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Integrating comprehensive customer requirements into product design

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Abstract

Identification of customer needs is the starting point of design process. Most of design methodologies focus on technical domains to define customer requirements. However, the success of product design nowadays goes beyond technical features; it often depends heavily on multi-facets of customers’ needs including various business parameters. Moreover, the qualitative and subjective factors such as affection, aesthetic appearance, user friendliness and brand loyalty are essential to the ultimate acceptance of a new product. This paper presents a probabilistic approach to elicit, characterize the qualitative customers’ latent and subjective preferences and incorporate them into product design.

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... However, expert judgement raises concern on its repeatability and bias [5]. Some researches emphasize the probabilistic classifiers of machine learning for they are suitable to quantify uncertain information, and robust in diversity [6][7]. Such probabilistic classifiers are inductive learning techniques, the training datasets from which the classifiers learn the regulations should be under basic prerequisites. ...
... Model based configurators take configuration tasks as constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) [10]. Model based systems have advantages of better separation of domain knowledge used, and better robust for complex design tasks [7]. Extensive research of such model based configurators accompanied by the deep-going study of CSP, e.g., the Dynamic CSP contains activity constrains, the Generic CSP for handling constrains in intuitive way, the Composite CSP, and the Mixed and conditional CSP [1,3]. ...
Article
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Mapping customer requirements into product configurations is a crucial step for product design, while, customers express their needs ambiguously and locally due to the lack of domain knowledge. Thus the data mining process of customer requirements might result in fragmental information with high dimensional sparsity, leading the mapping procedure risk uncertainty and complexity. The Expert Judgment is widely applied against that background since there is no formal requirements for systematic or structural data. However, there are concerns on the repeatability and bias for Expert Judgment. In this study, an integrated method by adjusted Local Linear Embedding (LLE) and Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier is proposed to map high dimensional sparse customer requirements to product configurations. The integrated method adjusts classical LLE to preprocess high dimensional sparse dataset to satisfy the prerequisite of NB for classifying different customer requirements to corresponding product configurations. Compared with Expert Judgment, the adjusted LLE with NB performs much better in a real-world Tablet PC design case both in accuracy and robustness.
... We use Bayesian network to bridge the causal relationships between pertinent technical risk factors due to its ability to map correlation(s) among respective risk factors. Our approach (to establish the relationships amongst various risk factors) is in-line with the approach devised by Wang and Tseng (2011), wherein customer preference modeling was done for product design process using Naive Bayes principle. This research complements the work done by Ringen, Holtskog, and Martinsen (2012), Wang and Tseng (2011) and Goswami & Tiwari, (2014) thus proposing a systematic framework for gauging product and process novelty at nascent stages of development process. ...
... Our approach (to establish the relationships amongst various risk factors) is in-line with the approach devised by Wang and Tseng (2011), wherein customer preference modeling was done for product design process using Naive Bayes principle. This research complements the work done by Ringen, Holtskog, and Martinsen (2012), Wang and Tseng (2011) and Goswami & Tiwari, (2014) thus proposing a systematic framework for gauging product and process novelty at nascent stages of development process. Unlike these studies however (except that of Goswami & Tiwari, 2014;), our work focuses on developing an analytical model for technical risks emanating from interplays between technical objectives of pertinent functional divisions (organizational stakeholders). ...
Article
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This research intends to aid product managers at early stages (before detailed design stage) of product development to identify and thus benchmark the minimal risk prone design concept for further development and commercialization. As requirements pertaining to relevant functional divisions within the enterprise are needed to be included at the project initiation stage of design process, it can be easily ascertained that pertinent techno-commercial risks be included for development of the predictive framework. Bayesian network methodology has been deployed to draw the relationships amongst various risk parameters corresponding to different functional divisions. The devised framework has been validated and tested using a real-life case from construction and mining equipment industry. The key benefit arising out of my evolved methodology is that product development agencies within manufacturers would be able to iteratively converge upon the design concepts representing moderate to lower risk as far as effective execution of downstream organizational processes such as production, sourcing, distribution etc. is concerned.
