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Emotional Memory the Effects of Stress on “Cool” and “Hot” Memory Systems

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... In this review, preoccupation has been explained mainly by using cognitive-emotional paradigms, without including a trauma-specific memory as cause for preoccupation. A trauma-specific memory is assumed to be the result of extreme stress during a traumatic event, which has effects on the perceptual and episodic memory (Brewin, 2014;Metcalfe & Jacobs, 1998). In cases of AjD, however, stress might not be strong enough to cause such alterations in the memory systems. ...
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In the ICD‐11 diagnostic guidelines, preoccupation has been introduced as the new core symptom of adjustment disorder. Despite this essential innovation, preoccupation has so far largely been defined as rumination and worry and does not feature a distinct character as an independent symptom. In order to investigate the nature of preoccupation, various cognitive approaches are evaluated and linked to preoccupation. Furthermore, the aim of this review is to define preoccupation more precisely and to distinguish it from other symptoms in psychopathology. The evaluation of key features of cognitive dissonance theory, attention bias theory, memory theories, and other cognitive paradigms indicates that preoccupation is constituted by a complex interaction of cognitive‐emotional mechanisms. In addition, this review implies that preoccupation in AjD can be defined as stressor‐related factual thinking, which is time consuming and often associated with negative emotions. It is assumed that rumination and dysfunctional worry serve as reactive processes to cope with preoccupation. For further distinction, this review presents similarities and differences of preoccupation and other symptoms, including negative automatic thoughts, flashbacks, and yearning. Finally, implications and suggestions for future research on preoccupation are offered. Overall, it is plausible that preoccupation is not only associated with adjustment disorder, but possesses a transdiagnostic character.
... Les techniques d'imagerie cérébrale modernes pourraient apporter des éléments supports, voire valider d'un point de vue neuroscientifique les conceptualisations psychodynamiques. En référence au paradigme structure-fonction, la physiopathologie de l'événement traumatique et des reviviscences oppose une balance entre hyperactivation amygdalienne d'un côté (détection des émotions / conditionnement aversif), et de l'autre, hypoactivité de l'hippocampe (contextualisation des informations sensorielles), du cortex cingulaire antérieur et préfrontal médial ainsi que des aires cérébrales consacrées au langage (49)(50)(51). Les événements traumatiques seraient principalement encodés au niveau sensoriel aux dépens de la mémoire verbale ce qui expliciterait leur difficulté d'intégration au système mnésique biographique, en particulier sémantique (52). Pourvoyeuse des symptômes, la dissociation traumatique entraîne ainsi une mémorisation éponyme, fragmentée, mais pouvant se réassocier grâce au langage, avant reconsolidation. ...
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Rapport du 116ème congrès de psychiatrie et de neurologie de langue française (Bastia)
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