Article

Cognitive Distraction While Multitasking in the Automobile

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Abstract

Driver distraction is a significant source of motor-vehicle accidents. This chapter begins by presenting a framework for conceptualizing the different sources of driver distraction associated with multitasking. Thereafter, the primary focus is on cognitive sources of distraction stemming from the use of a cell phone while driving. We present converging evidence establishing that concurrent cell phone use significantly increases the risk of a motor-vehicle accident. Next, we show that using a cell phone induces a form of inattention blindness, where drivers fail to notice information directly in their line of sight. Whereas cell-phone use increases the crash risk, we show that passenger conversations do not. We also show that real-world cell-phone interference cannot be practiced away and conclude by considering individual differences in multitasking ability. Although the vast majority of individuals cannot perform this dual-task combination without impairment, a small group of “supertaskers” can, and we discuss the neural regions that support this ability.

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... 2). Based on this view of workload, Strayer, Watson, and Drews (2011) emphasized cognitive sources of distraction to distinguish them from visual and manual components, which all contribute to overall workload. They argued that divided attention, such as when driving and talking on a cell phone, decreases performance in both tasks largely due to the cognitive component of workload. ...
... In both theories, attention-degrading secondary tasks produce a load that detracts from primary-task performance. Strayer and Fisher (2016) argued that load induced by cognitive sources of distraction in driving account for failures to notice objects in the fovea (Strayer & Drews, 2007), increased brake RT (Caird, Willness, Steel, & Scialfa, 2008), failures to stop at intersections (Strayer et al., 2011), and decreased visual scanning (Taylor et al., 2013). ...
... 11 binary choice between bright and dim lights. It confirms Strayer and colleagues' (Strayer et al., 2011(Strayer et al., , 2015 interpretation of correlations between the DRT and effects of secondary tasks on driving performance as being at least in part mediated by limitedcapacity attention. These results support the dominant assumption that cognitive workload effects reflect a competition for limited resources. ...
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Motorists often engage in secondary tasks unrelated to driving that increase cognitive workload, resulting in fatal crashes and injuries. An International Standards Organization method for measuring a driver’s cognitive workload, the detection response task (DRT), correlates well with driving outcomes, but investigation of its putative theoretical basis in terms of finite attention capacity remains limited. We address this knowledge gap using evidence-accumulation modeling of simple and choice versions of the DRT in a driving scenario. Our experiments demonstrate how dual-task load affects the parameters of evidence-accumulation models. We found that the cognitive workload induced by a secondary task (counting backward by 3s) reduced the rate of evidence accumulation, consistent with rates being sensitive to limited-capacity attention. We also found a compensatory increase in the amount of evidence required for a response and a small speeding in the time for nondecision processes. The International Standards Organization version of the DRT was found to be most sensitive to cognitive workload. A Wald-distributed evidence-accumulation model augmented with a parameter measuring response omissions provided a parsimonious measure of the underlying causes of cognitive workload in this task. This work demonstrates that evidence-accumulation modeling can accurately represent data produced by cognitive workload measurements, reproduce the data through simulation, and provide supporting evidence for the cognitive processes underlying cognitive workload. Our results provide converging evidence that the DRT method is sensitive to dynamic fluctuations in limited-capacity attention.
... The increase in DRT response times and misses is thought to be because the DRT competes with the primary task for a finite pool of resources, which means that the rate of information processing for the DRT decreases as resources are diverted away from the DRT to maintain performance on the primary task (Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011). However, evidence to support this assumption is inconsistent. ...
... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. (Strayer et al., 2011). However, there are many different ways in which people can adapt to changes in task demands, including changes in response caution, encoding processes, and response bias, and it is possible that different people may respond in different ways (Loft et al., 2009;Neal et al., 2017;Palada et al., 2018). ...
... For these reasons, we argued that it is desirable to have a cognitive model of both the primary task and the DRT. The current findings provide direct evidence in support of the resource account of DRT performance (ISO, 2015;Strayer et al., 2011). Specifically, the modeling revealed that the rate of evidence accumulation for the DRT declined as time pressure increased on the primary task, and that this was accompanied by an increase in the rate of evidence accumulation for the primary task. ...
Preprint
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The Detection Response Task (DRT) is an international standard for assessing workload that has minimal effects on primary task performance, making it an attractive option for workload measurement in many settings. An increase in DRT response times and a decrease hit rates as primary task load increases is thought to occur due to competing resources being reallocated to the primary task. However, alternative processes could account for these effects, including changes in response caution, response bias and non-decision processes. We examine how people respond to changes in task demands in a dual-task environment and aim to identify what it is that the DRT is measuring. We model a primary classification task and the DRT in a time pressured environment using the linear ballistic accumulator (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) and a single-bound diffusion (Wald) model (Heathcote, 2004). Under greater time pressure, the rate of information processing increased on the primary task while response caution decreased. In contrast, the rate of information processing in the DRT declined with greater time pressure. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the DRT’s sensitivity to workload is due to the reallocation in resources as demands increase on the primary task.
... Isso pode explicar o motivo de que uma das principais causas de acidentes de trânsito é a utilização de aparelhos eletrônicos, enquanto o motorista está dirigindo (STRAYER; WATSON;DREWS, 2011;KIM et al., 2017). A utilização de mídias nesta situação desvia o foco atencional do motorista, que deveria estar concentrado no ato de dirigir e essa desatenção pode acarretar em um atraso na reação do motorista, o que pode levar a um acidente (STRAYER; WATSON;DREWS, 2011). ...
... Isso pode explicar o motivo de que uma das principais causas de acidentes de trânsito é a utilização de aparelhos eletrônicos, enquanto o motorista está dirigindo (STRAYER; WATSON;DREWS, 2011;KIM et al., 2017). A utilização de mídias nesta situação desvia o foco atencional do motorista, que deveria estar concentrado no ato de dirigir e essa desatenção pode acarretar em um atraso na reação do motorista, o que pode levar a um acidente (STRAYER; WATSON;DREWS, 2011). ...
... Isso pode explicar o motivo de que uma das principais causas de acidentes de trânsito é a utilização de aparelhos eletrônicos, enquanto o motorista está dirigindo (STRAYER; WATSON;DREWS, 2011;KIM et al., 2017). A utilização de mídias nesta situação desvia o foco atencional do motorista, que deveria estar concentrado no ato de dirigir e essa desatenção pode acarretar em um atraso na reação do motorista, o que pode levar a um acidente (STRAYER; WATSON;DREWS, 2011). ...
Article
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Resumo Multitarefa com mídias é um fenômeno no qual são realizadas mais de uma tarefa ao mesmo tempo, sendo pelo menos uma das atividades com aparelhos eletrônicos. Esta prática impacta, negativamente, várias situações do cotidiano. Muitas vezes, pode-se associá-la ao ato de dirigir e até mesmo envolver o consumo de bebida alcoólica, tornando potencialmente uma combinação fatal. Assim, os potenciais riscos associados a estas práticas devem ser divulgados e a extensão universitária pode contribuir promovendo ações de Divulgação Científica. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho é relatar uma ação extensionista realizada por meio de uma oficina em um ambiente não-formal de educação. A oficina focava na divulgação dos riscos ligados a Multitarefa com Mídia, direção e consumo de álcool. Para isso, duas ações foram combinadas: a primeira abordou o tema Multitarefa com Mídia e a segunda associou a prática de Multitarefa com Mídia, direção e consumo de álcool. Ambas oficinas associaram conteúdos teóricos com atividades práticas. Como resultado, participaram destas ações alunos da Educação Básica, Educação Básica na modalidade Educação Especial e comunidade em geral. Os visitantes vivenciaram simulações, experimentos e puderam refletir sobre os prejuízos em potencial da combinação multitarefa, álcool e direção. O feedback dos visitantes foi positivo. Palavras-chave: Multitarefa. Extensão Universitária. Educação Não-Formal. Abstract Media Multitasking is a phenomenon in which more than one task is performed simultaneously, being one of the activities with electronic devices. This practice negatively impacts several everyday situations. It can often be associated with driving and even involve drinking alcohol, potentially making it a fatal combination. Thus, the potential risks associated with these practices must be disclosed, and university extension can contribute by promoting Scientific Dissemination actions. Thus, this paper aims to report an extension action through a workshop in a non-formal educational environment. The workshop focused on disclosing the risks related to Multitasking with Media, management, and alcohol consumption. For this, two actions were combined: the first approached the topic of Multitasking with Media, and the second associated the practice of Multitasking with Media, driving, and alcohol consumption. Both workshops associated theoretical content with practical activities. As a result, students from Basic Education, Basic Education in the Special Education modality, and the community, in general, participated in these actions. Visitors experienced simulations, experiments, and reflected on the potential losses from the combination of multitasking, alcohol, and driving. The feedback from visitors was positive.
... The leading cause of death among young adults in the United States is unintentional injury, and motor vehicle crashes are a prevalent cause of these types of injuries [1,2]. With increasing engagement in the use of electronic devices while driving, distracted driving has become a top source of motor vehicle crashes, killing nine Americans daily [3,4]. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 3142 people were killed and an additional 424,000 are estimated to have been injured because of distracted driving in 2019 [5]. ...
... For research purposes, distracted driving is frequently subdivided by the type of distraction. For instance, visual distractions occur when a driver takes their eyes off the road, manual distractions occur any time the driver removes their hands from the steering wheel, and cognitive distractions occur when the driver's mind is not focused on driving [4,5,14,15]. Thus, it is not difficult to understand that texting while driving is particularly dangerous because it combines visual, manual, and cognitive components [5,16]. ...