... Step 2. Calculate the discernibility matrix of each rule r p of decision table S9 according to formula (6). ...
... Take the fourth rule as an example. For the fourth rule, r 4 , calculate the discernibility matrix M(r 4 ) according to formula (6) and check it column by column. Set all in the second column as 1 to obtain M9(r 4 ). ...
Article
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In order to better obtain information about customer requirement and develop products meeting customer requirement, it is necessary to systematically analyze and handle the customer requirement. This article uses the product service system of numerical control machine as research objective and studies the customer requirement modeling and mapping oriented toward configuration design. It introduces the conception of requirement unit, expounds the customer requirement decomposition rules, and establishes customer requirement model; it builds the house of quality using quality function deployment and confirms the weight of technical feature of product and service; it explores the relevance rules between data using rough set theory, establishes rule database, and solves the target value of technical feature of product. Using economical turning center series numerical control machine as an example, it verifies the rationality of proposed customer requirement model. © SAGE Publications Ltd, unless otherwise noted. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses.
... Firstly, customers cannot specify their needs holistically. Current methods primarily focus on the technical domain of customer needs, i.e., specifying the alternative of each feature in a configuration list [3]. However, this approach is ineffective in practice as customers can only specify the features they know and cannot imagine what they have not experienced. ...
Article
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User-driven customization is a particular design paradigm where customers act as co-designers to configure products based on their own needs. However, due to insufficient product usage experience, customers may design a product incompatible with their environment and needs. Such incompatibility can negatively affect the performance of some customized features or even cause product failure. As a result, customers may hesitate to customize products because additional complexities and uncertainties are perceived. Product usage context (PUC), as all the environment and application factors that affect customer needs and product performance, can be used to facilitate customer co-design in user-driven customization. Identifying individual customers' PUC can help customers foresee potential design failures, make more holistic decisions, and be confident with their designs. Against the background, this paper proposes a PUC knowledge graph (PUCKG) construction method using user-generated content (UGC). The proposed method can convert crowdsourced corner cases into structured PUCKG to support personal PUC prediction, summarization, and reasoning. A case study of robot vacuum cleaners is conducted to validate the efficacy of the proposed method.
... A successful product design today has to provide the necessary functions, to offer sufficient business returns, to generate enthusiasm in the market and to comply with various regulatory standards such as sustainability and safety (Wang, 2011). In fact, product design has long been considered as a fusion of different disciplines and a multiple dimensional task, involving the participation of engineers, industrial designers, and business managers along with customers' participation (Barnes, 2009). ...
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In order to remain competitive in today's technologically driven world, companies try to determine the optimal settings of design attribute of new products from which the best customer satisfaction can be obtained. Identification of customer requirements is the starting point of design process. Most of design approaches focus on technical domains to define customer requirements. However, the success of product design nowadays goes beyond technical features; it often depends heavily on multi-facets of customers' needs including various business parameters. In this paper, a method of incorporating customer requirements for criteria assessment in design evaluation process has been developed. The first stage of the methodology selects the criteria and identifying parameters. The second stage calculates the weight of TRIZ (an acronym for the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving). Case examples from industry are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the application of TRIZ in assessing criteria by incorporating customer requirements provides an alternative to existing methods.
... In addition, technical merit with the marketplace analysis can minimize gaps between practice and theory. Instead, qualitative and subjective factors like usability, appearance, and comfort become imperative [1]. To quickly achieve their targets, the concept of product design development (PDD) has been applied. ...
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In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent days, analyzing water used or water permeation automatically through the soil moisture has been raised as the interesting topic. Proposed in this research is the ring irrigation system (RIS) which is introduced as an alternative channel for emitters that drip water directly onto the soil at the plant’s root zone where the soil conditions before and after watering can be quickly detected by the sensors. This RIS can be used for the potted plant, green house, or other small farm fields. Product design and development (PDD) is applied in this research for assisting the designer to understand and create the RIS prototype properly according to the customer’s requirements where the suggested functions obtained will be added and tested.
