, relationships often poorly depicted in LCAs. This thesis examined the influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and site on the climate impact and marine eutrophication of crop cultivation as determined by LCA. Methods for quantifying nitrogen emissions from crop cultivation and their impacts were compared, and new methods for assessing marine eutrophication impacts in Sweden and including soil fertility effects of yield increase were developed. The results showed that nitrogen fertiliser rate influenced the climate impact and marine eutrophication of crop cultivation, but that the effect of site was generally stronger. Site affected the two impact categories differently and also affected the nitrogen rate that gave the lowest impact. The level of impact and the effect of nitrogen rate and site also varied considerably with methodological choices, including: emissions models for soil nitrous oxide and nitrogen leaching, marine eutrophication characterisation model and accounting for the symbiotic relationship between yield and soil organic matter dynamics. These findings highlight the importance of careful model selection and interpretation of results when using LCA to assess the environmental impact of crop cultivation.
... However, fuel tests in Europe and refereed by Bernardo et al (2003) mentioned that C. sativa oil has higher fuel consumption and high O2 and NO emissions. Nevertheless, it has been shown by several studies that C. sativa is a safe and environmentally beneficial choice as a biodiesel crop due to its reduced life cycle as well as low emissions compared to diesel fuel (Krohn et al.,2012). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The scarcity of resources in recent decades has increased the search for new alternative and renewable forms of energy to fossil fuels. However, this transition must be carried out to achieve a more diversified energy system based on sustainability and environmental protection. In recent years, hydrothermal carbon-ization (HTC) has been considered an alternative process for processing value added products. This alter-native method is a thermochemical process that converts high moisture organic feedstock into carbon rich solids. However, during this process toxic organic and inorganic compounds present in the feedstock, such as hydrocarbons, are leached to a liquid phase that needs to be depurated. Phytodepuration is a technology based on the use of plants in the remediation of contaminated effluents, thus it’s a sustainable option that allows to simultaneously clean the contaminated waters obtained in the hydrothermal carbonization process and produce biomass that can be used in multiple applications. Camelina sativa is an energy crop that has the potential to produce biofuels, as well as, value added products from its oil. Several studies have shown that energy crops are tolerant to irrigation with contaminated waters. In this work we evaluated the phy-todepuration capacity of Camelina sativa (winter and spring varieties) when subjected to the irrigation of contaminated effluents obtained in hydrothermal carbonization process, as well as, the productivity and quality of biomass. The hydrothermal carbonization effluent (HTC) used in this study (360 mg / L O2) was diluted 1:3 (WW1: 120 mg / L O2), 1:2.4 (WW2: 150 mg / L O2) and 1:2 (WW3: 180 mg / L O2) to obtain the chemical oxygen demand (CDO) equal to 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 times the limit value for wastewater dis-charges established by Decree Law 236/98. Also, the pots were irrigated with tap water as a control treat-ment. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the soil-biomass system was able to depurate the contaminated waters from the HTC process, decreasing by circa 63-72% for WW1, 69-75% for WW2 and 68-76% for WW3 the initial oxidability values and thus, avoiding the contamination of groundwater. Re-garding biomass productivity, it’s was concluded that the winter variety of Camelina sativa was the least affected by the contaminated waters of the HTC effluent. In addition, the winter variety obtained the highest productivity, namely in the aboveground and siliquae yields (loss of siliquae yield: 9-45% for the winter variety; 11-67% for the spring variety). Ash, nitrogen, metals and phosphorus content in the plant were also affected by the contaminated effluents from the HTC process.
... Other double-crops like camelina (Camelina sativa L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oilseeds have been proposed as feedstock for biofuel that can provide ecosystem services if integrated into corn-soybean crop rotations [15]. For example, Krohn and Fripp [16] estimate that biodiesel made from spring camelina grown as a double crop achieved a 40% to 60% reduction in life cycle GHGs, assuming no iLUC effects. Tabatabaie et al. examined soil parameters affecting camelina as a winter crop for biodiesel production in Western U.S. states to estimate multiple life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) metrics [17]. ...
Article
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Renewable fuel standards for biofuels have been written into policy in the U.S. to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of transportation energy supply. Biofuel feedstocks sourced from within a regional market have the potential to also address sustainability goals. The U.S. Mid-Atlantic region could meet the advanced fuel designation specified in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2), which requires a 50% reduction in GHG emissions relative to a gasoline baseline fuel, through ethanol produced from winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We estimate technology configurations and winter barley grown on available winter fallow agricultural land in six Mid-Atlantic states. Using spatially weighted stochastic GHG emission estimates for winter barley supply from 374 counties and biorefinery data from a commercial dry-grind facility design with multiple co-products, we conclude that winter barley would meet RFS2 goals even with the U.S. EPA’s indirect land use change estimates. Using a conservative threshold for soil GHG emissions sourced from barley produced on winter fallow lands in the U.S. MidAtlantic, a biorefinery located near densely populated metropolitan areas in the Eastern U.S. seaboard could economically meet the requirements of an advanced biofuel with the co-production of CO2 for the soft drink industry.
... Recent research showed that Camelina sativa was a promising and sustainable oilseed crop for biodiesel production in North America (Krohn and Fripp, 2012;Urbaniak et al., 2008;Gugel and Falk, 2006;Jiang et al., 2014;Obour et al., 2017) and in Europe (Murphy, 2016). Camelina oil has multiple uses: in feed technology, for biodiesel production, inbolymer industry, in cosmetic industry and in food products (Popa et al., 2017). ...