Article
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Distracted driving indiscriminately kills nearly 3500 people each year with young adults having greater risks associated with this phenomenon. Prevention programs targeting the distracted driving habits of young adults are necessary to ameliorate the high costs, both in dollars and in lives, associated with this behavior. Few health education and prevention programs have been assessed for their effectiveness in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to distracted driving. This study explores a distracted driving intervention among undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory public health course. A quasi-experimental study design was used to compare the pre- and post-data of the group receiving 5-weeks of a distracted driving intervention to a control group. Questionnaires were administered to both groups prior to and 2 weeks following the intervention to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to distracted driving. A Difference-in-Difference technique showed significant changes in knowledge (β = 0.40, p = 0.03) and total scores (β = 2.48, p = 0.04) in the intervention (n = 97) compared to the control (n = 131). T-tests examining pre- and post-scores for individual behaviors showed the intervention group displayed positive changes for some behaviors (talking, texting, cellphone use, grooming) compared to the control. The results support the impact that a classroom-based distracted driving intervention can have on undergraduate college students. Implications for this type of health education program may lead to improvements in distracted driving attitudes and behavior among this age-group.
... 2) Distraction Task: Driver distraction was defined as 'the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving towards a competing activity' [22]. Distractions can be divided into the following three categories according to source and demand: Visual distractions (e.g., looking around); Manual distractions (e.g., raising a hand from steering); Cognitive distractions (e.g., thinking about something not related to driving) [23]. In this study, auditory distraction is considered as a cognitive distraction, as defined in the literature [12]. ...
... According to the frequency band of the desired signal, the corresponding wavelet decomposition was selected, and Equation (5) was used to reconstruct the desired signal. The EEG data was decomposed into delta (0-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13), beta (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), and gamma (30)(31)(32) waves by 6-layer wavelet packet. ...
Article
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Train driver fatigue and distraction are the main reasons for railway accidents. One of the new technologies to monitor drivers is by using the EEG signals, which provides vital signs monitoring of fatigue and distraction. However, monitoring systems involving full-head scalp EEG are time-consuming and uncomfortable for the driver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of recently introduced forehead EEG for train driver fatigue and distraction detection. We first constructed a unique dataset with experienced train drivers driving in a simulated train driving environment. The EEG signals were collected from an EEG recording device placed on the driver's forehead, and numerous features including energy, entropy, rhythmic energy ratio and frontal asymmetry ratio were extracted from the EEG signals. Therefore, a time-series ensemble learning method was proposed to perform fatigue and distraction detection based on the extracted feature. The proposed method outperforms other popular machine learning algorithms including Support Vector Machine(SVM), K-Nearest Neighbor(KNN), Decision Tree(DT), and Long short-term memory(LSTM). The proposed method is stable and convenient to meet the real-time requirement of train driver monitoring.
... Driver distraction arises from a combination of sources (Ranney, Garrott, & Goodman, 2000;Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011). Impairments to driving can be caused by a competition for visual information processing, for example when motorists take their eyes off the road to perform IVIS interactions. ...
Article
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Background: New automobiles provide a variety of features that allow motorists to perform a plethora of secondary tasks unrelated to the primary task of driving. Despite their ubiquity, surprisingly little is known about how these complex multimodal in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) interactions impact a driver's workload. Results: The current research sought to address three interrelated questions concerning this knowledge gap: (1) Are some task types more impairing than others? (2) Are some modes of interaction more distracting than others? (3) Are IVIS interactions easier to perform in some vehicles than others? Depending on the availability of the IVIS features in each vehicle, our testing involved an assessment of up to four task types (audio entertainment, calling and dialing, text messaging, and navigation) and up to three modes of interaction (e.g., center stack, auditory vocal, and the center console). The data collected from each participant provided a measure of cognitive demand, a measure of visual/manual demand, a subjective workload measure, and a measure of the time it took to complete the different tasks. The research provides empirical evidence that the workload experienced by drivers systematically varied as a function of the different tasks, modes of interaction, and vehicles that we evaluated. Conclusions: This objective assessment suggests that many of these IVIS features are too distracting to be enabled while the vehicle is in motion. Greater consideration should be given to what interactions should be available to the driver when the vehicle is in motion rather than to what IVIS features and functions could be available to motorists.
... It is entirely expected that the primary driver of response time changes in the DRT task is processing speed. The theoretical underpinning of the task is that of a shared, limited capacity pool of cognitive resources (see e.g., Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011;Thorpe et al., 2019). The drift rate of an accumulator model "maps the speed of information uptake" (Voss, Nagler, & Lerche, 2013, p.4), and would naturally be expected to decrease if there were less available processing resources. ...
Preprint
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With the advancement of technologies like in-car navigation and smartphones, concerns around how cognitive functioning is influenced by ``workload'' are increasingly prevalent. Research shows that spreading effort across multiple tasks can impair cognitive abilities through an overuse of resources, and that similar overload effects arise in difficult single-task paradigms. We developed a novel lab-based extension of the Detection Response Task, which measures workload, and paired it with a Multiple Object Tracking Task to manipulate cognitive load. Load was manipulated either by changing within-task difficulty or by the addition of an extra task. Using quantitative cognitive modelling we showed that these manipulations cause similar cognitive impairments through diminished processing rates, but that the introduction of a second task tends to invoke more cautious response strategies that do not occur when only difficulty changes. We conclude that more prudence should be exercised when directly comparing multitasking and difficulty-based workload impairments, particularly when relying on measures of central tendency.
... Distraction is an example of a major way a person's visual and/or auditory perception may be impaired. The driving safety literature is rife with studies highlighting distraction as a risk factor for traffic accidents (e.g., Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011). Some research suggests distraction may also elicit inattentional blindness in pedestrians, similar to what has been observed in drivers (Hyman, Boss, Wise, McKenzie, & Caggiano, 2009;Kuzel, Heller, Gray, Di Jorio, & Straughn, 2008). ...
Article
Pedestrian injury is a costly and all-too-common form of unintentional injury. The pedestrian’s task is complex, requiring individuals to glean information from the environment and make judgments based on that information. Previous pedestrian safety research has included both visual and auditory perceptual cues. Few studies, however, have specifically focused on examining the unique strengths and weaknesses of vision and audition in the pedestrian task. We therefore posit future pedestrian safety research should give more detailed consideration to the perceptual modalities involved in the pedestrian task. The human factors literature contains theories and frameworks which pedestrian safety researchers and practitioners may use to conceptualize the perceptual components of the pedestrian’s tasks. We propose a multimodal approach to pedestrian safety research comprising two broad principles drawn from the perceptual modality literature: independence and dominance. We discuss the principles in the context of how each principle may inform pedestrian safety research as well as injury prevention efforts.
... In addition, recent literature has stratified distraction-related injuries according to the type of distraction, commonly categorizing distractions as visual, manual, or cognitive. 37,38 Attempts should be made to use these categories in future analyses and in public education about injuries due to distraction. With an increasing number of devices and applications competing for users' attention, it is more important than ever to ensure the safe use of smartphones. ...
Article
Importance As cell phones gain more influence in daily life, they also become potentially more hazardous. Injuries resulting from cell phone use have long been reported largely in the context of driving-related incidents, but other mechanisms of injury have been underreported. Objective To assess the incidence, types, and mechanisms of head and neck injuries associated with cell phone use. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cross-sectional study using data from a national database of individuals with head and neck injuries related to cell phone use who presented to emergency departments in the United States between January 1998 and December 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures Incidence, types, and mechanisms of injury related to cell phone use in the US population. Results A reported total of 2501 patients (1129 [55.0%] female, 795 [38.8%] white, and 772 [37.6%] aged 13-29 years) presented with injuries of the head and neck related to cell phone use; the estimated weighted national total was 76 043 patients (42 846 females [56.3%], 34 894 [45.9%] white, and 29 956 [39.4%] aged 13-29 years). The most commonly reported subsites of injuries in the head and neck region included the head (33.1% of estimated total); face, including eyelid, eye area, and nose (32.7%); and neck (12.5%). The most common injury diagnoses included laceration (26.3% of estimated total), contusion/abrasion (24.5%), and internal organ injury (18.4%). Age group distributions showed that most injuries associated with cell phone user distraction occurred among individuals aged 13 to 29 years (60.3%; Cramer V = 0.29). In addition, those younger than 13 years were significantly more likely to sustain direct mechanical injury from a cell phone (82.1%) than to have a cell phone use–associated injury (17.9%) (Cramer V = 0.305), whereas a cell phone use–associated injury was more likely than a direct mechanical injury to occur among those aged 50 to 64 years (68.2% vs 31.8%; Cramer V = 0.11) and those older than 65 years (90.3% vs 9.7%; Cramer V = 0.29). Conclusions and Relevance Cell phone–related injuries to the head and neck have increased steeply over the recent 20-year period, with many cases resulting from distraction. Although the disposition of most cases is simple, some injuries bear a risk of long-term complications. Many of these injuries occurred among those aged 13 to 29 years and were associated with common activities, such as texting while walking. These findings suggest a need for patient education about injury prevention and the dangers of activity while using these devices.
... recently emerged, attention, in addition to being exclusive, also is a finite cognitive resource. 6,7 That is, attentional capacity decreases as we use it and must be replenished once spent. In the case of human cognitive functioning, the dominant resource is glucose, which fluctuates within a given individual based on behaviors, as well as across individuals. ...
... Dieser Wahrnehmungsfehler "looked-but-failed-to-see" beschreibt den Umstand, dass trotz objektiv vorhandener Fixationen in Blickrichtung eines kritischen Elements, ein Fahrer das Element nicht auch zwingend wahrgenommen haben muss (Brown, Ivan, D., 2005;Crundall & Underwood, 2011). Dieser Effekt zeigt sich insbesondere in Unfallgeschehen mit querenden Verkehrsteilnehmern bei Abbiegemanövern (z.B. Brown, Ivan, D., 2005;Herslund & Jørgensen, 2003;Koustanaï, Boloix, van Elslande, & Bastien, 2008;Summala et al., 1996) und in Verbindung mit kognitiv ablenkenden Nebentätigkeiten, wie beispielsweise Telefonieren (Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011). ...