... [22]. Indeed, product development has become a multifactor decision-making process, and an effective multifactor fusion design method has become the key to product design.Aesthetic evaluation, as an important issue in aesthetics, is an extremely complex mental activity. ...
... Appearance of products is one of the factors of customer attraction. This necessitates customer-centric design of products and product customization [1][2][3]. One of the methods proposed in this area is the direct use of designs proposed by users for designing the products. ...
Article
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One of the effective factors in increasing sales is the consistency of products with the preference of the customers. Designing the products consistent with customer needs requires the engagement of customers in the product design process. One way to achieve this goal is the use of interactive evolutionary algorithms. During the running of such algorithms, the customer acts as a fitness function and imparts his/her opinion directly to the design process. Since these algorithms are usually iterated frequently, the user fatigue problem during interaction with them is a major challenge. The present study develops a method to tackle the user fatigue problem in the interactive genetic algorithm using the candidate elimination algorithm. In this method, customer preferences are gradually learned by applying the candidate elimination algorithm on the designs evaluated by the user in the early stages of algorithm. Using the learned preferences, designs which may not meet the customer preferences are discovered and automatically receive a predefined low score from the algorithm. The proposed method has been evaluated on the customer-centric design of book covers and its results have been compared with those of the two simple interactive genetic algorithm and multi-stage interactive genetic algorithm. The results are indicative of a considerable reduction of the number of algorithm generations, the number of chromosomes being evaluated by user, and the evaluating time in comparison with the two aforementioned methods. Reduction of these criteria leads to decrease of user fatigue. In addition, the proposed method has increased the user satisfaction.
... However, customers may find the process stressful and unpleasant due to the lack of expertise [2]. As a probabilistic classifier, Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) is suitable to quantify the natural uncertainty and ambiguity of customer requirements [3]. NBC is based on the strong assumption that the attributes are independent with each other [4]. ...
Article
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Mapping customer requirements to product configurations are difficult due to the uncertainty and ambiguity of customers' expression. The Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) is suitable to quantify the expression of customers, and to map their requirements to configurations with good performance. However, the prerequisite of manually independent of product attributes for NBC require preprocess. Dimensionality reduction methods are effective for simplifying the data complexity while separating the correlations between data Against the background, this paper conducts a comparative study of 7 dimensionality reduction methods as preprocess procedure for integrating with NBC to map customer requirements to product configurations. Two realistic design cases are illustrated for the comparison, and the outcomes are measured by the accuracy and F-measure. The results of this study imply several findings that the loss of information has great impact on all methods, and linear methods are more sensitive to the loss of information, and several nonlinear methods are more capable in handling the loss of information than other methods, and local linear methods are suggested compared with global nonlinear methods.
... The processes of CRI classification and product configuration can occur independently of one another. For instance, customers' preferences are able to complete transformation into product design [9,10] without performing CRI classification, although CRI classification results are useful for determining them. Additionally, the lack of mathematical analysis of CRI means that it is difficult to use the classification results directly for product configuration purposes. ...
Article
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Traditional methods used for the classification of customer requirement information are typically based on specific indicators, hierarchical structures, and data formats and involve a qualitative analysis in terms of stationary patterns. Because these methods neither consider the scalability of classification results nor do they regard subsequent application to product configuration, their classification becomes an isolated operation. However, the transformation of customer requirement information into quantifiable values would lead to a dynamic classification according to specific conditions and would enable an association with product configuration in an enterprise. This paper introduces a classification analysis based on quantitative standardization, which focuses on (i) expressing customer requirement information mathematically and (ii) classifying customer requirement information for product configuration purposes. Our classification analysis treated customer requirement information as follows: first, it was transformed into standardized values using mathematics, subsequent to which it was classified through calculating the dissimilarity with general customer requirement information related to the product family. Finally, a case study was used to demonstrate and validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the classification analysis.