Article
The information about diversity of spring and winter Camelina sativa germplasm in West Europe is limited despite the long tradition of growing this plant. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the yield potential of Polish and Ukrainian genotypes of camelina in the Polish growing conditions. A field experiment was conducted in Poland from 2011 to 2016. The average yield of winter camelina genotypes was statistically higher than that of spring cultivars (1.9 vs 1.3 t/ha). The yield from currently grown Polish spring cultivars is much higher than the yield from Ukrainian cultivars. The average yield of five mutation lines exceeded 2 t ha⁻¹ and it was greater than the yield of the donor cultivar ‘Przybrodzka’ which produced 1.9 t ha⁻¹ on average. The 9 spring and 11 winter camelina genotypes were also analysed for their genetic similarity. The RAPD-PCR and SSR data were used for grouping genotypes with the UPGMA method. Apart from the ‘Kirgizskij’ cultivar, all the Ukrainian genotypes were included in one group. Apart from the ‘Przybrodzka’ cultivar, the Polish cultivars of spring and winter camelina were included in one similarity group and their genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.52 to 0.73. The genetic similarity of the Polish and Ukrainian spring genotypes was greater than the similarity of the winter genotypes and the camelina mutation lines. Camelina has great potential as an oilseed plant for the production of food, feed and biofuel also in a region where for three millennia Camelina oil was used as a food and technical.
... Yield of jatropha and others diminishes substantially on marginal land, Camelina sativa, however, grows well on marginal land with low inputs like less water, fertilizers and pesticides and has recently emerged as a promising low cost renewable source for biodiesel and industrial bio-products [6]. Use of camelina diesel reduces green house gases [GHG] emission up to 40-60% in comparison to petroleum diesel [7]. Therefore, it is essential to increase oil content and modify fatty acids to optimum composition specific for biodiesel fuel properties, nutrition and high value-added industrial products [8,9]. ...
Article
Ever-increasing global energy demand, diminishing fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns have forced to look for renewable and sustainable alternative energy sources preferentially from non-food crops. Camelina being a short-duration, low-cost, non-food oilseed crop with high content of oil (45%) rich in unsaturated fatty acids and capable of growing in marginal lands has emerged as a potential alternative for biofuel (with low carbon emission) and industrial bio-products. However, the fatty acid profile needs to be refined to make it more efficient for biodiesel and bio-products. Attempts to improve crop yield, oil content and composition through conventional and mutation breeding have been limited due to inadequate genetic diversity and availability of mutants. Simple and easy transformation and recent upsurge in ‘omics’ data (trancriptomics and genomics) has resulted in better understanding of lipid biosynthesis and its regulation, and thus has made it possible to produce unusual lipids with modified fatty acids for new functionalities. However, further improvement is still awaited for carbon assimilation efficiency, resistance to various abiotic and biotic stresses, seed yield, oil content and composition. This review extensively analyses the recent advances and challenges in using molecular markers, genomics, transcriptomics, miRNAs and transgenesis for improvement in biotic and abiotic stresses, carbon assimilation capabilities, seed yield, oil content and composition in camelina for biodiesel fuel properties, nutrition and high value-added industrial products like bioplastics, wax esters and terpenoids.
... Yield of jatropha and others diminishes substantially on marginal land, Camelina sativa, however, grows well on marginal land with low inputs like less water, fertilizers and pesticides and has recently emerged as a promising low cost renewable source for biodiesel and industrial bio-products [6]. Use of camelina diesel reduces green house gases [GHG] emission up to 40-60% in comparison to petroleum diesel [7]. Therefore, it is essential to increase oil content and modify fatty acids to optimum composition specific for biodiesel fuel properties, nutrition and high value-added industrial products [8,9]. ...
... Cover crops can also foster functional biodiversity of agroecosystems, including provision for pollinators [19,20]. Some crops such as winter camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), when used as a winter cover crop, can also provide an additional source of income for farmers as alternative oilseed feedstock for biofuel production [21][22][23][24]. Camelina has other potential industrial uses, such as in chemical compounds, nonfood-based products, animal feed, and food supplements [25,26], and research on field pennycress is moving in a similar direction [27]. ...
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Introducing cover crops is a form of ecological intensification that can potentially reduce local, regional and global environmental impacts of soybean cropping systems. An assessment of multiple environmental impacts (global warming potential, eutrophication, soil erosion and soil organic carbon variation) was performed on a continuous soybean system in the U.S. upper Midwest. Four sequences were assessed and compared: a soybean cropping system with winter camelina, field pennycress, or winter rye as cover crop, plus a control (sole soybean). Cover crops were interseeded into standing soybean in Year 1, while in Year 2 soybean was relay-cropped into standing camelina or pennycress. Rye was terminated before sowing soybean. When compared with the control, sequences with cover crops showed lower eutrophication potential (4–9% reduction) and soil erosion (5–32% reduction) per ha year−1, in addition to a lower global warming potential (3–8% reduction) when the cover crop was not fertilized. However, when the economic component was included in the assessment, and the results expressed per USD net margin, the sequences with cover crops significantly reduced their performance in all categories of impact considered. A further optimization of field management for camelina and pennycress is recommended to make the cropping system more sustainable.
... Recent research has recognized Camelina sativa as a promising and sustainable oilseed crop for biodiesel production in North America [8][9][10][11]. Camelina seed has a high oil content (35-43% on a dry matter basis), a short growing season, and is tolerant to drought, cool weather and insect pests, thus it becomes a favourable low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production [12,13]. The camelina oil yield can be expected to be between 500 and 700 L per hectare [14,15]. ...