Thesis
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Fahrsituationen an innerstädtischen Knotenpunkten stellen durch die Vielzahl an Einflussfaktoren und Dichte von Verkehrsteilnehmern den größten Unfallschwerpunkt innerhalb von Ortschaften dar. Moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS) können den Fahrer in diesen komplexen Situationen durch die Ausgabe vielfältiger Hinweise und Warnungen sowie durch aktive Eingriffe in die fahrdynamische Regelung unterstützen. Die Auslegung von FAS erfolgte in der Vergangenheit vor allem auf Grundlage von statistisch optimierten Fahrermodellen, um die Wirksamkeit sicherheits- oder komfortfördernder Effekte für eine breite Masse an Fahrern mit unterschiedlichen Fahrstilen zu gewährleisten. Im Hinblick auf die Menge möglicher Assistenzfunktionen in innerstädtischen Verkehrsszenarien, potenziell unangemessene Zeitpunkte ihrer Auslösung oder die fehlende Passung zum intendierten Fahrmanöver sowie individuellen Verhaltensmuster und Präferenzen können diese Systeme allerdings auch eine zusätzliche Belastung für den Fahrer darstellen. Für die Entwicklung moderner FAS ist es daher bedeutsam, neben einem funktionsorientierten Ansatz auch situative Anforderungen durch die Vorhersage zukünftiger Verhaltensweisen sowie individuelle Merkmale des Fahrers zu berücksichtigen. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Möglichkeiten einer fahrerspezifischen Parametrierung eines Prädiktionsalgorithmus zur Vorhersage von Abbiegemanövern. Hierfür wird zunächst ein umfassender Überblick zu kognitiven Prozessen der Fahraufgabe, Einflussfaktoren des Fahrverhaltens, spezifischen Verhaltensmustern bei der Annäherung an Knotenpunkte sowie Verfahren zur Detektion von Fahrermerkmalen und -intentionen erarbeitet. Für die Ableitung des Prädiktionsalgorithmus wurden empirische Untersuchungen im Realverkehr sowie im experimentellen Versuchssetting durchgeführt, um potenzielle Indikatoren von Abbiegemanövern zu bewerten und den Einfluss von Fahrermerkmalen auf fahrdynamische Kennwerte im Vorfeld von Abbiegemanövern zu untersuchen. Für die Speicherung, Vorverarbeitung und Analyse der umfangreichen Datensätze wurde ein modulares Framework implementiert, der es ermöglicht, relevante Datenabschnitte aus den aufgezeichneten Realfahrdaten zu extrahieren und aufzubereiten. Anschließend wurde ein Prädiktionsmodell abgeleitet und implementiert, das bei der Vorhersage von Knotenpunktmanövern individuelle Fahrermerkmale berücksichtigt. Die Untersuchung des Potenzials des fahrer-adaptiven Prädiktionsalgorithmus erfolgte exemplarisch mithilfe des Fahrstils und des Fahrerzustands. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse werden die Herausforderungen fahrerspezifischer Prädiktionsmodelle und der Vorhersage von Fahrmanövern an Knotenpunkten diskutiert.
... There are several components that factor into how distracting a secondary task is for the driver (e.g., Ranney et al., 2000;Regan et al., 2011;Strayer et al., 2011). One important factor is the cognitive demand associated with Scanning, Predicting, Identifying, Deciding, and Executing Responses ("SPIDER" -for a review see Strayer and Fisher, 2016). ...
Article
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In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) refer to a collection of features in vehicles that allow motorists to complete tasks (often unrelated to driving) while operating the vehicle. These systems may interfere, to a greater extent, with older drivers’ ability to attend to the visual and cognitive demands of the driving environment. The current study sought to examine age-related differences in the visual, cognitive and temporal demands associated with IVIS interactions. Older and younger drivers completed a set of common tasks using the IVIS of a representative sample of six different vehicles while they drove along a low-density residential street. Evaluation measures included a Detection Response Task (DRT), to assess both cognitive and visual attention, and subjective measures following each condition using the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Two age cohorts were evaluated: younger drivers between 21 and 36 years of age, and older drivers between 55 and 75 years of age. Participants completed experimental tasks involving interactions with the IVIS to achieve a specific goal (i.e., using the touch screen to tune the radio to a station; using voice commands to find a specified navigation destination, etc.). Performance of tasks varied according to different modes of interaction available in the vehicles. Older drivers took longer to complete tasks, were slower to react to stimuli, and reported higher task demand when interacting with IVIS. Older drivers stand to benefit the most from advancements in-vehicle technology, but ironically may struggle the most to use them. The results document significant age-related costs in the potential for distraction from IVIS interactions on the road.
... Multi-tasking has commonly been studied using drivers of automobiles and their reaction to cell phones, other people in the car, and radios. Such research has shown that activities with low cognitive demand and low visual resources have a lesser negative effect on driving than do activities that demand cognitive, manual, and visual resources (Strayer et al. 2011). Specifically, using a device such as a cell phone that requires a high degree of visual, manual, and cognitive resources from the driver reduces reaction time and increases accidents. ...
Article
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Fidget spinners have become popular worldwide, due not only to their popularity with children but also to the mental health claims made by those who advertise them. While a small number of previous research studies indicate that fidget spinners reduce on-task behavior, no research to date has evaluated their effect on student performance. The current study evaluated 3rd grade students to determine whether their performance on 5-min math curriculum–based measures (CBM) changed depending on whether they had access to a fidget spinner. Results indicated that student performance was lower when they were allowed to use fidget spinners than when the fidget spinner was removed. The current study suggests that fidget spinners may cause a deficit in student performance. However, the effect of fidget spinners may actually lessen as the students habituate to the objects.
... Most people are poor at multitasking, suffering performance decrements to one or more of the concurrently performed tasks, even though they may think they are good at it (Sanbonmatsu, Strayer, Mederios-Ward, & Watson, 2013;Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011;Watson & Strayer, 2010). To date, most research has focused on the concurrent aspects of dual-task performance with much less attention given to performance following a multitasking episode (i.e., when people stop multitasking and return to the single task). ...
Preprint
We examined the hidden costs of intermittent multitasking. Participants performed a pursuit-tracking task (Experiment 1) or drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator (Experiment 2) by itself or while concurrently performing an easy or difficult backwards counting task that periodically started and stopped, creating on-task and off-task multitasking epochs. A novel application of the Detection Response Task (DRT), a standardized protocol for measuring cognitive workload (ISO 17488, 2015) was used to measure performance in the on-task and off-task intervals. We found striking costs that persisted well after the counting task had stopped. In fact, the multitasking costs dissipated as a negatively accelerated function of time with the largest costs observed immediately after multitasking ceased. Performance in the off-task interval remained above baseline levels throughout the 30 second off-task interval. We suggest that loading new procedures into working memory occurs fairly quickly, whereas purging this information from working memory takes considerably longer.
... These patterns were particularly pronounced amongst the OAs with lower working memory scores. The patterns also mirrored those associated with cognitive distraction (e.g., Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011), which could suggest that stereotype threat reduces the availability of working memory resources (for a discussion of this as a mechanism of stereotype threat, see Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008). ...
Article
Stereotype threat occurs when people feel concerned about the possibility of confirming, or being negatively judged by, a negative stereotype. This review highlights the applied implications of this phenomenon for older adults. In clinical settings, older adults often feel that their physicians have negative expectations about their abilities because of their age. These feelings of age-based stereotype threat can increase older adults’ subjective cognitive complaints and impair their performance on mental status examinations. Other research has shown that stereotype threat also adversely affects older adults’ physical performance, motor learning, and driving performance. In workplace settings, older adults who experience stereotype threat also report lower job satisfaction, poorer work-related mental health, and greater intentions to resign or retire. Overall, this review provides evidence that the situational phenomenon of stereotype threat can affect older adults’ performance in a variety of applied settings, and this can contribute to age differences in performance.
... Increased errors and response variation are observed in many driving simulation studies (Hancock, Lesch, & Simmons, 2003;Harbluk, Noy, Trbovich, & Eizenman, 2007;Just, Keller, & Cynkar, 2008). Notably, a naturalistic study by D. L. Strayer, Watson, and Drews (2011) observed that drivers using mobile phones were ten times more likely to fail to stop appropriately at a stop sign at a fourway intersection. However, a substantial gap in research still exists on the impact of multitasking on performance during intersection crossings. ...
Article
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We examined the effects of multitasking on resolving response bistability to yellow traffic lights, using the performance metrics of reaction time and stopping frequency. We also examined whether people’s actual behaviours, measured by implicit foot pedal responses, differed from their intentions related to these factors, as measured by explicit verbal commands. In a dual-task paradigm, participants responded to random traffic light changes, presented over a static background photograph of an intersection, using either foot pedals or verbal commands, while simultaneously identifying spoken words as either “animals” or “artefacts” via button pressing. The dual-task condition was found to prolong reaction times relative to a single-task condition. In addition, verbal commands were faster than the foot pedal responses, and conservativeness was the same for both types of responses. A second experiment, which provided a more dynamic simulation of the first experiment, confirmed that conservativeness did not differ between verbal commands and foot pedal responses. We conclude that multitasking affects a person’s ability to resolve response bistability to yellow traffic lights. If one considers that prolonged reaction times reduce the amount of distance available to safely stop at intersections, this study underscores how multitasking poses a considerable safety risk for drivers approaching a yellow traffic light.
... Ziel der Arbeit ist es, vor diesem Hintergrund zu untersuchen, wie Fahrer durch eine optimierte Gestaltung der Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle effektiv bei der Wiedererlangung der Fahrzeugkontrolle an Systemgrenzen und bei der Bearbeitung von fahrfremden Tätigkeiten während der automatisierten Fahrt unterstützt werden können, wenn diese wiederholt durch (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006), da Fahrer ihre Aufmerksamkeit zwischen der Hauptaufgabe der Fahrzeugführung (primary task) und der Nebentätigkeit (secondary task) teilen müssen (Blanco, Biever, Gallagher, & Dingus, 2006;Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011). Diese Situation wird als concurrent multitasking (Salvucci, Taatgen, & Borst, 2009) bzw. ...
