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State of poetry therapy research (review)

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The goal of this article is to give an overview of the state of poetry therapy research, thus offering a basis for designing and carrying out optimized study projects and contributing to the further establishment of poetry therapy. Database research was carried out using Amed, Cochrane, Embase, Medline, Psycinfo and Psyindex. The search words used were ‘poetry therapy’, ‘therapeutic writing’ and ‘writing therapy’. The studies were classified according to country, subject, publication date and level of evidence-based medicine. A total of 1129 entries were found, 203 of which were used for this analysis. The majority of the studies were conducted in the United States in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. Investigative activities reached the highest levels in the period from 1999 to 2010. Most of the studies corresponded to level 5 on the scale of evidence-based medicine. The findings show that poetry therapy is already more established and documented in the United States than in other countries. The greatest amount of experience has been collected in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. Studies in other areas (e.g. oncology), however, point to future ranges of application. The rising levels of interest over the past 10 years in poetry therapy and its scientific establishment have encouraged additional research projects for which appropriate evaluation methods need to be developed.

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... Expressive writing can decrease physiological stress indicators such as lower muscle tension, reduce perspiration level, and lower blood pressure and heart rate levels (Smyth et al. 1999). Furthermore, the introspective writing that poetry fosters also offers patients an opportunity to reflect on their lives, enabling them to accept their situation with poise and peace (Heimes 2011). This aspect of poetry is often highlighted in palliative care, as there has been a growing recognition within the field to recognize how poetry can develop person-centered organizations, better train health professionals, and support a patient's overall wellbeing (Davies 2018;Coulehan and Clary 2005). ...
... Healing can take place within individuals, at a pace determined by them. Whether it is coping with pain, dealing with stressful situations, or coming to terms with uncertainty, poetry can benefit a patient's well-being, confidence, emotional stability, and quality of life (Heimes 2011). Poetry restores agency, allowing one's voice to be heard and represented the way he or she wishes it to be. ...
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This discussion seeks to highlight the ability of poetry to combat loneliness, a growing public health problem with significant negative health outcomes that potentially impact millions of Americans. We argue that poetry can play a very relevant role and have an impact in medicine. Through a brief literature review of previous studies on poetry in medicine, we demonstrate that poetry can not only combat loneliness but can also play important roles in helping patients, physicians, and other healthcare professionals/providers. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, we believe now is the perfect opportunity to utilize poetry because the benefits can be experienced even in solitude, which is why this is such a timely and pertinent issue today.
... Poetry therapy is used as a complementary clinical method for a variety of disorders, from alcoholism (Mazza, 1979) to schizophrenia (Shafi, 2010). One recent review suggests that poetry therapy is an evidence-based practice in a myriad of medical contexts (Heimes, 2011). However, little research has been done on the efficacy of poetry for patients with aphasia. ...
... Poetry therapy is relatively well-established in other areas of the scientific community, especially in the fields of psychology and psychiatry (Heimes, 2011), but it is yet to be applied extensively in speech-language pathology. In the clinical domain, poetry is typically conceived as a cognitive and emotionally therapeutic tool, and it may be useful to augment language and communication. ...
Article
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Aphasia is a neurogenic communicative disorder characterized by difficulty in producing or comprehending language. A multidisciplinary approach to aphasia treatment and recovery is essential in preserving and enhancing self-expression and language. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical framework for poetry therapy as a complementary method for improving aphasic rehabilitation. Poetry is a medium which can help to develop the communicative and artistic abilities in a person with aphasia.
... the evidence base has been of limited or poor methodological quality (Heimes, 2011). To date, two key systematic reviews encompassing poetry therapy have been conducted. ...
... Nyssen et al. (2016) investigated the utility of therapeutic writing in treating long-term health conditions and found that the heterogeneity of methods by which poetry therapy is applied in practice made comparisons between outcome studies invalid. Heimes (2011) found that comparisons were possible but that the evaluative methods employed by researchers were insufficient to provide a compelling evidence base, despite numerous encouraging studies. ...
Article
Poetry therapy is a promising but heterogeneous and under-evidenced form of creative arts therapy. Theories of change have been proffered but are model-specific and poorly evidenced in the empirical literature. The aim of this paper, then, was to provide a united understanding of how poetry therapy operates to guide future research and practice. To do this, empirical literature exploring mechanisms of poetry therapy across theoretical traditions was systematically retrieved, reviewed, and synthesised. A systematic search of six databases yielded 554 papers, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria, spanning individual and group approaches. Mechanisms and effects were extracted and synthesised into a governing framework and logic model, and stakeholder consultation was used to validate results. In total, 25 primary mechanisms and 54 associated effects were identified. These were synthesised into a logic model characterised by five primary tasks: Engaging, Feeling, Exploring, Connecting, and Transferring (“EFECT”). These tasks were associated with multifarious benefits, apparently impacting cognitive, emotional and behavioural domains. Future research could now seek to test this model empirically. It might then be used to guide a united, rigorous research programme, helping to bring poetry therapy into evidence-based policy and practice.
... Poetry and other literary genres have been used both formally and informally in healing capacities in the United States since the early 19th century (Mazza, 1999). Although poetry therapy was formally recognized in 1969, to date there has been little systematic investigation of its differential use and treatment effectiveness (Heimes, 2011;Mazza, 2003;McCulliss, 2011a). In keeping with ethical and clinical standards it is imperative to investigate the extent, specific methods, strengths, and limitations of the differential use of poetry therapy. ...
... In keeping with ethical and clinical standards it is imperative to investigate the extent, specific methods, strengths, and limitations of the differential use of poetry therapy. Heimes (2011), in an extensive review of poetry therapy research, found that most studies appeared in the fields of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and psychology; however, it was also noted that poetry therapy was present in a wide range of contexts (e.g., cancer treatment, addictions, and geriatrics). ...
Article
The tripartite practice model for poetry therapy developed by Mazza (2003) is composed of receptive/prescriptive, expressive/creative, and symbolic/ceremonial modes (RES). The structure of this model was investigated by means of an online survey of therapists across disciplines. Analysis of the data collected supported the components of the RES as a suitable framework for describing the range of language arts-based methods used therapeutically, and for classification of therapists in relation to this application.
... 40 However, the evidence base for formal poetry therapy is mostly case reports or expert opinion from the USA, suggesting the need for more robust qualitative research. 41 This would mean the more systematic collection of reflections like those from Claire Wilmot. 38 One other interesting example of using poetry is a short poem as a mantra to help patients manage their breathing as one part of a palliative care package for breathlessness. ...
