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Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences

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... However, as a multifaceted concept, there is little agreement on the theorizations and measurement of memorable tourism experience . Existing scales fail to adequately capture what makes a tourism experience memorable (Tung & Ritchie, 2011) and unstructured techniques provide richer accounts of tourist experiences (e.g., Bosangit et al., 2015). There are also wide variations in terms of research settings (e.g., Sthapit et al., 2022; and sampling design (see, e.g., . ...
... Many definitions for and approaches to examining tourism experience, in both its nature and structure, exist (Volo, 2009). Tung and Ritchie (2011), for example, defined tourism experience as "an individual's subjective evaluation and undergoing (i.e., affective, cd, ognitive, and behavioral) of events related to his/her tourist activities" (p. 1369) before, during, and after the trip. ...
... Nineteen studies in our review linked memorable tourism experience with other theories ( Table 4) adopt definitions by Otto and Ritchie (1996), Pine and Gilmore (1999), Ritchie (2011), and. Researchers tend to conceptualize memorable tourism experience mainly as a positive phenomenon and negative experiences remain largely unexplored, with only Sthapit et al. (2021) including both positive and negative experiences. ...
... İlgili alan yazın incelendiği zaman farklı yazarlar tarafından deneyimler; zirve deneyimler, ana/temel deneyimler, tatmin edici deneyimler, optimal deneyim, akış deneyimi, anlamlı deneyimler, kaliteli deneyimler, olumlu ve olumsuz deneyimler, sıradan deneyimler, sıra dışı deneyimler, unutulmaz deneyimler vb. şekilde adlandırılmış ve bölümlere ayrılmıştır (Thorne, 1963;Ryan, 2010;Csikszentmihalyi, 2018;Jennings & Nickerson, 2006;Swanson, 2004;Duerden vd., 2018;Arnould & Price, 1993;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Deneyim kavramının, deneyimlerin meydana gelişim zamanına işaret ettiği fakat her bir kavramın ayrı olarak değerlendirilmesi gerektiği belirtilmektedir. ...
... Otto & Ritchie (1996), turistlerin şahsi olarak algıladıkları, gezilerini planladıkları esnadan itibaren gezi süresi boyunca ve hatta ikamet ettikleri yere geri döndüklerinde bile seçim yaptıkları yerde yaşadıkları bir dizi fiziksel, duygusal, duyusal, ruhsal veya entelektüel izlenimleri turist deneyimi olarak adlandırmışlardır. Tung & Ritchie (2011) ise turist deneyimini; kişinin turistik eylemleriyle alakalı olarak seyahatten önce (planlama ve hazırlık), seyahat esnasında (varış noktasında) ve seyahat sonrasında (hatırlama) olguların gidişatının bireysel olarak değerlendirilmesi (duygusal, bilişsel ve davranışsal olarak) şeklinde açıklamışlardır. ...
... When the relevant literature is examined, experiences named and divided into sections as peak experiences, core/core experiences, satisfying experiences, optimal experience, flow experience, meaningful experiences, quality experiences, positive and negative experiences, ordinary experiences, extraordinary experiences, memorable experiences, etc. by different authors (Thorne, 1963;Ryan, 2010;Csikszentmihalyi, 2018;Jennings & Nickerson, 2006;Swanson, 2004;Duerden et al., 2018;Arnould & Price, 1993;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). It is stated that the concept of experience refers to the time of development of experiences, but each concept should be evaluated separately. ...
Article
Bu çalışma kapsamında, 2000’li yılların ortalarında gastronomi alanında öne çıkmış bir akım olan yaşayan mutfak konusu ele alınmıştır. Kapadokya’yı ziyaret eden turistlerin yaşayan mutfak deneyimlerinin demografik özelliklerine göre farklılıklarının ortaya konulması amacıyla yaşayan mutfak uygulamalarını deneyimleyen turistler üzerinde bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Araştırmada tesadüfi olmayan örnekleme yöntemlerinden kolayda örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiştir. Çalışmada uygulanan veri toplama tekniği ise sosyal bilimlerde sıkça başvurulan anket tekniğidir. Araştırma verileri 356 adet anketten elde edilen verilere dayanmaktadır. Yapılan analizler ve elde edilen bulgular sonucunda; turistlerin yaşayan mutfak uygulaması ile ilgili deneyimlerinde özellikle eğitim ve estetik deneyim algısının baskın olarak öne çıktığı ve turistlerin demografik özelliklerine göre deneyim boyutları ortalamaları arasında anlamlı farklar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaşayan mutfak deneyimi konusunda literatürde sınırlı sayıda araştırma olması yönüyle bu çalışmanın alan yazına bir ölçüde katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
... Bir yeri ziyaret etmenin, farklı kültür tanıma deneyimin önemli noktalarından birisi de deneyimle oluşan bireysel anılardır. Bir seyahatin akılda kalıcı olmasında, deneyim sırasında mutluluk, sevinç gibi olumlu/pozitif duyguların öne çıkması etkili olmaktadır (Kim, Ritchie & McMormick, 2012;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Seyahat deneyiminde, öfke, kızgınlık, mutsuzluk gibi olumsuz/negatif duygular öne çıktığında ise bireyler seyahatlerini nadiren hatırlamaktadır (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). ...
... Bir seyahatin akılda kalıcı olmasında, deneyim sırasında mutluluk, sevinç gibi olumlu/pozitif duyguların öne çıkması etkili olmaktadır (Kim, Ritchie & McMormick, 2012;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Seyahat deneyiminde, öfke, kızgınlık, mutsuzluk gibi olumsuz/negatif duygular öne çıktığında ise bireyler seyahatlerini nadiren hatırlamaktadır (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Koku, ses, tat, dokunma, görsel öğeler gibi duyusal unsurlar (Mayer & Coelho, 2021) ile beklenmedik durum, olaylar ise seyahatin hatırlanmasında diğer etkenler olarak sıralanmıştır (Park & Santos, 2017). ...
... Bireylerin yaşam alışkanlıklarının değişikliğe uğramasının bireyler üzerinde etkileri bulunmakta, yeni yaşam pratiklerinin hatırlama üzerindeki etkisinin ne olduğunun ortaya konulması bu çalışmayı gerekli kılmaktadır. Seyahat deneyimi ile hatırlama ilişkisini irdeleyen araştırmalar (Kim, Ritchie & McMormick, 2012;Mayer & Coelho, 2021;Park & Santos, 2017;Tung & Ritchie, 2011), genellikle fiziki seyahat deneyimi üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Bu araştırma ile dijital araçların, bireyler üzerindeki etkilerinin neler olduğu incelenerek, bu alanda ileride yapılacak çalışmalara kaynak teşkil edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmada, fiziki ve çevrim içi seyahat deneyimlerinin, hatırlanma bağlamında karşılaştırılması ve deneyimler arasındaki farkların ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Seyahatin dijitalleşmesi, bireylerin bir yeri fiziki ziyaret etmek yerine, dijital araçlar yardımıyla o yeri dijital alanda ziyaret etmesi olarak açıklanmaktadır. Nitel ve nicel araştırma yöntemlerinin birlikte kullanıldığı bu araştırmanın birinci kısmında, yürüyüş turu videolarından YouTube’da en çok izlenme sayısı alan iki videonun izleyici yorumları, sosyal ağ analiz yöntemlerinden duygu ve metin analizi yöntemlerine göre incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın ikinci kısmında ise nitel ve deneysel tasarıma sahip odak grup görüşmeleri yapılmıştır. Odak grup görüşmelerinde katılımcılar, örneklem olarak seçilen iki şehri fiziki seyahat edenler (kontrol grubu) ile çevrim içi seyahat edenlerden (deney grubu) oluşmaktadır. Duygu analizinde, pozitif ve nötr duygu ifadelerinin negatif duygu ifadesine göre daha fazla olduğu, metin analizinde ise bireylerin çevrim içi yürüyüş turunu seyahat deneyimi olarak gördükleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Odak grup görüşmelerinde, çevrim içi seyahat deneyiminde, videonun görüntü kalitesi ile doğal sesin kullanılmasının seyahati hatırlamada etkili olduğu; fiziki seyahat deneyiminin anı içeriklerinin genellikle insan etkileşimleri, sosyal yaşama dair olduğu ortaya konulmuştur. Her iki seyahat deneyiminde de bireylerin mekâna ilişkin önceden medya aracılığıyla edindikleri bilgilerin, imgelerin seyahat deneyimlerini hatırlamalarını güçlendirdiği tespit edilmiştir.
