Article

Design concept for ATM Machine, Accessible for the Elderly Users in Israel

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... In order to ensure this work is inclusive in nature, other significant areas of interest are generational effects and the effects of ageing upon interaction. As humans age, cognitive and physical capabilities decrease as a factor of natural human atrophy (Rabbit, 1993, Tarakanov-Plaz, 2005. Cognitive processing speed, the ability to switch attention, engage selective attention and working memory, textual comprehension and response time to complex motor tasks all affect behaviour and task performance (Chan et al., 2009, Nichols et al., 2006. ...
... Freudenthal (2001) also found elderly users performed slower in information retrieval tasks which required searching in a hierarchical structure in comparison to younger adults. Such findings may explain the difficulties experienced by older generations interacting with a variety of current products and designs that employ menu-driven interactional styles whilst they also experience a general decline in their cognitive and physical abilities (Tarakanov-Plaz, 2005). ...
... This may be due to age-related physical dexterity issues, a decline in cognitive ability or exposure to age-related design phenomenon that preclude or compromise efficient interaction. As a whole, these results indicate that it is possible to determine the existence of age-effects regarding physical approaches to interaction, and are in line with research that suggests generational differences are a factor in terms of product interaction (Docampo-Rama, 2001, Freudenthal, 2001, Langdon et al., 2010, Tarakanov-Plaz, 2005. From a design perspective, these results ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis investigates the role of prior experience of products and its affect upon interaction. It has been shown within this work that technological experience of products is related to age, and that this has implications for the success of subsequent interaction. This research adds weight to a growing body of literature that has identified age related and generational differences toward product interaction. Implications for intuitive design such as the use of familiar features and icon design are also identified. The adoption of a novel inclusive design approach, framing interaction using an interactional, behavioural model, is proposed as a potential method to identify issues that cause unnecessary interactional complexity. The contribution of this work is to provide the design community with new knowledge and a greater awareness of the diversity of user needs, and particularly the needs and skills of older people. The hope is that the awareness of this knowledge can, in turn, assist toward the community’s development of better design methods. The approach introduced can be applied to new and existing products alike and can aid the development of products that are more accessible and easier to use for a wider proportion of the population
... To operate an ATM, the user is required to make relevant responses to sequential prompts displayed on the screen of the machine, which demands considerable cognitive and physical abilities (Jamieson and Rogers, 2000). Previous studies have revealed that older adults have more resistance to using ATMs than those of a younger age (Czaja, 1997;Gilly and Zeithaml, 1985;Kerschner and Hart, 1984;Rogers et al., 1994Rogers et al., , 1996aTarakanov-Plax, 2005). These studies have indicated that the resistance is attributable to the problems encountered by older adults when operating these machines. ...
... These studies have indicated that the resistance is attributable to the problems encountered by older adults when operating these machines. For example, some older adults have problems determining which keys to press and seeing instructions or a menu on screen (Hone et al., 1998;Rogers et al., 1996aRogers et al., , 1994Tarakanov-Plax, 2005), recalling their personal identification number , getting the required amount of money (Tarakanov-Plax, 2005), or completing all the steps required for the transaction (Rogers et al., 1996b). These findings are likely due to the fact that a significant proportion of older adults experience a general decline in their cognitive and physical abilities (Tarakanov-Plax, 2005). ...
... These studies have indicated that the resistance is attributable to the problems encountered by older adults when operating these machines. For example, some older adults have problems determining which keys to press and seeing instructions or a menu on screen (Hone et al., 1998;Rogers et al., 1996aRogers et al., , 1994Tarakanov-Plax, 2005), recalling their personal identification number , getting the required amount of money (Tarakanov-Plax, 2005), or completing all the steps required for the transaction (Rogers et al., 1996b). These findings are likely due to the fact that a significant proportion of older adults experience a general decline in their cognitive and physical abilities (Tarakanov-Plax, 2005). ...
Article
The goal of this study was to enhance an existing automated teller machine (ATM) human-machine interface in order to accommodate the needs of older adults. Older adults were involved in the design and field test of the modified ATM prototype. The design of the user interface and functionality took the cognitive and physical abilities of older adults into account. The modified ATM system included only "cash withdrawal" and "transfer" functions based on the task demands and needs for services of older adults. One hundred and forty-one older adults (aged 60 or above) participated in the field test by operating modified or existing ATM systems. Those who operated the modified system were found to have significantly higher success rates than those who operated the existing system. The enhancement was most significant among older adults who had lower ATM-related abilities, a lower level of education, and no prior experience of using ATMs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of using a universal design and participatory approach to modify the existing ATM system for use by older adults. However, it also leads to a reduction in functionality of the enhanced system. Future studies should explore ways to develop a universal design ATM system which can satisfy the abilities and needs of all users in the entire population.