Thesis
Fahrzeughersteller haben die Verfügbarkeit sogenannter hochautomatisierter Fahrfunktionen (SAE Level 3; SAE, 2018) in ihren Modellen angekündigt. Hierdurch wird der Fahrer in der Lage sein, sich permanent von der Fahraufgabe abzuwenden und fahrfremden Tätigkeiten nachzugehen. Allerdings muss er immer noch als Rückfallebene zur Verfügung stehen, um im Fall von Systemgrenzen oder -fehlern (siehe Gold, Naujoks, Radlmayr, Bellem & Jarosch, 2017), die Fahrzeugkontrolle zu übernehmen. Das Übernahmeerfordernis wird dem Fahrer durch die Ausgabe einer Übernameaufforderung vermittelt. Die Übernahme der manuellen Fahrzeugführung aus dem hochautomatisierten Fahren stellt aus psychologischer Sicht einen Aufgabenwechsel dar. Bei der Untersuchung von Aufgabenwechseln im Bereich der kognitiven und angewandten Psychologie zeigte sich vielfach, dass Aufgabenwechsel mit verlängerten Reaktionszeiten und erhöhten Fehlerraten assoziiert sind. Für den Anwendungsfall des automatisierten Fahrens liegen ebenfalls eine Reihe empirischer Studien vor, die darauf hinweisen, dass der Wechsel zum manuellen Fahren mit einer Verschlechterung der Fahrleistung gegenüber dem manuellen Fahren verbunden ist. Da Erkenntnisse vorliegen, dass eine Vorbereitung auf den Aufgabenwechsel die zu erwartenden Kosten verringern kann, ist das Ziel dieser Arbeit die Konzeption und empirische Evaluation einer Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle, die Nutzer hochautomatisierter Fahrzeuge durch frühzeitige Vorinformationen über Systemgrenzen auf die Kontrollübernahme vorbereitet. Drei Experimente im Fahrsimulator mit Bewegungssystem betrachteten jeweils unterschiedliche Aspekte frühzeitiger Vorinformationen über bevorstehende Übernahmen. Das erste Experiment untersuchte, ob Fahrer überhaupt von frühzeitigen Situationsankündigungen, beispielsweise im Sinne einer verbesserten Übernahmeleistung, profitieren. Das zweite Experiment befasste sich mit der Frage, wie solche Ankündigungen zeitlich und inhaltlich zu gestalten sind (d. h. wann sie präsentiert werden und welche Informationen sie enthalten sollten), und welchen Einfluss deren Gestaltung auf die Aufgabenbearbeitung (insbesondere deren Unterbrechung und spätere Wiederaufnahme) während der automatisierten Fahrt hat. Um herauszufinden, wie ein Anzeigekonzept zur längerfristigen Planung von fahrfremden Tätigkeiten während des automatisierten Fahrens beitragen könnte, fand im dritten Experiment ein Vergleich von Situationsankündigungen, die vor dem Erreichen einer Übernahmesituation ausgegeben wurden, mit kontinuierlich präsentierten Informationen über die verbleibende Distanz zur nächsten Systemgrenze statt. In allen Studien wurde neben den Auswirkungen frühzeitiger Vorinformationen auf die Übernahmeleistung und Bearbeitung von fahrfremden Tätigkeiten auch untersucht, welche Auswirkungen ein erweitertes Übernahmekonzept auf die Fahrerreaktion in Grenz- und Fehlerfällen, in denen Vorinformationen entweder nicht oder fehlerhaft angezeigt wurden, hat. Für die Gestaltung zukünftiger Übernahmekonzepte für hochautomatisierte Fahrzeuge kann basierend auf den Ergebnissen empfohlen werden, frühzeitige Anzeigen von Systemgrenzen zur Ermöglichung eines sicheren und komfortablen Wechsels zwischen dem manuellen und dem automatisierten Fahren in die Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle zu integrieren. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen dieser Arbeit liegt der empfohlene Zeitpunkt für diskrete Ankündigungen bei einer Reisegeschwindigkeit von 120 km/h bei etwa 1000 Meter (d. h. ca. 30 Sekunden) vor der Ausgabe der Übernahmeaufforderung. Zudem wird empfohlen zur Abschätzung der verbleibenden Zeit im automatisierten Modus eine Anzeige der Entfernung zur nächsten Systemgrenze in das Konzept zu integrieren, die dem Fahrer eine längerfristige Aufgabenplanung ermöglicht. Neben der reinen Anzeige des Übernahmeerfordernisses sollten dem Fahrer auch Informationen über das erforderliche Fahrmanöver nach der Kontrollübernahme übermittelt werden.
... Coupling the latter with a gesture recognition interface design, following the same design mantra, enabled the users to perform the selected and specific tasks without complicated multilayered interfaces. As per previous studies, uncomplicated gesture recognition systems could be utilised instead of typical manual or voice-controlled interfaces that tend to distract the driver by taking the eyes off the road [29,[32][33][34][62][63][64][65]]. Yet, several limitations hindered the research process as presented below. ...
Article
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The plurality of current infotainment devices within the in-vehicle space produces an unprecedented volume of incoming data that overwhelm the typical driver, leading to higher collision probability. This work presents an investigation to an alternative option which aims to manage the incoming information while offering an uncluttered and timely manner of presenting and interacting with the incoming data safely. The latter is achieved through the use of an augmented reality (AR) head-up display (HUD) system, which projects the information within the driver’s field of view. An uncluttered gesture recognition interface provides the interaction with the AR visuals. For the assessment of the system’s effectiveness, we developed a full-scale virtual reality driving simulator which immerses the drivers in challenging, collision-prone, scenarios. The scenarios unfold within a digital twin model of the surrounding motorways of the city of Glasgow. The proposed system was evaluated in contrast to a typical head-down display (HDD) interface system by 30 users, showing promising results that are discussed in detail.
... It is entirely expected that the primary driver of response time changes in the DRT task is processing speed. The theoretical underpinning of the task is that of a shared, limited capacity pool of cognitive resources (see, e.g., Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011;Thorpe et al., 2019). The drift rate of an accumulator model "maps the speed of information uptake" (Voss, Nagler, & Lerche, 2013, p.4), and would naturally be expected to decrease if there were less available processing resources. ...
Article
With the advancement of technologies like in-car navigation and smartphones, concerns around how cognitive functioning is influenced by “workload” are increasingly prevalent. Research shows that spreading effort across multiple tasks can impair cognitive abilities through an overuse of resources, and that similar overload effects arise in difficult single-task paradigms. We developed a novel lab-based extension of the Detection Response Task, which measures workload, and paired it with a Multiple Object Tracking Task to manipulate cognitive load. Load was manipulated either by changing within-task difficulty or by the addition of an extra task. Using quantitative cognitive modelling we showed that these manipulations cause similar cognitive impairments through diminished processing rates, but that the introduction of a second task tends to invoke more cautious response strategies that do not occur when only difficulty changes. We conclude that more prudence should be exercised when directly comparing multi-tasking and difficulty-based workload impairments, particularly when relying on measures of central tendency.
... A phone conversation requires perceptual-cognitive processing of auditory and verbal information, which compete with the visual-spatial information processing required for the motor and action-oriented resources required for the driving task. The result is poor performance with increased driving task demands while immersed in the conversation or otherwise interrupting the conversation to meet driving demands (De Waard, 1996;Kircher, 2007;Strayer et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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Real-time monitoring of drivers’ functional states will soon become a required safety feature for commercially available vehicles with automated driving capability. Automated driving technology aims to mitigate human error from road transport with the progressive automatisation of specific driving tasks. However, while control of the driving task remains shared between humans and automated systems, the inclusion of this new technology is not exempt from other human factors-related challenges. Drivers’ functional states are essentially a combination of psychological, emotional, and cognitive states, and they generate a constant activity footprint available for measurement through neural and peripheral physiology, among other measures. These factors can determine drivers’ functional states and, thus, drivers’ availability to safely perform control transitions between human and vehicle. This doctoral project aims at investigating the potential of electrocardiogram (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as measures for a multimodal driver state monitoring (DSM) system for highly automated driving (i.e., SAE levels 3 and 4). While current DSM systems relying on gaze behaviour measures have proven valid and effective, several limitations and challenges could only be overcome using eye-tracking in tandem with physiological parameters. This thesis investigates whether ECG, EDA and fNIRS would be good candidates for such a purpose. Two driving simulator studies were performed to measure mental workload, trust in automation, stress and perceived risk, all identified as modulators of drivers’ functional states and that could eventually determine drivers’ availability to take-over manual control. The main findings demonstrate that DSM systems should adopt multiple physiological measures to capture changes in functional states relevant for driver readiness. Future DSM systems will benefit from the knowledge generated by this research by applying machine learning methods to these measures for determining drivers’ availability for optimal take-over performance.
... Such effects have been found not only in laboratory settings but are also well known in everyday activities, such as learning to drive (e.g. Sana et al., 2013;Strayer et al., 2011). In the context of driving, research shows that engagement in an additional task, for example, dialing a cell phone or text-messaging, creates a potential level of distraction equivalent to intoxication with a blood alcohol level of .08% ...