... In the past few years, food tourism has been established as a distinctive form of tourism, stimulating the hospitality and tourism industry's development internationally (Giacosa et al., 2017;Stone et al., 2019). Food tourism is derived from tourists' interest in exploring food and drinks around the host destination (Tung and Ritchie, 2011). Plentiful studies have stated that food is critical in outlining a particular destination's uniqueness (Schwartz, 2020;Kaur et al., 2021). ...
... Therefore, this area needs further investigation. Prior tourism researchers (Kim, 2010;Tung et al., 2017;Tung and Ritchie, 2011) have given frameworks linking travel encounters to memory-generally concentrating on the whole trip or vacation. Tung and Ritchie (2011) suggested that future researchers determine particular travel components that stimulate rememberable experiences. ...
... Prior tourism researchers (Kim, 2010;Tung et al., 2017;Tung and Ritchie, 2011) have given frameworks linking travel encounters to memory-generally concentrating on the whole trip or vacation. Tung and Ritchie (2011) suggested that future researchers determine particular travel components that stimulate rememberable experiences. This research aims to fill in the gaps mentioned above and aims to achieve the two objectives: ...
Article
Purpose Research on food tourism has a significant impact on destination attractiveness. However, components interfacing food experiences and memory are under-researched topics in food tourism literature. Therefore, this study aims to present a framework based on the components of rememberable food experiences while travelling through the lens of the diffusion of sensory stimulation. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a qualitative application of “Memory-Work”, a social constructionist archetype suggested for food tourism-related research. A survey was conducted, and the respondents were asked an open-ended question. Findings The analysis found the components instigating these food experiences: Peculiar food and drink experience, setting/geographical location, companions and social interactions, celebrating occasions and touristic components (e.g. serendipitous travel experience and food nostalgic memory). Predominantly, rememberable food tourism experiences are more explicit than memorable tourism experiences. Research limitations/implications The components mentioned in this framework illustrate that various food-related experiences should be involved in destination marketing. Service providers could use these components to create unique destination stories. Originality/value This study is the first to present a newly developed framework for food tourism service providers that incorporates sensory impressions with food memories to explore the connection between food memories associated with a destination.
... Memorable tourism experiences (MTE) are the ultimate goal of tourists and what the tourism industry intends to provide (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). A MTE is a multifaceted process, however, and the senses, emotions and memories (SEMs) play a crucial role in its development (Kim & Fesenmaier, 2015;Agapito, Pinto, & Mendes, 2017;Dias, Correia, & Cascais, 2017;Moyle, Moyle, Bec, & Scott, 2019). ...
... The ultimate aim of tourists is to obtain MTE, and the tourism industry needs to be competitive to provide this (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). The globalisation of the tourism industry, along with higher demands on service quality, better experiences, touristic products, increased competitiveness in the private domain and tourist demands for MTE have revealed a gap in the tourism research in the, "… understanding of what they [tourists] think and how they live experiences" (Mendes et al., 2016, p. 295). ...
Article
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The focus of the study was to understand and clarify the role of the senses, emotions, and memories (SEMs) on the memorable tourism experience (MTE). The main objective of the research was to map the relation between the SEMs within the tourism experience establishment. The tourism experience mapping results showed that SEMs explained part of the MTE establishment and the discovery of three map patterns of the experience based on the emotional states of joy, love, and positive surprise. The research findings are relevant to reinforce the understanding, the design and to implement MTE more effectively, in terms of experiential stage planning and acting (service staff).
... The cute McDull animation communicates the social and cultural sentiments (such as the local consciousness and the quest for identity) of Hong Kong citizens (Choi & Fore, 2015). It was selected to be the cartoon character for this study to trigger people's memories (Tung & Ritchie, 2011) and collect their perceptions and attitudes toward supporting it to be a tourism mascot. ...
... More specifically, the cultural meaning was shown again to be significant in successfully creating and developing a competent tourism mascot for a destination in point, especially when the destination is in need of image recovery. Interestingly, as an extension of Radomskaya and Pearce's (2021) core argument, cultural meaning is capable of directly reactivating an audience's emotional recollections when the cultural value and corresponding local story are embedded in and conveyed through a destination's symbolic cartoon character (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). A potential tourist may possibly take his or her recollections and related past experience and link them to the destination . ...
Article
Cute mascots endowed with local cultural meanings can reignite the positive sentiment of both residents and potential tourists when a tourism destination suffers from a negative image. However, the marketing importance of tourism mascots has not been fully recognized in past research. This study adopted survey and experimental research designs to fill the gap, based on the theory of stereotyping and the stimulus-organism-response theory. The results suggested that the tourism mascot framework could be fully validated among both out-group (po-tential tourists) and in-group (residents) stereotyping perspectives. Cultural meaning and cuteness in a cartoon character were found to influence both residents' and potential tourists' perceptions of competence and warmth. However, the effect of cuteness on perceived competence could not be fully ascertained. Both warmth and competence then stimulate residents' and potential tourists' support to use the tourism mascot in the destination. Finally, managerial implications of tourism mascots in destination promotion and image recovery were discussed.
... First, touristic encounters with local populations are characterized by their temporality, or the relatively superficial nature of host-guest relationships, implying that tourists are unlikely to internalize the need to acquire the host language. However, as a manifestation of local culture (Mill & Morrison, 2009), a local language spoken at a destination may create a sense of novelty and even "otherness," which is an important component of a memorable tourism experience (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). ...
... If pride is also to become a source of profit, the above are suggestions for opportunities that should be created or even "staged" to expose domestic tourists to the authentic language of the toured region. A sense of novelty and "otherness," as essential aspects of satisfying and memorable tourism experiences, can then be successfully delivered (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). ...
... This study essentially expands the idea introduced by Vasilis Papavasiliou (2022) PHD thesis and argues that one way to foster peace through tourism is to firstly highlight the importance of narratives. The author argued in his study that collective memory (Confino, 1997) which is driven from the sociocultural and psychological literature (Heersmink, 2021;Pennebaker & Gonzales, 2009) can address the gap of foundational vagueness expressed in the destination image literature (Lai & Li, 2016;Li, Ali, & Kim, 2015;Tung & Ritchie, 2011) . The author demonstrated that in Cyprus the official tourist guides, which are the cultural brokers (Bryon, 2012) of a destination, in the northern areas of the island and in the southern area of the island narrate different stories. ...
... The tourist experience, which creates a competitive advantage that is difficult to imitate and replace (Manthiou, Lee, Tang, & Chiang, 2014), can encompass cognitive, sensory, affective, and social dimensions, likely to be pleasant, exciting, satisfying, and significant (Tung and Ritchie, 2011;Kim and Perdue, 2013). ...
... This study essentially expands the idea introduced by Vasilis Papavasiliou (2022) PHD thesis and argues that one way to foster peace through tourism is to firstly highlight the importance of narratives. The author argued in his study that collective memory (Confino, 1997) which is driven from the sociocultural and psychological literature (Heersmink, 2021;Pennebaker & Gonzales, 2009) can address the gap of foundational vagueness expressed in the destination image literature (Lai & Li, 2016;Li, Ali, & Kim, 2015;Tung & Ritchie, 2011) . The author demonstrated that in Cyprus the official tourist guides, which are the cultural brokers (Bryon, 2012) of a destination, in the northern areas of the island and in the southern area of the island narrate different stories. ...