Article
Camelina is recognized as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Similarly to biodiesel derived from other vegetable oils, the oxidative stability is not satisfactory. This issue can be addressed by treating biodiesel with synthetic antioxidants to increase its resistance to oxidation. This study examined the effectiveness of four commonly used antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), tert-butylhydrooquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate (PrG) on both oxidation stability and storage stability of camelina biodiesel. The antioxidative activity of four antioxidants was found to be in the order of BHA < BHT < PrG < TBHQ; The oil stability index (OSI) of camelina biodiesel was increased (≥ 8 h), meeting the stability requirement regulated in EN 14214:2014, through adding either 2000 ppm BHT, 1000 ppm PrG or 1000 ppm TBHQ. Regarding the long term storage, it was predicted that treating camelina biodiesel with 3000 ppm TBHQ was enable satisfactory oxidation stability to be maintained for one year.
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The objective of the study was to carry out energy analysis of biodiesel production from Waste groundnut oil (WGO). 13 experimental runs were designed by Minitab software 16 to carried out the trans-esterification of WGO which involved the variation of catalyst concentration and methanol/oil mole ratio. Total Input energy and output energy of the process were determined to obtain the energy efficiency of the process. The results of the research gavehighest biodiesel yield of 92 % at the methanol/oil mole ratio of 7 and catalyst concentration of 0.7 wt/wt % Oil. The calculated input energy and output energy of 124.51MJ/Land 98.47 MJ/L respectively were obtained. The energy efficiency obtained from the biodiesel production was 0.72. The net energy of-35.04 MJ while the energy productivity of 0.08 kg.MJwas arrived at. Further research work on how to reduce input energy during biodiesel production needs to be carried out.
Article
Biodiesel is receiving serious attention globally as a potential alternative fuel for replacing mineral diesel, partially or fully. In this review paper, most prominent methods of biodiesel production commercially, life-cycle analysis and economic issues related to biodiesel, engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics including particulate, engine compatibility issues and effect of biodiesel usage on engine component wear and lubricating oil are comprehensively discussed. Majority of biodiesel produced globally is via base-catalyzed transesterification process since this is a low temperature and pressure process, having high conversion rates without intermediate steps, and it uses inexpensive materials of construction for the plant. Catalyst types (alkaline, acidic or enzymatic), catalyst concentration, molar ratio of alcohol/oil, reaction temperature, moisture content of reactants, and free fatty acid (FFA) content of oil are the main factors affecting biodiesel (ester) yield from the transesterification process. Substantial reduction in particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in comparison to mineral diesel, and increased brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions are reported by most researchers using unmodified compression ignition (CI) engines. This review covers several aspects, which are not covered by previous review articles, such as effect of biodiesel on unregulated emissions, effect of biodiesel on carbon deposits, wear of key engine components, and lubricating oil in long-term endurance studies. It emerges from literature review that even minor blends of biodiesel help control emissions and ease pressure on scarce petroleum resources without sacrificing engine power output, engine performance and fuel economy. This review underscores that future studies should focus on optimization of fuel injection equipment and hardware modifications to develop dedicated biodiesel engines, improve low temperature performance of biodiesel fuelled engines, develop new biodiesel compatible lubricating oil formulations and special materials for engine components before implementing large-scale substitution of mineral diesel by biodiesel globally.
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From an environmental point of view, diesel substitution with biodiesel shows many advantages but often involves environmental issues that must be assessed case by case. The environmental impact of Linum usitatissimum and Camelina sativa oilseed crops for biodiesel production was assessed by Life Cycle Assessment approach considering a cradle-to-gate perspective. The study included three steps: cultivation, oil seed transportation from farm to pressing plant and biodiesel production from vegetable oil by transesterification. The cultivation was carried out in Mediterranean conditions, with low inputs (minimum use of fertilisers and pesticides) and no irrigation. Seed production is responsible for more than 85–90% of the environmental impact of biodiesel; seed pressing represents less than 2% of the biodiesel environmental impact for most of the evaluated impact categories and transesterification ranges between 2% and 10%. For seed production, diesel fuel and exhaust gases emissions from the tractors' engines are the main factors responsible for the environmental impact, while pesticide and fertiliser production accounts for a small environmental load. In general, the differences between the performances of the two biodiesel fuels arise almost completely from the difference in the environmental impact of seed production and, in particular, from seed yield, which is higher for flax.
Article
Nowadays, due to the shortage of oil-based storages and environmental problems, the tendency toward the use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol has been increased. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the energy cycle of biodiesel production from rapeseed oil using transesterification method. The energy consumption in the purification stage of rapeseed oil for edible purposes was analyzed, and the results were then compared with those of biodiesel production. According to the Life Cycle Analysis model, it was found that the input and output energy in biodiesel production from rapeseed oil were 28293.28 MJ/ha and 54727.07 MJ/ha, respectively. Energy indexes involving specific energy, energy efficiency and pure energy were also calculated for biodiesel production (equal to 16.002 MJ/kg, 0.06 kg/MJ and 7986.89 MJ, respectively). The emission of greenhouse gasses was calculated in the cycle of biodiesel production. It was revealed that the maximum pollutant factor was related to diesel fuel in transferring stage of the product to the oil-extraction company followed by agricultural production stage having the shares of 100% and 40%, respectively. Results of the study indicated that the ANFIS model could predict the yield of the product with a high accuracy (R = 0.99, RMSE = 3.94).