Article
Research shows that high levels of media multitasking (either situationally induced or chronic) may be associated with decreased cognitive function. Since cognitive capacity is required for efficient correction of one’s judgment after learning that the basis of the judgement is no longer valid, we expected that high levels of media multitasking would decrease one’s ability to adequately update one’s beliefs. We ran two studies in which participants were asked to form an impression of a target person based on their profile on a professional networking site. The profile contained either neutral information (control condition) or a negative comment which was later disproven (false-information conditions). We additionally manipulated media multitasking demands (in Study 1) or measured participants’ frequency of media multitasking (Study 2) and tested whether the level of media multitasking is related to the degree to which the initial attitudes were adjusted after learning that the negative comment was false. We found a significant but rather small effect of the manipulation in Study 1 indicating that participants in both multitasking conditions had more negative attitudes after the correction compared to the baseline, but not to the mono-tasking condition. Crucially, media multitasking demands did not impact attitude adjustment. The results of Study 2 showed that the relationship between media-multitasking frequency measured with a scale and attitude adjustment was non-significant. Overall, the findings provide no evidence that media multitasking – whether experimentally manipulated or chronic – plays a role in correction after misinformation. The study data and code are available at https://osf.io/xu6qd/
... However, job conditions such as workload provide one avenue to reduce this spiral. For instance, Strayer, Watson, and Drews (2011) found that when individuals had a high workload and split attention over multiple tasks, they were more likely to make errors in judgment (see also Castro, Strayer, Matzke, & Heathcote, 2019). However, when their workload was reduced, they were less likely to make such errors. ...
Article
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Humanity will mount interplanetary exploration missions within the next two decades, supported by a growing workforce operating in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) conditions of space. How will future space workers fare in a closed social world while subjected to persistent stressors? Using a sample of 32 participants operating in ICE conditions over the course of 30-45 days, we developed and tested a dynamic model of conflict and strain. Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we investigated reciprocal relationships between different forms (i.e., task and relationship) of conflict, and between conflict and strain. Results demonstrated evidence for a resource threat feedback loop as current-day task conflict predicted next-day relationship conflict and current-day relationship conflict predicted next-day task conflict. Additionally, results indicated support for a resource loss feedback loop as current-day relationship conflict predicted next-day strain, and current-day strain predicted next-day relationship conflict. Moreover, we found that job conditions affected these associations as current-day relationship conflict was more associated with next-day task conflict when next-day workload was high, but not when next-day workload was low. Similarly, current-day relationship conflict was more associated with next-day strain when next-day workload was high; however, this association decreased when next-day workload was low. Therefore, the results suggest that workload plays a critical role in weakening the effect of these spirals over time, and suggests that targeted interventions (e.g., recovery days) can help buffer against the negative impact of relationship conflict on strain and decrease the extent that relationship conflict spills over into task disputes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Most people are poor at multitasking, suffering performance decrements to one or more of the concurrently performed tasks, even though they may think they are good at it (Sanbonmatsu et al., 2013;Strayer et al., 2011;Watson & Strayer, 2010). To date, most research has focused on the concurrent aspects of dual-task performance with much less attention given to performance following a multitasking episode (i.e., when people stop multitasking and return to the single task). ...
Article
We examined the hidden costs of intermittent multitasking. Participants performed a pursuit-tracking task (Experiment 1) or drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator (Experiment 2) by itself or while concurrently performing an easy or difficult backwards counting task that periodically started and stopped, creating on-task and off-task multitasking epochs. A novel application of the Detection Response Task (DRT), a standardized protocol for measuring cognitive workload (ISO 17488, 2016), was used to measure performance in the on-task and off-task intervals. We found striking costs that persisted well after the counting task had stopped. In fact, the multitasking costs dissipated as a negatively accelerated function of time with the largest costs observed immediately after multitasking ceased. Performance in the off-task interval remained above baseline levels throughout the 30-s off-task interval. We suggest that loading new procedures into working memory occurs fairly quickly, whereas purging this information from working memory takes considerably longer. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... There are three sources of distractions. These include physical distractions (the driver takes their hands off the steering wheel to interact with some object), visual distractions (the driver takes eyes off the road to perform a secondary non-driving activity), and cognitive distractions (the driver deviates attention from driving [83]. ...
... Such effects have been found not only in laboratory settings but are also well known in everyday activities, such as learning to drive (e.g. Sana et al., 2013;Strayer et al., 2011). In the context of driving, research shows that engagement in an additional task, for example, dialing a cell phone or text-messaging, creates a potential level of distraction equivalent to intoxication with a blood alcohol level of .08% ...
Preprint
Research shows that high levels of media multitasking (either situationally induced or chronic) may be associated with a decreased cognitive function. Since cognitive capacity is required for efficient correction of one’s judgment after learning that the judgement base is no longer valid, we expected that high levels of media multitasking would decrease one’s ability to adequately update their beliefs. We ran two studies in which participants were asked to form an impression of a target person based on their online profile from a professional networking site. The profile contained either neutral information (control condition) or negative comment from a former supervisor which was later debunked (false information conditions). We additionally manipulated media multitasking demands (in Study 1) or measured participants’ frequency of media multitasking (Study 2) and tested whether the level of media multitasking is related to the degree to which the initial attitudes were adjusted after learning that the negative comment was false. We found a significant but rather small effect of manipulation in Study 1 indicating that participants in both multitasking conditions had more negative attitudes after correction compared to the baseline, but not to the mono-tasking condition. Crucially, media multitasking demands did not impact attitude adjustment. Results of Study 2 showed that the relationship between media multitasking frequency measured with a scale and attitude adjustment were non-significant. Overall, the current findings suggest that media multitasking, experimentally manipulated or chronic, plays a negligible role in correction after misinformation.
... According to [15], performing in-vehicle tasks while driving has detrimental effects on driving performance and these effects in different environments are relatively stable across different driver age groups. [27] observed in their study that out of the 1700 observed motorists using a cell phone were more than ten times more likely to involve violations at the intersection in statutory stopping compared to those not engaged. Statistics have shown that 20% of all accidents are related to fatigue. ...
... Students acknowledge that technology can be distracting and verbalize known potential negative effects; and yet, they still persist in exhibiting media multitasking behavior (Terry et al., 2016). This disconnect between awareness and behavior is akin to other addictive behaviors such as smoking and suggests that technology misuse persists despite an acknowledged risk (Rosen, Whaling, Rab, Carrier, & Cheever, 2013;Richtel, 2014;Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011). ...
Thesis
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Students are increasingly more distracted and off-task with technology. While contemporary research has clearly argued the pervasive nature and problematic effects of media distracted behavior, research has yet to identify and validate, by way of a real-world experiment, an efficacious and promising practical or pedagogical response. This dissertation study used a quasi-experimental, longitudinal experiment to test regulating smartphone applications that purport to mitigate distracted technology use and heighten the student attention. To test whether or not different regulating applications “work” as purported, this study examined two different regulating applications and their effects on the media distracted behavior, student engagement, behavioral regulation, perceptions of technology dependency, and course performance. The experiment included first-year college students enrolled in a mandated entry- level science course at a medium-sized public STEM and applied science university. Stratified random assignment permitted experimental, contamination, and control treatment group comparisons. Long-term motivation effects (including student-held feelings with self-efficacy, expectancy-value, and achievement goals) were also considered. Last, varying application affordances and design approaches were contrasted by way of feelings related to self- determination. The results of quantitative and qualitative data analyses indicated that applications sporadically and minimally lowered student reported media distracted behavior in and outside of class, but had no effect on engagement, behavioral regulation, or perceived dependency on technology. Unexpectedly, there was a negative effect on Chemistry motivation, as students reported lower expectancy-value, more negative achievement goals, and lower self-efficacy. Last, application use negatively affected student performance in the course as those asked to use regulating applications generally performed poorer as compared to those in the control and contamination groups. Challenging the promising assertions of regulating applications, the results of this dissertation suggest that rather than alleviate the problem, these particular apps may actually exacerbate media distraction’s negative effects by also diminishing engagement, regulation, achievement, and motivation.
... The risk of driving accidents is four times higher when drivers are using their mobile phones (McEvoy et al., 2005). In fact, use of the mobile phone while driving induces a form of inattentional blindness, meaning that drivers fail to notice information in their line of sight (Strayer et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Background Extensive research showed that multitasking negatively affects driving performance. Multitasking activities can range from talking and texting to listening to music; particularly among young drivers, multitasking behavior is caused mainly from mobile phone use while driving which is one of the main causes of road accidents. Objective The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether some variables (e.g., Sensation-Seeking, preferences of Multitasking) could affect mobile phone use while driving in young drivers and whether any gender differences were present among the examined variables. Setting and participants The sample consists of 424 Italian students (56% males) with an age range of 18–21 years. A self-report questionnaire was specifically developed to assess variables such as: Attitude toward Multitasking, Perceived Self-efficacy in Multitasking, Accident Risk Perception, General Multitasking Habits, and Sensation Seeking. Results Through SEM modeling, we found the attitude to multitasking while driving to be largely explained by the considered variables. Using multigroup analysis (MGSEM), the model we developed appears to be suitable for explaining the behaviors of both male and female young drivers. Furthermore, data comparison showed that females were more likely to risk perception toward multitasking, and risk perception when using a mobile phone while driving, while males obtained higher mean scores in Sensation Seeking, Perceived Self-Efficacy in Multitasking, and in Multitasking caused by mobile phone use while driving. Conclusion Our research showed how some variables may influence the inclination of some subjects to engage in multitasking while driving. Furthermore, we discussed the importance of considering these variables in the implementation of effective road safety education projects on driving multitasking.
... Our results are also interesting in relation to a more general application: Multi-tasking while driving as driving also involves constant spatial attention similar to the MOT task. Previous studies on language and driving have shown that it is not the handling of a cell phone that is dangerous while driving, it is the act of conversing itself (see Strayer, Watson, & Drews, 2011 . CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license a certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. ...
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We investigate the type of attention (domain-general or language-specific) used during syntactic processing. We focus on syntactic priming: In this task, participants listen to a sentence that describes a picture (prime sentence), followed by a picture the participants need to describe (target sentence). We measure the proportion of times participants use the syntactic structure they heard in the prime sentence to describe the current target sentence as a measure of syntactic processing. Participants simultaneously conducted a motion-object tracking (MOT) task, a task commonly used to tax domain-general attentional resources. We manipulated the number of objects the participant had to track; we thus measured participants’ ability to process syntax while their attention is not-, slightly-, or overly-taxed. Performance in the MOT task was significantly worse when conducted as a dual-task compared to as a single task. We observed an inverted U-shaped curve on priming magnitude when conducting the MOT task concurrently with prime sentences (i.e., memory encoding), but no effect when conducted with target sentences (i.e., memory retrieval). Our results illustrate how, during the encoding of syntactic information, domain-general attention differentially affects syntactic processing, whereas during the retrieval of syntactic information domain-general attention does not influence syntactic processing.