... Moreover, the tendency towards mass customisation and personalization (Tseng et al. 2010) requires companies to reveal latent customer requirements (CRs) (e.g. affective and cognitive ones) other than only explicit technical information (Wang and Tseng 2011), thus, the function-based methods need to be improved accordingly. Also, due to the customer heterogeneity with different opinions and various subjective information expressed, it inevitably contains much vagueness which needs to be interpreted into design specifications properly and rapidly. ...
Article
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Customer requirements (CRs) play a significant role in the product development process, especially in the early design stage. Quality function deployment (QFD), as a useful tool in customer-oriented product development, provides a systematic approach towards satisfying CRs. Customers are heterogeneous and their requirements are often vague, therefore, how to determine the relative importance ratings (RIRs) of CRs and eventually evaluate the final importance ratings is a critical step in the QFD product planning process. Aiming to improve the existing approaches by interpreting various CR preferences more objectively and accurately, this paper proposes a weighted interval rough number method. CRs are rated with interval numbers, rather than a crisp number, which is more flexible to adapt in real life; also, the fusion of customer heterogeneity is addressed by assigning different weights to customers based on several factors. The consistency of RIRs is maintained by the proposed procedures with design rules. A comparative study among fuzzy weighted average method, rough number method and the proposed method is conducted at last. The result shows that the proposed method is more suitable in determining the RIRs of CRs with vague information.
... In Reliability Engineering, reliability management is hinged on a number of instruments of measurements which could be referred to as tools, this helps to give a proper understanding of the subject when carefully studied. (Wang & Tseng, 2011)Customers or Consumers taste changes all the time forcing manufacturers to develop new products or systems to satisfy the needs of their customers, who happens to be the reasons why they are in business, as customers changes their taste from one pole to another products design have to also change, these changes can range from colour, weight, size, performance and so on. Configuration Management therefore ensures that products or systems are developed according to contract specifications thereby giving the customers satisfaction by its required performance, hence we can say it defines the engineering product and its technical changes. ...
... Reference [2] and [3] proposed that user requirements were confirmed through market pull and technology driven mode in product innovation design process. Reference [4][5][6][7][8] analyzed user requirements in product research, design and manufacturing phases through QFD, and provided the model architecture for determining the final importance ratings of user requirements. Reference [9] established the common product requirements information model adopting the formal description language EXPRESS-G through analyzing the requirements of product structure and development process. ...
Article
According to the classification of user requirements in Kano model, theory of technology evolution was adopted to determine the future evolution route of product and predict possible structure state for the future technology, in order to mine the user's potential requirements. In view of the fuzzy and uncertainty of users' potential requirements, the fuzzy semantic model was adopted to describe the qualitative user requirements in order to standardly form the user requirements concept sets with functional attributes in different requirement categories, so as to guide the designers to create the innovative solutions along the right direction and then achieve the product rapid innovation design. Taking the Pulse-Jet bag filter as an example, the case analysis shows that this method can effectively be applied to obtain new product innovation concept solution, and provide theoretical support for the mapping between subsequent innovation concept solutions and innovation function solutions and innovation structure solutions, and also provide the model architecture for innovation droved new product digital prototype design.
... The findings in turn help to explore potential opportunities for applying IT support to improving the supermarket service for the elderly consumers. Many researchers have suggested that the issues of identifying consumers' or user's needs and requirements are critical to the success of new service/ product design (Brownsell et al., 2012;Wang and Tseng, 2011;Chen et al., 2002). This study has aimed to explore the needs and requirements of elderly consumers with regards to the service offered by supermarkets by investigating the difficulties and challenges that they face during their shopping process in the UK. ...