Chapter
Research addressing non-food biomass production from the perspective of land-use change and environmental impacts has expanded considerably since 2008. An exhaustive literature review followed by the identification within the resulting corpus of all references seeking to quantify the consumption of nonrenewable resources yielded 29 articles, which were then examined in detail. Our goal was to describe, as precisely as possible, the methods and results of published research addressing land use change as it relates to the consumption of nonrenewable resources. We found that these articles were in fact more focused on the assessment of other environmental impacts, primarily greenhouse gas impacts, with fossil-fuel use appearing as a collateral result. All the articles employed a life cycle analysis approach; all considered the question of fossil-fuel consumption; and all concluded that a reduction in fossil fuel use was achieved through the substitution of biomass energy. According to the findings of this sub-corpus, biofuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass appear to be most effective in terms of reducing environmental impacts, but few direct comparisons with first-generation biofuels have been made. In general, differences in methodologies and in the assumptions adopted for different studies, particularly with respect to land-use change parameters, make comparisons among the selected studies difficult.
Chapter
The recent development of biomass production for energy purposes has spurred interest in the effects of the land-use changes (LUC) it triggers worldwide, and a surge in the number of scientific articles dealing with this topic. The processes leading from increased biomass demand to environmental impacts in relation to LUC may be analyzed as a three-step causal chain starting with the identification of reorganization of agricultural and forestry systems, the assessment of LUC occurring in response to these drivers, and the associated environmental impacts. Here we set out to review the impacts of land-use changes induced by non-food biomass production on greenhouse gases emissions. The selected body of 162 articles displays the following salient features: most articles deal with LUC triggered by biofuel production, the predominant direct LUCs are forest or grassland conversions into annual or perennial crops, and annual crops conversion into perennial crops; and while Europe and North America come first in terms of direct LUC location, a large number of articles also deal with direct LUCs occurring in South America and Asia. We show that peer-reviewed literature does not sign a blank check to non-food biomass. The number of articles evidencing a net reduction in GHG emissions following a diversion of food/feed crops towards non-food products is only 50% higher than the number of articles drawing opposite conclusions. As the LUC-related carbon intensity of biofuels strongly depends on where the feedstock is grown and which land-use it replaces, we investigated whether specific land-use change patterns can be tied to certain types of feedstocks. Contrary to our expectations, direct forest and grassland conversion is significantly less often considered for second generation feedstocks or wood.
Chapter
Biomass production has developed significantly in the latest decades to meet the growing needs of the bioeconomy sector, a trend which is expected to continue in the near future to substitute dwindling fossil resources. Concerns were recently raised on the consequences of expanding feedstock production on land-use worldwide, prompting a surge in scientific publications. These consequences may be analysed through a three-step causal chain relating drivers of feedstock production, changes in land-use (LUC), and environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity, water resources, soil quality, or atmospheric pollution. Here, we set out to examine how this booming area of research is currently structured in terms of foci, methodologies employed, or types of LUC studied. It appeared especially relevant since this research bears a degree of performativity in that it is likely to influence and shape policies in the realm of the emerging bioeconomy sector.
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Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes can be also reduced to some extent.
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Renewable biofuels offer good performance characteristics as fossil liquid fuels while reducing the emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases helping promote sustainability. Colorless distributed combustion (CDC) for gas turbine applications offers robust means of providing understanding of performance and emissions characteristics using liquid biofuels. In this study, performance and emission characteristics are reported from the combustion of a liquid biofuel, hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids synthetic paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), derived from camelina oil. Currently HEFA-SPK is approved in up to a 50% blend with jet fuel (JP-8) for commercial and military applications. Experiments conducted on various blended ratios of HEFA-SPK to JP-8 are reported, ranging from 100% JP-8 to 100% HEFA-SPK. Experiments were carried out on a swirl-assisted burner at thermal intensity of 5.7 MW/m-atm, with oxidizer preheated and fuel pre-vaporized to 600 K. Distributed combustion conditions were achieved by reducing the oxygen concentration in the oxidizer through adding diluent gases of N2 and CO2 simulating internal entrainment of hot reactive gases. The effect of blended fuel properties on flame structure (through OH* chemiluminescence) and emissions are reported here. HEFA-SPK and JP-8 showed ultra-low NO emission under CDC, ranging between 2 and 2.5 ppm. HEFA-SPK showed significant reduction in CO of up to 50% compared to JP-8 fuel. This study revealed that camelina oil derived fuel produced from biomass can be used as a mixture component with JP-8, maintaining high combustion performance while providing ultra-low CO emission. The biofuels also help support reduction of lifecycle CO2 emission.
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Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz], alternative low/medium-input oilseed crop, has variety of uses with biofuel production being at the forefront as its exploitation is primarily determined by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from feedstock production. The primary aim of the paper was to examine the possibilities of sustainable conventional and temporary intensification of prospective camelina cultivation as a biofuel raw material. Because camelina is still not commercially grown in Slovakia, oil flax yields and environmental demands were used as benchmark. Within conventional intensification, greenhouse gas emissions from its intended cultivation were compared with real emissions from oilseed rape cultivation. Inputs (especially N-fertilizers) and oilseed yields were investigated as two factors which significantly affected the amount of emissions from cultivation. Almost all of assumed camelina yields and nutrient rates combinations achieved lower total emissions compared with oilseed rape. This was mainly due to lower values from N2O emissions category and emissions from fertilizers category which accounted for a major share of emissions from cultivation. It can be concluded, that camelina could be suitable raw material for biofuel production. The set-aside land (fields) in Slovakia, which accounted for more than 40,000 ha, creates a potential space for a temporal intensification of camelina cultivation.
