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Sex Differences in Parental Estimates of Their Children's Intelligence

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Abstract

A series of previous studies with studentparticipants has shown that females' self-IQ estimatesare significantly lower than those of males. In thisstudy, 184 mostly white British adults estimated their own IQ and that of their children. The resultswere in line with previous studies, in that males ratedtheir IQ higher than females (108 vs. 104). Both sexesrated their male children higher than their female children (109 vs. 102). Males tendedmore than females to believe there is a greaterdifference between the intelligence of female and malechildren, but this was not significant. Results wereconsidered in terms of the current sociobiological andsociocultural explanations for sex differences inability.

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... Over 30 studies that used the multiple, SEI model (Furnham, Clark, & Bailey, 1999;Furnham & Gasson, 1998;Furnham, 2000;Furnham & Bunclark, 2006;Rammstedt & Rammsayer, 2002) have found that gender differences were strongest on the mathematical-logical and spatial intelligences, followed by overall (g) and then verbal intelligences; with men significantly overestimating, and women significantly underestimating, their abilities relative to each other. This consistent gender difference has been referred to as the Hubris-Humility Effect (HHE; Storek & Furnham, 2012). ...
... Indeed, masculinity and femininity have been shown to correlate with gender role stereotypes (Biernat, 1991;Hirschy & Morris, 2002;Petrides, Furnham, & Martin, 2004;Rudman & Phelan, 2010) and personality traits (Marusic & Bratko, 1998). SEI studies did not include masculinity and femininity in the investigation of gender differences but Furnham and Gasson (1998) proposed that national masculinity scores, as defined by Hofstede (1998), could play role in the SEI gender discrepancy. Likewise, Petrides et al. reported that gender-role stereotypes play role in the way people perceive intelligence, with psychometric intelligence perceived as masculine and emotional intelligence as feminine. ...
... Domain-Masculine Intelligence Type. Based on the self-estimated measure (Furnham & Gasson, 1998) the Domain-Masculine Intelligence Type is a shortened version with exact same properties and layout, but containing only mathematical and spatial intelligences. The alpha for the Domain-Masculine Intelligence Type in this study was .71 and the interitem correlation (r) was .64. ...
Article
In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical-logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance.
... A negative correlation (r = -.19) however has also been reported by Fumham et al. (1998) and by Roberts (2002), for a verbal intelligence test. As Revelle, Amaral and Turriff (1976) noted, the link between intelligence and Extraversion is dependent upon the test type and the test conditions, which could account for these controversial findings. ...
... The relationship between Extraversion and psychometric intelligence was also investigated, although no specific hypotheses were made due the fact that previous research had yielded contradictory findings (Lynn et al., 1982;Fumham, 1998). In the present study. ...
... Extraversion and Neuroticism were also both negative predictors of gf. These findings are in line with previous studies, which have investigated the relationship between the Big 5 factors and measures of intelligence (Lynn et al., 1982;Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Kyllonen, 1997;Fumham et al., 1998;Zeidner & Matthews, 2000). It has been proposed that both Neuroticism and Extraversion are actually related to intelligence test performance and not to intelligence per se. ...
Thesis
This thesis concerns the interface of intelligence and personality. It contains six Chapters and eleven independent but related studies. Chapter 1 is a review of the literature in this area. This presents the major models of personality and intelligence, the findings on the interface of the two constructs, and the major findings on how both are related to occupational performance. Chapter 2 consists of two studies, investigating the empirical links between g and the Big 5 personality traits. Results indicate positive links of g with Openness, and negative links with Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Chapter 3 consists of three studies, which further investigate the major findings of Chapter 2, proposing explanations on how the observed relationships may have developed. Study 3 indicated that the relationship between Neuroticism and intelligence is mediated by state anxiety. Study 4 attested to a link between gf and Openness, indicating that it does not exclusively correlate with gc. Studies 4 and 5 revealed that Conscientiousness is more highly correlated with gf than with gc, which along with the sub-factor level analysis of Conscientiousness, indicated that gf may affect its development. Chapter 4 consists of three studies, investigating the relationship between intelligence and personality measures commonly used in occupational settings. Results indicated that similar patterns of results emerge irrespective of the inventories used, which can be linked to the Big 5 correlates of intelligence, thus attesting to the robustness of the relationship between intelligence and personality. Chapter 5 consists of three studies, investigating the relationship of intelligence and personality with job performance. Results revealed a link between intelligence and simulated and self-rated job performance, but not with salary or managerial level. Job performance was positively linked with measures of Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Agreeableness and negatively linked with measures of Neuroticism and Openness, though results were not consistent across measures of job performance. Chapter 6 presents a summary of the findings of the thesis, discussing their implications and their contribution to the current literature. This Chapter also considers the limitations of the conducted studies, suggesting ideas for future research.
... Moreover, this sex difference is not limited to selfestimate of intelligence: similar studies have shown that people believe their father to be more intelligent than their mother (10), their grandfather more intelligent than their grandmother (13), and their brother more intelligent than their sister (14). Even parents believe their male children to be more intelligent than their female children (15)(16)(17). Nor is this phenomenon limited to particular cultures or nationalities: numerous studies have documented a male hubris-female humility effect for estimates of self and parental intelligence in East Asia (18)(19)(20), Southeast Asia (14,21), the Middle East (22,23,24), Africa (25), North America (14); South America (26), Australasia (27), and Europe (28,14,29,11). In the present study, we sought to extend the available cross-national literature by examining self, parental and partner estimates of intelligence in Iran. ...