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Objectives Although many well-known poems consider illness, loss and bereavement, medicine tends to view poetry more as an extracurricular than as a mainstream pursuit. Within palliative care, however, there has been a long-standing interest in how poetry may help patients and health professionals find meaning, solace and enjoyment. The objective of this paper is to identify the different ways in which poetry has been used in palliative care and reflect on their further potential for education, practice and research. Methods A narrative review approach was used, drawing on searches of the academic literature through Medline and on professional, policy and poetry websites to identify themes for using poetry in palliative care. Results I identified four themes for using poetry in palliative care. These concerned (1) leadership, (2) developing organisational culture, (3) the training of health professionals and (4) the support of people with serious illness or nearing the end of life. The academic literature was mostly made up of practitioner perspectives, case examples or conceptual pieces on poetry therapy. Patients’ accounts were rare but suggested poetry can help some people express powerful thoughts and emotions, create something new and feel part of a community. Conclusion Poetry is one way in which many people, including patients and palliative care professionals, may seek meaning from and make sense of serious illnesses and losses towards the end of life. It may have untapped potential for developing person-centred organisations, training health professionals, supporting patients and for promoting public engagement in palliative care.
... Several studies have also noted the positive effect of poetry therapy on the grief caused by suicide and also on depression in adolescents and older adults (Faraji, Fallahi Khoshknab, & Khanke, 2013;Mohammadian et al., 2011;Stepakoff, 2009). Although poetry therapy was initially used for patients with mental disorders, cancer patients may be the second target of this therapy (Heimes, 2011). The many studies conducted on the subject often note the benefits of poetry therapy in reducing the complications of cancer treatment and agree on the effectiveness of poetry therapy in encouraging patients' adaptation to their disease (Laccetti, 2007;Smith, Anderson-Hanley, Langrock, & Compas, 2005). ...
... The proved effect of poem on immunity system and physiology of patients is an evidence of the ability of this process to be used in treatment of patients. [37] People may find out the realities of their own life by reading poem and receive positive energies from it to alleviate them. [38] Poem may reduce anxiety and promote confidence of patients. ...
... In opposition to the mass media's apparently primarily negative effects stand the practices known as self-help bibliotherapy (the use of self-help books for therapeutic purposes) and creative bibliotherapy (using prose fiction, poetry or occasionally film). (The related fields of 'poetry therapy' 37 and 'narrative-based medicine' 38 focus on writing, rather than reading, poetry or narrative. The evidence base for their efficacy for eating disorders is also fairly small but growing. ...
Article
Compared with self-help bibliotherapy, little is known about the efficacy of creative bibliotherapy or the mechanisms of its possible efficacy for eating disorders or any other mental health condition. It is clear, however, that fiction is widely used informally as a therapeutic or antitherapeutic tool and that it has considerable potential in both directions, with a possibly significant distinction between the effects of reading fiction about eating disorders (which may—contrary to theoretical predictions—be broadly negative in effect) or one’s preferred genre of other fiction (which may be broadly positive). Research on creative bibliotherapy, especially systematic experimental research, is lacking and requires a medical humanities approach, drawing on knowledge and methods from psychology and cognitive literary studies as well as clinical disciplines to expand our understanding of how the dynamic processes of interpretation mediate between textual structures and characteristics of mental health and illness.
... Several studies have also noted the positive effect of poetry therapy on the grief caused by suicide and also on depression in adolescents and older adults (Faraji, Fallahi Khoshknab, & Khanke, 2013;Mohammadian et al., 2011;Stepakoff, 2009). Although poetry therapy was initially used for patients with mental disorders, cancer patients may be the second target of this therapy (Heimes, 2011). The many studies conducted on the subject often note the benefits of poetry therapy in reducing the complications of cancer treatment and agree on the effectiveness of poetry therapy in encouraging patients' adaptation to their disease (Laccetti, 2007;Smith, Anderson-Hanley, Langrock, & Compas, 2005). ...
Article
Cancer is one of the most challenging diseases and patients are rarely able to maintain their mental health when dealing with it. This study seeks to use the great works of group poetry therapy as a supportive device for improving mental health and increasing hope in patients with breast cancer. This before-after study was conducted in 2016 on women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy at a referral center at the north of Iran. The study protocol included eight weekly sessions of group poetry therapy using poems from great Persian poets. Two questionnaires, including Miller’s Hope Scale (MHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were completed by the patients before beginning group poetry therapy and again one week and two months after the sessions had ended. Items of each questionnaire were manually scored and then analyzed using IBM SPSS-21. A total of 29 patients participated in all the group poetry therapy sessions and all 29 completed the DASS-21 and 28 completed the MHS. Increase in the hope score and reduction in the stress score were observed in the two-month follow-up and both were statistically significant (p = 0.01 and 0.02 respectively).This study suggests that group poetry therapy can improve moods and hopefulness in women with breast cancer. Also the formation of a small group of patients who use the mystical themes of Persian poetry to connect to each other can have lasting positive effects in the long term.
... Creative bibliotherapy, that is reading fictional books or watching films, was shown to have a small to moderate effect at decreasing child problem behaviour (Montgomery & Maunders, 2015). Poetry therapy, furthermore, is used in diverse fields: social work, clinical psychology, somatic medicine, oncology, and addiction (Heimes, 2011). In common practice, community-based reading groups for mental health have been employed in the UK. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creative bibliotherapy – or the guided reading of fiction or poetry – is used widely in mental healthcare settings. In the UK, partnerships between private organizations, libraries, and the NHS support reading groups for better mental health and social cohesion. In the USA, veterans’ reading support groups are common and private lifestyle consultancies offer services that match clients to books for general well-being. Considering the widespread employment of creative bibliotherapy, this systematic review was conducted to explore its effectiveness in reducing symptoms in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Both randomized and non-randomized trials were included in the extensive search but no high-quality controlled trials were found. Importantly, there is no evidence to suggest harms from the trial designs related to creative bibliotherapy and some low-quality and qualitative studies indicated this intervention may help PTSD symptoms. High quality randomized controlled trials should be conducted urgently.
... In contrast to the educational domain, therapeutic uses of poetry tend to focus on the importance of poetry in personal development, understanding the self and its capacity for self-expression, usually through the creation of new poetry (Jocson 2006;Olson-McBride and Page 2012) and bibliotherapy (Mazza 2003). There are reports of beneficial uses of poetry qua poetry in psychological and therapeutic settings from dementia, depression and schizophrenia treatment to prisons and caring for the elderly, where the emphasis is on 'exploring experience' through reading poetry (Billington, Davis, and Farrington 2013;Gregory 2011;Heimes 2011;Kidd, Zauszniewski, and Morris 2011;Reiter 2010;Shafi 2010). For example, Billington and Robinson reflect on the use of poems in reading groups for women prisoners, which created strong personal resonances for the group. ...
... Neben den vier großen Künstlerischen Therapien, die mittlerweile alle in Deutschland akademisch verankert sind, gibt es noch weitere Formen der KüTh wie z. B. die Poesietherapie, die mit Gedichten, literarischen Texten und aktivem Schreiben arbeitet und für die wir vier qualitative Studien und eine Übersichtsarbeit gefunden haben (Heimes, 2011). Ziele der Poesietherapie in der Palliativversorgung sind u. a. einen kontemplativen Zustand herbeizuführen, der uns öffnet für den metaphorischen Ausdruck von Sprache und für die Sinnsuche, der paradoxe Aspekte nebeneinander zulässt und uns hilft, diese zu tolerieren und zu integrieren (Heimes, 2012(Heimes, , 2014 Aufgabe des Therapeuten ist es, die Möglichkeiten bereitzustellen, sich in allen künstlerischen Medien kreativ zu betätigen, und so den Patienten aktiv zu unterstützen, die notwendigen Schritte zur Integration zu gehen. ...