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Diesel and jet fuel contribute to ~22–27% and ~ 8–13% of the total energy used in the US transportation sector, producing ~25% and ~ 9% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from this sector, respectively. Biobased alternatives, such as biodiesel and renewable jet fuel (RJF) produced from oilseeds, have lower GHG emissions than their petroleum counterparts, are renewable in nature, and support energy security. Thus, the objective of this review was to analyze the information on different oilseed types and characteristics along with their production, harvest and post‐harvest operations; oilseeds conversion to biodiesel and RJF along with their properties and uses; and their cost and environmental status in the USA. More than 80% of the feedstock currently used for biodiesel production in the USA consists of edible oilseeds, including soybean, corn, and canola. Carinata and pennycress are inedible oilseeds that are promising feedstock for biodiesel and RJF production. The biodiesel and RJF produced from oilseeds have similar density, calorific value and cetane number while having lower acid value and sulfur content compared to their petroleum counterparts. At the current state of technology, the retail prices for biodiesel (B20) are 1.0–1.4 times, and RJF are 3–4 times higher than their petroleum counterparts. However, GHG emissions of oilseed‐based biodiesel and RJF are 37–92% and 32–121% lower than their petroleum counterparts, respectively. The economic competitiveness of oilseed‐based biofuels production and use could be improved by enhancing oilseed traits and optimizing field operations, which would further reduce the emissions from the transportation sector. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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Camelina [ Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz], a recently rediscovered oil crop is becoming of interest to both industry and farmers due to its relatively wide use. The amount of camelina seed production is / will be influenced both by the demand from the industry and by the suitable conditions that allow its profitable cultivation. A preliminary insight on optimal part of the used arable land in Slovakia suitable for growing this crop was based on available information on the environmental requirements of camelina and the system of land evaluation units of agricultural soils. These data have been acquired from database managed and continuously updated by National Agriculture and Food Centre – Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Bratislava. From this database information concerning the climatic region, slope, soil texture, soil depth, and skeleton content were used. The obtained results show that approximately 27% of the acreage of utilised arable land has optimal quality for spring camelina cultivation in Slovakia. If camelina will be used for the production of various biobased materials, on a smaller scale (several thousand hectares) it is possible to grow this crop without a significant restriction of the cultivation of other crops, especially those intended for food and feed production. In case of camelina utilisation as a feedstock for conventional biofuels production, it is necessary to take into account its competitiveness compared to oilseed rape, which is currently the main raw material for FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) production, both in terms of profitability of cultivation and CO 2 emissions per tonne of oilseed yield.
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O Brasil possui uma matriz energética com participação de 42,3% de fontes renováveis. Desde os anos 2000, com a criação do Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel, a cadeia produtora de biodiesel tem crescido continuamente. O presente artigo tem o objetivo de realizar um estudo de prospecção tecnológica patentária a respeito de tecnologias que abordem a utilização da espécie vegetal Camelina Sativa para a produção de biodiesel. As propriedades de teor de óleo da planta são superiores aos da soja e os custos de cultivo são considerados baixos quando comparados com os de outras oleaginosas utilizadas na produção de biodiesel atualmente. A metodologia utilizada é de cunho exploratório, e trata-se de um estudo baseado em levantamento de informações e evidências de patentes. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a existência de 18 famílias de patentes sobre Carmelina Sativa e produção de biodiesel. O primeiro depósito de patente referente ao tema aconteceu no ano de 2008, com crescimento no número de depósitos até 2015. As principais instituições que exploraram esse tipo de tecnologia foram: World Biotechnology, Vertichem, Csiro Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation e Corbion Biotech, sendo que as duas últimas apresentam patentes protegidas no Brasil.
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Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.
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The US effort for the development of new crops is directed toward the advancement of crops that can be grown in rotation with traditional commodity crops, off-season production and utilization of acreage not currently under cultivation. This effort is intended to have no or minimal impact on crop rotations that are sources for food production. The high oil content and the fatty acid profiles of mustard crops make them suitable for utilization as both fuels and base stocks for functionalized industrial chemicals. Pennycress (thlaspi arvense) and lesquerella (lesquerella fendleri) are representatives of this family and have received much attention due to their potential to grow over winter in rotation with soybean production throughout the Midwest (pennycress) or as a winter annual in the desert southwest (lesquerella). Pennycress is an oilseed crop that produces 36% oil with a wide distribution of fatty acids (principal fatty acid is erucic acid 37%) that make it suitable for production of biodiesel. The key aspect of pennycress is that its lifecycle is complete such that a full season soybean can follow its production in the same growing season. Lesquerella is an oilseed crop containing 30% oil that is composed of 60% hydroxy fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial and cosmetic applications. Two other New Crops currently under investigation are cuphea and coriander. Cuphea is an oilseed crop that contains 35% oil that is composed of medium chain saturated fatty acids. The current cuphea variety under investigation is high in capric fatty acid (76%) with other cuphea species producing high levels of lauric acid. Cuphea can be grown throughout the Midwest but suffers from several agronomic traits that are currently limiting is potential adaptation. Coriander is also an oilseed crop with 25% oil where the main fatty acid is petroselinic acid (76%). Coriander can be grown under a short season production and has potential to rotate as a second crop following winter wheat. Petroselinic acid can be ozonolytically cleaved into adipic and lauric acids both high volume industrial chemicals.