... A UI with large fonts and high contrast would be more accessible for elderly people given their low vision. Also, texts composed in simple language, pictures next to the text, didactic illustrations and slow animations might make a better UI for elderly people [11]. However, such an interface might be perceived as unpleasant and slow by users without disabilities. ...
Chapter
ATM interaction tends to be restrictive and prescriptive in the way one can interact with. The hardware (screen, keyboard, slot) and most often also the software interfaces are fixed and miss many layers of adaptability for diverse groups of users including those with disabilities. All studies on accessibility and usability underline the difficulty due to often contradictory requirements (what helps one user makes it more complex for another user) making it very hard, cost intensive and almost impossible to reach a satisfactory user experience. Therefore, considerations are vital to investigate the feasibility of transferring the interaction with ATMs as much as possible to a standard HCI and web based system and to runs as much as possible of the interaction on a personal device, which might connect ATs in a well-controlled and accessible environment. The TokenAccess approach is a feasibility study of these considerations. It provides a prototype of a technical infrastructure demonstrating the feasibility of such approach by integrating steps of interaction into already existing services such as e-banking, online check-in or eTicketing. The development of the prototype was done using a user centered design approach involving disabled colleagues and students at the Institute Integriert Studieren at the University of Linz as co-researchers and evaluators. Heuristic Evaluation, Cognitive Walkthrough and observation have been used in each step from requirements engineering towards evaluation.
... A study by Czaja (1997) found that older adults show greater resistance to using ATMs than younger people. According to Tarakanov-Plax (2005), who explored ATM use among individuals aged 55-100 years, non-use was based on such factors as personal safety issues, the fee required for ATM cash deposits and the complexity of language and design of the ATM interface. On the other hand, older people have expressed a willingness to learn how to use an ATM if training is provided (Rogers, Cabrera, Walker, Gilbert & Fisk, 1996). ...
Article
This study investigated the effects with training and graphical icons on task performance for elderly novice users on automatic teller machines (ATMs). 124 elderly novice users who had no prior ATM experience participated in the training and test of ATM usage. Participants in the control group (n = 62) were training to use the traditional text-based ATM interface meanwhile those in the experimental group (n = 62) were training to use the alternative ATM interface with graphical icons. They were asked to learn how to perform three major tasks of ATMs. A test immediately following the training and a test one month after training was carried out. Task completion score was used for measuring user performance. The results showed although training could help elderly novice users succeed in learning to use ATMs, they still had a significant decline in user performance in the test one month later compared with the immediate test. Participants of the experimental group outperformed those of the control group in both the immediate test and one month test after training, especially in the latter. The finding suggested graphical icons could help to improve the learning and retention of ATM usage for elderly novice users, especially the latter, which would compensate for the drawback of training and reduce forgetting rate to some extent. Well-designed graphical icons could benefit elderly novice users much from learning phase to retention phase. The findings of this study can be applied to guide the design and development of ATMs or other public technology devices considering elderly novice users.
Chapter
Full-text available
Younger people appear more adept at creating accurate mental models of product interaction and acquiring new and relevant knowledge through experiential learning. This article highlights some of the differences in interaction and learning that occur according to age. This is achieved by revealing the existence of age-effects regarding prior experience and its effect upon interaction with a novel contemporary household product, chosen at random for its newness to market, and by investigating if young people, based on their experience of contemporary technology, are able to create more accurate mental models of engagement that facilitate superior interaction with novel products. From a User Centred Design perspective, the overall aim is to present best practice when involving teenagers and young people in research to optimise their influence on product and interaction design, and to maximise the output of ideation and design insight acquisition exercises. This is explored by framing interaction in terms of Rasmussen's (1993) Skill, Rule and Knowledge-based Model of Behaviour to determine how knowledge acquisition is facilitated and to identify instances of interactional complexity that could be overcome by better design with input from real users. The approaches detailed illuminate how insight acquisition activity can be used to drive better and more effective design research in the real world, and lead to the development of more user-focussed products with a greater likelihood of adoption and increased commercial potential.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.