... All participants were born and raised in Iran, and spoke Farsi as their mother tongue. Instruments Estimates of intelligence: All participants completed a questionnaire based on the one developed by Furnham and Gasson (1998). A normal IQ distribution was shown (M=100, SD=15), and under each standard deviation, a typical IQ score was given plus a descriptor (e.g., '+1, 115 high average'). ...
Article
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Two hundred and fifty-eight Iranian university students estimated their own, parents', and partners' overall (general) intelligence, and also estimated 13 'multiple intelligences' on a simple, two-page questionnaire which was previously used in many similar studies. In accordance with previous research, men rated themselves higher than women on logical-mathematical, spatial and musical intelligence. There were, however, no sex differences in ratings of parental and partner multiple intelligences, which is inconsistent with the extant literature. Participants also believed that they were more intelligent than their parents and partners, and that their fathers were more intelligent than their mothers. Multiple regressions indicated that participants' Big Five personality typologies and test experience were significant predictors of self-estimated intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the cross-cultural literature in the field. Implications of the results are also considered.
... Brody, 1992;Jencks et al., 1972;Wechsler, 1958).On the other hand, to date the role of education as adeterminant factor of self-estimated intelligence has not been systematically examined. Earlier studies investigating self-estimated intelligence of nonstudent sampIes provided some indirect evidence for the notion that self-estimates of intelligence may be positively related to level of education (Furnham & Gasson, 1998;Furnham et al., 1999a). It seems reasonable to assume that individuals estimate their intelligence in accordance with their actual intelligence. ...
... Thus, supposingthat more highly educated persons possess higher intelligence than persons with a lower level of education, these actual intelligence differences should become evident in individual self-estimates with the result that more highly educated persons, such as students, estimate their abilities higher than less educated persons (cf. Furnham & Gasson, 1998). The outcome of the present study, however, clearly showed that the effect of education on self-estimated intelligence cannot be regarded as that simple. ...
Article
A total of 121 male and 107 female students from various German universities and vocational colleges estimated their own intelligence scores and were tested by psychometric intelligence tests on each of Thurstone's (1938) seven primary mental abilities. The correlations between self-estimated and tested intelligence differed largely among the various intelligence domains. In accordance with former studies, gender differences in self-estimated mathematical and spatial intelligence, perceptual speed, and reasoning were found. When controlling for psychometric intelligence, only gender-related differences in self-estimated mathematical abilities could be markedly reduced. Besides gender, level of education was identified as another variable that significantly moderates self-estimates of specific aspects of intelligence. The theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
... Specifically, this paper highlights the importance of self-stereotyping as a mechanism favoring segregation. Of special interest is the case of gender-based segregation which is at the heart of the gender wage gap (Macpherson and Hirsch (1995); Blau and Kahn (1997); Bertrand and Hallock (2001); Bayard et al. (2003); O'Neill (2003); Ludsteck (2014); Card et al. (2016); Blau and Kahn (2017)) as women are targets of negative stereotypes in at least three areas strongly related to wages: quantitative skills (Frome and Eccles (1998); Nosek et al. (2009)), leadership (Schein (2001); Atwater et al. (2004)), and general IQ (Furnham and Gasson (1998); Furnham et al. (2002); Petrides et al. (2004); Bian et al. (2017)). While gender differences in sorting in the labor market have been shown to follow stereotypical patterns (Cejka and Eagly (1999); Thébaud (2010); Fernandez and Friedrich (2011); Barbulescu and Bidwell (2013); Leslie et al. (2015)), a formal model as well as a test for its underlaying mechanism was missed. ...
... Understanding whether gender-based segregation in the labor market can be explained through existing stereotypes is an extremely important issue because women are the targets of negative stereotypes in at least three areas strongly related to wage levels: quantitative skills (Frome and Eccles (1998);Nosek et al. (2009)), leadership (Schein (2001); Atwater et al. (2004)), and general IQ (Furnham and Gasson (1998);Furnham et al. (2002); Petrides et al. (2004); Bian et al. (2017)). According to the model proposed in this paper those stereotypes hurt women's self-assessment and therefore undermine their professional goals, leading them to self-select into lower paying itineraries than men. ...
Working Paper
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We present a theoretical model in which agents have imperfect self-knowledge about their abilities and have to self-select into either a high-paying or a low-paying tournament. The model shows that negative (positive) stereotypes generate underrepresentation (overrepresentation) of stereotyped agents in the high-paying tournament even when the stereotype is false. This is because stereotypes affect self-assessment and consequently subsequent behavior. We call this mechanism self-stereotyping. We run a lab experiment in which we use subjects’ beliefs about the gender nature of a real-effort task to test the predictions of the theoretical model. The results of the experiment are in line with the predictions of the model for men but not for women, which partially validates the model and the self-stereotyping mechanism.