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate the difficulties and challenges faced by the older supermarket consumers in order to form insights into potential ways of applying IT support and design solutions within the supermarket service for older consumers. The rationale for this research stemmed from observations and discussions with supermarkets with regards to the use of IT and better process design for a growing segment of their consumer base. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed research methodology was used for this research. Firstly, an ethnographic approach based on direct observations was felt appropriate as this would offer a visual unbiased view of the processes involved in the shopping experience. Secondly, it was felt that it would be appropriate to support these findings with semi-structured interviews. The data was clustered to provide contextual awareness of the problems involved within the shopping experience. Findings – The findings indicated a range of areas where senior consumers faced difficulties. One major problem was around understanding where certain products were placed on shelves and why. The other areas of concern were access to products (shelf height), poor signage, labelling and inappropriate portion sizes. Research limitations/implications – The main research limitation is the small sample size that was studied. Obviously with a much larger sample a wider range of problems would be uncovered. The other area of concern is the fact that studying particular customers invades the privacy of customers that are inadvertently caught up on videos. In future, it may make sense to get participants to film themselves and talk into smart mobiles, recording real-time data. Practical implications – The research indicates that it is important for supermarkets to improve signage and customer support, and use IT more freely in most areas. The use of electronic ink signage is a new and important area that they could invest in. This would allow real-time updates. Social implications – As many countries are faced with growing numbers of senior citizens, it is important that their lives are made easier and the shopping experience improved. Originality/value – There are limited attempts at the use of an ethnographic approach to explore elderly consumers’ shopping experiences in the UK. The existing studies do not look at the practicalities of everyday shopping problems faced by this segment of the population. It also adds value to the retailers’ understanding of the behaviour patterns of this important customer segment, at the same time offering solutions to certain problems such as signage and directions through the utilisation of IT.
... Requirements are not only significant at the front-end phase of the innovation process, but are essential through the whole lifecycle, covering all life cycle activities associated with understanding a product's necessary capabilities and attributes (Maletz 2008). The success of product design requires multi-facets of customer needs including technical features, price/revenue streams, various regulation compliance, as well as customers' subjective and qualitative perceptions (Wang and Tseng 2011). According to Jiao and Chen (2006), it appears to be difficult for engineers to translate customer requirements into concrete product and engineering specifications. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, requirements management (RQM) is mostly not included in the current structures of product lifecycle management (PLM) systems, although RQM has become a critical activity throughout the PLM. Customer requirements with all related product information need not only be integrated with each other, but with all processes and stakeholders involved through the related business functions of product lifecycle. In this paper, we examine the various challenges of RQM, especially related to PLM. Company-specific challenges are identified, when integrating RQM with PLM in a case company acting in the automotive industry. The objective of this study is to find out how product-related information on customer requirements could better be utilised and integrated with PLM. We propose a new integration framework according to which the challenges at different integration levels are categorised. As a final conclusion, the study shows the core points where and how the concepts of PLM and RQM should be developed, as to create requirements integrated solutions for extended products and systems through the lifecycle.
... What is more, many design projects do not depart from a requirement specification that is correct and complete. At the same time, requirement specifications serve as a reference for judging the available alternatives and, as such, determine to a large extent the course of design cycles [152,153,254]. Requirement specifications exist in multiple forms, at different levels of detail and with changing degrees of certainty and ambiguity. ...
Article
For product designers, tools and techniques are essential in driving the design cycle. Nevertheless, their employment usually is implicit, while passing over e.g. the design and project environments empowering their adequate use. This publication presents an overview of approaches in structuring and using tools/techniques, based on the effectuation of creativity and decision-making in the design environment. In elaborating on characteristics of tools/techniques and ensuing ways of selecting them, the designer's portfolio of tools/techniques is characterised. Representative problems of tool/technique usage are depicted and contextualised by illustrating their industrial application. Prospects for future developments are also reviewed.
... 3.1. More importantly, it may be that need elicitation and preference assessment techniques must be pulled from work outside the specific applications of MC and/or engineering design research (Zhou et al. 2012;Fuentes-Fernandez et al. 2009Jiao et al. 2007;Durugbo and Riedel 2013;Wang and Tseng 2011;Luh et al. 2012a;Arora et al. 2011;Li et al. 2013). We see opportunity to bring these theoretical bases together to assist in building complete customer preference profiles that support MC. ...