... The tourist experience, which creates a competitive advantage that is difficult to imitate and replace (Manthiou, Lee, Tang, & Chiang, 2014), can encompass cognitive, sensory, affective, and social dimensions, likely to be pleasant, exciting, satisfying, and significant (Tung and Ritchie, 2011;Kim and Perdue, 2013). ...
... Dessa associationer förväntas också, sett utifrån ett turismproducentperspektiv, hos turisten relatera till något positivt och där attraktionen gärna också får ha en unik prägel (se bl.a. Tung & Ritchie, 2011, Ward & Gold, 1994, Morgan & Pritchard, 1999och O´Dell & Billing, 2005. Beroende av vilken attraktion vi i egenskap av turister möter ges våra sinnen olika dignitet när de relateras till våra tidigare erfarenheter och minnen (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). ...
... Tung & Ritchie, 2011, Ward & Gold, 1994, Morgan & Pritchard, 1999och O´Dell & Billing, 2005. Beroende av vilken attraktion vi i egenskap av turister möter ges våra sinnen olika dignitet när de relateras till våra tidigare erfarenheter och minnen (Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Vi upplever således med hela vår kropp, där också den rumsliga dimensionen i sammanhanget är central för vår helhetsupplevelse. ...
Article
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The article discusses and exemplifies from a tourism-geographical perspective how food and drink can form an important part in loading places with identity and thereby strengthen the geographical profile and its attraction value.
... Studies have assessed that a memorable experience has proved to influence customers' positive consumption emotions, their satisfaction with an organisation, and their loyalty intentions (e.g. Yoon, Uysal, 2005;Yuksel et al., 2010;Tung, Ritchie, 2011;Kuhn, Bothma, 2018). ...
... Di-Clement (2019) explored that tourist satisfaction extensively affects their revisit willingness and the intention to recommend (Girish, Chen, 2017). Studies have assessed that a memorable experience has also proved to influence customers' positive consumption emotions, their satisfaction with an organisation, and their loyalty intentions (Kuhn, Bothma, 2018;Tung, Ritchie, 2011;Yoon, Uysal, 2005;Yuksel et al., 2010). Positive consumption experiences lead to approach behaviour, including wanting to stay longer, spending more money and eventually referring other customers (Walsh et al., 2011;Tantanatewin, Inkarojrit, 2018). ...
Article
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Alcohol consumption is an integral part of travel experience but its implication has been underestimated. Travel experiences are used as a competitive advantage, as more and more establishments focus on creating experiences to distinguish themselves in the increasingly competitive food and beverage sector. This paper collates literature in the area of the alcoholic beverage consumption experience of tourists and their behavioural intentions. Existing food and beverage tourism frameworks are reviewed in this study. Based on the review, we have created a new framework for the study of the alcohol consumption experience of a tourist. This conceptual study presented in the form of a proposed framework will help researchers to contribute to the field of beverage tourism by focusing on the alcoholic beverage consumption experience as the dependant construct and revealing the effects of such an experience on their revisit intention
... Lin [28], Zatori [29], Tussyadiah [30], and Wang [31] examined the influencing factors of tourism experiences. Other research mainly focused on the nature and structure [32], quality and gender differences [33], and the relationship between life quality and tourism experience [34]. In summary, the research literature on tourism experience shows that theoretical research is more in depth, while applied research is relatively poor. ...
Article
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The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a serious impact on the tourism of Seoul, which is deeply dependent on international tourists. It is now more crucial than ever to make preparation for tourism recovery. Hence, this study took the travel notes posted by Chinese tourists in Seoul as a data source and applied manual content analysis to encode urban tourism experience (UTE) elements from travel notes, scoring them one by one and, consequently, obtaining the Seoul UTE element structure table. On this basis, the paper used social network analysis (SNA) and modified “importance–performance” analysis (MIPA), which complement each other, to thoroughly analyze the structural characteristics of elements and experience quality. The content analysis concludes that the Seoul UTE includes twenty-eight elements; SNA analysis shows that the network structure has high internal coordination and that UTE elements present aggregation with an indication of obvious differentiation of tourist sources; MIPA analysis reveals that overall experience quality is high, and an evaluation of traditional elements such as shopping and catering found them to be good; however, the evaluation of some core elements is low. With the help of our findings, it is hoped that this study can provide a better understanding and mastery of Chinese tourists’ demands and experiences to further improve tourism competitiveness for the industry’s recovery after post-COVID-19.
... del Bosque and Martín (2008) report that such perceptions before travel can influence people's initial decision to visit a destination and the contexts, they are likely to see during their visit. In addition, people remember certain experiences based on their on-site and post-trip experiences (Tung and Ritchie, 2011), that these experiences may be reflected in future travel expectations . Consequently, we can say that the different phases of memorable tourist experiences and their associated themes circulate in a sequential, cumulative, and dynamic manner. ...
Article
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Dark tourism is an important part of tourism at some destinations; however, little is known about the factors that influence the overall dark tourism experience. This research aims to contribute to this existing knowledge gap by improving our understanding of the nature of the dark tourism experience and its formation process. Through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 tourists in the war zones of Iran, participants were asked to talk about their memorable experiences and why the experience was special to them. Using a grounded theory approach, a theoretical model of memorable dark tourism experiences (MDTEs) was developed and four key factors influencing dark tourism experiences at a destination were identified: learning from dark experiences, spiritual experiences, involvement in activities and emotional experiences. The findings of this study contribute to ongoing efforts in tourism studies to understand the nature of memorable tourism experiences in general and in the context of dark tourism experiences in particular. The theoretical and practical importance of the research results is discussed and various approaches are proposed for future research.
... There exists a direct relationship among satisfaction, place attachment, emotional experience and loyalty across multiple research project works in tourism area (c.f. Ribeiro et al., 2018;Hosany et al., 2017;Prayag et al., 2017;Tlili & Amara, 2016;Tung & Ritchie, 2011;Hosany & Gilbert, 2010). Therefore, it is hypothesized that: ...
... It is also promising that a greater level of cultural contact has a significant influence on the revisit intention of tourists [54,78,79]. With greater understanding and active participation in local culture and interaction with people, tourists obtain a more faithful and striking experience [80], which ultimately leads to greater intention to revisit the destination [54,78,79]. Based on empirical evidence, we hypothesized that the following: Hypothesis 6 (H6). ...
Article
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This study examines the effect of destination image, cultural contact and perceived risk on revisit intention of Sikh pilgrims to Kartarpur temple, mediated by tourist satisfaction. The literature has debated the moderating effect of religiosity in a different tourism context. However, studies rarely investigate the moderating role of religiosity in the relationship of destination image, cultural contact and perceived risk with tourist satisfaction. This study follows a cross-sectional approach and self-administered survey method to collect data from 613 Sikh pilgrims who visited Kartarpur temple. A quantitative study with covariance-based structural equation modeling was employed to examine the research hypothesis through Amos 2 version. The results show that tourists’ satisfaction partially mediates the relationship of destination image and cultural contact with revisit intention. Nevertheless, perceived risk significantly affects the revisit intention effect via tourist satisfaction. So, tourist satisfaction was the significant mediator between destination image, cultural contact, perceived risk and revisit intentions. The findings confirm that the religiosity of Sikh pilgrims significantly moderates the relationship of destination image, cultural contact and perceived risk with revisit intentions. Practically, the findings offer the managers of such attractions to formulate suitable marketing strategies for developing the revisit intention and sustainable branding.
... The formation and recall of memories has been shown to be a heterogeneous process that varies according to tourists' demographic profile (Tung and Ritchie, 2011). Coudounaris and Sthapit (2017), for instance, found evidence for heterogeneity in the relationship between seven MTE dimensions and visitors' well-being in museums and zoos in Finland. ...
