Article

Strengths of Character and Well-Being

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Abstract

We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.

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... Character strengths and positive experiences such as life satisfaction are the main and prominent concern of positive psychology [24,25] . Character strengths are defined as a family of positive traits reflected in thoughts, feelings and behavior which are measurable in degrees [26]. Positive psychology is also explained as the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people, groups, and institutions [27] . ...
... Justice is defined as broadly interpersonal process, relevant to optimal interaction between the individual and the group or the community [26] . This virtue is built up from such civic strengths underlying healthy community life namely citizenship (social responsibility, loyalty, and teamwork), fairness (treating all people in the same ways and giving everyone a fair chance), and leadership (being a member of a group that encourages other to finish a task and maintains good relation within the group) [26,28] This research was preliminary study that aimed to understand social well-being in rural society and to examine strength of justice that can give impact on social well-being. ...
... Justice is defined as broadly interpersonal process, relevant to optimal interaction between the individual and the group or the community [26] . This virtue is built up from such civic strengths underlying healthy community life namely citizenship (social responsibility, loyalty, and teamwork), fairness (treating all people in the same ways and giving everyone a fair chance), and leadership (being a member of a group that encourages other to finish a task and maintains good relation within the group) [26,28] This research was preliminary study that aimed to understand social well-being in rural society and to examine strength of justice that can give impact on social well-being. A former research had shown that particular character strengths were strongly associated with life satisfaction which is a part of contributed factor of well -being [26] . ...
Conference Paper
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This study aimed to understand the social well-being in rural society and to examine the strength of justice that could predict social well-being. The strength of justice is defined as broadly interpersonal, relevant to the optimal interaction between the individual and the community. This research was a qualitative descriptive study at two villages (mountains and coast area) in Bantaeng Regency, South Sulawesi. A total of 52 fathers and 60 mothers (wives) were interviewed, whereas 99 adolescents completed an open-ended questionnaire. The result showed that most fathers, mothers, and adolescents were very grateful for their lives in the village. The three groups also perceived that the citizens were harmonious. Most fathers and mothers viewed that society's well-being increased. Only a part of adolescents did perceive that youth well-being increased. The main factors that caused their gratefulness and well-being were the acceptance that the area has been their homeland and has been giving livelihood; the area is secure and peaceful; they are close to their family; and the people are good, friendly, supportive and helpful. Father and mother emphasized the improvement of facilities and agriculture technology and the increase in income to define the society's well-being. Adolescents emphasized on education development, positive activities, broad sociality, high aspiration and motivation, harmonious and helpful society, and obedient people. In conclusion, the factors refer to the strength of citizenship, such as social responsibility, teamwork, loyalty, and obedience that reflect togetherness and collectivity in rural culture.
... Questions like how to live a better life or how to increase people's in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors . The character strengths exist in degrees and ought to be measured as individual differences (Park et al., 2004), and these interpersonal differences in character strengths can ultimately influence people's well-being (Dolev-Amit et al., 2020;Gander et al., 2021;Wagner et al., 2021). With a large body of literature reporting the predictive role of mental health (e.g., Leung et al., 2021;Li et al., 2021), the enactment of character strengths should enable thriving communities (Park et al., 2004;Peterson, 2006) and be the backbone of social interventions to ensure sustainable wellbeing (Proyer et al., 2013). ...
... The character strengths exist in degrees and ought to be measured as individual differences (Park et al., 2004), and these interpersonal differences in character strengths can ultimately influence people's well-being (Dolev-Amit et al., 2020;Gander et al., 2021;Wagner et al., 2021). With a large body of literature reporting the predictive role of mental health (e.g., Leung et al., 2021;Li et al., 2021), the enactment of character strengths should enable thriving communities (Park et al., 2004;Peterson, 2006) and be the backbone of social interventions to ensure sustainable wellbeing (Proyer et al., 2013). Hence, the association between character strengths and mental health has led to considerable empirical evidence over the last decade Gander et al., 2019;Huber et al., 2021;Martínez-Martí et al., 2016;Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2014;Proyer et al., 2013;Ros-Morente et al., 2018;Schutte & Malouff, 2018;Wagner et al., 2020), with intervention studies revealing significant effects on the promotion of subjective wellbeing and a decrease in depression (Dolev-Amit et al., 2020; The network approach applied to mental health and character strengths ...
