To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.
... It also orients our methodological decisions, to be discussed later. Intersectionality is a tool for explaining how the unique contribution of one socio-demographic factor, such as gender, might be difficult to isolate from another, such as class (Oleksy 2011;Schultz and Mullings 2005). The focus is on understanding what is created and experienced at the confluence of two or more axes of oppression. ...
Children and parents' daily lives are rarely highlighted in coverage of drug wars. Using 16 interviews with parents in the Mexican border city of Juárez in 2010, we examine how drug violence impacts families with a focus on intersections of gender and social class. Related to mobility (the first emergent theme), fathers had increased mobility as compared to mothers, which caused different stresses. Material hardships heightened mothers' isolation within the home, and mothers more often had to enforce children's mobility restrictions, which children resisted. Related to employment (the second emergent theme), fathers took on dangerous jobs to provide for the family while mothers had fewer options for informal employment due to violence. In sum, men and women faced different challenges, which were intensified due to class-based material disadvantages. Conformity with traditional gender expectations for behavior was common for men and women, illustrating the normalization of gender inequality within this context.
... This was something that Williams (2013) concluded herself when revisiting the glass escalator phenomenon. Focusing on more than one variable to further understand an individual's interaction within society has been termed intersectionality, which replaces the modernist emphasis on identities, with a post-modernist, post-structuralist concept of subjectivity, i.e. a person's sense of self (Olesky 2011). According to Hill-Collins and Bilge (2016, 2) intersectionality is 'a way of understanding and analysing the events and conditions of social and political life and the self, generally shaped by many factors in diverse and mutually influencing ways'. ...
Attempting to encourage and retain male primary school teachers can lead to the ‘glass escalator’ phenomenon, the fast-tracked advancement that men receive in gender-atypical work. Currently, in primary schools, males are disproportionately represented in management positions making up 35% of senior staff, while conversely only making up 15% of the general teaching staff. This paper presents one main theme from current doctoral research exploring how the ‘glass escalator’ operates in English primary schools, presenting findings on gendered discourses on the role of ‘promotion’ for teachers. The identification of two conflicting views demonstrates a disparity between internal teaching pedagogies and external societal opinions upholding the ‘glass escalator’ phenomenon.
Abbreviations: OFSTED: Office for Standards in Education; CAQDAS: Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis
... For an excellent review of Intersectional Feminist theory, seeOleksy (2011). ...
... Participants' lived experiences encapsulated other salient identities in addition to their nationalities (e.g., influence of gender, religion and spirituality. Most often, research has focused on the interacting effects of gender, race, ethnicity, class, disability, sexual orientation, national origin, and religion/belief system (Cole, Piercy, Wolfe, & West, 2014;Hancock, 2007;Maciel & Knudson-Martin, 2014;Oleksy, 2011). ...
... • application of the intersectional approach which focuses on issues such as: gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, disability, and religion vis-a-vis ICT (Crenshaw, 1991;Franken et al, 2009). For a very recent account of issues and problems regarding intersectionality (Oleksy, 2011); • identification of power mechanisms present in the production and operation of science (Green and Adam, 2001; van Dijk, 2005); • recognition and contestation of various forms of discrimination and exclusion of women (Buskens and Webb, 2009); and • a focus on themes such as: gender and ICT research, gender and ICT application and use, gender and ICT representations (Czerwihski et al, 2002;Halberstam, 1991;Huff, 2002;Hafkin and Huyer, 2006;Kelan, 2007). ...
– The purpose of this paper is to present some of the findings (which were reported on more extensively in earlier work) regarding the visibility of gender issues in the literature on selected information and communication technologies (ICTs) with a view to make predictions about potential ethical issues that the application of these ICTs may bring about in the future. This paper is part of the larger research project called ETICA (Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies), a collaborative project funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union.
– On the basis of the analysis of around 100 published sources, which dealt with various aspects of selected ICTs, conclusions have been drawn regarding gender issues and concerns that the applications of these ICTs may cause. The authors' analysis is theoretically informed by critical discourse analysis (CDA) which assumes that texts, both written and spoken, as well as other forms of symbolic representations, are indicative of social practices. Of particular methodological relevance was the survey of methods of text and discourse analysis presented in Titscher et al. and especially the application of keyword search as a way to measure the prominence of each investigated method. This approach to literature surveying proved very useful in selecting analytic material: only those published sources on the selected four ICTs have been included in the survey, for which the analysis of keywords, abstracts and indexes of terms indicated authors' interest in gender issues.