... Multi-tasking has commonly been studied using drivers of automobiles and their reaction to cell phones, other people in the car, and radios. Such research has shown that activities with low cognitive demand and low visual resources have a lesser negative effect on driving than do activities that demand cognitive, manual, and visual resources (Strayer et al. 2011). Specifically, using a device such as a cell phone that requires a high degree of visual, manual, and cognitive resources from the driver reduces reaction time and increases accidents. ...
Article
Using fidget toys is one way to allow students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to move while completing academic assignments in the classroom. This study investigated the effect of fidget spinners on the on-task behavior of three second-grade students with ADHD. Before beginning treatment, the rules of use were briefly explained and demonstrated to students by the researchers; students were then provided with fidget spinners during treatment sessions in language arts class. A multiple-baseline design across students was used to determine whether each student had higher levels of on-task behavior when using the fidget spinner. Momentary time sampling was used to record on-task behavior; visual analysis of time-series graphs showed large immediate and sustained increases in on-task behavior during fidget spinner use. Implications for implementing a fidget spinner intervention and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Chapter
Distraction while driving can be attributed as an important cause for accidents and the use of smartphones while driving is identified as the major reasons for distracting the driver. In order to reduce distractions due to the usage of mobile phones in automobiles, latest technologies are available to operate the mobile phones through the dashboard HUD’s and steering wheel housed controls. Android Auto is one such technology developed at Google that allows the android phones with android version 5 and above to be interfaced and controlled by the Car dashboard controls. Mirror link is another standard available to interface smart phones to a car’s infotainment system. The driver and passengers can interact and use them for assistance while driving by using the steering wheel controls and the dashboard buttons which is part of the automotive infotainment system. However, these technologies are available only in some of the latest high-end premium cars released after 2015. There are many Pluggable Hands-free devices available, that enable the users to control the mobile phones in the car. These devices are mountable on cars’ components such as steering wheel and are connected to the phone using Bluetooth protocol. They provide key-based input interfaces using which the user can control specific features of the mobile phone.
Conference Paper
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As traffic complexity increases, distracted driving has been widely discussed as an impairment on traffic efficiency and road safety. How to accurately recognize the distraction event in an uncontrolled environment using naturalistic driving data remains under explored. This study proposes a new distraction detection method based on multi-source heterogeneous data. Analysis is conducted using naturalistic driving data and video surveillance records from the Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study (SH-NDS). The Traffic Scenario of Situational Awareness (TSSA) method is adopted to extract distracted-car-following and normal-car-following segments based on typical scenarios. Driver behavioral features are extracted from facial videos by a head pose estimation algorithm and driving performance features are obtained from the CAN bus signals. To decrease redundancy, the feature selection techniques are applied to pick out the most important indicators for further classification. The Stacked Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) network for distractions recognition is then developed using two types of time series features. Experiments on multivariate time series datasets show that the the proposed model outperforms the baselines with an average F1-score of 89% for two-category and 81% for multi-category classification. Meanwhile, comparative experiments feeding the model with two feature sets both on their own and together suggest that the driving performance features are of higher contribution for distraction recognition. This application provides a methodology basis and technical support for a driver behavioral warning system, by weighing focus characteristics to deal with complex distractions.
Article
Objective: Maintaining a lower speed is recommended for curve negotiation and it has been shown that cognitive distraction may impair driving performance. This study examines the effects of different levels of cognitive distraction on the speed control of drivers negotiating a curve. Methods: Experiments were conducted on a 6 degrees of freedom driving simulator with 28 participants. A comparison of the speed and acceleration from 300 m before to 100 m after the curve was performed for baseline driving (without distraction) and 3 levels of cognitive distractions using n-back tasks. Results: The speed was significantly higher at the highest level of cognitive distraction (8%) than in baseline driving from the beginning of the curve to 50 m after it and the ratio of the highest level to the baseline was even greater throughout the range. The average acceleration was significantly higher than the baseline at the highest and the medium levels (80 and 70%, respectively) from 250 m before the curve to the one-quarter curve and from 250 to 150 m before the curve, respectively. It was also found that the point of deceleration was significantly delayed at the highest level of cognitive distraction and occurred only after the middle of the curve, whereas deceleration in baseline driving occurred just before entering the curve. Conclusions: The impairment due to cognitive distraction was confirmed in this study but was only significant at a high level of cognitive distraction. The highly distracted drivers failed to perceive the curve in advance, resulting in a slower response to changes in the roadway. The findings indicate that acceleration may be an indicator of cognitive distraction while negotiating curves. A driver is prone to cognitive distraction and the driving performance is affected when driving requires excessive attention such as curve negotiation.
Article
Several studies have shown that enterprise management (e.g. culture, salary) and external environment (e.g. traffic congestion) predict risky driving behaviors and accident involvement. However, this process has not been systematically investigated in bus drivers. The present study uses structural equation model to assess whether enterprise management and external environment are associated with risky self-reported driving behaviors both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Three hundred and thirty-one bus drivers (mean age = 39.5, SD = 5.6 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring enterprise management, external environment, attitudes toward traffic safety, and self-reported risky driving behaviors (i.e., speeding, fatigue driving, running the light) in the last 6 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that enterprise management, and external environment were associated with risky driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular both of them were directly correlated with bus drivers’ attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were related to the five types of self-reported risky driving behaviors. The present findings suggest that measures related to the impact factors could be carried out to reduce the probabilities of the risky driving behaviors among bus drivers, such as improving the salary level of bus drivers, setting up bus lanes and priority signals to alleviate road congestion, optimizing shift schedules, implementing effective safety education, etc. These findings can provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.
Article
This paper proposes a conceptual framework to understand the relationship between roadside advertising signs, driver behaviour, and road safety outcomes. Roadside advertising signs are external distractions that may take a driver's attention away from safety-critical driving tasks, potentially increasing crash risk through driver distraction and inattention. Although studies report safety concerns, as a whole, the body of research in the field is inconclusive with inconsistent quality, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Definitive links between roadside advertising and road trauma are not yet evident, which has major consequences for road regulators' capacity to develop evidence-based policy to safely administer public roads. However, a lack of consistent evidence does not indicate an absence of risk but underscores its complexity. To address this problem, the Driver Behaviour and Roadside Advertising Conceptual Framework (DBRA framework) was developed to strategically investigate and conceptualise the phenomena of roadside advertising. A new term – “extended engagement” – has also been proposed to account for situations of prolonged attentional engagement with a roadside advertising sign. Further, it is posited that important variations in driving performance may be associated with a driver's extended engagement with a roadside advertising sign. Built on extant theories of driver behaviour and empirical research, the DBRA framework is designed to be a robust tool that encourages a common agenda for future roadside advertising research.
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The effect of media multitasking ( e.g., listening to podcasts while studying) on cognitive processes has seen mixed results thus far. To date, the tasks used in the literature to study this phenomenon have been classical paradigms primarily used to examine processes such as working memory. While perfectly valid on their own, these paradigms do not approximate a real-world volitional multitasking environment. To remedy this, as well as attempt to further validate previously found effects in the literature, we designed a novel experimental framework that mimics a desktop computer environment where a “popup” associated with a secondary task would occasionally appear. Participants could choose to attend to the popup, or to ignore it. Attending to the popup would prompt a word stem completion task, while ignoring it would continue the primary math problem verification task. We predicted that individuals who are more impulsive, more frequent media multitaskers, and individuals who prefer to multitask (quantified with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a modified version of the Media Use Questionnaire, and the Multitasking Preference Inventory) would be more distracted by popups, choose to switch tasks more often and more quickly, and be slower to return to the primary task compared to those who media multitask to a lesser degree. We found that as individuals media multitask to a greater extent, they are slower to return to the previous (primary) task set and are slower to complete the primary task overall whether a popup was present or not, among other task performance measures. We found a similar pattern of effects within individuals who prefer to multitask. Our findings suggest that overall, more frequent media multitaskers show a marginal decrease in task performance, as do preferential multitaskers. Attentional impulsivity was not found to influence any task performance measures, but was positively related to a preference for multitasking. While our findings may lack generalizability due to the modifications to the Media Use Questionnaire, and this initial study is statically underpowered, this paradigm is a crucial first step in establishing a more ecologically valid method to study real-world multitasking.
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Conference Paper
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This paper discusses the application of NodeMCU to intelligent monitoring of bearings via an online method using an accelerometer to detect the vibration level. An accelerometer was used to detect the vibration level and NodeMCU module for sending a message to the end-user regarding excessive vibration levels. NodeMCU module serves as a low-cost industrial-internet-of-things setup for online monitoring of bearings. In the experiment, the set-up had a motor (to provide torque to the shaft), two ball bearings set, a shaft coupling (to connect main shaft to motor shaft), a NodeMCU (for sending a warning message), an accelerometer (to detect the vibration level), and Blynk app (to control the NodeMCU). The experimental setup was designed to detect the vibration level in time domain as well as in frequency domain and the setup was able to send the warning message in both the cases. By using this type of experimental setup, the unwanted breakdown and uncertain failure of machines due to bearing failure can be avoided. The setup helped in alerting the user about any failure in real time whenever the magnitude of vibrations exceeded its predetermined threshold limit. This experimental setup is found to be very relevant for applications in small- and medium-scale industries due to its low-cost, ease of operation, and good accuracy.
