Bacterial antimicrobial efflux pumps of the MFS and MATE transporter families: A review
Bacteria are causative agents of human infectious disease and are a serious public health concern due to drug and multi-drug resistance determinants that reduce the clinical efficacy of antimicrobial agents. Among the variety of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, drug and multi-drug efflux pumps represent a significant cause of chemotherapeutic failure in the treatment efforts of bacterial infectious disease. This chapter deals mainly with bacterial drug and multi-drug efflux pump systems of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and multi-drug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family. Studies of these bacterial anti-bacterial drug efflux systems will help our understanding of their molecular mechanisms and may help reduce the conditions that foster multi-drug resistance.