Article
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Introduced nearly 25 years ago, the paradigm of mass customization (MC) has largely not lived up to its promise. Despite great strides in information technology, engineering design practice and manufacturing production, the necessary process innovations that can produce products and systems with sufficient customization and economic efficiency have yet to be found in wide application. In this paper, the state-of-the-art in MC is explored in the context of an envisioned MC development process for both the firm and the customer. Specifically, 130 references are reviewed within the process frameworks (Sect. 3) and/or to highlight opportunities for future development in MC (Sect. 4) based on the review. This review yields opportunities in four primary areas that challenge MC development: (1) customer needs and preference assessment tools, (2) approaches for requirement specification and conceptual design, (3) insights from methodologies focused on the development of durable MC goods and (4) enhancements in information mapping and handling.
... The key to product success relies on better understanding of the customer needs and their functional requirements with respect to the product [2]. Research in mass customization shows that customers are often willing to compromise among certain product attributes [3]. Namely, they are indifferent or insensitive to some ranges of attributes and certain product features [4]. ...
Article
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Tolerancing conventionally deals with the variation of manufacturing processes to meet the requirements of product quality. With the development in product customization, it has been generally accepted that customers’ requirements also have acceptable tolerance range. This flexibility provides an opportunity to better match customer requirements with richer product offerings through customization. A probabilistic model is presented in this paper to incorporate the tolerance of functional requirements into customized product design. By leveraging on the requirements tolerance, customers are more likely to get their desired products. Customer requirements tolerance can thus open up a new dimension for product customization.
... Accuracy is the ratio of the exactly classified samples to the testing samples (Tripathy et al. 2016). Macro F-measure is the expansion of F-measure as the average of the harmonic mean of precision and recall rate of all classes, and a greater macro F-measure value indicates better classification quality (Özgür et al. 2005;Wang and Tseng 2011b). In this case, managers from the company considered that only the minimum expectations for accuracy and macro F-measure exceeding 0.8 confirm the validation of the intelligent classifier. ...
Article
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Product design is greatly influenced by product configuration processes and can be suspended or result in failure if the configuration process consumes too much time, cost, or resources; such results can also occur if the end products manufactured based on configurations failed to satisfy customers. Therefore, a configuration approach that saves time, cost, and resources, as well as highly satisfies customers, is necessary and significant. Against the background, this study proposes a configuration approach that uses online data to map customer requirements into product configurations, including the product transaction data and customer review data. The approach generates feasible configurations initially by using transaction data. Next, the approach produces training samples based on positive customer review data. Lastly, the intelligent classifier is trained by the training samples and is utilized to select final configurations from feasible configurations to satisfy customer requirements. A real-world design case of smartphones is used to illustrate the proposed approach, and the results indicate that this approach saves time, cost, and resources and is competitive compared with other product configuration methods. This novel configuration approach provides designers and companies with a superior and efficient method to complete configuration tasks with competiveness and low risk and adds value to the usability and analysis of online data.
... The external factors like mood, emotion, or impulsive feeling can also affect their preferences and needs. In the research product design and marketing analysis, the understanding of consumer needs becomes more critical in that customer-centric product design and manufacturing has become the mainstream in academia and industrial practice [35], [37]. In this section, we will review some typical methodologies of customer needs elicitation mainly from marketing research and engineering design perspectives. ...
Article
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Rapid changes of new technologies, market dynamics, and swift fluctuation of customer tastes acerbate the needs for companies to identifying the emerging customer requirements and incorporate them in the conceptual design stage. Discovering emerging customer needs has great potential to create new product opportunities for the success of business. However, identifying customers’ requirements in an early design stage has not been well addressed in the traditional design methodology. Because emerging needs are usually not obvious at the budding stage, the related observations are rare in dataset. Traditional methods fall short of providing enough support of eliciting the below-the-radar needs. This paper reports a new approach to identify emerging customer needs in the growing popular online interactive environment with customer participation. The Bayes factor, a methodology to quantify the occurrence possibility of a certain event, is used to calculate the likelihood that current offering cannot meet the customer's requirements whenever a new specification is incorporated. With the sequential input from customers, a series of the Bayes factor value can then be calculated as the weight of evidence that emerging customer needs appear. We show that the decreased value will be the potentially emerging needs which cannot be satisfied by the current product family. Numerical and analytical results are derived to demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
... In addition, there are long-standing challenges faced by the industry, including a shortage of talent, imperfect infrastructure, cumbersome transaction processes, comparatively low levels of informatization in business operations (Wen et al., 2013), credit risk in cross-border payments and settlements, as well as immaturity of international business logistics. In global markets, cross-border e-commerce has also faced trade barriers, consisting of distribution costs, regulatory hurdles and other forms of newly-presented trade protectionism (Kaynak et al., 2005;Wang and Tseng, 2011). ...