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The first comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) for soybean biodiesel produced in the U.S. was completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 1998, and the energy inventory for this analysis was updated in 2009 using 2002 data. The continual adoption of new technologies in farming, soybean processing, and for biodiesel conversion affects the life-cycle energy use over time, requiring that LCA practitioners update their models as often as possible. This study uses the most recently available data to update the energy life-cycle of soybean biodiesel and makes comparisons with the two past studies. The updated analysis showed that the fossil energy ratio (FER) of soybean biodiesel was 5.54 using 2006 agricultural data. This is a major improvement over the FER of 3.2 reported in the 1998 NREL study that used 1990 agricultural data and significantly better than the FER of 4.56 reported using 2002 data. The improvements are primarily due to improved soybean yields and more energy-efficient soybean crushing and conversion facilities. The energy input in soybean agriculture was reduced by 52%, in soybean crushing by 58% and in transesterification by 33% per unit volume of biodiesel produced. Overall, the energy input reduction was 42% for the same amount of biodiesel produced. The addition of secondary inputs, such as farm machinery and building materials, did not have a significant effect on the FER. The FER of soybean biodiesel is likely to continue to improve over time because of increases in soybean yields and the development of increasingly energy-efficient technologies.
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With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.
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food challenges, society cannot afford to miss out on the global greenhouse-gas emis- sion reductions and the local environmental and societal benefi ts when biofuels are done right. However, society also cannot accept the undesirable impacts of biofuels done wrong. Biofuels done right can be produced in sub- stantial quantities ( 1). However, they must be derived from feedstocks produced with much lower life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions than traditional fossil fuels and with little or no competition with food production (see fi gure, below). Feedstocks in this category include, but may not be limited to, the following: 1) Perennial plants grown on degraded lands abandoned from agricultural use. Use of such lands minimizes competition with food crops. This also minimizes the poten- tial for direct and indirect land-clearing asso- ciated with biofuel expansion, as well as the resultant creation of long-term carbon debt and biodiversity loss. Moreover, if managed properly, use of degraded lands for biofuels could increase wildlife habitat, improve water quality, and increase carbon sequestration in soils
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Agriculture has changed greatly in the past in response to changing human needs. Now agriculture is being called on to provide raw materials for very large-scale fuel and chemical production. Agriculture will change again in response to this demand and all producers and users of agricultural feedstocks will be affected by this change. For example, livestock feeding practices have already changed in response to the availability of distillers' grains from corn ethanol production. A fuels industry based on herbaceous biomass energy crops will be many-fold larger than the existing corn ethanol industry and will produce its own set of impacts on livestock feeding. We explore here one of these impacts: the availability of large new sources of feed protein from biomass energy crops.
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Corn-ethanol production is expanding rapidly with the adoption of improved technologies to increase energy efficiency and profitability in crop production, ethanol conversion, and coproduct use. Life cycle assessment can evaluate the impact of these changes on environmental performance metrics. To this end, we analyzed the life cycles of corn-ethanol systems accounting for the majority of U.S. capacity to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy efficiencies on the basis of updated values for crop management and yields, biorefinery operation, and coproduct utilization. Direct-effect GHG emissions were estimated to be equivalent to a 48% to 59% reduction compared to gasoline, a twofold to threefold greater reduction than reported in previous studies. Ethanol-to-petroleum output/input ratios ranged from 10:1 to 13:1 but could be increased to 19:1 if farmers adopted high-yield progressive crop and soil management practices. An advanced closed-loop biorefinery with anaerobic digestion reduced GHG emissions by 67% and increased the net energy ratio to 2.2, from 1.5 to 1.8 for the most common systems. Such improved technologies have the potential to move corn-ethanol closer to the hypothetical performance of cellulosic biofuels. Likewise, the larger GHG reductions estimated in this study allow a greater buffer for inclusion of indirect-effect land-use change emissions while still meeting regulatory GHG reduction targets. These results suggest that corn-ethanol systems have substantially greater potential to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce dependence on imported petroleum for transportation fuels than reported previously.
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A light commercial road vehicle fitted with a heated fuel line and tank was run on cold pressed and filtered camelina sativa seed oil and unheated mineral diesel fuel. It was found that the seed oil produced a maximum power at the road wheels of 43.25 kW and returned 12.57 km/l compared to 38.50 kW and 14.03 km/l for the mineral fuel. At an engine speed >2000 rpm and high loading, both smoke opacity and CO emitted from the exhaust was found to be approximately 50% lower with the seed oil than with the mineral fuel, however, NO was higher for the seed oil by almost 6% at engine speeds >3500 rpm, but similar <3500 rpm. The CO2 and O2 emissions were similar and NO2 emitted was negligible for both fuels. The effect of heating at 170 °C on the camelina sativa seed oil was investigated and a significant increase in viscosity was observed which coincided with a reduction in the iodine value of the oil.
Conference Paper
Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crtz.) is an oilseed crop with apparently low water requirements and therefore could be very attractive for growers in arid lands. Verifying this potential for environments such as the U.S. Southwest, however, requires field experiments that test yield response to different irrigation schedules. By adapting evapotranspiration (ET) methodologies previously developed for more conventional crops (i.e., wheat and cotton), consumption of water by Camelina could be assessed in a spatial context. Using remote sensing observations collected in 2007 and 2008 over a 1.3 ha plot in Maricopa, Arizona, daily ET over Camelina was estimated with a surface energy balance approach. The observations included ground-based imagery spanning visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths. Crop treatments included four level of water depletion for 32 plots and one level of water-stress for 6 other plots. Modeled transpiration generally agreed well with independently obtained soil moisture depletions. Preliminary results indicate that crop coefficients, adapted by vegetation indices, provide sufficient guidance for effective irrigation scheduling and that canopy surface temperature changes can be a reliable indicator of ET.