– First, ICTs such as affective computing, ambient intelligence, and artificial intelligence, have been found to have the potential of positively affecting gender power relations and thus positively affecting gender balance in the areas of labour market related to ICT across EU countries and worldwide. Second, more research on the relationship between gender and ICT design, application and representation is needed, so as to enhance a better understanding of ethical issues resulting from unequal participation of women and men in all aspects of ICT production and implementation, which in itself is an ethical dilemma with which both the ICT business and legislators have to grapple.
– The paper offers insight into the relationship between the level of attention devoted to particular ICTs by ICT researchers, as evidenced in the reviewed literature, and the likelihood of the application of a particular ICT in the future, which is looked at and assessed from a gender perspective.
... At a more granular level, we can contemplate the way standpoint, location or identity affects organizing choices, such as whether or not to take collaborative or hierarchical approaches, or whether to involve local communities in labor movement decisions (Hoerr, 1997). Standpoint may also affect the likelihood that a participant recognize concerns in political organizing that are supposedly homogeneous from those that are often relegated to the concepts of fringe, marginal, or intersectional (see e.g.,Cho, Crenshaw, & McCall, 2013;Collins 1991;Geerts & van der Tuin, 2013;Oleksy, 2011), and to understand the way those matters are linked to larger goals. The question of standpoint, while clearly among the central themes in contemporary gender studies, also remains contested. ...
This article engages the subject of labor movement ‘revitalization’ in the United States (U.S.), and considers the integrated challenge of building the representation and leadership base of females of color in labor organizations. The project methodology draws on participant data gathered from the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) Union Summer program — a national campaign that brought mostly college student interns to work on campaigns throughout the U.S. beginning in 1996. The author finds that the AFL-CIO was unable to maintain longer-term commitment or ‘buy-in’ from most activists of color as subsequent labor movement actors. Furthermore, working class females generally, and working class females of color particularly, were very under-represented among those retained as emergent activists. The study highlights the need for strenuous consideration of the racial and gender dynamics entrenched in labor movement culture.
The purpose of this article is to give attention to the concept of racist hate speech and particularly to the fact of its complexity and inseparability from a wider spectrum of hatred. Using the methodology of intersectionality, this article encourages the CERD Committee's continued but cautious engagement in relation to racist hate speech. This article is a lightly modified version of a paper the author was invited to present at the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination's day of thematic discussion on Racist Hate Speech, held during CERD's eighty-first session on 28 August 2012 in Geneva.
This article reviews the debate on ‘intersectionality’ as the dominant approach in gender studies, with an emphasis on the politics of representation. The debate on intersectionality officially began in the late 1980s, though the approach can be traced back to the institutionalization of women's studies in the 1970s and the feminist movement of the 1960s. Black and lesbian feminists have long advocated hyphenated identities to be the backbone of feminist thought. But in recent years, intersectionality has sustained criticism from numerous angles within gender studies, ranging from feminist philosophy to applied political research. This article will use the theorization of ‘interference’ as a searchlight to produce an overview of this interdisciplinary debate, culminating in our affirmative answer to the question: should we move from intersectionality to interference? Our answer is based on onto-epistemological reflections, i.e., reflections in which being and knowing are always already entangled.
When providing care to HIV-positive refugee women in the context of pregnancy, nurses must be able to move beyond the individual experiences of health and illness and acquire a more meaningful understanding of the historical, social, cultural, political, and structural influences that shape women's health and women's lives. Intersectionality is a framework that focuses on various dimensions of a refugee woman's social identity such as race, class, gender, as well as education, citizenships, and geographic location and how these dimensions intersect to influence the experiences of health and illness. In this article, we present a brief overview of the origins and evolution of intersectionality. From there we describe three distinct levels of analysis: (a) micro-level analysis to examine the influences that impact the social identity and social location of women; (b) meso-level analysis to explore informal and formal support systems; and (c) macro-level analysis to interrogate historical, social, cultural, political, and structural influences that shape health outcomes. Finally, we will examine how this framework may be useful for nursing practice, research, and knowledge development. We hope to illustrate how intersectionality is a useful framework to understand the experiences of HIV-positive refugee women in the context of pregnancy.
This paper reports on data drawn from a study exploring the educational strategies of 62 Black Caribbean heritage middle-class parents. In this paper, we consider the respective roles of race and class in the shaping of parents’ educational strategies, deploying an analysis that focuses on their intersection and seeks to hold both race and class in productive tension. Drawing on empirical data, we illustrate how parents’ classed and raced identities shape their interactions with school staff.