... However, performance differences cannot account for effects of self-estimation found for general intelligence in adults, as women and men do not vary considerably in their actual levels here ( Brody, 1992;Colom et al., 2000). Preceding studies have also investigated whether more highly educated persons ascribe themselves higher intelligence than persons with lower levels of education ( Furnham and Gasson, 1998). A study by Rammstedt and Rammsayer (2002b) revealed that self-estimates for most domains were not affected by level of education. ...
Article
With reference to the extensively reported gender differences in estimated intelligence, we used a cross-cultural study to investigate whether employment status and education of mothers and fathers (at the time of data collection, in early childhood, and in later childhood) influenced the estimation of parents’ general intelligence. Data showed that mothers’ as well as fathers’ general intelligence was significantly predicted by their education and current employment status. We additionally found a similar relationship between women’s (men’s) and mothers’ (fathers’) intelligence compared with the relationship of intelligence ascribed to their fathers (mothers). Furthermore, women’s self-estimated intelligence was significantly predicted by their mothers’ current employment, whereas men’s self-estimated intelligence was predicted by their fathers’ education. We furthermore investigated how women’s and men’s estimations differ between Germany and Spain. Results indicate that the more pronounced gender segregation in Spain was not expressed in larger gender differences in self- or parents’ intelligence estimations.
... Self-Assessed Intelligence. All participants completed an adaptation of a scale developed by Furnham and Gasson (1998) and that has been shown to be culturally-sensitive (e.g., Furnham et al., 2002). A normal IQ distribution was shown (M = 100, SD = 15), and under each standard deviation, a typical IQ score was given plus a descriptor (e.g., '+1, 115 high average'). ...
Article
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The present study examined self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in Britain and mainland China. In total, 102 British and 111 Chinese undergraduates estimated their overall intelligence as well as 14 other multiple intelligences. Results showed that men had higher SAI on overall, linguistic, mathematical-logical, creative, and nonverbal-logical intelligences. In addition, Britons had higher SAI than Chinese on overall, linguistic, mathematical-logical, and nonverbal-logical intelligences. These results support a male hubris-female humility bias and a cultural modesty effect in self assessments of multiple intelligence.
... B and C show the percentage of children and parents who got different marks respectively. There are differences in the intelligence of boys and girls due to the family environment [22]. Figure 3 demonstrates that 41 percent, 48 percent, and 11 percent of girls got on low, perfect, and extreme marks in CIQ tests, respectively. ...
Article
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A nation's most valuable resource is its children. In the future, a nation will be controlled in the same way that a kid will develop. The majority of parent's lack expertise about how to help their children develop a positive outlook. We concluded in our study by analyzing the association between parental excessive affection and the development of children's intelligence. Through the use of a questionnaire, information was gathered from 531 families. Whereas 43 percent of parents show excessive affection to their children, while 45 percent lavish proper affection. On the other hand, in our study, 48 percent of the children had an IQ score of less than 49. We have identified the alterations in their child's brain as a result of their parents' blind affection and have also identified remedies to the problem. We analyzed it so that the growth of children's intelligence is not hampered by their parents' excessive affection and that the parents and children enjoy a close relationship with their parents.
... Za muške studente vrijedi obratno -procjenjuju sebe inteligentnijima od svojih kolegica. Također, Furnham (1998) je našao da roditelji, osobito očevi, procjenjuju sinove inteligentnijima od kćeri. ...
... Furnham, Wytykowska and Petrides (2005) indicated that many studies have examined individual differences in estimating general intelligence or intelligence abilities for themselves or others. Gender differences in estimating intelligence in general have revealed a tendency that females provided lower selfestimates than males (Furnham, Fong, & Martin, 1999;Furnham & Gasson, 1998;Rammstedt & Rammsayer, 2002). Furnham (2001) in a review study of 20 previous research articles reached the same conclusion that support consistent gender differences indicating that males were rating themselves higher than females. ...
Article
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The current study aimed at exploring self and spouse estimates of general and multiple intelligences among a sample of married Jordanian Students. Two-hundred and ten participants, recruited from Yarmouk and Al-Balqaa Universities, Jordan, completed a brief questionnaire based on those used in previous research which included an estimation of general IQ and each of the multiple intelligence sub-types. Results of the study partially replicated the results from other multiple intelligence self-estimate studies showing sex differences on general and logical intelligences, and confirmed previous research results that estimated verbal (linguistic) intelligence followed by numerical (logical) intelligence are the best significant predictors of estimated general intelligence. These results were discussed in terms of sex and cultural differences and some recommendations were made.
... This self-assessment of creativity, developed by Furnham and Gasson (1998), allows participants to compare their creativity in relation to a normally distributed sample of people. Participants are shown an example of a Bell Curve that illustrates a normal distribution of IQ scores. ...
Article
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The influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on creativity was examined. Initially, six measures of creativity were administered, including creative self-perceptions, behavior, and performance measures. Adaptive perfectionism was weakly positively related to creativity, whereas maladaptive perfectionism was unrelated to creativity across five of the six measures. A follow-up study assessed whether initial findings could be generalized to an everyday problem-solving task. Results indicated that adaptive perfectionism was related to higher quality but not originality of solutions. Further, a curvilinear relationship in the shape of an inverted “U” occurred between adaptive perfectionism and four of eight creativity measures. Overall, adaptive perfectionism was consistently, albeit weakly, related to creativity across various types of measures, whereas maladaptive perfectionism was not related to creativity.