Technical Report
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Divided attention may be more important than ever to comprehend, given ubiquitous distractors in modern living. In humans, concern has been expressed about the negative impact of distraction in education, the home, and the workplace. While acetylcholine supports divided attention, in part via muscarinic receptors, little is known about the specific muscarinic subtypes that may contribute. We designed a novel, high-response rate test of auditory sustained attention, in which rats complete variable-ratio runs on one of two levers, rather than emitting a single response. By doing this, we can present a secondary visual distractor task during some trials, for which a correct nosepoke response is reinforced with a more palatable food pellet. The nonspecific muscarinic antagonist scopolamine impaired performance, and slowed and reduced lever press activity. We then explored antagonists that preferentially block the M1 and M4 subtypes, because these receptors are potential therapeutic targets for cognitive enhancers. Telenzepine, an M1-preferring antagonist, impaired divided attention performance, but not performance of the attention task without distraction. Telenzepine also had fewer nonspecific effects than scopolamine. In contrast, the M4-preferring antagonist tropicamide had no effects. Analysis of overall behavior also indicated that accuracy in the main attention task decreased as a function of engagement with the distractor task. These results implicate the M1 receptor in divided attention.
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With the increase in adoption of mobile electronic devices such as smartphones, it becomes more and more important to address the risks associated with their use. As such, this research paper addresses the behavior and habit formation of mobile multitasking, i.e., the use of a mobile IT device while performing a motor task such as walking, and its negative impacts on the individual’s performance and safety. To have a better understanding on how different countermeasures impact the behavior of mobile multitasking in the short term as well as the habit of mobile multitasking in the long term, the present research paper introduces a classification of the different countermeasures that are put in place to curb the risks of mobile IT multitasking in an urban context. Then, it proposes a conceptual framework that explains the mechanisms and the impacts of the deterrent countermeasures as well as the preventive countermeasures on both the behavior of mobile multitasking and the habit formation of mobile multitasking.
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Ubiquitous mobile technology is part of contemporary life, bringing with it the potential for distraction and reduction in performance associated with multitasking. The predisposition toward dysfunctional multitasking may be shaped in part by beliefs that individuals hold about memory and attention. The issue is particularly pressing for college students, given established links between distraction, multitasking and learning. This project assessed the impact of an online learning module on beliefs about attention, memory, and learning in college students. It also contrasted these beliefs in a college and non‐college community sample. Significant reductions in counterproductive beliefs were associated with completing the module; counterproductive beliefs were also no more prevalent in the college vs. the non‐college sample. Our findings suggest that brief online modules are a practical way to address counterproductive beliefs related to multitasking with technology, and add to the literature on metacognition, attention and multitasking in college and non‐college populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. The Foundation's mission is to prevent traffic deaths and injuries through research into their causes and to educate the public about strategies to prevent crashes and reduce injuries.
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A 2-process theory of human information processing is proposed and applied to detection, search, and attention phenomena. Automatic processing is activation of a learned sequence of elements in long-term memory that is initiated by appropriate inputs and then proceeds automatically--without S control, without stressing the capacity limitations of the system, and without necessarily demanding attention. Controlled processing is a temporary activation of a sequence of elements that can be set up quickly and easily but requires attention, is capacity-limited (usually serial in nature), and is controlled by the S. A series of studies, with approximately 8 Ss, using both reaction time and accuracy measures is presented, which traces these concepts in the form of automatic detection and controlled search through the areas of detection, search, and attention. Results in these areas are shown to arise from common mechanisms. Automatic detection is shown to develop following consistent mapping of stimuli to responses over trials. Controlled search was utilized in varied-mapping paradigms, and in the present studies, it took the form of serial, terminating search. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Theory suggests that driving should be impaired for any motorist who is concurrently talking on a cell phone. But is everybody impaired by this dual-task combination? We tested 200 participants in a high-fidelity driving simulator in both single- and dual-task conditions. The dual task involved driving while performing a demanding auditory version of the operation span (OSPAN) task. Whereas the vast majority of participants showed significant performance decrements in dual-task conditions (compared with single-task conditions for either driving or OSPAN tasks), 2.5% of the sample showed absolutely no performance decrements with respect to performing single and dual tasks. In single-task conditions, these "supertaskers" scored in the top quartile on all dependent measures associated with driving and OSPAN tasks, and Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the frequency of supertaskers was significantly greater than chance. These individual differences help to sharpen our theoretical understanding of attention and cognitive control in naturalistic settings.
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Chronic media multitasking is quickly becoming ubiquitous, although processing multiple incoming streams of information is considered a challenge for human cognition. A series of experiments addressed whether there are systematic differences in information processing styles between chronically heavy and light media multitaskers. A trait media multitasking index was developed to identify groups of heavy and light media multitaskers. These two groups were then compared along established cognitive control dimensions. Results showed that heavy media multitaskers are more susceptible to interference from irrelevant environmental stimuli and from irrelevant representations in memory. This led to the surprising result that heavy media multitaskers performed worse on a test of task-switching ability, likely due to reduced ability to filter out interference from the irrelevant task set. These results demonstrate that media multitasking, a rapidly growing societal trend, is associated with a distinct approach to fundamental information processing.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship between driver distraction and characteristics of driver behavior associated with reduced highway traffic efficiency. Research on the three-phase traffic theory and on behavioral driving suggests that a number of characteristics associated with efficient traffic flow may be affected by driver distraction. Previous studies have been limited, however, by the fact that researchers typically do not allow participants to change lanes, nor do they account for the impact of varying traffic states on driving performance. Participants drove in three simulated environments with differing traffic congestion while both using and not using a cell phone. Instructed only to obey the speed limit, participants were allowed to vary driving behaviors, such as those involving forward following distance, speed, and lane-changing frequency. Both driver distraction and traffic congestion were found to significantly affect lane change frequency, mean speed, and the likelihood of remaining behind a slower-moving lead vehicle. This research suggests that the behavioral profile of "cell phone drivers," which is often described as compensatory, may have far-reaching and unexpected consequences for traffic efficiency. By considering the dynamic interplay between characteristics of traffic flow and driver behavior, this research may inform both public policy regarding in-vehicle cell phone use and future investigations of driving behavior.
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Our research examined the effects of practice on cell-phone-related driver distraction. The driving literature is ambiguous as to whether practice can reduce driver distraction from concurrent cell phone conversation. Drivers reporting either high or low real-world cell phone usage were selected to participate in four 90-min simulated driving sessions on successive days. The research consisted of two phases: a practice phase and a novel transfer phase. Dual-task performance deficits persisted through practice and transfer driving conditions. Moreover, groups reporting high and low real-world experience exhibited similar driving impairments when conversing on a hands-free cell phone. These data indicate that practice is unlikely to eliminate the disruptive effects of concurrent cell phone use on driving. Multiple regulatory agencies have considered, or are currently considering, legislation to restrict in-vehicle cell phone use. Findings reported herein may be useful to inform these public policy decisions.
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This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were instructed to converse with a friend about past experiences in which their life was threatened. The results show that the number of driving errors was highest in the cell phone condition; in passenger conversations more references were made to traffic, and the production rate of the driver and the complexity of speech of both interlocutors dropped in response to an increase in the demand of the traffic. The results indicate that passenger conversations differ from cell phone conversations because the surrounding traffic not only becomes a topic of the conversation, helping driver and passenger to share situation awareness, but the driving condition also has a direct influence on the complexity of the conversation, thereby mitigating the potential negative effects of a conversation on driving.
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This research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. The authors found that these conversations impaired driver's reactions to vehicles braking in front of them. The authors assessed whether this impairment could be attributed to a withdrawal of attention from the visual scene, yielding a form of inattention blindness. Cell phone conversations impaired explicit recognition memory for roadside billboards. Eye-tracking data indicated that this was due to reduced attention to foveal information. This interpretation was bolstered by data showing that cell phone conversations impaired implicit perceptual memory for items presented at fixation. The data suggest that the impairment of driving performance produced by cell phone conversations is mediated, at least in part, by reduced attention to visual inputs.
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To explore the effect of drivers' use of mobile (cell) phones on road safety. A case-crossover study. Perth, Western Australia. 456 drivers aged > or = 17 years who owned or used mobile phones and had been involved in road crashes necessitating hospital attendance between April 2002 and July 2004. Driver's use of mobile phone at estimated time of crash and on trips at the same time of day in the week before the crash. Interviews with drivers in hospital and phone company's records of phone use. Driver's use of a mobile phone up to 10 minutes before a crash was associated with a fourfold increased likelihood of crashing (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 7.7, P < 0.001). Risk was raised irrespective of whether or not a hands-free device was used (hands-free: 3.8, 1.8 to 8.0, P < 0.001; hand held: 4.9, 1.6 to 15.5, P = 0.003). Increased risk was similar in men and women and in drivers aged > or = 30 and < 30 years. A third (n = 21) of calls before crashes and on trips during the previous week were reportedly on hand held phones. When drivers use a mobile phone there is an increased likelihood of a crash resulting in injury. Using a hands-free phone is not any safer.
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In this on-road experiment, drivers performed demanding cognitive tasks while driving in city traffic. All task interactions were carried out in hands-free mode so that the 21 drivers were not required to take their visual attention away from the road or to manually interact with a device inside the vehicle. Visual behavior and vehicle control were assessed while they drove an 8 km city route under three conditions: no additional task, easy cognitive task and difficult cognitive task. Changes in visual behavior were most apparent when performance between the No Task and Difficult Task conditions were compared. When looking outside of the vehicle, drivers spent more time looking centrally ahead and spent less time looking to the areas in the periphery. Drivers also reduced their visual monitoring of the instruments and mirrors, with some drivers abandoning these tasks entirely. When approaching and driving through intersections, drivers made fewer inspection glances to traffic lights compared to the No Task condition and their scanning of intersection areas to the right was also reduced. Vehicle control was also affected; during the most difficult cognitive tasks there were more occurrences of hard braking. Although hands-free designs for telematics devices are intended to reduce or eliminate the distraction arising from manual operation of these units, the potential for cognitive distraction associated with their use must also be considered and appropriately assessed. These changes are captured in measures of drivers' visual behavior.