This paper examines the agency of twelve pious Syrian refugee widows who were living in Gaziantep, Turkey. This paper adopts the ‘relational pragmatics’ perspective, which theorizes agency as social and relational within multiple temporalities. Agency as relational pragmatics is connected to gender and religious identities, and it takes into account the refugee position women hold in relation to Turkey as the host society. Relational agency is used as a theoretical framework in this study to reveal ways in which agency unfolds for individuals whose experiences dramatically have shifted as they moved from one social structure to another. The coding of field data was performed using the MAXQDA data analysis software. Analysis of the data indicates that home and host habitus practices and meanings must be evaluated simultaneously, along with different temporalities to capture the agentic processes of pious refugees. These temporalities include an anchored past and future tied to religious scripture together with the women's past and present life courses.
This article identifies philosophical tensions and limitations within contemporary intersectionality theory which, it will be argued, have hindered its ability to explain how positioning in multiple social categories can affect life chances and influence the reproduction of inequality. We draw upon critical realism to propose an augmented conceptual framework and novel methodological approach that offers the potential to move beyond these debates, so as to better enable intersectionality to provide causal explanatory accounts of the ‘lived experiences’ of social privilege and disadvantage.
This article contributes to developing intersectionality theory by deepening understanding of how patriarchy and racism interact with other structural factors to influence low‐paid migrants’ progression attempts. Using a critical realist approach and analysing interviews of 31 female and male migrants employed in five large organizations in Scotland and England, we reveal how major structural factors influence their main forms of identity work and the resources that they draw on in both the workplace and home. The feminist approach undertaken by this study makes significant advances to organizational intersectional theory in three ways. Firstly, it highlights the importance of examining the interaction of the influence of patriarchy within the home with racism and other structuring forces within the workplace. Secondly, it reveals how combinations of constraints and enablements that intersect with gendered and racialized identity work create formidable barriers to progression. Thirdly, it explores migrants’ differential access to diverse resources, including financial, social, discursive and psychological resources in both spheres over time. These findings reinforce the need for policy actions that recognize the interaction of structural factors which influence female and male migrant progression and the need for support within and beyond the workplace.
This article draws from data of a year-long qualitative study on the lived experiences of genderqueer individuals. Two critical questions helped aide in thinking about the lived experiences of genderqueer individuals: (1) What does it mean to claim a genderqueer identity? and (2) How is genderqueer experienced, embodied, and understood? The principal work of José Muñoz, Gayle Salamon, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, and Jasbir Puar was used to support the theoretical frame and qualitative data analysis. What makes a person genderqueer is not clearly defined, but is organic and personal, and brings forth negotiations of social and felt sense of gender, and internal and external oppression. Specifically, the ways in which genderqueer individuals negotiate their identity related to the social construction of gender, the felt sense of gender, and gender as becoming are analyzed and discussed.
This chapter describes the qualitative analysis of responses given by 122 transgender persons aged 61 and older who answered nine questions in an online survey about hopes and fears about aging, strategies for successful aging, and wisdom to convey to younger transgender individuals. More than 70 % stated they believe they are aging successfully. We identified six components of the resilience repertoires that enabled them to say they are aging successfully despite the stigma associated with their gender-variant identities and sexual minority status. Queer theory and the idea of intersectionality contributed to our interpretation of the resilience repertoires.
Using qualitative data from interviews with young New Zealand feminists, this article shows that these women incorporate their understandings of intersectionality theory into their feminist ideology and strive for overcoming challenges of women's diversity and relative privilege within their feminist practices. However, mismatching strategies of inclusivity and exclusivity among majority and minority groups of feminists hinder their success of cooperation. Such failure creates anxieties among feminists – particularly among those belonging to relatively privileged groups – who feel they do not live up to “intersectional expectations”. This article argues that increasing individualization of young feminists' identities, ideologies and practices is, partly, a result of such difficulties to deal with women's diversity because it is used as a strategy that focuses on the individual rather than on the collective.
Historically, Turkey is home to multiple identities and cultures. In following with the critiques of Diversity Mainstreaming approach toward Gender Mainstreaming, this article argues that recognition of identities can be possible if an intersectional approach is adopted. To overcome the particular challenges of Gender Mainstreaming’s implementation in Turkey’s multicultural society, this article introduces a concept that supplements Gender Mainstreaming, called Equity Organizing, which further develops the views on intersectionality and equity that Diversity Mainstreaming proposes. It is different from Diversity Mainstreaming because it seeks to address the challenges to democracy in strong central and authoritarian leaning states. Equity Organizing is committed to the construction of progressive state policies for social justice through the realization of diverse identities.