Article
Camelina sativa L. Crantz (CS) seed oil is rich in essential omega-3-fatty acids, which have been shown to have positive effects on human health. The present work was designed to study CS as a new dietary source of omega-3-fatty acids for the production of healthful eggs. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of hen eggs can be beneficially modified by CS seed oil. The functional properties of eggs did not deteriorate. The sensory properties in CS oil eggs were better than in flaxseed oil eggs.
Article
False flax and gold of pleasure are the popular names for Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. Seeds and capsules of Camelina sativa ssp. C. linicola (Schimp. and Spenn.), have been found in archaeological excavations from the Bronze Age in Scandinavia and Western Europe. C. sativa was grown as an agricultural crop in European countries and Russia before the Second World War and up to the fifties. The recent search for new sources of essential fatty acids, particularly OMEGA-3 fatty acids, led to a renewed interest in this crop. C. sativa seed consists of about 43% oil in dry matter. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil is about 90%. About 50% of the total fatty acids are polyunsaturated-linoleic acid (18:2n− 6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n− 3). The content of erucic acid (22:1n − 9) in the oil is about 3.0%. The content of tocopherols is about 700 mg/kg. The cultivation of the crop is characterized by a low input. Nitrogen demand is moderate to low and chemical plant protection is not needed. Under experimental conditions, the yield of seed amounted to 2.6 and 3.3 t DM/ha, obtained from summer and winter varieties, respectively. The environmental benefits of the crop and a multipurpose applicability of the oil make C. sativa a promising oil-seed crop.
Article
This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel substitute. It can be made from a variety of natural oils and fats. Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial production of biodiesel. In Europe, biodiesel is widely available in both its neat form (100% biodiesel, also known as B1OO) and in blends with petroleum diesel. European biodiesel is made predominantly from rapeseed oil (a cousin of canola oil). In the United States, initial interest in producing and using biodiesel has focused on the use of soybean oil as the primary feedstock mainly because the United States is the largest producer of soybean oil in the world. 170 figs., 148 tabs.
Article
a b s t r a c t Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the ''displacement method'' or the ''substitution method'') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.
Book
A product's environmental life cycle progresses from raw material extraction through production, use and finally to waste management. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concerns the impact of a product on the environment. LCA's holistic perspective of products' environmental performance makes it a key concept for environmental management in industry as well as for environmental policy-making in government. This book for environmental engineers and managers, ecodesigners and students presents a broad repertoire of LCA methological alternatives, their implications and their usefulness in many different applications such as product development, marketing, production and waste management. Here environmental professionals can learn to interpret LCA methodology and results. The text also provides indepth coverage of LCA applications and offers many useful exercises to help prepare for the 10 major LCA exercise projects that are also included.
Article
The experiment was conducted to measure the effects of Camelina sativa expeller on the performance of broiler chickens and on the sensory quality and fatty acid composition of broiler meat. One-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to the three dietary treatments which lasted 37 days. Experimental diets contained 0, 5 or 10% C. sativa expeller. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. The birds were weighed at the beginning, at 14 days and at the end of the trial at 37 days. Feed intake was recorded between weighings. C. sativa expeller reduced the growth of the birds linearly (P < 0.001). It also depressed their feed intake and feed conversion ratio during the starter phase (1–14 days). C. sativa did not cause any significant enlargement of the thyroid gland, nor were any liver lesions observed. Feeding of C. sativa significantly (P < 0.001) increased the omega-3 fatty acid level in broiler meat. This was mainly due to an increase in α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3). Feeding did not seem to have any adverse effect on the sensory quality of broiler meat. Meat from female broilers produced by feeding 5% C. sativa in the diet was significantly (P = 0.02) more tender than meat produced by feeding 10% C. sativa. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Recently, an isoparaffin-rich jet fuel derived from camelina, a low-input nonfood oilseed crop, was flight-tested by a commercial airline. To date, all test results indicate that this hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) not only meets stringent engine fuel and performance specifications but also reduces environmental emissions. Several scenarios are now being considered for camelina as a sustainable feedstock for advanced biofuel production. For example, growth of camelina in the Northern Plains of the United States on either marginal lands or as a rotation crop during fallow periods on existing lands already in food crop production can avoid the conflict with food cultivation and concerns with indirect land use change impacts. Updated estimates of camelina cultivation requirements and commercial scale oil recovery and refining were used to calculate life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand for both HRJ and renewable diesel (green diesel, GD). GHG life cycle emissions for GD and HRJ are 18.0 and 22.4 g CO2 equiv/MJ fuel, which represent savings relative to petroleum counterparts of 80% and 75%, respectively. Scenario analyses were conducted to determine response to model assumptions and data uncertainty, including allocation methodology, N fertilizer application rate, N2O emission factor, source of H2, and farm diesel consumption. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2010
Article
The oilseed crop Camelina sativa (camelina) has lower production costs than oilseed rape in some climates. For this reason, the production of biodiesel-grade methyl ester from camelina oil was evaluated. The evaluation included quality assessment of esters produced in laboratory and pilot plant, an examination of methods of improving ester low-temperature properties, and vehicle trials. Laboratory esterifications gave ester yields similar to rape-seed oil. Six 350 kg batches of unrefined camelina oil with acid values from 3 to 6 were esterified in a pilot plant. Ester-specific properties were satisfactory with one exception; the iodine number of 155 far exceeded the value of 120 required by the relevant EU standard. Fuel-specific properties of the camelina methyl esters were largely within specification, though low-temperature behaviour could be a problem in some climates. This problem could be overcome by the use of suitable pour-point depressants or by blending with diesel oil. In vehicle tests, the reduction in fuel economy with camelina ester was similar to that with biodiesel from other feedstocks. The high iodine number of camelina methyl ester did not lead to a more rapid deterioration of the lubricating oil. However, it was concluded that further engine trials would be needed before the use of camelina ester as an undiluted vehicle fuel could be recommended.