... Halpern [15] suggested that cognitive abilities are correlated with self-estimates. Male high self-estimates can be found for instance, among British fathers, estimated their overall IQ and the logical and spatial components higher than the mothers and both parents rated their sons more intelligent than daughters [18,19] . In addition, Furnham [19] speculated that the mathematical and spatial intelligence of Gardner [5] lie at the heart of most people's conception of intelligence. ...
Article
A sample of 648 Lebanese and 252 Indian students estimated their intelligences based on Gardner's 10 multiple intelligence. Males rated higher their body kinesthetic and religious dimension (spiritual) while females rated higher their verbal and intra-personal estimates of intelligence. Using the educational level of the parent, no significant correlation with self-estimates of intelligence for each of the national samples was reported. Differences appeared between Indian and Lebanese samples on the cognitive components of intelligences, namely, verbal, spatial and logical abilities. ANOVA results showed that a higher logical component higher than their female counterparts and Indian males and females.
... During the last century, different explanations have been given to explain this phenomenon, e.g. genetic (Shields, 1982), educational (Furnham, 2001) or cultural effects (Furnham & Gasson, 1998) or as a methodological artifact (i.e. test biased; Abad, Colom, Rebollo, & Escorial, 2004). ...
Article
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The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) has been used extensively to study intellectual abilities of special groups. Here, we report the results of an intellectually gifted group on the WAIS-IV. Gifted individuals are people who obtained scores equal to or greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean on an intelligence test. Hence, the current study aims first, to examine mean group performance data of gifted individuals on the WAIS-IV; second, to revalidate the pattern of performance identified in this special group in previous studies (i.e., verbal skills higher than all other abilities); third, to compare scatter measures across intellectual domains with a matched comparison group. A total of 130 gifted individuals (79 males) were administered the full battery and their performance was compared with a matched comparison group. Analyses revealed that gifted group displayed higher scores in all intellectual domains. Contrary to expectations, they showed the highest scores in perceptual reasoning tasks. A multivariate approach revealed that this ability was statistically different from all other domains within the gifted group. Moreover, gifted individuals showed higher discrepancies across intellectual domains than average-intelligence people. Findings have important practical implications to detect intellectual giftedness in adulthood.
... Some creativity researchers have asked individuals to estimate their perceived overall creative ability on a bell curve, an adaptation of Furnham and Gasson (1998)'s self-report intelligence measure. To illustrate, individuals are presented with a depiction of a bell curve illustrating a normal distribution of creativity scores. ...
... Furnham & Rawles, 1995). Moreover, parents tend to rate their sons' IQ as being higher than that of their daughters (Furnham & Gasson, 1998;Furnham, Reeves, & Budhani, 2002). The current results suggest that this effect occurs relatively early and might already be observed among 16-year olds. ...
Article
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Self-assessed intelligence (SAI) and its correlates have been extensively studied in adults. However, our understanding of how younger people perceive intelligence is limited. The current study aimed to fill this gap by investigating how SAI is associated with objective intelligence, gender, personality traits, and well-being in a sample (N = 428) of high-school students. The results revealed that SAI was not correlated with objectively measured intelligence (Raven's test); however, it was associated with other constructs. First, there were gender differences, i.e. boys' self-estimates of their intelligence were higher than that of girls. Furthermore, SAI was strongly related to grandiose narcissism and moderately related to the personality trait intellect. Additionally, high SAI was associated with high levels of well-being. Finally, SAI accounted for the link between narcissism and well-being as well as that between intellect and well-being. The lack of correlation between SAI and IQ score is consistent with previous findings suggesting that the conception of intelligence in adolescence differs from academic definitions of cognitive ability. On the other hand, the strong association between SAI and narcissism suggests that the concept of intelligence might primarily be a manifestation of boldness and a narcissistic attitude in adolescence.
... These studies can be categorized into various areas. In many studies overall self-estimates of overall intelligence were investigated as the sole dependent variable (Beloff, 1992; Byrd & Stacey, 1993; Furnham & Gasson, 1998 ), while more recent studies have examined multiple intelligences (Bennett, 1996Bennett, , 1997Bennett, , 2000 Furnham, 2000; Furnham & Baguma, 1999). Some studies have been particularly concerned with the correlation between psychometric intelligence and self-estimated intelligence , which appears to be around r = .30 ...
Article
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Atotal of 253 British (151 females and 102 males) and 318 American (178 females and 140 males) students (mean age 22.12 yrs) were asked to make various estimates of overall intelligence as well as H. Gardner's (1999a) new list of 10 multiple intelligences. They made these estimations or themselves, their partner, and for various well-known figures. Following previous research there were various sex and nationality differences in self-estimated IQ: Males rated themselves higher on verbal, logical, spatial, and spiritual IQ compared to females. Females rated their male partner as having lower verbal and spiritual, but higher spatial IQ than was the case when males rated their female partners. Participants considered Bill Clinton (2 points) and Prince Charles (5 points) less intelligent than themselves, but Tony Blair (5 points) and Bill Gates (15 points) more intelligent than themselves. Multiple regressions indicated that the best predictors of one's overall IQ estimates were logical, verbal, existential, and spatial IQ. Factor analysis of the 10 and then 8 self-estimated scores did not confirm Gardner's classification of multiple intelligences. Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self-estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... intelligence and results showed the effect was also present here since both males and females rated their grandfathers' intelligence higher than their grandmothers'. In another study, Fumham and Gasson (1998) found that males' over-estimations were also present when participants were asked to estimate their children's intelligence. ...