Men have asked over the centuries a question that, in their hands, ironically becomes abstract: "What is reality?" They have written complicated volumes on this question. The woman who was a battered wife and has escaped knows the answer: reality is when something is happening to you and you know it and can say it and when you say it other people understand what you mean and believe you. That is reality, and the battered wife, imprisoned alone in a nightmare that is happening to her, has lost it and cannot find it anywhere.
Since its inception, the concept of `intersectionality' — the interaction of multiple identities and experiences of exclusion and subordination — has been heralded as one of the most important contributions to feminist scholarship. Despite its popularity, there has been considerable confusion concerning what the concept actually means and how it can or should be applied in feminist inquiry. In this article, I look at the phenomenon of intersectionality's spectacular success within contemporary feminist scholarship, as well as the uncertainties and confusion which it has generated. Drawing upon insights from the sociology of science, I shall show how and why intersectionality could become a feminist success story. I shall argue that, paradoxically, it is precisely the concept's alleged weaknesses — its ambiguity and open-endedness — that were the secrets to its success and, more generally, make it a good feminist theory.
Investigating reports of marginalization from Congresswomen of color, I examine legislative practices in the 103rd and 104th Congresses to illuminate dynamics that structure hierarchies on the basis of race and gender. I advance an account of racing–gendering as a political process that silences, stereotypes, enforces invisibility, excludes, and challenges the epistemic authority of Congresswomen of color. Racing–gendering constitutes a form of interested bias operating in Congress, which has important implications for understandings of the internal operations of political institutions, the policy priorities of Congresswomen of color, the substantive representation of historically underrepresented groups, and the practice of democracy in the United States.
In the context of the second Gulf war and US and the British occupation of Iraq, many 'old' debates about the category 'woman' have assumed a new critical urgency. This paper revisits debates on intersectionality in order to show that they can shed new light on how we might approach some current issues. It first discusses the 19 th century contestations among feminists involved in anti-slavery struggles and campaigns for women's suffrage. The second part of the paper uses autobiography and empirical studies to demonstrate that social class (and its intersections with gender and 'race' or sexuality) are simultaneously subjective, structural and about social positioning and everyday practices. It argues that studying these intersections allows a more complex and dynamic understanding than a focus on social class alone. The conclusion to the paper considers the potential contributions to intersectional analysis of theoretical and political approaches such as those associated with post-structuralism, postcolonial feminist analysis, and diaspora studies.
Feminist and critical race theories offer the concept of intersectionality to describe analytic approaches that simultaneously consider the meaning and consequences of multiple categories of identity, difference, and disadvantage. To understand how these categories depend on one another for meaning and are jointly associated with outcomes, reconceptualization of the meaning and significance of the categories is necessary. To accomplish this, the author presents 3 questions for psychologists to ask: Who is included within this category? What role does inequality play? Where are there similarities? The 1st question involves attending to diversity within social categories. The 2nd conceptualizes social categories as connoting hierarchies of privilege and power that structure social and material life. The 3rd looks for commonalities across categories commonly viewed as deeply different. The author concludes with a discussion of the implications and value of these 3 questions for each stage of the research process.
Most economists have not yet grappled with the demands of intersectional scholarship, which recognizes the intertwined nature of gender, race, class, caste and other influences on the economic situation of individuals and groups. Among economists, feminist economists may have made the most progress and be best positioned to break further ground, though we can do better and much remains to be done. This article synthesizes the case for intersectional work, reviews the state of the economic literature, describes the contributions of the articles in this special issue of Feminist Economics on "gender, color, caste and class," and sketches directions for the future.
This article uses a study of the life-story narratives of former classmates of Dutch and Moluccan descent to argue that the constructionist approach to intersectionality, with its account of identity as a narrative construction rather than a practice of naming, offers better tools for answering questions concerning intersectional identity formation than a more systemic intersectional approach. The case study also highlights the importance of the quest for origins in narratives. It demonstrates that theories of intersectionality are not justified in subsuming the issue of belonging under the identity marker of ethnicity, when all identities are performatively produced in and through narrative enactments that include the precarious achievement of belonging. The case study demonstrates that if narrative accounts of a (singular or collective) life fail to achieve narrative closure regarding roots, attempts to trace routes are seriously hampered.