... However, this is difficult to assert until the current evidence for writing-based interventions for eating disorders is systematically identified and assessed. As in other creative arts therapies (Uttley et al., 2015), there is a need for more robust and rigorous research to build an evidence base for creativity arts therapies such as therapeutic writing that meets the weight of clinical experience (Heimes, 2011;Duffey et al, 2016). Therefore, a systematic review was initiated to assess the evidence base for therapeutic writing for participants experiencing an eating disorder. ...
Article
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A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess whether therapeutic writing could improve outcomes for clients with disordered eating. Twelve studies were identified that met the review’s inclusion criteria. Each study was critically appraised for methodological quality. Quantitative results from the largely high to moderate quality studies show a positive trend, indicating therapeutic writing may improve outcomes for clients with disordered eating. Qualitative results indicate that brief therapeutic writing interventions can access a depth of emotional experience. Further research in this area is therefore warranted. Counselors working creatively with clients experiencing disordered eating are encouraged to consider therapeutic writing, particularly when seeking to enhance emotional expression or group cohesion. Full text is available here: https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/output/5973289 .
... Dans le champ des soins somatiques, l'écriture est souvent associée à la médication pour prendre en charge les morbidités psychologiques en lien avec certaines maladies comme le cancer [44][45][46][47] ou le sida [48,49]. Ces dispositifs sont coordonnés principalement par les équipes infirmières [46,48,50]. ...
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Pour citer cet article : Boulay, C., Demogeot, N. Lighezzolo-Alnot, J. (2020). Dispositifs thérapeutiques par l'écriture à l'adolescence : une revue systématique de la littérature. L'évolution Psychiatrique, 85 (2), 281-297. https://doi. Résumé : Objectifs : Cette revue systématique de la littérature a pour objectif de faire l'état de l'art sur la question de l'utilisation de l'écriture à des fins thérapeutiques auprès d'une population d'adolescents. Nous souhaitons mettre en évidence les effets des interventions thérapeutiques par l'écriture et les différentes modalités d'intervention reposant sur l'écriture, mobilisées par les professionnels du soin ou de l'accompagnement. Il s'agit également de mettre en lumière la pluralité des champs disciplinaires qui utilisent l'écriture en contexte thérapeutique auprès d'adolescents en souffrance à l'appui des publications disponibles dans la littérature. Méthode : Nous avons eu recours à la méthodologie PRISMA pour sélectionner les recherches pertinentes au regard de notre objet d'étude et avons procédé à une recherche par mots-clés sur les bases de données suivantes : « PsycInfo et Psycarticle », « Web of science », et « Science Direct ». Ce sont ainsi 70 références qui ont été retenues pour l'élaboration de cette revue. Résultats : Notre recherche met en évidence que l'écriture est souvent mobilisée dans des contextes thérapeutiques liés aux soins psychiques et somatiques pour favoriser l'engagement des adolescents dans un processus thérapeutique. Par ailleurs, les professionnels recourent aussi à l'écriture pour aider à la diminution des états anxieux et permettre aux adolescents de déployer des processus de dévoilement émotionnel, de décentration et de prise de distance par rapport à leur histoire personnelle. Mots-clés : Écriture-Dispositif thérapeutique-adolescence-Revue de la littérature 2 Abstract: Objectives: This systematic review aims to define the state of the art on the use of writing in therapeutic setting with adolescents. We wish to highlight the effects of therapeutic interventions by writing. We study the different modalities of intervention based on writing, and how they are mobilized by care professionals or counsellors. Our study focuses on the plurality of disciplinary fields using therapeutic writing with adolescents. Method: We used the PRISMA methodology to select the relevant researches with respect to our subject. We carried out a search by keywords on the following databases: "PsycInfo and Psycarticle", "Web of science" and "Science Direct". 70 references have been selected for this review. Results: Our research emphasizes that writing is often mobilized in therapeutic contexts related to psychic and somatic care to encourage the engagement of adolescents in a therapeutic process. In addition, professionals also apply this method to help reduce anxiety, emotional disclosure, decentration and distance from personal history.
... One possible approach to facilitating HIV disclosure among WLHIV is through the use of expressive therapy (ET), a broad term that includes the therapeutic use of writing, performance, dance, art, and other forms of creative expression to reduce disease symptoms and improve quality of life (Malchiodi, 2005). ET has been shown to have a number of positive impacts on the lives of people with a variety of conditions, including PTSD (Green, 2011), survivors of torture (Gray, 2011), diabetes (Stuckey & Tisdell, 2010), fibromyalgia (Horwitz, Kowalski, & Anderberg, 2010), cancer (Silke, 2011), and HIV (Abel, 2007;Belanoff et al., 2005;Edwards-Jackson et al., 2012;Norris & DeMarco, 2005;Weiss et al., 2011). While a key component of this approach is expression, interventions utilizing ET can include public or private expression and may or may not involve public or interpersonal disclosure of possibly stigmatizing identities, such as disease status. ...
... One possible approach to facilitating HIV disclosure among WLHIV is through the use of expressive therapy (ET), a broad term that includes the therapeutic use of writing, performance, dance, art, and other forms of creative expression to reduce disease symptoms and improve quality of life (Malchiodi, 2005). ET has been shown to have a number of positive impacts on the lives of people with a variety of conditions, including PTSD (Green, 2011), survivors of torture (Gray, 2011), diabetes (Stuckey & Tisdell, 2010), fibromyalgia (Horwitz, Kowalski, & Anderberg, 2010), cancer (Silke, 2011), and HIV (Abel, 2007;Belanoff et al., 2005;Edwards-Jackson et al., 2012;Norris & DeMarco, 2005;Weiss et al., 2011). While a key component of this approach is expression, interventions utilizing ET can include public or private expression and may or may not involve public or interpersonal disclosure of possibly stigmatizing identities, such as disease status. ...
... In particular, we want to examine the relationships between social work practice and poetry writing as arts that can be recognised as a form of practice (MacIntyre, 1981(MacIntyre, /2007. Poetry has long been used as a form of therapy in psychiatry, psychotherapy and social work (Heimes, 2011). Hiley (2006) seeks to unfold the poetic and authentic voice of students in their journal writing as a form of reflective practice in management education. ...
Article
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... Across different fields, poetry therapy, which includes writing therapy, journal therapy, and bibliotherapy, is a well-established approach in the United States and other countries (Heimes, 2011). Writing therapy specifically can serve a variety of purposes, including creating a record of life goals or identity, inviting others to share in the client's experiences when the writing is shared, honoring a client's struggle in the face of injustice, and addressing difficulties that are unnoticed or denied by the client (Crocket, 2010;Gladding, 2011). ...
Article
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Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and wellbeing. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publically in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publically disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV.