Article
Purpose – This study aims to explore demographic market segments’ effect on the relationships between memorable tourism experiences (MTEs), perceived value dimensions and tourists’ behavioral intentions. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected with an online survey that gathered information on MTEs, economic value, quality value, emotional value, social value and intentions to recommend and revisit. Based on a sample of 1,003 Portuguese tourists, the research model was estimated using partial least squares path modeling. Findings – The results reveal that MTEs have a positive impact on all four perceived value dimensions. Emotional and social value have a positive effect on recommendation intentions. Tourists from different demographic segments exhibit heterogeneous patterns regarding perceived value dimensions’ influence on these individuals’ behavioral intentions. Emotional value has the strongest impact for females, but males are influenced more by social value. Economic value significantly contributes to younger tourists’ recommendation intention, while quality value has the same effect on the 36–45 age group. Originality/value – This study extended the existing knowledge by confirming heterogeneity among different tourist segments defined by age and gender regarding the relationships between MTEs, perceived value dimensions and behavioral intentions.
... Using social media to market tourism has proved to be a good strategy (Fotis et al., 2012). Scholars (Tung and Ritchie, 2011;Munar and Jacobsen, 2014) believe that social media has fundamentally changed personal travel planning. ...
Article
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COVID-19 has caused significant damage globally, including tourism. This study adopts the quantitative research method, selects 588 samples from tourists watching short videos to investigate the antecedents and effects of parasocial interaction between tourists and short video tourism Vloggers, and analyses them with partial least squares. Based on parasocial relationship theory, this study investigates the antecedents of parasocial relationships between tourists and short video tourism Vloggers and their willingness to share short video tourism. Results show that the consistency of values, entertainment motivation, and emotional engagement positively impact the parasocial relationships between tourists and short video tourism Vloggers and affect the online sharing intention through the parasocial relationship. The consistency of values can directly affect sharing intention. As an intermediary variable, parasocial relationship positively impacts value congruence, entertainment motivation, emotional engagement, and sharing intention. This study introduces parasocial relationship into the research of tourism short video Vloggers, which enriches the literature. Furthermore, this introduction provides new marketing strategies and suggestions for the sustainable development of tourism.
... Instead, companies are supposed to provide customers with a memorable "experience" (Pine and Gilmore, 2011). As tourism is an activity that can bring tourists different experiences (Tung and Ritchie, 2011;de Freitas Coelho et al., 2018), the industry is always devoted to bring positive feelings to tourists, and academic research on positive tourism experience has been increased. However, more professionals have realized that only making tourists satisfied during their travel experience is not enough. ...
Article
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Red tourism, as a form of special interest tourism (SIT), becomes widespread among Chinese tourists. This study aims to explore memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) in red tourism destinations and examines how country competence affects intention to visit similar destinations through the influences on MTEs, destination image, red tourism place attachment, and overall satisfaction. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis is utilized to analyze the data from 556 tourists. Empirical results reveal that country competence positively influences MTEs and destination image. Furthermore, both MTEs and destination image influence overall satisfaction and red tourism place attachment, but do not influence intention to visit other similar destinations; the relationships between overall satisfaction, intention to visit other similar destinations, and place attachment are all confirmed as well. This study represents one of the few studies that classify red tourism as a form of historical-based SIT, with the purpose of promoting country competence. The outcomes provide a better understanding of both scholars and practitioners of historical-based SIT planning and businesses on how to promote destination image and country competence.
... Past visit experience to a destination is an important factor influencing tourists' future decisions regarding the destination (Baloglu, 2001;Hosany & Gilbert, 2010;Huang & Hsu, 2009;Morgan & Xu, 2009;Tung & Ritchie, 2011;Vogt & Andereck, 2003;Yuan & Jang, 2008). Past visit experience to a destination is inversely proportional to the perceived risk level associated with the destination (Moutinho, 1987). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine the halo effects of a country, in addition to the perceived attractiveness of scenes in a film, on the changes in intention to visit the site. A quasi-experiment by using an edited clip of the movie ‘Kong: Skull Island,’ which has scenery of the Ha Long Bay, Vietnam, was conducted for the study. Analyses focused on examining the differences in intention to visit the filmed site before and after the provision of information of the country to which the site belongs and identifying significant factors related to the halo effects of the country. Findings revealed that the ‘tourism opportunity’ factor representing diverse leisure opportunities perceived from the filmed scenery has a significant negative influence on changes in intention to visit the site. Results also indicated that country images on ‘attractiveness’ and ‘excitement’ act as a positive halo and result in consolidating the initial intention to visit the filmed site. Peer group influence which was operationalized as the anticipated number of acquaintances who have visited the destination country appears to be positive on changes in intention to visit the filmed site. Theoretical and practical implications with suggestions for future study are discussed.
... Prior tourism literature primarily emphasised the core elements and structure of memorable experience and established memorable travel experience dimensional scales (Kim, 2014;Tung & Ritchie, 2011a). Memorable experience components in current research also largely depend on a specific context, like destination (Zhang et al., 2018). ...
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This study aims to explore air passengers' relational behaviours in terms of advocacy and openness by considering the overall airport environment, perceived image, and memorable experience in the context of international airports. The data was gathered from 879 respondents who are experienced airport users. This study employs partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to verify the validity and accuracy of the research model. The overall airport environment was established with the second-order formative construct of six dimensions, namely, information and layout, terminal ambience, security, passenger facilities, gate area, and leisure and entertainment. Findings enhance knowledge of the formation process of airport image and memorable travel experience and provide insights into tourism and airport literature, particularly from the perspectives of air passengers. This study also discusses practical implications.
... According to Oh et al. (2007), memory is an active, constructive process that links an experience to a tourist activity's emotive and perceptual outcomes. In fact, an individual's memory comprises an ongoing process that can incorporate the allocation of meaning to the past (Holtzman, 2006) and derive meaning from these onsite experiences (Tung and Ritchie, 2011). Tourism experiences involve complex psychological processes with a special focus on memory (Larsen, 2007). ...
... Fifth, the path from satisfaction to constructing memorable NBT experiences was positive, indicating that satisfaction had a direct and significant impact on a trip experience's memorability. Therefore, this finding supports H5 and supports Tung and Ritchie (2011), who found a positive relationship between satisfaction and memorable experiences. Although Kim's (2009) study indicated that satisfactory tourism experiences may not be recalled during the post-consumption phase, the present study's results indicate that the higher the level of tourist satisfaction from an NBT experience, the higher the experience's memorability. ...
... Past studies (Cohen, 1979;Oliver, 1980), Pine and Gilmore (1998) have introduced the idea of the experience in their seminal article that established an essential basis upon which understanding of tourist experiences in hospitality and tourism depends. The study used multiple criteria, such as Web of Science, h-index, Journal and Country Rank, SCImago, and SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) (McKercher, 2008;Tung and Ritchie, 2011). This review study collected studies based on tourists experience, shopping malls, tourist satisfaction and revisit intentions from leading journals of hospitality and tourism. ...