Article
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The network approach poses an alternative focus to understand psychological constructs as emerging from mutual interac- tions among indicators. Network psychometrics has been applied to psychopathology to unravel the connections between symptoms, but it can also be applied to the study of well-being. The role of character strengths in mental health is at the forefront of research attention. Previous findings suggest that heart character strengths are more predictive of mental health than mind character strengths. Nevertheless, researchers have rarely applied the network approach in this context. The present study examines, from the network approach, the connections between heart and mind character strengths and mental health. Building upon the dual-factor model of mental health, positive (i.e., happiness and life satisfaction) and negative indicators (i.e., depression) were included in the assessment of this construct. A sample of 597 Spanish undergraduates (M=23.52; SD=5.25; 75.6% females) completed cross-sectional self-report measures. Network analysis was used to estimate a network composed of two communities: character strengths and mental health. We used centrality analysis to calculate the importance of each node and bridge centrality to examine the interactions between the communi- ties. The results indicated that the heart strengths of love, zest, hope, and gratitude reported the highest bridge strength centrality, suggesting that they played an intermediary role activating and deactivating components of mental health. Adopting the network approach to explore the connections between character strengths and mental health can help design focused intervention strategies in psychology.
... Linley y Harrington (2006) argumentan que cuando las personas utilizan sus fortalezas se sienten bien consigo mismas, mejoran en cuanto a su capacidad de hacer aquello en lo que destacan naturalmente y trabajan para desarrollar su máximo potencial. Actualmente, un creciente número de profesionales (por ejemplo, terapeutas, coaches y consultores en recursos humanos) están utilizando estrategias de intervención basadas en fortalezas con sus clientes, ya que han encontrado que están asociadas de manera significativa con incrementos en el bienestar (Park, Peterson y Seligman, 2004), recursos psicológicos como, por ejemplo, la autoeficacia (Proctor, Maltby y Linley, 2011) y logro de objetivos personales y empresariales (Linley, Nielsen, Gillett y Biswas-Diener, 2010). ...
... Estos hallazgos son congruentes con investigaciones anteriores que confirmaron el efecto positivo de intervenciones basadas en fortalezas sobre el bienestar (Park et al., 2004), engagement (Dubreuil et al., 2016;Harter et al., 2002), recursos psicológicos positivos (Proctor et al., 2011) y logro de objetivos (Linley et al., 2010). ...
Article
Este trabajo ha obtenido un accésit del Premio Estudios Financieros 2019 en la modalidad de Recursos Humanos. El coaching basado en fortalezas se enmarca dentro del movimiento científico de la psicología positiva y establece la identificación, desarrollo y uso de fortalezas personales para fomentar resultados positivos en las personas y en las organizaciones. Los objetivos de esta investigación son describir los beneficios potenciales que puede aportar este enfoque al desarrollo de recursos humanos, y en particular a la optimización del bienestar psicosocial y desempeño de las personas trabajadoras, presentando resultados empíricos de su eficacia mediante un estudio controlado aplicado en una empresa automotriz. Sesenta personas trabajadoras sin puestos ejecutivos participaron de un programa de micro-coaching basado en fortalezas, que consistió en un workshop grupal y tres sesiones de coaching individuales. Las personas participantes fueron divididas en dos grupos (experimental y control-waiting list) y tanto ellas como sus supervisores participaron de una evaluación en tres tiempos (PRE-POS-FUP). Los resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos indicaron un impacto positivo del programa sobre el engagement en el trabajo, el capital psicológico positivo y el desempeño in-rol y extra-rol de las personas participantes. Las implicaciones prácticas sugieren que las intervenciones en coaching psicológico positivo basado en fortalezas son una propuesta efectiva para el desarrollo y gestión de las personas en las organizaciones.
... There are studies that have reported negative threatening events associated with very stressful challenging circumstances, such as suicide ideation (Wilburn & Delores, 2005); detrimental effects on academic performance , as well as health, and development of unhealthy habits like alcoholism (Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004). ...