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Poetry therapy is an arts-based psychotherapeutic intervention, often delivered in groups. This paper argues that the process and benefits of poetry therapy may be particularly suited to clients recovering from anorexia, as an adjunct to other treatments. Poetry therapy and its history are described briefly, and the relevance of poetry therapy for clients recovering from anorexia is outlined. After one client contributes her experience of this treatment for illustration, the paper offers a review of the evidence base for poetry therapy for eating disorders, and argues that, while research is limited, further research is warranted. Finally, a description of one form of clinical application is offered, to enable replication. Full text is available here: https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/output/880008
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Poetry therapy lacks a unifying, evidence-based operational model. This study was designed to test the utility and construct validity of extant models of poetry therapy using observational and experience-close data. Replication case study methodology was used, wherein two cases each comprised a video-recorded poetry therapy session and 4-5 interviews with session participants. The second case study was treated as a replication of the first. Mechanisms and perceived effects of poetry therapy were extracted from case material and synthesised to create an overall operational framework comprising 37 superordinate mechanisms and 58 associated effects. These findings were replicated in the second case study, with no new categories or conflicting evidence identified. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to strengthen validity and reliability. Results were assessed for goodness-of-fit with two models of poetry therapy. The framework was well described by one of the models and concordant with both. Member checking indicated that the synthesised framework adequately described participants’ experiences. We conclude that there is empirical evidence to support the utility and validity of existing models of poetry therapy, and hope that our more detailed explication will enable greater specificity of questions in further research on practice. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
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Using an approach rooted in phenomenology and grounded theory, this qualitative study explored the use of poetry in counselor training. The first author created and implemented a poetry curriculum over a 15-week semester with graduate counseling students enrolled in either a practicum or internship course. Participants (N = 10) described themselves as Hispanic or Mexican-American (n = 5), White or Anglo (n = 4), Black (n = 1), female (n = 8), and male (n = 2). Ages ranged from 26 to 56. Data sources consisted of participants’ journals, individual interviews, a researcher’s observation journal, and consultation with the course instructors. Auerbach and Silverstein’s [2003. Qualitative data: An introduction to coding and analysis. New York, NY: New York University] data analysis method resulted in six overarching constructs: co-constructing meaning through meeting, shifting the clinical gaze to being-in, finding unique outcomes, creating a new self-knowledge, changing dominant stories/thickening the plot, and writing the story. Additional analysis of participant-created poetry resulted in five found poems. The findings indicate that poetry use may contribute to counselor-in-training growth and development.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and group counseling in reducing the level of psychological loneliness among non Jordanian students. The study sample consisted of (45) non-Jordanian male and female students who came from (19) Arabic countries, spoke Arabic Language and studied at Yarmouk University during 2012/2013. The students were randomly assigned to either one of two experimental groups or a control group. The first one of the experimental group was provided with a manual for reducing the level of psychological loneliness designed by the researchers (Bibliotherapy), whereas the second group was provided with the counseling psychology program designed by the researchers. The control group wasn't provide with any intervention. The result of the study revealed that there were statistical significant differences due to the group (Treatment/Therapy method: bibliotherapy, group counseling and control group) for control group which had the higher level of loneliness, and there were statistical significant differences due to the interaction between group and gender; males in control and first group had a higher level of loneliness, while females in second group had a higher level of loneliness than males. The result also revealed that there are no statistically significant differences in the overall scale due to gender. The study recommended executing and applying the two psychological programs on expatriate students to enhance psychological health and needing more research to examine the effectiveness of cognitive programs and behavioral programs in reducing the level of psychological loneliness among students.
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Purpose: Approximately 40–50% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have dysarthria impacting confidence in communication. This study explored how people with MS experienced a novel therapeutic approach combining dysarthria therapy with poetry in a group format. Method: Participants were recruited through MSWA (formerly known as the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Western Australia), a leading service provider for people living with all neurological conditions in Western Australia. They attended eight weekly sessions led by a speech pathologist and a professional poet. The study was co-designed and qualitative, using observational field notes recorded during sessions and semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants after programme completion. The results from an informal, unstandardised rating scale of communication confidence, along with standardised voice and speech measures, were used to facilitate discussion about confidence in the interviews. Result: Nine participants with MS completed the group programme. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed participants’ positive views regarding the pairing of speech pathology and poetry. Thematic analysis identified four core themes: living with MS and its “series of griefs”; belonging to a group – “meeting with a purpose”; the power of poetry; and poetry as a medium for speech pathology. Conclusion: Poetry in combination with dysarthria therapy represents a novel, interprofessional approach for improving communication confidence in individuals with MS.
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The present research study aims at enhancing the intellectual acumen of the students by devising various strategies of teaching poetry. In order to understand poetic text, the students need to delve deep into its meaning by focusing on the poetic language.Teaching poetry is the best tool for the literature students to harness their mind at their full stretch in creating deeper understanding of what they are reading. The researcher has selected Robert Frost for the purpose, as his poems are full of figurative language that if understood well could tune the minds of the students for further explorations into the poetical structures. Not only it would increase their mental level of understanding of this beautiful genre, but they would also learn to look at life through a different angle. Focus was on the two main thematic poetical compositions of Robert Frost: a) Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, and b) Mending Walls. Both of these poems have underlying thoughts and expressions. Frost's poetry is enjoyable when read thoroughly while concentrating on the poetical diction and the inner meanings. This study through specially designed Research Instrument studies the change of perspective of college students studying English Literature.A sample of 50 students was taken and they were taught poetry of Robert Frost with special attention on the figurative language employed. Their understanding level was gauged through tests and some encouraging factors emerged to make the study a model for all the Teachers of English Literature and Language.
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Group understanding is essential in the approach to psychological suffering that is carried out in our institution from its beginnings. All psychotherapeutic and treatment programs offered at the Basurto Hospital Psychiatry Service include some kind of group work, both in the Acute Care Unit and in specific intervention programs such as the Eating Behavior Disorders Unit, Personality Disorder Programs, First Episodes, etc. Within this context, the objectives of this paper are to describe the experience of a creative writing workshop, which is carried out on a monthly basis in the Basurto Hospital Acute Psychiatric Unit. Group analytic interpretation is provided, as well as a reflection on the therapeutic factors of group experience. Previously, a non-exhaustive review of the literature regarding the use of writing and poetry in the field of mental health will be carried out.
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The Harry Potter universe is both widely accessible and incredibly popular, and this feature combined with its depth of narrative and genre may make it uniquely suitable to supporting mental health recovery. The current study aims to address a gap in the literature around how engagement with the Harry Potter universe, in the tradition of unguided creative bibliotherapy, may allow people to derive psychologically-relevant meanings from these narratives as part of their mental health recovery journey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six individuals who identified as Harry Potter fans, had experienced mental health challenges, and were in recovery. Interviews were transcribed and analysed inductively to identify themes. Three superordinate themes were established that captured participants’ experiences of using Harry Potter along their mental health recovery journey: Early Engagement, Immersive World, and Connection. Although participants employed Harry Potter in creative and individual ways, best suited to their lived experience of mental health recovery, the superordinate themes pointed to several commonalities in how these fans used the series, and these reflected contemporary models of mental health recovery.