Thesis
This thesis concerns the relationship between personality traits and intellectual competence. It contains five chapters and ten independent but related empirical studies. Chapter one presents a review of the salient literature in the area. It is divided into three sub-sections: personality and psychometric intelligence, personality and academic performance (AP), and personality and subjectively-assessed intelligence (SAI). Chapter two (studies 1 to 4) examines the relationship between the Big Five personality traits with several psychometric intelligence tests, SAI, and gender. Results indicated that personality traits (notably Neuroticism and Agreeableness) are significantly related to SAI, but not to psychometric intelligence. Since SAI is also significantly related to psychometric intelligence, it is suggested that SAI may mediate the relationship between personality and psychometric intelligence. Chapter three (studies 5 to 8) examines the relationship between psychometric intelligence and personality (the Big Five and the Gigantic Three) with AP. Results indicate that personality traits (notably Conscientiousness and Psychoticism) are significant predictors of AP, accounting for unique variance in AP even when psychometric intelligence and academic behaviour are considered as predictors. Chapter four (studies 9 and 10) looks at the relationship between personality and psychometric intelligence with a measure of art judgement as well as several indicators of previous art experience. Results indicate that art judgement is related to both personality and intelligence, and may therefore be considered a mixed construct. Chapter five presents a brief summary of the results and conclusions.
... Finally, we assessed the participants' self-rated intelligence with an item developed by Furnham (e.g., Furnham & Gasson, 1998). This item "has been used in 30 studies done in 20 different countries and appears to be easily understood by a wide variety of people" (Neto & Furnham, 2011, p. 103). ...
Article
Negative stereotypes about intellectually gifted individuals prevail among teachers and in society although empirical research has debunked them. They are also dominant in mass media representations of gifted individuals such as newspaper reports. The present study investigated whether stereotypic representations in newspaper articles contribute to the stigmatization of gifted individuals and whether nonstereotypic, evidence-based representations might help destigmatize gifted individuals. Two randomized controlled studies with N = 431 and N = 432 university students, respectively, were conducted. In both experiments, the stereotypic representation caused more negative attitudes toward gifted individuals ( d = 0.86/0.81), whereas the evidence-based representation caused more positive attitudes ( d = −0.54/−0.58), compared with a control group. Quality of previous relationships with gifted persons moderated both effects to some extent; however, both effects were quite robust against potential moderators. Results indicate that the media should be aware of their influence on recipients’ attitudes. Giftedness researchers should more actively join in the public debate to counteract stigmatization of intellectually gifted individuals.
... Scores are summed so that higher scores indicate greater political cynicism. The internal consistency of this scale in the present study was .76. (Furnham & Gasson, 1998). This scale presents participants with a normal intelligence quotient (IQ) distribution (M = 100, SD = 15). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Previous studies have suggested that conspiracist ideation forms part of a monological belief system in which one conspiracist idea acts as evidence for new conspiracist ideas. Here, we examined this possibility in relation to an event lacking reliable or conclusive evidence, namely the disappearance of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan. A total of 914 members of the British general public completed scales measuring their beliefs about the disappearance of Earhart and Noonan, belief in conspiracy theories, the Big Five personality factors, support for democratic principles, political cynicism, self-esteem, and self-assessed intelligence. Results showed that belief in conspiracy theories was associated with the endorsement of less plausible explanations for the disappearance of Earhart and Noonan. In addition, belief in less plausible explanations was also significantly associated with lower self-assessed intelligence, greater political cynicism, lower self-esteem, and higher Agreeableness scores. These results are discussed in relation to monological belief systems.
Article
This paper reports on two studies, each concerned with sex differences in the estimates of Gardner's ‘seven basic types of intelligence’. In the first study, 180 British adults were asked to estimate their own intelligence on the seven intelligence factors. Only one (mathematical/logical) showed a significant sex difference, with males believing they had higher scores than females. Factor analysis of these seven scales yielded three interpretable higher-order factors. There was a similar sex difference on only one factor (mathematical/spatial intelligence), which showed males rating themselves higher than females. In the second study, 80 student participants completed the same seven estimates of intelligence, plus a standard sex-role inventory, in order to separate sex and sex role in the self-estimation of intelligence. A series of sex×sex-role ANOVAs showed some effects, particularly for mathematical, musical, and spatial intelligence, but nearly always for sex and not sex role. Results suggest that previous studies which found consistent sex differences in self-estimates of overall intelligence (‘g’) may have over-exaggerated the issue as the difference is clearly confined to a limited number of factors of intelligence. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study looked for evidence of cultural stereotypes regarding the different intellectual abilities of men and women. The effects of participants' gender, gender role and the target's sex on the perception of an intelligent person and attitudes towards disclosing high IQ were investigated. Some 121 participants wrote a story following a verbal lead about a highly intelligent male or female. They then answered three questions about IQ disclosure and filled out a Bem Sex Role Inventory. Content analysis showed most differences emerged in participants' views about consequences of high intelligence for one's intimate interpersonal relationships. More negative consequences were predicted for female than male targets. This bias was especially strong for females and feminine participants.