Thesis
The study examined causes and effects of stress, coping mechanisms and academic performance among theology students. The study site was Uganda Christian University main campus, Mukono. This site was easily accessible and the theology faculty is well organized in academic schedules. Uganda Christian University is termed as a centre for excellence and has both internal and external affiliations. The study was carried out to investigate and generate information on the role that stress, its effects and the different coping mechanisms that play in perceiving the students’ academic performance in the context of Uganda Christian University. The significance of the study was to generate new knowledge and extend boundaries if research at Uganda Christian University. The information generated could in turn guide policy makers and administrators in the most effective and efficient stress coping mechanisms that can be utilized by university students to cope with stress. Additionally, administrators can implement programs to create stress management skills at Uganda Christian University. The research findings were based on the responses obtained from the undergraduate students of theology at Uganda Christian University, Mukono. This study was based on the specific objectives which in turn converted into research questions. Furthermore the findings revealed stress is a factor and that greatly impacts on students’ performance either as a booster or detriment. The research focused on 73 Theology students in all the three academic years of study that were selected purposefully, a self-administered questionnaire given after seeking their consent and explanation of what the research was about. Data collected was coded and entered into Statistical Package for Social Scientists ver.17 (SPSS) to generate statistics. The research was guided by a transactional model of stress, and stress coping strategies conceptual framework for evaluating the process of coping with stressful events (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2008). The model identified primary appraisals of the stressful events such as environment, financial status, marital status and demand from studies. The coping effort included problem management, emotion regulation, revised goals, spiritual beliefs and positive events. While effects of stress as a whole ranged from physical to emotional, social and spiritual amongst others. Findings of the research indicate that most of the respondents were male who were most dominant in the program (60.27%). Majority of the respondents (71.2%) identified a concern about poor grades as the biggest cause of stress, followed by the load in the course syllabus and lack of rest. In conclusion, the prevalence of stress seems to be high among theology students, which tends to affect not only their academic performances but also all aspects of health. Review of academics, and exam schedules, better interaction with the faculty professors, proper guidance, and peer counseling at the university can help alleviate the stress.
... For example, hope has been studied as a positive prospective and activating emotion that activates students' attention, motivation, and self-regulatory processes related to learning [6,7]. Hope has also been defined as character strength that involves optimism and future-mindedness, and this is associated with students' life satisfaction and motivation [8,9]. But extensive research using Snyder's hope theory that defines hope as positive cognitions about one's ability and strategies to attain important goals [10] has shown how hope is associated with adaptive learning processes and well-being [11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
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The positive education movement has called attention to the importance of student well-being and the role of positive constructs, such as hope, in the educational process. The external locus-of-hope dimensions, or positive cognitions about the role of external actors in the pursuit of important goals, positively predict student well-being, learning approaches, and achievement. However, external locus-of-hope dimensions were found to be associated with maladaptive coping styles among Asian students. In this study, we revisit this relationship between external locus-of-hope dimensions and coping among students, by focusing on collectivist coping strategies that are assumed to be more relevant to Asian students. A total of 780 university students from three Asian cities (Hong Kong, n = 295; Macau, n = 225; Manila, n = 260) were asked to complete a questionnaire on collectivist coping styles, internal and external locus-of-hope dimensions. Separate multiple regression analyses indicated that the coping style of acceptance/reframing/striving was mainly predicted by internal locus-of-hope in the three groups, but the coping styles of family support and religious coping were consistently predicted by external locus-of-hope dimensions in all three groups of students. The two other coping styles of avoidance/detachment and personal emotional outlets were also predicted by specific external locus-of-hope dimensions, but only in particular groups. The results are discussed in terms of how external locus-of-hope dimensions might evoke both adaptive and maladaptive coping among Asian students, which may be associated with primary and secondary control dimensions of the collectivist coping styles.
... ont développé une classification des forces conçues comme étant des chemins menant à des vertus : les Valeurs En Action (VEA). Le fondement du modèle tient compte d'une grande variété de vertus que les religions, les philosophies anciennes et les traditions les plus influentes de l'histoire de la pensée humaine avaient considérées comme indispensables à la vie en communauté (Park et al., 2004) : le Confucianisme et le Taoïsme pour la Chine, le Bouddhisme et l'Hindouisme pour l'Asie du Sud ainsi que la Grèce antique, le Judéo-Christianisme et l'Islam pour l'Orient (Dahlsgaard et al., 2005). Cette classification envisage les forces humaines comme des traits de personnalités à valeur morale et dont l'utilisation et le développement seraient vertueux. ...