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Mega shopping malls technology-enabled services influence tourists shopping behavior as Jumbo malls offer a broader range of products and services with innovative features that impacts revisit intentions. This study's novelty is the research on mega shopping malls as literature lacs it. Travel, leisure, and tourism sectors have gained balanced attention, and scholars have contributed with academic research perspectives. Mega malls in modern cities attract tourists that help foster economic development with revisit intentions. Technology-enabled products influence sustainable tourists' experiences. Despite broad investigative studies on tourists' experiences, literature shows little regarding tourists' shopping experiences in mega shopping malls that lead to reviewing tourist destination choices. This narrative research explores how shopping malls attributes influence tourists' behavioral intentions in mega malls' shopping environments that satisfy them for revisiting intentions in the future. Doha city is an economic hub that plays a crucial role in the economic and social development of the region. The city lies on the sea and has many mega shopping malls that offer technology-enabled products and services to attract regional and global tourists. It boosts sustainable economic activities, climate change, and environmental protection concerns. The city of Doha oscillates widespread beaches, and its mega shopping malls are famous as tourist attractions for domestic, regional, and global travelers. As an independent and economically affluent country, it has its take on attracting tourists. The study aimed to examine the revisiting behavior of Doha tourists with destination revisit intentions. A pleasant shopping experience in sizeable technology-enabled shopping malls is critical for tourist satisfaction. The trust, perceived value, and environmental effects affect tourists' revisit intentions. Other factors include high spirits, excitement, new tourist destinations, and visiting friends. External factors include a preference for natural and historical destinations, technology-enabled facilities, infrastructure, safety, affordability, comfort, budget range, and sociocultural factors. The study recommends future inquiries based on factors that empirically test mega malls' technology-enabled product effects on tourists' behaviors. The findings not only contribute to tourists' experiences in mega shopping malls and revisit intention literature but also provide implications' for officials and policymakers to articulate policies that promote tourists' mega-mall shopping experiences and destinations. CITATION Al-Sulaiti I (2022), Mega shopping malls technology-enabled facilities, destination image, tourists' behavior and revisit intentions: Implications of the SOR theory. Front. Environ. Sci. 10:965642.
... According to Oh et al. (2007), memory is an active, constructive process that links an experience to a tourist activity's emotive and perceptual outcomes. In fact, an individual's memory comprises an ongoing process that can incorporate the allocation of meaning to the past (Holtzman, 2006) and derive meaning from these onsite experiences (Tung and Ritchie, 2011). Tourism experiences involve complex psychological processes with a special focus on memory (Larsen, 2007). ...
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Purpose-This study aims to bridge the gaps in the extant literature on memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) and Airbnb by exploring the sources of negative memorable Airbnb experiences among Finnish guests. Design/methodology/approach-This study used a qualitative approach and used data collected through semi-structured interviews. The sampling criteria for selecting participants were that they must be Finnish nationals who had booked and stayed in an Airbnb accommodation within the past 36 months. The participants were selected using a criteria-based snowball sampling technique. A qualitative empirical study was conducted using self-structured interviews that were completed by 18 Finnish tourists who had stayed at an Airbnb property in the past three years. Findings-Three main sources constitute the conceptual framework of a negative memorable Airbnb experience: unclean accommodations, unpleasant host behaviour and poor customer service. Practical implications-Airbnb management should make efforts to reduce guests' negative experiences. This goal can be achieved by developing service-quality-management policies and strategies that are standardised, clear and universally applicable to all hosts. In addition, Airbnb management should recruit qualified customer service personnel and equip them with service recovery skills through training and control mechanisms. Such training should focus on upgrading their ability to handle complaints. Originality/value-This study responds to the need to examine negative incidents that are a part of MTEs and the sources of negative memories. The originality of this study includes the extension of the existing literature on MTEs and Airbnb, as a conceptual framework of negative memorable Airbnb experiences that comprises three main components: unclean rooms, unpleasant host behaviour and poor customer service has been proposed.
... Although the physical property is a basic factor in tourists' experiences, it is often not the core factor. In some types of tourism, the specific atmosphere and situation created by the physical property, as well as tourists' own subjective constructions (Tung & Ritchie, 2011), often become the core factors of the tourism experience. Tourism experience can be divided into two major types: physical and psychological (Milman, 1998). ...
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... Turist deneyimi seyahatin planlanmasıyla birlikte başlayıp ulaşılan yerde ya da zaman ve mekân hareketliliği boyunca veya sosyal etkileşim süresince devam etmektedir. Öyle ki hatırlatıcı unsurlar (hediyelik eşya, görsel, hikâye vb.) sayesinde bu deneyim, seyahat sonrasına kadar da sürebilmektedir (Aho, 2001;Kastenholz & Gronau, 2020;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Benzer şekilde Larsen (2007) de ziyaretçilerin seyahat öncesi, sırası ve sonrasındaki beklentilerini içeren ve daha sonra tekrar ziyaret niyetlerini veya bir sonraki seyahat için beklentilerini etkileyen turizm deneyiminin sıralı doğasını vurgulamaktadır. ...
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Gastronomi deneyimi, yemek tüketimini kapsayan ancak bununla sınırlı olmayan duyusal, duygusal, zihinsel ve sosyal boyutlarıyla kapsamlı bir olgudur. Buna rağmen mevcut çalışmaların büyük bir çoğunluğu, yemek deneyimini sayılabilir nesnelere, öğelere ve birtakım özelliklere indirgemektedir. Gastronomi deneyimi temel olarak turistlerin seyahatleri esnasında gastronomik ürünlerle ve faaliyetlerle bağlantılı deneyimlerini ifade etmektedir. Gastronomi alanyazınında, gastronomik deneyimlerin ortak yaratımını ve ortak tasarımını analiz eden çalışmaların sayısı oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmayla alanyazındaki bu boşluğa dikkat çekmek, yerel gastronomik ürünlerin ve gastronomi deneyimlerinin paket turlarda nasıl kullanıldığını ve ne kadar yer tuttuğunu tespit etmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla veri toplama tekniklerinden doküman incelemesine başvurulmuştur. Tur şirketlerine ait web sitelerinden elde edilen toplam 368 tur programının analizinde ise içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Bulgulara göre gastronomik içerikli turlara TUI UK’de, Thomas Cook’tan daha fazla ağırlık verilmektedir ve turlarda en çok turistlerin aktif katılımını gerektiren aktivitelere, en az özel etkinliklere yer verilmektedir. Buna karşın turistlerin daha pasif olarak yer aldığı bina/yapı, arazi ziyaretleri tur programlarında daha baskın şekilde yer almaktadır.
... Fifth, the path from satisfaction to constructing memorable NBT experiences was positive, indicating that satisfaction had a direct and significant impact on a trip experience's memorability. Therefore, this finding supports H5 and supports Tung and Ritchie (2011), who found a positive relationship between satisfaction and memorable experiences. Although Kim's (2009) study indicated that satisfactory tourism experiences may not be recalled during the post-consumption phase, the present study's results indicate that the higher the level of tourist satisfaction from an NBT experience, the higher the experience's memorability. ...
... Considering the highly personal nature of tourist experiences, Tung and Brent Ritchie (2011) strive to understand the underlying essence of memorable experiences from a Elka Dogramadjieva -9781800377486 Downloaded from PubFactory at 09/14/2022 11:08:00AM by elka@gea.uni-sofia.bg via Elka Dogramadjieva tourist's perspective. ...
... According to Oh et al. (2007), memory is an active, constructive process that links an experience to a tourist activity's emotive and perceptual outcomes. In fact, an individual's memory comprises an ongoing process that can incorporate the allocation of meaning to the past (Holtzman, 2006) and derive meaning from these onsite experiences (Tung and Ritchie, 2011). Tourism experiences involve complex psychological processes with a special focus on memory (Larsen, 2007). ...
... Generally, tourism experience is defined as 'an individual's subjective evaluation and undergoing (i.e., affective, cognitive, and behavioural) of events related to his/her tourist activities that begins before (i.e., planning and preparation), during (i.e., at the destination), and after the trip (i.e., recollection)' (Tung & Ritchie, 2011, p. 1369. Experiences are noted as something personal which created based on individual's perception and reaction toward a specific tourism products and places such as accommodation, attractions and destinations (Munar & Jacobsen, 2014). ...
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In the destinations they visit, tourists wish to see historical structures with that they can establish a connection with. The effects of nostalgic bonds established through experiences can be evaluated only by the determination of individuals’ developing intentions and judgments. The main purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between nostalgic emotions, memorable tourism experience, satisfaction, revisit intention, and recommendation intention. In this regard, views of the tourists who visited İstanbul were collected through surveys. A total of 483 surveys were obtained and the data were analyzed using AMOS software. The obtained results showed that strong nostalgic bonds had a positive impact on behavioral intentions such as revisit intention by increasing satisfaction and memorability. The findings of this paper indicated that nostalgic emotions significantly affect memorable tourism experiences.