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Objective This study aimed to pilot PAX (“Play, Act & Interact”), an activity-based emotional support intervention for caregivers of child with cancer, which focuses on addressing their psychological distress and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs). Method Sixteen mothers whose children were child with cancer participated in this 4-week intervention. Their children (n = 16; 14 males; median age at diagnosis = 10.3 years; the median amount of time from diagnosis = 9 months) were at different treatment stages for a range of different diagnoses. Caregivers completed self-report instruments assessing their psychological distress including PTSSs and family functioning before and after the intervention and a brief open-response exit survey. Paired sample t-tests were computed to compare the pre-and post-intervention scores. Results The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores significantly decreased from pre- (M = 37.00, SD = 14.75) to post-intervention (M = 32.56, SD = 15.52), t(15) = 4.25, p < .001. There was also a significant difference between pre- (M = 33.5, SD = 3.18) and post-intervention (M = 35.7, SD = 3.14) scores on the Family Adherence subscale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III, t(15) = −2.58, p = .02. Conclusions PAX was a promising intervention for supporting caregivers’ PTSSs and family adaptability. Future studies investigating the long-term effects and replicating the current study with more participants and a control group are needed.
Article
This research explores the integration of creative and expressive arts in a young adult problem-solving court and the perceived benefits of participation. The Young Adult Diversion Court (YADC) was created to help young adults 17 to 20 years of age complete probation requirements. This qualitative study is informed by interpretive interactionism to examine the lived experience of participants. Ethnographic observations were conducted over 20 months, and interpretive interviews were held with 32 young adult participants and 8 program coordinators. Participants described an engaging programmatic design, and felt cared for and supported by staff in the YADC. The use of the creative and expressive arts and spoken-word practices allowed participants to overcome vulnerabilities through self-expression, regulate emotions and process trauma, and consider possible future selves. This research suggests the potential of alternative approaches in the criminal justice system that intervene in the lives of young adults to promote positive change.
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Cette recherche s’est intéressée aux adolescents en situation de placement et ayant vécu des expériences de maltraitances ou de négligences. Le placement, s’il vise la protection de l’enfant et la reprise des liens avec la famille, peut également revêtir un caractère traumatique s’il est peu stable et ponctué de ruptures. Ainsi, une grande partie des parcours de placement sont aujourd’hui des expériences qui participent à inscrire les sujets dans des conduites pathologiques de l’ordre du passage à l’acte violent, du retrait de la subjectivité. Ces événements de vie compliquent alors sensiblement le processus de construction identitaire à l’adolescence, considéré lui-même comme un « traumatisme normal ». Cet état de fait pose alors la question de l’accompagnement psychothérapeutique, qui ne bénéficie cependant d’aucune recommandation précise à ce jour. Deux concepts apparaissent alors centraux dans le cadre d’une proposition thérapeutique : la symbolisation et la narrativité, qui rendent compte des processus de transformations psychiques présidant à l’organisation du psychisme et à la construction identitaire, fragilisées par les traumas précoces et actuels. Notre recherche s’est centrée sur l’étude des effets d’une médiation thérapeutique par l’écriture à l’adolescence, dispositif particulièrement indiqué dans ce contexte, puisque l’écriture constitue un médium aux confluents des processus primaires, secondaires et narratifs
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Introduction: Considering the aged population development and the prevalence of depression in this group, especially in nursing homes, paying attention to psycho-therapeutic approaches, especially in terms of ease and lack of side effects is absolutely necessary. This study investigated the effects of group poetry therapy on depression of elderly people. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 72 elderly living at a nursing home and also were randomly selected and classified in two groups of intervention (n=39) and control (n=33) groups. Poetry therapy group was designed for the intervention group and 12 sessions of 60 minutes were carried out for 6 weeks. Without any special interruption, the intervention group participated regularly in group meetings. The data collection tools were questionnaire, demographic information and geriatric depression scale. To analyze and collect data, chi-square, t-tests and paired t-test were utilized. Results: Our finding showed a significant difference between pre and post intervention, where the elderly depression mean score in intervention group changed from 7.6 to 6.5 (P<0.004) but no significant difference was observed in the control group (P>0.87). Conclusion: Having considered the results, it can be said that group poetry therapy can be effective to reduce depression in older adults. Therefore, it is recommended to use such an easy and low cost skill in nursing homes or own homes to promote mental health and improve depression symptoms. Keywords: Depression, elderly, group poetry therapy, nursing home,
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Expressive Writing as a Coping-Tool. A State of the Art Review This article provides a state of the art review on the research on Expressive Writing (EW). In the paradigm originally developed by Pennebaker, participants write about a traumatic experience or a neutral topic on 3-4 days for 15-20 minutes. A large number of studies has now documented the positive effects of EW on physical and mental health. It has been shown that in the months after the study, participants who write about a traumatic experience go to the doctor less often, show improved immune function, report fewer symptoms, are less depressed and anxious and have generally a higher well-being as compared to the control group. Three major models have been proposed to explain the effects of EW. The initial studies assumed that a disclosure induced physiological disinhibition was responsible for its effects. Current research focuses on linguistic and cognitive processes according to which EW fosters the development of a coherent narrative about the events that then can be stored more efficiently and be forgotten more easily. According to the most recent model, EW facilitates social processes that enable individuals to approach others more actively and become better integrated into their social network. Other approaches focus on habituation processes as potential mediators. The different models can be integrated in an emotion regulation model. Finally, potentials of the paradigm in the real world are discussed and show how EW can be used for personal, educational and therapeutic purposes.
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Immigration to a different country can change one's socioeconomic status, familial and social networks, cultural behavioral norms, language, and values. Immigrants to the United States usually reevaluate themselves and their identity as a result of this acculturation process. Group counseling can help alleviate the sense of isolation many immigrants feel, normalize the acculturation process, and offer a support network. Using well-chosen poetry offers both the opportunity to discuss delicate issues and to encourage communication in English as a foreign language. This article presents an outline of a 10-session group that uses poetry to address the acculturation process.