Article
British adults ( N = 239) provided estimates of their own and their children's general, emotional, analytic, creative, and practical intelligence. Men (fathers) rated their own levels of analytic and practical intelligence significantly higher than women (mothers) rated theirs. In contrast, women rated their emotional intelligence significantly higher than men. Two-way ANOVAs (gender of parent by gender of child) on the estimates of the five types of intelligence showed that fathers tended to give higher estimates than mothers for their first child's general, analytic, and creative intelligence. There were no significant effects for second-born children. The ANOVAs indicated that parents rated their third-born female children higher than their third-born male children on emotional, analytic, and practical intelligence. Explanations for these findings are discussed.
Article
This study examined the accuracy of self‐ and other‐estimated intelligence in relation to tested cognitive ability and gender. Three groups of raters were examined: 187 (102 male, 85 female; mean age 14.33 years, SD = .32) pupils of single‐sex comprehensive schools, 109 (55 mothers and 54 fathers) parents, and six teachers of the pupils. Pupils estimated their own overall IQ, while their parents and teachers estimated the pupils’ overall, mathematical, spatial, and verbal abilities. Self‐ and other‐estimates were compared to each other, and to the child’s psychometric test scores in verbal, quantitative, and figural/non‐verbal reasoning ability. Results suggested that participants were reasonably accurate at estimating pupils’ intelligence – teachers significantly more so than parents, and pupils significantly more so than fathers. Although both parents significantly overestimated their child’s IQ, this overestimation was more pronounced in fathers.
Article
This study investigated the relationship among sex, attitude toward intelligence, and self‐estimation of multiple intelligences for self and parents among Portuguese adolescents in secondary schools. Two hundred and forty‐two adolescents estimated their own and their parents' IQ scores on each of Gardner's 10 multiple intelligences: verbal (linguistic), logical (mathematical), spatial, musical, body‐kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, spiritual, and naturalistic. They also answered six simple questions concerning intelligence and intelligence tests. There were various sex differences in self‐estimated IQ: males rated themselves higher on overall, mathematical, spatial, intrapersonal, spiritual, and naturalistic IQ compared with females. Multiple regressions indicated that verbal, logical, and intrapersonal intelligence were significant predictors for self and parents overall IQ estimations. Factor analysis of the 10, the 8, and the 7 self‐estimates scores did not confirm Gardner's classification of multiple intelligences. Males were more likely to believe in sex differences in intelligence than females. Results are discussed in terms of the growing literature in the self‐estimates of intelligence, as well as limitations of that approach.
Article
One hundred and ninety-three Hong Kong parents (mean age 42.2 years) were given a structured interview/questionnaire concerning their own and their children's self-estimated overall and multiple intelligence. Previous research suggested that males tend to give higher overall "g" estimates to their children and themselves than do females, as well as higher scores on mathematical and spatial intelligence (Furnham, 2001). Further, studies in the West suggest that parents think their children are significantly brighter than they are and that their sons are brighter than their daughters. Estimates were lower than those found in Western populations but, even so, males rated their own mathematical and spatial intelligence higher than did females. Hong Kong Chinese parents did not think their sons were brighter than their daughters. The seven multiple intelligences factored into three clear factors for self and children, and regressions indicated that it was "academic" intelligence (verbal, mathematical, spatial) that was most "g" loaded. The child's age and the self-rated overall IQ of both the parents were the best predictors of the child's overall estimated IQ. Less than a third of the parents had taken an IQ test or believed they measured IQ very well. Those who were more likely to be better educated, had taken an IQ test, and believed intelligence was inherited were more likely to award themselves higher overall IQ scores. Results are compared with the British studies in the same area.
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In this study, 140 Belgian, 227 British, and 177 Slovakian students estimated their own multiple IQ scores as well as that of their parents (mother and father) and siblings (first and second brother and sister). Various factor analyses yielded a clear three-factor structure replicating previous studies. A sex × culture ANOVA on self-ratings of three factors that underline the seven intelligences (verbal, numerical, cultural) showed culture and sex effects as well as interactions. As predicted, males rated their own overall IQ, though not that of their parents or siblings, higher than females did. Males also rated their numerical IQ, but not their verbal or cultural IQ, higher than females did. There were few culture differences but many interactions, nearly all caused by Slovakian females, who rated aspects of their own and their fathers’ IQ higher than Slovakian males, while the pattern for the Belgians was precisely the opposite. Participants believed their verbal IQ was higher than their numerical IQ and their cultural IQ. Males believed their verbal and numerical IQ score to be fairly similar, though much higher than their cultural IQ, while females believed their verbal IQ the highest, followed by numerical and cultural IQ. Females also believed they were more intelligent than both parents. Overall results showed consistency in the sex differences in ratings across cultures but differences in level of estimated IQ possibly as a result of cultural demands for modesty.