Article
China's cross‐border e‐commerce industry has demonstrated stable and rapid development thanks to the implementation of appropriate policy support and the progressive establishment of e‐commerce platforms. The industry's prosperity suggests unique advantages of cross‐border e‐commerce, which are a result of promoting industrial transformation and accelerating economic restructuring. Due to asymmetric information and insufficient data, little research has been conducted on the current status and the trends of the industry as well as the magnitude of risk in cross‐border e‐commerce. Using the cross‐border e‐commerce hosting service database of BizArk, the present study has constructed an index for China's export e‐commerce prosperity and magnitude of risk which reveals that the industry: (i) generally presents a tendency of solid growth; (ii) has had a relatively stable situation for logistics facilitation but a drastic fluctuation in customs facilitation; (iii) has gradually shifted to competing for cheaper and more efficient marketing techniques as well as channels; and (iv) has experienced a remarkable amelioration of risk magnitude.
... The consumers consideration about the environmental protection issues and their behaviors effects on the environments have become increasingly important. today's Successful product designs must offer the functions needed to gain adequate business returns, create market competition, and comply with general regulatory standards [42]. ...
Article
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Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as greenhouse effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements. Keywords-Analytic hierarchy process, green product, customer requirements for green design, importance weights for the customer requirements.
... An ordering-based approach based on Yager's theory of aggregation allows engineers to address the problem of aggregating importance orderings of multiple decision-makers with respect to a set of possible alternatives (Yager, 1993;Wang and Tseng 2011;Chen et al. 2013;Zheng et al. 2016). In particular, we focused on Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement (LCJ) (Thurstone 1927), introduced by Franceschini and Maisano (2015), to aggregate the CRs' judgments into a continuous interval scale . ...
Conference Paper
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Despite its large popularity, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method has been the object of numerous studies addressing the problem of the assessment and prioritization of customer requirements. Nevertheless, a comparative analysis of these approaches to investigate their practical usability is scarcely discussed. This paper aims at filling this gap by means of a practical case study at a manufacturer in the food sector, where five of the most common approaches used to augment the House of Quality (HoQ) were analyzed and the results were compared. To achieve such a goal, semi-structured questionnaires were developed to capture consumers' preferences and expectations. The outputs of this study contribute to a better understanding of the potential and limitations of the examined approaches in order to address practitioners and companies in decision-making processes and resources allocation. Moreover, the article can serve as a reference for further investigations in the development of food products, where both intrinsic and extrinsic qualities need to be addressed.
... 125 Retrieved February 2, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/logistics-business#ref528537 126 Witkowski, on the other hand, described the supply chain as the interaction of companies and customers in various functional areas through which streams of products, their related information, and finances are transferred 128 . ...
Book
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Design for Logistics (DfL) is the part of Design for eXcellence methodology (DfX). The book presents a new approach to the subject of DfL along with a proposal of tools and research methods related to this issue.
... About qualitative method, Chen et al. [6] proposed an ontology learning CRs representation system, the system which preprocessed customer statements by language processing tools. Wang and Tseng [7]; Wang and Tseng [8] put forward the concept of customer demand bias and employed probability analysis methods to analyze CRs. Liu et al. [9] proposed a system management approach for demand management in industrial design. ...