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Anthroposophical Therapeutic Speech uses poems and exercises which typically induce rhythmical breathing. Speaking influences respiration and thus directly heart rate variability (HRV), in particular via respiratory sinus arrhythmia which, together with the slower rhythms of HRV, may be regarded as an indicator of sympathovagal balance. In chronomedicine numerous frequency ratios between physiological rhythms, especially in trophotropic phases, have been established. Integer ratios occur frequently and seem to be associated with the optimization of physiological processes. In larger groups the average pulse respiration quotient is about 4:1. Can systematic effects on HRV, and thus on autonomic balance, be established through special speech therapy? In two trained therapists and 7 untrained subjects the influence of different speech exercises and texts on HRV was investigated. With untrained subjects a total of 105 one-hour sessions, divided into speech and control exercises, was performed. The overall well-being and quality of well-being were assessed with questionnaires. Control evaluations were made in the same setting. As a simultaneous effect, during speech exercises and texts typical intra- and inter-individually reproducible patterns in heart rate variability were observed. Reciting poems with a hexameter metric generates 2 oscillations with a 2:1 frequency ratio in the HRV spectrum. As immediate effects there were a significant drop in heart rate after speech sessions as well as a strengthening of vagus-related HRV parameters, especially after hexameter exercises. In comparison to control sessions the subjects felt significantly better, too. The different metric and poetic character of the texts was reflected clearly in the results.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the synchronization between low-frequency breathing patterns and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate during guided recitation of poetry, i.e., recitation of hexameter verse from ancient Greek literature performed in a therapeutic setting. Twenty healthy volunteers performed three different types of exercises with respect to a cross-sectional comparison: 1). recitation of hexameter verse, 2). controlled breathing, and 3). spontaneous breathing. Each exercise was divided into three successive measurements: a 15-min baseline measurement (S1), 20 min of exercise, and a 15-min effect measurement (S2). Breathing patterns and RSA were derived from respiratory traces and electrocardiograms, respectively, which were recorded simultaneously using an ambulatory device. The synchronization was then quantified by the index gamma, which has been adopted from the analysis of weakly coupled chaotic oscillators. During recitation of hexameter verse, gamma was high, indicating prominent cardiorespiratory synchronization. The controlled breathing exercise showed cardiorespiratory synchronization to a lesser extent and all resting periods (S1 and S2) had even fewer cardiorespiratory synchronization. During spontaneous breathing, cardiorespiratory synchronization was minimal and hardly observable. The results were largely determined by the extent of a low-frequency component in the breathing oscillations that emerged from the design of hexameter recitation. In conclusion, recitation of hexameter verse exerts a strong influence on RSA by a prominent low-frequency component in the breathing pattern, generating a strong cardiorespiratory synchronization.
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Poetry plays an age-old role in the art of healing. Although medicine today seems distant from the world of poetic expression, there are surprising commonalities between the two. In this essay we reflect on three aspects of healing that are fostered by poetry. Practicing medicine with too many facts and not enough poetry leads to dissatisfaction, disappointment, and impaired healing, especially in the care of the terminally ill. Likewise, poetry deficiency cuts off an important avenue for physician self-awareness and reflectivity. Alternatively, three aspects of healing are fostered by poetry: the power of the word to heal (and also harm); the skill of "negative capability" that enhances physician effectiveness; and empathic connection, or compassionate presence, a relationship that heals without words. Reading and writing poetry can help physicians, especially those who care for dying patients, become more reflective, creative, and compassionate practitioners.
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My purpose in this paper is to help you experience for yourself the potential of poetry to heal by feeling its power through your own voice. Many people have an intuitive sense that voice in general and poetry in particular can be healing. We have all experienced the comfort of soothing words. Finding the words to articulate a traumatic experience can bring relief. A letter between friends who are fighting can heal a relational wound. People are frequently moved to write a poem in times of extremity. In mainstream culture there are subjects that are not talked about. They are taboo. For example, each of us is going to die, but we do not talk about dying. We are all in the dialogue of illness, death and dying, whether or not we are talking about it. Poetry gives us ways to talk about it. Multiple ways of utilizing poetry for healing, growth and transformation will be presented including the Poetry and Brain Cancer project at UCLA. Particular attention will be given to issues of Palliative care. The reader will be directed to the scientific evidence of the efficacy of utilizing expressive writing. The developing professional field of Poetry Therapy, and The National Association for Poetry Therapy will be discussed.
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The article addresses itself to the use of poetry in bibliotherapy as it might help troubled adolescents lead more normal lives. The paper discusses relevant concepts and possibilities for application, and provides a representative bibliography for reference.
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We study the resistance switching mechanism of rutile TiO2 using ab initio calculations based on DFT. Ordering of the oxygen vacancies substantially increases the conductivity of TiO2 by forming a conductive channel, i.e. “ON”-state. We find that the diffusion of either oxygen or hydrogen atoms into the conductive channel causes the rupture of the conductive filament resulting in the transition from “ON”-state to “OFF”-state.
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Zusammenfassung. Anliegen: Die heilende Wirkung von Sprache und Schrift, in Form der in Amerika langst etablierten Poesietherapie, kann man sich auch in der deutschen Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie zunutze machen. Methodik: Untersucht wurden 19 Patienten mit Erschopfungssyndrom und Depressiver Storung, die auf der Grundlage eines integrierten psychiatrisch-psychotherapeutischen Konzeptes stationar behandelt wurden und zweimal wochentlich an der Poesietherapie teilnahmen. Die Datenerhebung erfolgte anhand spezifisch fur die Poesietherapie entworfener Evaluationsbogen und anhand der BfS nach Zerrsen. Ergebnis: Die Teilnehmer konnten in allen Kategorien (Ich-Starke, Selbstreflexion, Bewusstseinserweiterung, Neuorientierung, Selbstwert) von der Poesietherapie profitieren, zudem verbesserte sich die subjektive Befindlichkeit. Diskussion: Die vorliegende Studie bestatigt die Ergebnisse der amerikanischen Studien. Die in einer amerikanischen Metaanalyse gewonnene Erkenntnis, dass Frauen in hoherem Mas von der Po...
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p atients unable to verbalize their inner feelings may find expression through poetry therapy. Reading and writing poems in a group setting can provide a springboard for a meaningful, yet non-threatening therapeutic experience. I conducted an eight-month on-going poetry therapy group at Harding Hospital, a private psychiatric facility in Columbus, Ohio. Although this article deals primarily with that experience, I find poetry therapy effective also in working with day treatment patients in a community mental health center. Reading and writing poetry seems to enhance the patient's self-esteem, and encourages the verbalization of inner
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Summary Art Therapy: Development and Evaluation of an Instrument to Analyze Paintings of Patients in Oncology and Rheumatology Systematically Introduction: Art therapies have been established methods in oncology for many years. To what extent patients’ pictures can be systematically described, and what connections to various illnesses are possibly thereby revealed, has been discussed in various specialized medical fields for over a hundred years. The following paper first presents insight into the present stand of research and then presents the results of the study. Question: Are systematic analyses of pictures possible with the use of the instrument we have developed? Are pictorial differences evident within the researched group? Method: A previously developed instrument was submitted for expert questioning for the purpose of the study. The instrument that had been modified on the basis of these results could then be used in the study to interpret 162 pictures. Four different raters, three of whom were acquainted with neither the patients nor the pictures, interpreted these pictures independently of one another. Results: The evaluation of the expert interpretations shows that this newly developed instrument is suitable for the differentiated description of patients‘ pictures. First important indications were drawn in regard to the pictorial differences between the two examined groups of cancer patients and patients with chronic polyarthritis. Conclusion: Systematic picture analyses are possible. A further analysis of the expert interpretations is necessary to clarify questions raised by the pictorial differences found in the various diagnostic groups.
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What lessons for psychotherapy can be drawn from the enjoyment and sustenance we find in the use of literature? This paper looks back on a recent creative writing project undertaken with patients in a hospice day centre, and suggested reasons why the patients found this activity not only enjoyable but also therapeutic. Both the hospice as an institution and the poetic form are defined in terms of a transitional space. The article shows how the act of reading and writing poetry places a value for patients on not knowing at a time when the plain hard facts of terminal illness loom large. The author describes a practical way of engaging with poetry in this context, and uses clinical material to describe how the literary arts can provide a transformational object, and a point of inspiration, that may help patients to negotiate the changes brought about by their illness.