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Previous research has disproportionately focused on the positive impacts of travelling abroad experiences (TAEs) on various aspects including well-being, learning and creativity. This research challenges the conventional wisdom that TAEs are always beneficial by revealing a potential dark side of TAEs: an increase in tourist misbehaviours. The survey evidence (N = 805) with PLS-SEM analysis indicates that accumulated TAEs motivated tourists to engage in misbehaviours by increasing their moral relativism. This research contributes to the literature on tourist misbehaviours by uncovering one of its key driving forces, namely accumulated TAEs together with the internal psychological mechanism of moral relativism. It also advances the moral psychology literature by revealing accumulated TAEs as a driver of moral relativism. The findings provide managerial implications to prevent tourist misbehaviours.
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Digital platforms can provide mechanisms to reduce barriers to entry for individuals in Internet-enabled commerce. These platforms provide a broad range of technical and administrative capabilities to support marketing and transaction processing; however, users may fail to take full advantage of these capabilities. This study examines how property hosts apply the affordances of a hospitality digital platform within developing economies. We consider skill by which a host uses the online platform as a resource, and evaluate the extent to which a host’s use of the platform corresponds with guest review scores. Our findings demonstrate that, after accounting for location and property characteristics, hosts who skillfully utilize hedonic marketing affordances achieve higher guest review scores than those who do not.
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Purpose This study aims to bridge the gaps in the extant literature on memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) and Airbnb by exploring the sources of negative memorable Airbnb experiences among Finnish guests. Design/methodology/approach This study used a qualitative approach and used data collected through semi-structured interviews. The sampling criteria for selecting participants were that they must be Finnish nationals who had booked and stayed in an Airbnb accommodation within the past 36 months. The participants were selected using a criteria-based snowball sampling technique. A qualitative empirical study was conducted using self-structured interviews that were completed by 18 Finnish tourists who had stayed at an Airbnb property in the past three years. Findings Three main sources constitute the conceptual framework of a negative memorable Airbnb experience: unclean accommodations, unpleasant host behaviour and poor customer service. Practical implications Airbnb management should make efforts to reduce guests’ negative experiences. This goal can be achieved by developing service-quality-management policies and strategies that are standardised, clear and universally applicable to all hosts. In addition, Airbnb management should recruit qualified customer service personnel and equip them with service recovery skills through training and control mechanisms. Such training should focus on upgrading their ability to handle complaints. Originality/value This study responds to the need to examine negative incidents that are a part of MTEs and the sources of negative memories. The originality of this study includes the extension of the existing literature on MTEs and Airbnb, as a conceptual framework of negative memorable Airbnb experiences that comprises three main components: unclean rooms, unpleasant host behaviour and poor customer service has been proposed.
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Purpose This study primarily aims to investigate the indirect and direct effects of cultural heritage rejuvenation experience quality on tourists' revisiting intention through memorable tourism experiences and destination image in the context of cultural heritage tourism. Design/methodology/approach A structural equation modeling test with maximum likelihood estimation was used to test structural relationships between variables in the proposed model using the responses of 461 participants. Findings The results indicated that the cultural heritage rejuvenation experience quality exerted a significant positive impact on memorable tourism experiences. Destination image and memorable tourism experiences positively correlated with tourists' revisiting intention. Destination image and memorable tourism experiences partially mediated the correlation between cultural heritage rejuvenation experience quality and revisiting intention. Originality/value The study shows that it is meaningful to include memorable tourism experiences and destination image in tourism destination quality–loyalty models and confirms that the cultural heritage rejuvenation experience quality should be viewed as crucial aspects of marketing strategies aimed at improving memorable tourism experiences, destination image, and revisiting intention.
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Purpose Repeat tourists are invaluable to tourist destinations. However, their perceptions and reactions toward unfavorable destination changes remain underexplored. This paper aims to answer two important and unresolved questions: how do repeat tourists react to perceived unfavorable changes? and what are the main unfavorable destination changes for repeat tourists? Design/methodology/approach This research builds on the strategic memory protection theory. This paper consists of two studies (a quantitative one and a qualitative one) conducted in China. The quantitative study proposed and tested a structural equation model linking perceived unfavorable changes, tainted memories, revisit satisfaction and destination loyalty. Data were collected via a questionnaire distributed on an online survey platform with 416 valid responses. The qualitative study was conducted to determine the unfavorable destination changes that repeat tourists perceive. Ninety-five valid responses were used for analysis. Findings This research empirically shows that perceived unfavorable changes diminish repeat tourists’ destination loyalty by tainting their initial memories and reducing revisit satisfaction. This full mediation confirms the importance of personal memories and psychology in tourism experiences. This research further uncovers two main types of unfavorable destination changes: destination mismanagement (i.e. overcommercialization, insufficient facilities, poor destination management, excessive prices and a decline in service qualities) and negative environmental changes (overtouristification, changes to natural and social environments and changes in tourist sites and activities). Originality/value This research adds to the destination loyalty literature by unveiling actual repeat tourists’ revisit perceptions and psychological processes toward unfavorable destination changes. This research also identifies the typical unfavorable changes perceived by repeat tourists.
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Considered to be an emerging topic in tourism research, traveling to familiar places benefits both the travelers and destinations. However, the current development of familiar tourism is severely affected by the epidemic. Recognizing the potential of virtual reality (VR), this research aims to explore VR’s relevance in the application of visiting familiar places and the empirical features of VR beyond on-site familiar tourism. We first reviewed the literature and developed an experience framework. Secondly, we conducted an exploratory activity in which participants (N = 16) used Google Earth VR to travel to their familiar places with two conditions (free exploration and task-oriented travel). In the activity, we employed think-aloud protocols, a scale, and semi-structured interviews. With our framework, we categorized findings into five dimensions and indicated the similarities and differences between familiar tourism in VR and that in actual places. Particularly, three empirical features (the sense of distance, multi-view space, and montage time) were recognized and formed VR’s opportunity to outperform on-site travel. We conclude by discussing the impacts of VR on familiar tourism and providing implications, including designing the timeline, sounds, tasks, and virtual guides. These suggestions inspire designers to acknowledge VR limitations and identify directions for future tourism applications. As a beginning of empirical investigation on VR familiar tourism, this study opens up a new field of discussion around VR tourism experience. We invite the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community to collectively probe into the VR experience and design of visiting familiar places. Efforts in this area will stretch beyond the current understandings of various forms of tourism and contribute to crafting rich travel experience by immersive technologies.
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Bu çalışma, Side destinasyonunu ziyaret eden yerli turistlerin seyahat motivasyonları, deneyimleri, destinasyon imaj algıları ve memnuniyetleri arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölüm turistlerin seyahat motivasyonunu ve turizm deneyimini, ikinci bölüm destinasyon imajı ve turist memnuniyetini, üçüncü bölüm ise araştırmanın yöntemini, bulgularını ve sonuçlarını kapsamaktadır. Çalışmada nicel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmış olup, veri toplama aracı olarak birincil veri toplama yöntemlerinden ölçek formu kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada seyahat motivasyonunun deneyim, destinasyon imajı ve destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerindeki etkisi ile deneyim ve imajın destinasyona yönelik memnuniyetin üzerindeki etkisi ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Side destinasyonunu veri toplama sürecinde ziyaret eden ve ulaşılabilen yerli turistler oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda Side destinasyonundaki yerli turistlere 468 anket formu yüz yüze olarak dağıtılmıştır. Anketler 14 Haziran - 18 Eylül 2021 tarihleri arasında toplanmıştır. Geri dönüş sağlanan ölçeklerden 19 tanesi eksik kodlanmıştır, dokuz tanesi manipüle edilmesi ve sekiz tanesi %50’sinden fazlasının boş bırakılması nedeniyle analiz dışı bırakılmıştır. Sonuç olarak 432 ölçek formu araştırmanın değerlendirme kısmına dâhil edilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler analiz edilirken SPSS Statistics 26 ve Smart PLS 3 programlarından yararlanılmıştır. Kavramsal çerçeveden yola çıkılarak, araştırılan konuya ilişkin hipotezler geliştirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda seyahat motivasyonunun, turist deneyimi, destinasyon imajı ve destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerinde anlamı ve olumlu bir etkiye sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Turist deneyiminin yalnızca destinasyon imajı üzerinde anlamlı düzeyde ve olumlu yönde etkiye sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca destinasyon imajının destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerinde anlamlı ve olumlu yönde bir etkiye sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın bir diğer önemli sonucu ise turist deneyiminin destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerinde doğrudan bir etkiye sahip olmadığı ve hipotezin reddedildiğidir. Çalışmanın sonuçlar ve tartışma bölümünde ise turizm sistemi içinde yer alan farklı paydaşlara dair sonuçlar verilmiştir ve öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Sözcükler: Seyahat Motivasyonu, Turist Deneyimi, Destinasyon İmajı, Destinasyon Memnuniyeti, Side.