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What happens in the brain when we reach or exceed our capacity limits? Are there individual differences for performance at capacity limits? We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the impact of increases in processing demand on selected cortical areas when participants performed a parametrically varied and challenging dual task. Low-performing participants respond with large and load-dependent activation increases in many cortical areas when exposed to excessive task requirements, accompanied by decreasing performance. It seems that these participants recruit additional attentional and strategy-related resources with increasing difficulty, which are either not relevant or even detrimental to performance. In contrast, the brains of the high-performing participants "keep cool" in terms of activation changes, despite continuous correct performance, reflecting different and more efficient processing. These findings shed light on the differential implications of performance on activation patterns and underline the importance of the interindividual-differences approach in neuroimaging research.
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Objective: To highlight the general trend of drugs used by drivers & traffic safety in Hazara division. Material & Methods: Study was conducted on 500 drivers of different vehicles, ages and socio-economic status of Hazara Division Results: 72% (360 out of 500) drivers found to use different drugs, 72.4% drivers using Naswar & Cigarette, 78.9% of truck drivers were using Charas along with Naswar & cigarette and 16.4% car drivers were using alcohol along with cigarette & Naswar and most of accidents took place among the alcohol & charas users. Conclusion: The drug use affects the driving skill. Suggestions: Time to time medical check of drivers regarding drug analysis should be enforced by the government along with other parameters of safety.
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Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell-phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that even when participants looked directly at objects in the driving environment, they were less likely to create a durable memory of those objects if they were conversing on a cell phone. This pattern was obtained for objects of both high and low relevance, suggesting that very little semantic analysis of the objects occurs outside the restricted focus of attention. Moreover, in-vehicle conversations do not interfere with driving as much as cell-phone conversations do, because drivers are better able to synchronize the processing demands of driving with in-vehicle conversations than with cell-phone conversations. Together, these data support an inattention-blindness interpretation wherein the disruptive effects of cell-phone conversations on driving are due in large part to the diversion of attention from driving to the phone conversation.
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Booster seat use among 4- to 7-year-old children stood at 37 percent in 2007, statistically unchanged from the prior year's rate of 41 percent. This result is from the National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats (NSUBS), the only probability-based nationwide child restraint survey that observes restraint use and obtains age by interview. The NSUBS is conducted by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis of the Nation- al Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The appropriate restraint system for children 4 to 7 is either a front-facing safety seat or a booster seat, depending on the child's height and weight. However, the NSUBS found that in 2007, 37 percent of children in this age group were using booster seats (whether high-backed or backless), 13 percent
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In previous research Karis, Fabiani, and Donchin (1984) found a relationship between the amplitude of the P300s elicited by words and subsequent recall performance. Words later recalled elicited larger P300s than words later not recalled. However, this relationship was dependent on the mnemonic strategies used by the subjects. There was a strong relationship between P300 amplitude and recall when rote rehearsal strategies were used, but when subjects used elaborative strategies the relationship between P300 amplitude and recall was not evident. In the present experiment we employed an incidental memory paradigm to reduce the use of rehearsal strategies. An “oddball’ task consisting of a series of names was presented, and subjects were required to count either the male or the female names. Event-related brain potentials were recorded to the presentation of each name. Following the oddball task, subjects were asked, unexpectedly, to recall as many names as possible. The names that were recalled had elicited, on their initial presentation, larger P300s than names not recalled. Thus, these results confirm our hypothesis: when elaborative rehearsal strategies are not used, the relationship between P300 and memory emerges more consistently. Our data provide support for a “context updating’ hypothesis of the functional significance of the P300.
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Because of a belief that the use of cellular telephones while driving may cause collisions, several countries have restricted their use in motor vehicles, and others are considering such regulations. We used an epidemiologic method, the case-crossover design, to study whether using a cellular telephone while driving increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision. We studied 699 drivers who had cellular telephones and who were involved in motor vehicle collisions resulting in substantial property damage but no personal injury. Each person's cellular-telephone calls on the day of the collision and during the previous week were analyzed through the use of detailed billing records. A total of 26,798 cellular-telephone calls were made during the 14-month study period. The risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used (relative risk, 4.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 6.5). The relative risk was similar for drivers who differed in personal characteristics such as age and driving experience; calls close to the time of the collision were particularly hazardous (relative risk, 4.8 for calls placed within 5 minutes of the accident, as compared with 1.3 for calls placed more than 15 minutes before the accident; P<0.001); and units that allowed the hands to be free (relative risk, 5.9) offered no safety advantage over hand-held units (relative risk, 3.9; P not significant). Thirty-nine percent of the drivers called emergency services after the collision, suggesting that having a cellular telephone may have had advantages in the aftermath of an event. The use of cellular telephones in motor vehicles is associated with a quadrupling of the risk of a collision during the brief time interval involving a call. Decisions about regulation of such telephones, however, need to take into account the benefits of the technology and the role of individual responsibility.
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Distinctive words elicit the P300 component of the event-related brain potential, and are also likely to be recalled. Previous studies have shown that the larger the P300 elicited by distinctive words, the more likely it is that those words will be recalled. The present study addressed whether this relationship is affected by the manner in which distinctiveness is induced. Distinctiveness was manipulated either by varying the size of the characters in which a word was displayed, or by surrounding the word with a frame at close or far distance. All distinctiveness attributes resulted in improved recall performance. The words whose size was distinctive elicited a large P300, and P300 amplitude was larger for subsequently recalled words. The frame attributes elicited a small P300, and the amplitude of these P300s was not correlated with subsequent recall performance. Instead, a frontal slow wave was correlated with subsequent recall performance in the far frame group. It is concluded that the relationship between P300 amplitude and subsequent recall depends on the type of distinctiveness attribute, and should therefore not be ascribed to a generalized effect of distinctiveness on memory encoding processes.
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Dual-task studies assessed the effects of cellular-phone conversations on performance of a simulated driving task. Performance was not disrupted by listening to radio broadcasts or listening to a book on tape. Nor was it disrupted by a continuous shadowing task using a handheld phone, ruling out, in this case, dual-task interpretations associated with holding the phone, listening, or speaking, However significant interference was observed in a word-generation variant of the shadowing task, and this deficit increased with the difficulty of driving. Moreover unconstrained conversations using either a handheld or a hands-free cell phone resulted in a twofold increase in the failure to detect simulated traffic signals and slower reactions to those signals that were detected. We suggest that cellular-phone use disrupts performance by diverting attention to an engaging cognitive context other than the one immediately associated with driving.
Article
Collision warning systems offer a promising approach to mitigate rear-end collisions, but substantial uncertainty exists regarding the joint performance of the driver and the collision warning algorithms. A simple deterministic model of driver performance was used to examine kinematics-based and perceptual-based rear-end collision avoidance algorithms over a range of collision situations, algorithm parameters, and assumptions regarding driver performance. The results show that the assumptions concerning driver reaction times have important consequences for algorithm performance, with underestimates dramatically undermining the safety benefit of the warning. Additionally, under some circumstances, when drivers rely on the warning algorithms, larger headways can result in more severe collisions. This reflects the nonlinear interaction among the collision situation, the algorithm, and driver response that should not be attributed to the complexities of driver behavior but to the kinematics of the situation. Comparisons made with experimental data demonstrate that a simple human performance model can capture important elements of system performance and complement expensive human-in-the-loop experiments. Actual or potential applications of this research include selection of an appropriate algorithm, more accurate specification of algorithm parameters, and guidance for future experiments.
Article
The risk of a collision with another vehicle due to the presence of passengers is analysed in detail in a large sample of accidents from Mittelfranken, Germany, from the years 1984 to 1997. Using a responsibility analysis, the overall effect of the presence of passengers and the influence of modifying variables is examined. While a general protective effect of the presence of passengers is found, this is reduced in young drivers, during darkness, in slow traffic and at crossroads, especially when disregarding the right of way and passing a car. These findings are interpreted as a general positive effect of the presence of passengers who influence the driver's behaviour towards more cautious and thus safer driving behaviour. However, passengers may also distract drivers' attention in an amount which cannot be compensated for in all situations and by all drivers by cautious driving. Besides educational measure, a potential solution to this problem may be driver assistance systems which give an adapted kind of support when passengers are present.
Article
To determine how the number of passengers, their age and their sex influence the risk of different types of Spanish drivers causing a collision between two or more cars. We selected, from the Spanish database of traffic crashes resulting in personal injuries or death, those collisions between two or more cars that occurred between 1990 and 1999 in which only one of the involved drivers committed a driving infraction. These drivers were considered the cases; non-infractor drivers were considered their matched controls. We collected information on the number, age and sex of the passengers in each vehicle, along with some potential confounding variables of the drivers and the vehicles involved. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the main categories of driver and passenger. A protective effect for the presence of passengers was detected (adjusted odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.67-0.70). The protective effect was higher for drivers aged more than 45 years and lower for the youngest drivers (<24 years old). The strongest association was observed for female passengers who accompanied male drivers. The protective effect was lower for passengers older than 64 years. Our results suggest that drivers are less likely to cause a car collision between two or more cars that results in personal injuries or death when they are accompanied by passengers, regardless of driver or passenger characteristics.
Traffic safety facts research note: Driver cell phone use in 2005-Overall results. DOT HS 809 967
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Human factors issues related to driver distraction from in-vehicle systems
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Near the tipping point of traffic stability: An investigation of driving while conversing on a cell phone in simulated highway traffic of varying densities
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An on-road assessment of cognitive distraction: Impacts on drivers' visual behavior and braking performance
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Harlbluk, J. L., Noy, Y. I., Trbovich, P. L., & Eizenman, M. (2007). An on-road assessment of cognitive distraction: Impacts on drivers' visual behavior and braking performance. Accident Analysis and Behavior, 39, 372-378.
Ergonomics and safety of intelligent driver interfaces
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Hand-held cell phone laws and collision claims frequencies
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Relationship between P300 amplitude and subsequent recall for distinctive events: Dependence on type of distinctiveness attribute
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Drugs, driving, and traffic safety
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