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This article describes the use of writing and poetry in a group of women parenting sexually abused children. Sponsored by the Orange County Department of Social Services in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the ongoing class, led by a child therapist and Orange County's parenting social worker, consisted of between six and ten women parenting sexually abused children. Social workers observed that expressive writing paired naturally with group dynamics to help the women focus on their children's sexual abuse. Poetry helped them go deeper into their feelings than they had done before. As the women lowered their anxious feelings, their thinking became clearer. This led to more constructive problem-solving and more protective planning about their own and their children's behavior. The group leaders also saw other constructive changes in some of the women's parenting skills, such as in making decisions and in setting boundaries. The women ranked the use of writing and poetry as more helpful in dealing with emotional issues than oral presentations of their stories in earlier classes.
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The conjunction of poetry therapy and family social work is briefly discussed with respect to philosophical, theoretical, and professional issues. Noting that the use of poetry, narrative, metaphor, and the related language arts are within the purview of poetry therapy, 14 techniques applied to family therapy are examined. The limitations of poetry therapy and new directions for practice and research are also noted.
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Attempts to contribute to the development of a poetry therapy (PT) research model by examining research paradigms, specificity and replication, poetry selection, studies in practice research, professional issues, and directions for future research. The following PT techniques are delineated: preexisting poems, collaborative poems, dyadic poems, creative writing, and metaphors and imagery. Selecting the appropriate type of poetic literature for a particular patient is concluded to be one of the most difficult issues confronting PT practitioners. Research investigating PT with individuals and families has been primarily in the form of case studies rather than empirical. Without a substantial research base it is imperative that potential legal and ethical problems be considered before PT advances. A research agenda is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents patients' poems to illustrate how poetry therapy helps identify and integrate polarities and enables patients to establish connections with more facets of their inner life. How to structure a poetry therapy group is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Summary Effects of Speech Therapy with Poetry on Heart Rate Variability and Well-BeingBackground: Anthroposophical Therapeutic Speech uses poems and exercises which typically induce rhythmical breathing. Speaking influences respiration and thus directly heart rate variability (HRV), in particular via respiratory sinus arrhythmia which, together with the slower rhythms of HRV, may be regarded as an indicator of sympathovagal balance. In chronomedicine numerous frequency ratios between physiological rhythms, especially in trophotropic phases, have been established. Integer ratios occur frequently and seem to be associated with the optimization of physiological processes. In larger groups the average pulse respiration quotient is about 4:1. Question: Can systematic effects on HRV, and thus on autonomic balance, be established through special speech therapy? Subjects and Methods: In two trained therapists and 7 untrained subjects the influence of different speech exercises and texts on HRV was investigated. With untrained subjects a total of 105 one-hour sessions, divided into speech and control exercises, was performed. The overall well-being and quality of well-being were assessed with questionnaires. Control evaluations were made in the same setting. Results: As a simultaneous effect, during speech exercises and texts typical intra- and inter-individually reproducible patterns in heart rate variability were observed. Reciting poems with a hexameter metric generates 2 oscillations with a 2:1 frequency ratio in the HRV spectrum. As immediate effects there were a significant drop in heart rate after speech sessions as well as a strengthening of vagus-related HRV parameters, especially after hexameter exercises. In comparison to control sessions the subjects felt significantly better, too. The different metric and poetic character of the texts was reflected clearly in the results.
In recent papers (Seiden, 2004a, 2004b) parallels have been examined between poetry and psychoanalysis in the way language is used to create, extend, transform, and give voice to meaning. What follows is a presentation of work with a child therapy patient which made use of these parallels in employing collaborative poetry as a means to a psychoanalytic end. The parallels suggest several lessons for psychoanalysts. One among them is that interpretation may be less important that we have been taught to think for the working through that is essential in enduring change. A second, as Winnicott (1971a) famously pointed out, is that joy in the process is an important part of the child therapy experience. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
People with experience as mental health clients, mental health nurses, writers and other professionals have used literature to benefit mental health service users in various ways. These include expressive writing, as well as applications in psychotherapy and counselling and to deal with specific problems and symptoms. In addition, therapeutic storytelling, bibliotherapy and poetry therapy have been used. Various benefits have been described, but some accounts do not include evidence of clinical effectiveness. However, positive treatment outcomes have been reported in research papers and other literature, with particular evidence of clinical effectiveness in some studies of bibliotherapy, therapeutic writing and poetry therapy. Further work is needed to clarify and measure the effectiveness of various expressive and therapeutic uses of literature. The authors also recommend collaboration among practitioners and the need for supporting evidence for proposals for increased resources in this field.
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The intense physical, emotional, and spiritual challenges that adolescents who live with cancer face on a daily basis require a thetapeutic approach that moves beyond tradi-tional talk therapy. This article features the att and poetty of two patients, and details the process of bringing creative, expressive arts into counselling with adolescents living with acute ot chronic illness. Through exploration of their art work, the teens find valuable hints to healing, and gain wisdom and insight that begins to soothe theit souls. An innovative technique of publicly showcasing expressive works as part of the thera-peutic process is also described.
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This article explores the uses of practitioner poetry as a tool for facilitating an understanding of the lived experiences of persons suffering from mental illness. This is accomplished in four primary ways. First, the use of poetry as a source of data and knowledge acquisition is explored. Epistemological issues implicated by expressive arts research are addressed, with a focus on the role of poetry in post-modern qualitative research. Second, the importance of poetry to the mental health field and mental health consumers is discussed. Third, poems are presented that explore the experience of people with mental illness from the vantage point of a practitioner. Finally, a thematic analysis of the poetry identified themes related to working with mental health consumers. The article ultimately can be used as a vehicle for increasing practitioner insight, self-reflection, and empathy.
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Thesis (Psy. D.)--California School of Professional Psychology, Alameda, 2000. Includes bibliographical references (77-81) and abstract.
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In a small pilot controlled study over 8 weeks, 12 obsessive-compulsive ruminators listened for 2 h daily to their own audiotaped voice either (1) describing their anxiogenic thoughts (exposure) but omitting anxiolytic thoughts (mental/cognitive rituals), or (2) reading neutral prose or poetry. Taking all patients, both groups improved similarly. However, exposure patients who became anxious early in exposure slightly more improved. Consistent with this, in a clinical audit of 57 ruminators treated by trainee clinicians over 12 years, outcome improved significantly once practice changed so that exposure only involved anxiogenic thoughts, not anxiolytic thoughts, the latter being stopped.
Article
This is a report on death therapy with a 36-year-old cancer patient. Gestalt therapy and creative media (clay, poetry, and colors) were used to facilitate an integration of life and to give the person a sense of balance with life. The author tries to communicate his thoughts and feelings as they were during the course of the therapy, to show that counseling the dying means walking along a stretch of the path together. The companion-therapist cannot avoid his own perplexity and confusion by simply falling back on his professional role. Once he has become involved in an interpersonal relationship, he does not treat the patient as some kind of object. With the aid of transcripts taken from tape recordings, the integrating effect of using gestalt dialogue, and fantasy work becomes evident.