Article
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The precisely perception of key customer requirements (CRs) is critically important for customer collaborative product innovation (CCPI) design. A novel approach is proposed based on the Kano model, interval 2-tuple linguistic representation model, and prospect theory. First of all, a Kano model is constructed to preliminarily screen the relatively important product function attributes. For the uncertain and vague information of CRs, an interval 2-tuple linguistic representation model is proposed to determine the weight of CRs. Then, the comprehensive prospects value is utilized for sorting the innovative programs based on the prospect theory. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the scientific and validity of the proposed method.
...  An ordering based decision making approach based on the Yager's theory of aggregation to aggregate the CRs' judgments into a continuous interval scale (Chen et al., 2013;Wang and Tseng, 2011;Yager, 1993;Zheng et al., 2016). ...
Article
The paper proposes a design for safety methodology based on the use of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method, focusing on the need to identify and analyse risks related to a working task in an effective manner, i.e. considering the specific work activities related to such a task. To reduce the drawbacks of subjectivity while augmenting the consistency of judgements, the QFD was augmented by both the Delphi method and the Fuzzy Logic approach. To verify such an approach, it was implemented through a case study in the agricultural sector. While the proposed approach needs to be validated through further studies in different contexts, its positive results in performing hazard analysis and risk assessment in a comprehensive and thorough manner can contribute practically to the scientific knowledge on the application of QFD in design for safety activities.
... Requirement management is one of the most important activities that help designers to structure and manage requirements from idea generation to product commercialization in the phases of new product development. The success of product design requires multifaceted customer requirements (CRs), such as technical features, price/revenue streams, and various regulation compliances, as well as the customers' subjective and qualitative perceptions (Wang and Tseng 2011;Montalto et al. 2018;Zhang et al. 2016). In particular, CRs are derived from different perspectives of the product lifecycle, including issues such as manufacturing, reliability, maintainability and environmental safety (Papinniemi et al. 2014;Lou et al. 2018). ...
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... Samo projektowanie wspomagające logistykę (DfL) pojawiło się w roku 1992. Wtedy to Mather jako pierwszy, bazując na wcześniejszych swoich publikacjach 176 , zdefiniował pojęcie DfL jako szybką reakcję na potrzebę klienta w momencie, w którym się ona pojawi -… to delight the customer with product when needed 177 . Słusznie uzasadniał on, że wiele kwestii logistycznych, wynikających 175 Foo G., Clancy J.P., Lindemunder Ch.R., Kinney L.E., Design for material logistics, AT&T Technical Journal, May-June 1990, ss. 61-76. ...
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Książka dotyczy problematyki projektowania wyrobów wspomagającego logistykę (Design for Logistics), jako elementu szerszej koncepcji DfX (Design for eXcellence). Następstwem tego typu prac projektowych jest produkt logistycznie sprawny, który w zależności od jego podatności projektowej, może posiadać konkretne parametry (cechy, właściwości i architekturę). W publikacji zaprezentowano także wyniki badań, obrazujące problematykę logistycznej sprawności produktów w przedsiębiorstwach branży meblarskiej. Książka została udostępniona w wersji elektronicznej: http://repozytorium.p.lodz.pl/handle/11652/2198
... The online footwear customization platforms emerge as interfaces with high potential in guiding and facilitating the collaborative creation process, which, in addition to bringing the customer closer to creation, also foster a more pleasant and seductive shopping experience. In turn, for the brand or manufacturer, this platforms interfere in the complexity of the production, distribution of the products and interaction with the customer (Sandrin, Trentin, Grosso & Forza, 2017;Tseng, Hu & Wang, 2013;Wang & Tseng, 2011). It is therefore imperative to understand how to build these tools properly, to be capable of enhancing the added value and reducing possible obstacles of mass customization (Salvador, de Holan & Piller, 2009). ...
... Wang and Tseng [88] addressed the major barriers for integrating subjective and qualitative customer's preferences into product design in general. For that, they presented a Naive Bayes-based approach to characterize the customer's technical functional requirements and subjective preferences, and map them to detailed attributes and design parameters. ...
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The Principles of Design
  • N P Suh
Suh NP (1990) The Principles of Design. Oxford University Press, New York.