Technical Report
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Experiential, learning, and enrichment travel are terms emerging with increased frequency in the travel media as new travel opportunities are promoted and the factors influencing traveler’s choices are reported. The demand is growing for travel that engages the senses, stimulates the mind, includes unique activities, and connects in personal ways with travelers on an emotional, physical, spiritual or intellectual level. An opportunity is on the horizon for companies to diversify their tourism offer through building holistic, themed travel journeys, rather than merely packaging a series of attractions and special events. Responding to this demand are travel suppliers, tour operators, and travel planners interested in attracting new customers, repeat guests, and meeting the needs of niche and mainstream markets interested in experiential or learning travel. These companies are experience providers who sequence and stage carefully choreographed activities, personal encounters, and authentic experiences, designed to create long lasting memories, engaging travel, and increase customer loyalty. Developing new and innovative experiential tourism products, which are affordable to customers and generate profits for tourism businesses, is essential. However information to guide and support companies with an interest in these types of tourism products is lacking. The purpose of this study was to gather group travel information that would assist companies, on a business-to-business level, to better understand the types of visitor experiences that are in demand and gain insights that will assist in ‘packaging experiences.’ This study also investigated how organizations create memorable traveler experiences and determined what travelers were willing to pay a premium for value-added benefits. In Feb 2004, focus groups were used to gather insights from travel planners, tour operators, travel suppliers, and destination marketing organizations, representing nine countries. Each organization packages, sells or promotes group travel to affinity groups and educational travelers – audiences that are predisposed to purchasing experiential and learning travel programs.
Article
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Mindfulness, achieved without meditation, is discussed with particular reference to learning. Being mindful is the simple act of drawing novel distinctions. It leads us to greater sensitivity to context and perspective, and ultimately to greater control over our lives. When we engage in mindful learning, we avoid forming mind-sets that unnecessarily limit us. Many of our beliefs about learning are mind-sets that have been mindlessly accepted to be true. Consideration is given to some of the consequences that result from a mindful reconsideration of those myths of learning.
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The use of memory-work as a qualitative method in feminist social research is well established in Australia and New Zealand. Memory-work, though, still brings with it many theoretical and methodological dilemmas and issues. To open some of these issues to collective discussion, a group of experienced feminist researchers used the process of memory-work to explore specific experiences of working with memory-work groups. Our exploration suggested that using memory-work within the dominant positivist discourses and patriarchal structures of academia could, at times, leave feminist researchers feeling powerless. Through this collective we expressed concern about method and methodological process in ways which had not been articulated through our earlier memory-work projects.
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The present study evaluates the value of tourists’ blogs as a research data source by using them to evaluate the tourist experience and to assess their influence on the decision-making process of prospective tourists. The blogs of 103 tourists visiting South Tyrol, 32 written in English and 71 written in Italian, were analyzed using textual and image content analysis. The text of 246 comments posted to these blogs was analyzed to evaluate the possible influence of bloggers’ narrative on prospective tourists. The results show cultural differences in the way tourists use blogs. Italian blogs appear to have more potential to influence the decision-making process of prospective visitors since their comments often contain recommendations and authors’ declaration of their own future intentions to travel to South Tyrol. They also demonstrate significant potential for revealing market-relevant aspects of tourists’ experience although they do not always convey the ‘experience essence’.
Article
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Contemporary studies of tourism see the tourist experience as either something essentially spurious and superficial, an extension of an alienated world, or as a serious search for authenticity, an effort to escape from an alienated world. It is argued that neither of these views is universally valid. A more discriminating distinction between five types of tourist experiences is proposed, based on the place and significance of tourist experience in the total world-view of tourists, their relationship to a perceived `centre' and the location of that centre in relation to the society in which the tourist lives. It is proposed that the resulting continuum of types of tourist experience is both more comprehensive than alternative conceptual frameworks and capable of reconciling and integrating the conflicting interpretations arising from earlier studies.
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The primary objective of this study was to develop a further understanding of the construct of mindfulness and its application in managing visitors to natural, cultural, or historically based tourism destinations. Mindfulness represents a state of mind expressed by actively processing available information (e.g., brochures) within the surrounding environment, while mindlessness is considered a type of disengagement from information in one’s surroundings. A 7-item Likert-type-scaled mindfulness measure was modified and administered to visitors at four southeastern coastal parks in April/May 1998. Three groups, “not very mindful, ” “mindful,” and “very mindful,” were identified. Significant differences (p < .05) were found among the three groups concerning benefits sought, preference for services, and participation in nature-oriented activities, with the very mindful group standing apart from the other two. Application of mindfulness principles may provide a framework for tourism destinations in meeting visitor needs while also aiding resource management efforts.
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The problem of false consciousness and its relationship to the social structure of tourist establishments is analyzed. Accounts of travelers are examined in terms of Erving Goffman's front versus back distinction. It is found that tourists try to enter back regions of the places they visit because these regions are associated with intimacy of relations and authenticity of experiences. It is also found that tourist settings are arrenged to produce the impression that a back region has been entered even when this is not the case. In tourist settings, between the front and the back there is a series of special spaces designed to accommodate tourists and to support their beliefs in the authenticity of their experiences. Goffman's front-back dichotomy is shown to be ideal poles of a continuum, or a variable.
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Measuring tourist satisfaction plays an important role in marketing tourism products and services. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between destination attribute importance and performance, travel motivation, and satisfaction. It is hypothesized that tourist satisfaction of a destination is a function of attribute importance, performance, and travel motivation. A nature-based resort, serving as a short-term family vacation destination in South-east Virginia, was used as the study site for this research. Factor analyses were employed to identify the dimensions of the destination attributes on importance and performance, as well as tourist motivations. The composite delineated factors were used as indicators to measure the overall tourist satisfaction in the regression analysis. The results revealed that friendly/quality services and lodging performance are significant factors in determining the overall satisfaction, whereas food and location are of significant importance in the satisfaction evaluation. Travel motivation, `family/friend togetherness' in particular, although not a statistical significant factor, practically explains its influence on the overall tourist satisfaction of a resort destination.
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Participants estimated the attractiveness of vacations described in 2 travel brochures. The information about 1 vacation was conveyed in a narrative that described the sequence of events that would occur. In contrast, information about the other vacation was conveyed in an ostensibly unorganized list. Vacations were generally evaluated more favorably when they were described in a narrative than when their features were simply listed. Moreover, this difference increased when (a) negative features of the vacations were mentioned, (b) pictures accompanied the text information, or (c) recipients were encouraged to imagine themselves having the experiences described. Although narrative forms of information elicited more extreme affective reactions than list forms, this did not account for the difference in their effectiveness. Rather, the advantage of narratives was attributed to (a) their structural similarity to information acquired through daily life experiences and (b) the use of a holistic—as opposed to a piecemeal—strategy for computing judgments.