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Previous research has shown that for self-estimates of overall IQ, males rate their scores higher than do females (Beloff, 1992). More recent investigations have found that for estimates of specific intelligences, there are fewer gender differences (Furnham, Clark, & Bailey, 1999). This paper aimed to investigate the nature of estimates and gender effects in overall IQ and estimates on the 13 tasks from the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), using a sample of secondary school pupils and grades 10 to 12. Results showed higher male self-estimates for eight of these tasks, including arithmetic and comprehension. There were far fewer sex differences when estimating parental scores on the WISC scales or overall intelligences. The self-estimated WISC scores factored "correctly" into verbal and performance tasks. Regressions showed object assembly and arithmetic important predictors of the overall IQ estimate of self and parents. Results are discussed in terms of the salient literature in the field as well as the implications in educational settings.
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Differences in sex and culture between Macanese and Portuguese university students in self and parental estimations of IQ were examined using Gardner's (1999) list of 10 multiple intelligences. A total of 197 Macanese (90 male and 107 female) and 331 Portuguese (139 male and 192 female) students participated in the investigation. The following hypotheses were tested: it was anticipated that there would be sex differences in self‐rated mathematical and spatial intelligence, with men giving higher self‐estimates than women; it was predicted that there would be cultural differences between Macanese and Portuguese, with the former awarding themselves and their parents significantly lower scores than the latter; participants would rate their fathers as more intelligent overall than their mothers; the best predictors of overall (g) IQ would be logical/mathematical, spatial, and verbal intelligence. In contrast to previous results (Furnham, 2001), when examined separately, gender differences in both self‐estimates and parents estimates did not occur in the Macanese sample. There were, however, consistent and clear culture differences. Portuguese gave higher self and family ratings than Macanese, as expected. Portuguese rated their verbal, body kinetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligence higher than did Macanese. Portuguese rated verbal, mathematical, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, and naturalistic father's intelligence higher than did Macanese. Portuguese rated verbal, mathematical, spatial, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, spiritual, and naturalistic mother's intelligence higher than did Macanese. Participants of both cultures rated overall intelligence of their father higher than that of their mother. This was also to be expected as previous studies have shown this to be the case in terms of gender stereotyping. In both cultures verbal and interpersonal intelligences predict overall intelligence. However, in Macao, body‐kinetic and intrapersonal intelligences, and in Portugal logical and naturalistic intelligences, also predict overall intelligence. Implications of these results for education and self‐presentations are considered. For the purpose and objectives of this work, the noun “Macanese” is used in its broader sense, meaning the Chinese people resident in Macao, and not in its narrower sense, meaning a specific community of Macao with genetic mixtures also involving Portuguese blood.The authors are grateful to Claudia Dalbert and two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.Les différences sexuelles et culturelles entre les étudiants universitaires macanais et portugais relativement aux estimations de leur propre QI et de celui de leurs parents ont été examinées à l'aide de la liste de dix intelligences multiples de Gardner (1999). Un total de 197 étudiants macanais (90 hommes e4t 107 femmes) et de 331 étudiants portugais (139 hommes et 192 femmes) ont participé à cette étude. Les hypothèses suivantes furent testées: (1) des différences sexuelles étaient prévues dans les estimations de l'intelligence sur les plans mathématique et spatial, avec les hommes qui auraient des évaluations plus élevées de leur propre intelligence que les femmes; (2) des différences culturelles étaient prévues entre les Macanais et les Portugais, avec les premiers qui s'attribueraient à eux‐mêmes ainsi qu'à leurs parents des scores plus faibles d'intelligence que ces derniers; (3) il était attendu que les participants évaluent leur père comme globalement plus intelligent que leur mère; (4) il était attendu que les meilleurs prédicteurs du QI global (g) seraient les intelligences logique/mathématique, spatiale et verbale. Contrairement aux résultats précédents (Furnham, 2001), lorsqu'elles furent examinés séparément, les différences de genre à la fois dans les estimations de l'intelligence propre et dans les estimations de l'intelligence des parents ne se sont pas produites dans l'échantillon macanais. Il y avait cependant des différences culturelles claires. Tel qu'attendu, les Portugais se sont attribué des scores plus élevés tant pour les évaluations de leur propre intelligence que pour celles de l'intelligence de leurs parents, comparativement aux Macanais. Les Portugais ont évalué leur propre intelligence de façon supérieure sur les plans verbal, corporel dynamique, interpersonnel, personnel et naturaliste comparativement aux Macanais. Les Portugais ont évalué l'intelligence de leur père de façon supérieure sur les plans verbal, mathématique, spatial, interpersonnel, personnel, existentiel et naturaliste. Aussi, ils ont évalué l'intelligence de leur mère de façon supérieure sur les plans verbal, mathématique, spatial, musical, interpersonnel, personnel, existentiel, spirituel et naturaliste. Les participants des deux cultures ont évalué l'intelligence globale de leur père de façon supérieure à celle de leur mère. Ceci était également attendu en raison du fait que les études antérieures ont montré que cela correspondait à un stéréotype de genre. Dans les deux cultures, les intelligences verbale et interpersonnelle ont permis de prédire l'intelligence globale. Cependant, l'intelligence globale fut aussi prédite, à Macao, par les intelligences corporelle dynamique et personnelle et, au Portugal, par les intelligences logique et naturaliste. Les implications de ces résultats pour l'éducation et la représentation de soi sont discutées.Se examinaron, usando la lista de Gardner (1999) de inteligencias múltiples, las diferencias entre sexo y cultura de