Article
New fuel regulations based on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have focused renewed attention on life cycle models of biofuels. The BESS model estimates 25% lower life cycle GHG emissions for corn ethanol than does the well-known GREET model, which raises questions about which model is more accurate. I develop a life cycle metamodel to compare the GREET and BESS models in detail and to explain why the results from these models diverge. I find two main reasons for the divergence: (1) BESS models a more efficient biorefinery than is modeled in the cases to which its results have been compared, and (2) in several instances BESS fails to properly count upstream emissions. Adjustments to BESS to account for these differences raise the estimated global warming intensity (not including land use change) of the corn ethanol pathway considered in that model from 45 to 61 g CO2e MJ−1. Adjusting GREET to use BESS's biorefinery performance and coproduct credit assumptions reduces the GREET estimate from 64 to 61 g CO2e MJ−1. Although this analysis explains the gap between the two models, both models would be improved with better data on corn production practices and by better treatment of agricultural inputs.
Article
Preface. Foreword. Part 1: LCA in Perspective. 1. Why a new Guide to LCA? 2. Main characteristics of LCA. 3. International developments. 4. Guiding principles for the present Guide. 5. Reading guide. Part 2a: Guide. Reading guidance. 1. Management of LCA projects: procedures. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. Appendix A: Terms, definitions and abbreviations. Part 2b: Operational annex. List of tables. Reading guidance. 1. Management of LCA projects: procedures. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. 6. References. Part 3: Scientific background. Reading guidance. 1. General introduction. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. 6. References. Annex A: Contributors. Appendix B: Areas of application of LCA. Appendix C: Partitioning economic inputs and outputs to product systems.
Article
Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks.Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage.This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.
Article
The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification.Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool.It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain.
Article
Biofuels are expected to play an increasingly important role in the transportation market, as we search for ways to reduce fossil fuels depletion and emissions. However, the extent to which biofuel can displace petroleum-based fuels depends on the efficiency with which it can be produced. To demonstrate that biofuel has a positive energy balance—i.e. more energy is contained in the fuel than is used in the production—a life-cycle approach must be employed. This paper presents a Life-Cycle Energy Analysis of bioethanol (from sugar beet or wheat) and bioETBE systems in France. Physical and economic data was collected. A systemic description was implemented and the energy used throughout was calculated. A novel indicator aiming at characterizing the renewability of (bio)energy sources is proposed—the energy renewability efficiency (ERenEf). ERenEf measures the fraction of final fuel energy obtained from renewable sources. Inventory results—calculated using four different allocation approaches and ignoring co-product credits—are analyzed in order to understand the effect of allocation in the energy efficiency and renewability results. Sensitivity analysis shows that allocation has a major influence in the results. This research concludes that bioethanol produced in France is clearly favorable in terms of primary energy. A maximum ERenEf value of 48% was obtained for wheat-based ethanol (mass allocation), meaning that 48% of the biofuel energy content is indeed renewable energy. Fossil energy savings when gasoline is displaced by bioethanol, bioETBE or E5 are calculated. In particular, pure bioethanol may save up to 0.70 MJ, depending on whether wheat or sugar beet is used and on the allocation procedure adopted.
Article
Because carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of a renewable fuel are not anthropogenic greenhouse gases, there are significant greenhouse gas benefits in using ethanol that is derived from sugar or wheat, especially from waste feedstock. However, if the ethanol is used as an additive (as in diesohol or petrohol) then some of these greenhouse gas benefits are lost because ethanol is less efficient as a fuel.The vapour pressure of petrohol is higher than that of either petrol or ethanol, so that it is unclear whether there are, or are not, air quality benefits associated with the use of ethanol.A measurement program that surveys a significant proportion of E10 alternative fuel vehicles should be undertaken, along with a parallel program to test the emission variations that result from the changes in the petrol. The performance of overseas models in relation to the Australian situation is unknown, and a combined modelling and measurement program is needed to determine its validity.
Article
Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared from camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] oil by homogenous base-catalyzed transesterification for evaluation as biodiesel fuels. Camelina oil contained high percentages of linolenic (32.6 wt.%), linoleic (19.6 wt.%), and oleic (18.6 wt.%) acids. Consequently, camelina oil methyl and ethyl esters (CSME and CSEE) exhibited poor oxidative stabilities and high iodine values versus methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, and soybean oils (CME, PME, and SME). Other fuel properties of CSME and CSEE were similar to CME, PME, and SME, such as low temperature operability, acid value, cetane number, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, sulfur and phosphorous contents, as well as surface tension. As blend components in ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, CSME and CSEE were essentially indistinguishable from SME and soybean oil ethyl ester blends with regard to low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, lubricity, and surface tension.
Article
Recent analyses of the energy and greenhouse-gas performance of alternative biofuels have ignited a controversy that may be best resolved by applying two simple principles. In a world seeking solutions to its energy, environmental, and food challenges, society cannot afford to miss out on the global greenhouse-gas emission reductions and the local environmental and societal benefits when biofuels are done right. However, society also cannot accept the undesirable impacts of biofuels done wrong.