The concept of intersectionality is often used to grasp the interconnections between the traditional background categories of gender, ethnicity, race, age, sexuality and class. The concept can be a useful analytical tool in tracing how certain people seem to get positioned as not only different but also troublesome and, in some instances, marginalized. In research focused on subjectification and the variability of social life, a retooling and differentiating of the concept is needed. We do not know how the overall categories work and intersect with the lived experiences of subjects and we need to rethink the concept, which can be useful in specifying the troublesomeness of some subjectivities in a diverse and complex version of lived experience. By taking into account the above-mentioned shortcomings, the article lays the foundation for a theoretical reworking of the concept, grounded in empirical studies of subjectification processes on a subject level in a school context.
This Special Issue analyses the current transformations in anti-discrimination and equality policies in Europe. As a result of the expansion of European Union (EU) law to combat discrimination, a number of European countries have reformed their equality bodies and law. This has resulted in the creation of ‘single equality bodies’ in, for example, Britain, Norway and some Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Part of the argumentation for such reform is based on tackling multiple and intersecting discriminations more effectively. Our aim in this Introduction is to provide theoretical and contextual background for the two key research questions addressed in this Special Issue: in what ways is ‘intersectionality’ being institutionalized in equality bodies and law in Europe? What political and legal implications does this have for tackling inequalities? In particular, we discuss these pan-European developments in relation to feminist debates on intersectionality. While current legal and institutional innovations seem to provide some answers to the theoretical and practical issues posed by intersectionality, we seek also to highlight the challenges facing ongoing processes in the EU and its member states. Drawing a distinction between ‘intersectionality’ and ‘multiple discrimination’ we argue that the EU focuses on the latter, hence favouring anti-discrimination policy as opposed to other measures in furthering equality, thereby narrowing down the debate.
Intersectionality has attracted substantial scholarly attention in the 1990s. Rather than examining gender, race, class, and nation as distinctive social hierarchies, intersectionality examines how they mutually construct one another. 1 explore how the traditional family ideal functions as a privileged exemplar of intersectionality in the United States. Each of its six dimensions demonstrates specific connections between family as a gendered system of social organization, racial ideas and practices, and constructions of U.S. national identity.
This short article explores some of the enduring preoccupations, possibilities and dilemmas that continue to engage feminists in varying locations in Europe. It raises questions of the ethics of feminist practice when key concepts and theoretical approaches travel across locations and are taken up in these different contexts to address specific intersectional constellations.
Shared differences. multicul-tural media and practical pedagogy A Primer on Intersection-ality Booklet. African American Policy Forum, Vassar College
Carson, Diane, & Friedman, Lester D. (1995). Shared differences. multicul-tural media and practical pedagogy. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Crenshaw, Kimberlé W., & Harris, Luke Ch. (2009). A Primer on Intersection-ality Booklet. African American Policy Forum, Vassar College. Pough-keepsie, NY: Columbia Law School http://aapf.org/tool_to_speak_out/ intersectionality-primer/(accessed July 8, 2010).
Emerging intersections: Race, class, and gender in theory, policy, and practice A slave girl's story
Dill, Bonnie Thornton, & Zambrana, Ruth Enid (Eds.). (2009). Emerging intersections: Race, class, and gender in theory, policy, and practice. New Brunswick, New Jersey & London: Rutgers University Press. Drumgoold, Kate (1898). A slave girl's story. Brooklyn: The Author.
Teaching intersectionality. Putting gender at the centre Beyond intersectionality. Law, power and the politics of location Congressional enactments of race-gender: Towards a theory of race-gendered institutions Feminist theory. From margin to center
Franken, Martha, Woodward, Allison, Cabó, Anna, & Bagihole, Barbara M. (2009). Teaching intersectionality. Putting gender at the centre. Utrecht: Athena. Grabham, Emily, Cooper, Davina, Krishnadas, Jane, & Herman, Didi (Eds.). (2009). Beyond intersectionality. Law, power and the politics of location. New York: Routledge & Cavendish. Hawkesworth, Mary (2003). Congressional enactments of race-gender: Towards a theory of race-gendered institutions. American Political Science Review, 97(4), 529−550. hooks, bell (1984). Feminist theory. From margin to center. Cambridge, MA: South End Press. hooks, bell (2000). Feminist theory. From margin to center (2nd ed.).