estudiantes universitarios de Macao y portugueses respecto a sus propias apreciaciones de su cociente intelectual y las de sus padres. Participó en la investigación un total de 197 estudiantes de Macao (90 hombres y 107 mujeres) y 331 portugueses (139 hombres y 192 mujeres). Se sometió a prueba las siguientes hipótesis: se anticipó que habría diferencias entre sexos en la autoapreciación de las inteligencias matemática y espacial, otorgándose los hombres calificaciones más altas que las mujeres; se predijo que habría diferencias culturales entre los de Macao y portugueses, al otorgarse los primeros, tanto los estudiantes como sus padres, calificaciones significativamente más bajas que los segundos; los participantes calificarían a sus padres en general como más inteligentes que a sus madres; los mejores predictores del cociente intelectual general (g) serían la inteligencia lógico/matemática, la espacial y la verbal. En contraste con resultados previos (Furnham, 2001), al examinarse por separado, no hubo diferencias de género en la muestra de Macao, tanto en las autoapreciaciones como en las apreciaciones de los padres. Hubo, sin embargo, diferencias culturales consistentes y claras. Los portugueses dieron calificaciones más altas, tanto las propias como las apreciaciones de la familia, como se esperaba. Los portugueses calificaron más alto su inteligencia verbal, cinética corporal, interpersonal, intrapersonal, y naturalista. Los portugueses calificaron más alto la inteligencia verbal, espacial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existencial y naturalista de sus padres, en comparación con los de de Macao. Los portugueses calificaron más alto la inteligencia verbal, matemática, espacial, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existencial, espiritual y naturalista de sus madres, en comparación con los de Macao. Los participantes de ambas culturas calificaron la inteligencia general de sus padres más alto que la de sus madres. Esto también se esperaba de estudios anteriores que han mostrado que este es el caso en términos del estereotipo de género. En ambas culturas son las inteligencias verbal e interpersonal las que predicen la inteligencia general. Sin embargo, en Macao las inteligencias cinético corporal e intrapersonal, y en Portugal la lógica y la naturalista también predicen la inteligencia general. Se considera las implicaciones de los resultados para la educación.
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This textbook presents introductory concepts in social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Findings from six qualitative research projects were combined to construct an evaluation of gender and equality of opportunity in public sector organizations in Northern Ireland. Through interviews and focus groups, these projects targeted equal opportunities officers, chief executives, general staff and trade unionists. In addition, a computer database containing all documentation relating to equal opportunities was developed. The evaluation addressed four primary areas, namely policy development and implementation; resources, channels of communication and organizational structures; where women figure and barriers to progress; and practical steps and positive action. The research found large differences in organizational responses to equal opportunities, with related activities often on the periphery of day-to-day management of the organization. Perceptions of the organizations' commitment to equality also varied considerably, with managers describing the proximity between the organization's value system and equal opportunities but employees and trade unionists being more sceptical of these claims. The implications for policy, structures and training needs are discussed in the light of these findings.
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This study sought to examine differences between estimated intelligence and measured IQ among males and females. Forty-six male and 80 female participants were asked to estimate their own IQ and to complete the Digit Symbol and Vocabulary tests from the WAIS. Analysis of group data revealed a significant gender difference in self-estimated IQ, with male self-estimates higher on average than those of females. Moreover, male self-estimates were found to be significantly higher overall than their measured IQs and female self-estimates were lower than measured IQ, although not significantly. Consideration of these results at individual level, however, indicated that, for the majority of subjects, the overall pattern of results for males and females was strikingly similar and that statistically significant group differences were due to a few ‘outliers’ who displayed large discrepancies between estimated and measured IQ. It was concluded that speculation about the causality of inaccurate self-estimates of IQ should not be based on the assumption that gender differences at group level represent a generalized tendency on the part of either sex to either over-confidence or lack of confidence with regard to their own intelligence.
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The thesis that among adults males have a higher mean IQ than females and perform better at university is examined for Ireland. Evidence is presented from the Irish standardisation sample of the Differential Aptitude Test that among 17–18 yr olds males have a higher mean IQ by 2.60 IQ points. Performance at Irish universities is also examined for approximately 7000 graduates over the years 1991–1993 and it was found that males obtained a significantly greater proportion of first class degrees. It is proposed that the sex difference in mean IQ explains the difference in examination performance.
Article
Female subjects responded to three short verbal cues in which either a male or female character succeeded or failed in an examination qualifying the male (or female) for entry into an occupation. Three occupations were involved varying in masculine dominance (medicine, teaching, and nursing). In responding to each cue, subjects first rated the character in the cue on semantic differential scales to provide impressions of personality, then rated the importance of different possible causes of the outcome (causal attribution), and finally rated the likelihood that each of a set of possible consequences might follow the outcome. Results indicated a fairly pervasive tendency for the female subjects to upgrade successful males in relation to unsuccessful males but to downgrade successful females in relation to unsuccessful females. Results were discussed in relation to sex roles in society as they relate to permissible achievements for males and females.
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