Article
Optimists (people who have positive expectations about the future) have been shown to perform more health-promoting behaviors than pessimists. This study attempts to alter individuals' levels of optimism, and thereby their health behaviors, by having them write about a positive future. HIV-infected women (N = 40) on combination therapies were randomly assigned to write about a positive future or assigned to a no-writing control group. Among participants who were low in optimism, the writing intervention led to increased optimism, a trend toward increased self-reported adherence to medications, and decreased distress from medication side effects, compared to controls who did not write. Participants who were high in optimism showed the opposite effects after writing about the future. Results suggest that a future-oriented writing intervention may be apromising technique to increase medication adherence and decrease symptom distress in pessimistic individuals.
Article
To provide the reader with a basic understanding of the elements of poetry and to review poetry's contribution to nursing. The review will examine the poetry written by nurses, poetry's effect on the profession, and its use in education, patient care, and research. Classic and current sources of poetry, which enhance the understanding of poetry and how poetry has changed over time are reviewed. The review of nursing literature was conducted in works published in the English language using the keywords: poetry, nursing, and aesthetics. The initial search included all nursing literature with the above keywords from 1960 to 2001. Articles from relevant journals and textbooks, which could contribute to the understanding of the use of poetry in the field of nursing, were included. The use of poetry in the nursing profession provides us with the opportunity to gain new meaning and understanding about the profession and the clientele served. Poetry is a rich textual medium that can assist in illuminating nursing's core belief about the uniqueness of the nurse-patient relationship, and enhance the 'art' of nursing and 'ways of knowing'.
Article
Feeling effective as a young person depends on a capacity to draw upon one's own resources in the service of healthy living and development. In adolescent health care, there is the need to call upon the talents and creativity of young people, to introduce new and exciting experiences, and to facilitate involvement in their own care in order to nurture optimal growth and development on a physical and psychological level. While hospitalisation can represent a major crisis point in adolescence, the provision of a stimulating environment and the opportunity for creative activities offers an exciting, transformative and healing experience. Art allows adolescents to use alternative languages beyond illness, to engage in endeavours that are distanced from overt therapeutic intent, and to embrace attributes of self-esteem and resilience. Through the process and production of art, and the inclusion of music, poetry, film or theatre, young people can experience personal growth, acquire skills, develop socially and contribute to environmental change. In seeking to illustrate the value and importance of such approaches, this paper draws upon the experiences of a youth arts program attached to an adolescent ward. In a project called Art Injection, art students worked with adolescents to make sculptures from old hospital equipment, with startling results. More recently, the development of personal totem poles and an imaginative mosaic mural has powerfully engaged creativity and community in care. Group and individual art sessions, including the media arts project Creative Well, are offered on weekdays as part of the general hospital routine, enabling hospitalised young people to experience creativity as a daily part of their lives.
Article
Forty-three women newly diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, which examined the role of expressive journal writing characteristics on mood over the course of a 12-week support group. Writing was analyzed using the linguistic inquiry and word count program. Writing characteristics that were examined included: average word count, number of journal entries, positive and negative emotion words, the ratio of positive to negative words, and the use of cognitive mechanism words (i.e. insight and causal words). Regression analyses revealed that increased levels of anxiety and depression, post-intervention, were predicted by the prevalence of negative emotion in writing. Unique variance in mood (anxiety and depression) was accounted for by expression of negative emotion (7 and 6%, respectively). These relationships were significant (p<0.05) and remained significant even after accounting for pre-intervention levels of distress, and for the quantity and frequency of writing. These findings suggest the need for additional research into the naturalistic application of journaling so that appropriate recommendations for writing (e.g. focus, timing, amount) can be offered to patients who might choose to utilize this approach for coping with the stresses of cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Article
To test the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health of adolescents with asthma and to examine how language in disclosures predicts outcomes. We randomized 50 adolescents with asthma to write for 3 days at home about stressful events (disclosure) or control topics. At baseline and 2 months after writing, we assessed symptoms, affect, disability, internalizing behavior problems, and lung function; parents independently rated internalizing behavior and disability. Compared with control writing, disclosure writing led to improved positive affect and internalizing problems. Disclosure also decreased asthma symptoms and functional disability among adolescents with baseline elevations of these difficulties. Lung function was not changed. Disclosures with more negative emotion, insight, and causal words--and increased causal or insight words over days--predicted improved health. Written emotional disclosure improves emotional and behavioral functioning among adolescents with asthma, particularly those whose writings suggest emotional processing and cognitive restructuring.
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Difficulties encountered in clinical work with psychoses require psychoanalytical approaches different from those used for treating neurosis. The authors use a clinical case of a paranoiac patient to highlight the role played by writing, drawing, and painting in the psychoanalytical treatment of psychosis. They also discuss the role of the reader-analyst in this patient's transferential process, which led to the emergence of a new subjectivity.
Article
This article is a personal reflection and exploration of the potential of poetry in palliative care. Poetry can help enable expression of individuals' deepest unspoken concerns and may provide a means of providing spiritual care. The author draws on her personal experience as a community nurse, together with the views of patients and colleagues, and discusses the literature. Some limitations to the use of poetry are considered, as are the skills needed to help patients use poetry. To illustrate the potential therapeutic value of poetry in palliative care, examples of poems by poets, patients and the author are included. The article concludes that poetry can bring about a sense of healing, and should be considered as a possible addition to other holistic therapies.
Article
To explore the relationships between patterns of affective word use (words with positive or negative connotations) in expressive writing conducted over four consecutive days and quality of life (QOL) three months after the writing exercise in women with metastatic breast cancer. Descriptive, correlational. Six clinical sites in New England. 68 women with metastatic breast cancer. Patterns of positive and negative affective word use and QOL. Usage patterns of affective words in expressive writing were identified through the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). Relationships between patterns of affective word use and QOL were explored. QOL was measured at baseline and three months after the writing exercise by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast. Correlations between patterns of word use and QOL were investigated using general linear regression. A significant relationship was found between positive-affect word use and emotional well-being. Manual scoring of 10 expressive writing texts to validate LIWC data identified a significant difference between LIWC and manual counts for negative language. Contextual evaluation suggested marked ambivalence in how the women wrote about cancer. A positive relationship between affective language in disclosure and QOL was demonstrated, illustrating a cognitive process occurring in expressive writing. The findings suggest that expressive writing is a positive, helpful intervention for patients with cancer attempting to reintegrate the experience in life. Nurses should gain deeper understanding of underlying cognitive processes of disclosure to identify the most effective manner in which to use such interventions.
Qualitative Sozialforschung: Erfahrungen, Probleme und Perspektiven
  • T Heinze
Heinze, T. (1987). Qualitative Sozialforschung: Erfahrungen, Probleme und Perspektiven. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Word by word. The healing power of poetry therapy
  • S Heimes
  • H U Seizer
  • M Soyka
  • C Zingg
Heimes, S., Seizer, H. U., Soyka, M., & Zingg, C. (2008). Word by word. The healing power of poetry therapy. Musik-, Tanz-und Kunsttherapie, 19(1), 36-47.