Book
Tourism is an inherently social phenomenon. Tourists travel with others and experience places and cultures through interacting with both familiar and unfamiliar others. This volume presents a thorough tour of the social psychological processes which underpin contemporary travel. The fascinating phenomenon of tourist behaviour deals with topics such as motivation, destination choice, travellers' on site experiences, satisfaction and learning. This book uses an array of developing and recently constructed conceptual frameworks to both synthesise what is established, and to create new insights and directions for further analysis and, ultimately, management action.
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There are many qualitative methods that, from different theoretical frameworks, can be used to map individuals' everyday experiences in the sport industry. In this article we introduce one such method, memory-work, which involves participants writing specific texts about recalled experiences that are then analyzed in a collective research group. In order to discuss how sport management researchers can benefit from this methodology, this article explains the paradigmatic framework and the process of conducting memory-work. It concludes by assessing benefits of this interpretive methodology for sport management research.
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This paper explores the difference between service quality (QOS) and the service experience (QOE). Its ultimate objective is to explicate the nature and dimensionality of the service experience to broaden our understanding of consumer evaluations of the service encounter. The first section examines the emotional and experiential bases of consumption and satisfaction. Next, the QOS construct is explored and is summarized as an attribute-based measure that focuses on the more cognitive and functional aspects of service consumption and evaluation. The overall conclusion of this first section is that there is theoretical justification supporting the existence of a QOE construct over and above the more commonly known and used QOS. The second section summarizes an exploratory empirical study into the nature of and difference between QOS and QOE. A content analysis yielded six sub-dimensions (novelty, hedonics, interaction, stimulation, security and comfort) comprising an overall service experience dimension which appears to vary across service industries. The paper continues with eight propositions concerning the QOE to be used in testing and scale development. The authors conclude that further exploration into the service experience dimension is warranted to enhance our theoretical and managerial understanding of services marketing.
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The Evolving Nature of Competition and Sustainability Conceptual and Theorectical Perspectives Part I: The Competitive Destination Part II: The Sustainable Tourism Destination A Model of Destination Competitiveness The Macroenvironment: Global Forces Shaping World Tourism The Competitive (Micro)Environment: The Destination and the Tourism System Core Resources and Attractors: The Essence of Destination Appeal Supporting Factors and Resources: Elements that Enhance Destination Appeal Destination Policy, Planning and Development Destination Management: The Key to Maintaining a Sustainable Competitive Advantage Qualifying and Amplifying Determinants: Parameters that Define Destination Potential The Destination Audit: Putting the Model to Work.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
While preparing this analysis of the contributions of several scholars to the topic of authenticity in tourism research, an obituary appeared in an Australian newspaper (Butler 2007). The newspaper column reflected on the achievements and the influence of Jean Baudrillard (19292007) whose work can certainly be read as critical to the history of the authenticity debate. Together with a number of colleagues, Baudrillard asserted the value of a postmodern perspective and effectively challenged the view that we seek authenticity (Baudrillard 1983, 1988). It now seems particularly timely, following the passing of one of the masters of the post- modern perspective, to ask: is the original concept of authenticity, which was developed initially in pre-modern times something of enduring value? Alternatively, should we adopt the view, as Olsen ( 2007) hints, that it is a once grand idea, now thoroughly reworked by post-modern appraisals and ready to be discarded? The assertion of the analysis presented here is that authenticity still matters. The pathway to reach this conclusion will be pursued in this commentary by asking some fundamental questions which help assess the continuing value of authenticity as a research concept. The Questions are as follow:
Article
Although the concept of branding has been applied extensively to products and services, tourism destination branding is a relatively recent phenomenon. In particular, destination branding remains narrowly defined to many practitioners in destination management organizations (DMOs) and is not well represented in the tourism literature. Consequently, this study has three goals. First, it attempts to review the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of branding as conveyed by leading authors in the marketing field. Second, it seeks to refine and enhance the definition of destination branding (acceptable to and understood by tourism destination managers) to more fully represent the complexities of the tourism product. Third, and most importantly, it seeks to improve our understanding of current destination branding practices among DMOs. The findings indicate that although DMO executives generally understand the concept of destination branding, respondents are implementing only selective aspects of this concept, particularly logo design and development.
Article
This exploratory article attempts to highlight some areas of tourism research which are believed to lack sufficient methodological sophistication. The origin of such research is outlined, together with the ambivalent attitudes displayed by practitioners and outsiders alike. By means of a four quadrant model, the interplay between theoretical awareness and methodological sophistication is explored, but only in one quadrant is sufficient balance said to be achieved. To substantiate these points, examples are drawn from tourism research and from a meta-analysis of articles featured in two leading journals. Theoretical awareness and methodological sophistication are then spelled out in more detail and are seen to coincide at the conceptualization stage of the research process. Contributions to this special issue of Annals are introduced and possible areas for further research are briefly examined.
Article
Most people can draw on vast categories of stored information when explicitly asked to do so. The spontaneous, creative, mindful use of previously learned information, however, tends to be atypical. Three studies were designed to assess whether the manner in which information is initially presented affects how such information will subsequently be used, that is, in a mindful or mindless way. More specifically, two experiments (one with children, the other with college students) were conducted to compare the effects of a conditional versus absolute form of teaching upon creativity. Results revealed that instruction presented in an absolute manner resulted in mindless use of the information for both age groups. In contrast, subjects who were taught in a conditional way were better able to creatively deal with the information. For the college students, this finding was obtained even when the absolute learning condition was concerned with theoretical (i.e., conditional) information. In a third experiment, student teachers were taught conditionally or unconditionally in a confident or unconfident manner. Results indicated that confident but conditional instruction was most effective in provoking subsequent mindfulness.
Article
A comparison of specific expressive and instrumental indicators of satisfaction were compared against general measures of satisfaction. Research was conducted to explore specific indicators of satisfaction which included expressive measures representing major intrinsic goals of a leisure activity and instrumental measures which serve to facilitate those goals. Expressive indicators of satisfaction involving core experiences were most salient in explaining variance in general measures of satisfaction. Specific instrumental indicators of satisfaction did not contribute significantly to explaining variance in general measures of satisfaction.
Article
The implicit "no pain, no gain" understanding of traditional education is contrasted with a view of education that encourages mindfulness. The former relies on a static conception of information typically communicated in absolute language. Here, "facts" are given as truth, free of context or perspective. The latter relies on variability, communicated through conditional instruction. Here, facts are perspective dependent. Evidence is presented that suggests that mindfulness is not only more effective, but is also more enjoyable.
Article
This research examines the emotion of surprise and its influence on consumer satisfaction. After having discussed the relevance of this particular marketing issue and the concepts of surprise and satisfaction, it is explained how the emotion of surprise is theoretically related to consumer satisfaction. Then, the general research methodology and the main results of the first part of the exploratory research - the goal of which was to define how best to measure surprise in studies on satisfaction – are then described. Finally the section on conclusion, discussion and contribution brings the paper to an end.
Article
The lack of innovation in tourism research methods and the failure of many studies to relate theory to method has been commented upon in the tourism literature. The present paper reviews the method, memory-work, and its appropriateness for the study of women’s and girls’ tourist experiences. Memory-work is considered innovative and a method aligned with a feminist social constructionist paradigm. The key features of memory-work are: memories are the raw data; the subject and object of the research become one; the researcher and researched are “co-researchers”; there is a collective interpretation and theorisation of the memories; and the collective approach allows for the possibility of liberation. In the present study, adaptations to the method were required due to the selected research design and the fact that the study was doctoral research. With such amendments, the method was found to be well suited for a study which sought to uncover the many levels of themes in women’s and girls’ tourist experiences. Memory-work is recommended to others with a feminist social constructionist approach who are interested in the study of women and tourism.