Article
Le bonheur au carrefour des conceptions occidentales et arabo-musulmanes : Caractéristiques, différences et impacts empiriques. Happiness at the crossroads of Western and Arab-Muslim conceptions: Characteristics, differences and empirical impacts RÉSUMÉ: Les conceptions psychologiques du bon-heur puisent quasi exclusivement dans des sources philosophiques occiden-tales 1 dominant les théories générales sur le bonheur et le bien-être, prévalant comme la norme dans la recherche en psychologie (Tadin, 2015). Or la psycho-logie en tant que science du comporte-ment aborde l'individu dans sa singula-rité, en particulier dans son contexte so-cioculturel. Nous posons la question de savoir si le bonheur en tant que détermi-nant du progrès universel social et hu-main couvre les mêmes dimensions et requiert les mêmes significations dans des cultures différentes (arabo-musul-manes2) de celle où il a été conceptualisé scientifiquement et empiriquement (culture occidentale). Cet article, sous forme de revue de questions d'une part 1 Le terme « occident » fait référence ici aux pays/sociétés qui partagent une culture, un système de croyances issus de l'Europe des Lumières, du moyen âge européen ou de l'Empire Romain et imprégnés par le christianisme. L'Occident regroupe des pays de l'Europe, de l'Amérique Latine, de l'Amérique du Nord, l'Australie, la Nouvelle-Zélande voire même l'Afrique du Sud. 2 Le terme « culture arabo-musulmane » fait référence non seulement aux pays dont la langue officielle est l'Arabe, mais inclut également tous les pays qui se définissent comme des Etats musulmans abritant une majorité de population de confession musulmane (plus de 70 %). et de recherches empiriques dans la culture arabo-musulmane d'autre part, attire notre attention sur le fait que les dimensions du bonheur diffèrent d'une culture à une autre, ce qui impacte con-sidérablement sa mesure. Une analyse comparative entre la conception occi-dentale et la conception arabo-musul-mane du bonheur est apportée incitant à approfondir la réflexion sur l'universa-lité du concept du bonheur. Des pistes de recherches et d'actions sont propo-sées à la fin de l'article afin que la dimension socioculturelle du bonheur soit considérée comme un facteur à intégrer dans la mesure du bonheur humain uni-versel. MOTS-CLÉS Bonheur universel ; Bien-être, Vertus ; Religiosité ; Culture occidentale ; Culture arabo-musulmane. ABSTRACT: Psychological conceptions of happiness draw almost exclusively from Western philosophical sources, dominating general theories of happiness and well-being , prevailing as the norm in psychological research (Tadjin, 2015). Yet psychology as a science of behavior addresses the individual in their uniqueness, particularly in their socio-cultural context. We ask the question of whether happiness as a determinant of universal social 13 and human progress covers the same dimensions and requires the same meanings in cultures different (e.g., Muslim Arabs) from the one where it has been conceptualized scientifically and empirically (e.g., the West). This article, part a review of issues and part empirical research in Muslim Arabs' culture, draws our attention to the fact that the dimensions of happiness differ from one culture to another, which has a considerable impact on its measurement. A comparative analysis between the West's and the Muslim Arabs' conceptions of happiness is done to encourage further reflection on the universality of the concept of happiness. At the end of the article, further research and action is proposed such that the socio-cultural dimension of happiness is considered as a factor to be integrated in the measurement of universal human happiness.
... The current ndings are generally consistent with previous research that has shown that gratitude is associated with multiple measures of health and well-being (Froh, Yurkewica, & Kashdan, 2009;Jones, You, & 158 Furlong, 2013;Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004), that gratitude accounts for happiness above and beyond that predicted by personality measures (McCullough et al., 2002), as well as studies that have shown that gratitude predicts happiness and hope to a greater extent than other virtues such as forgiveness (Witvliet, Richie, Root Luna, & Van Tongeren, 2018). They are also supportive of the contentions of Seligman and colleagues (2005) that positive character traits such as gratitude have relevance for psychological health. ...
Article
Virtues and character traits are increasingly recognized as impacting health outcomes, although distinctions between these constructs remain unclear. In order for Christian social workers to most effectively incorporate virtues-based interventions into their clinical practices, there is a need to identify the distinct nature of the different virtues and their relationships to health outcomes. In Part I, a principal components factor analysis of six character traits (i.e., altruism, empathy, forgiveness, gratitude, hope, and humility) based on 402 students primarily from Christian universities determined the empirical validity of these constructs (i.e., whether they are best conceptualized as distinct constructs, dimensions of higher order constructs, or one overall “goodness” virtue). Results identified 12 distinct character traits, suggesting a need to focus on specific character traits rather than general virtues. In Part II, hierarchical regressions indicated that personality variables predicted 37% of variance in mental health, with only gratitude and lack of resentment toward others (i.e., two of the 12 identified character traits) predicting an additional 8% of the variance (no variables predicted physical health). The results suggest the need to conceptualize character traits as distinct constructs, and that interventions to increase gratitude and reduce resentment may be most effective in improving mental health outcomes in Christian college students.
... Second, it is ensuing from theoretical arguments that morally valued personality traits that are fundamental to one's identity produce positive outcomes for oneself and/or others, and contribute to the greater good [24,25], were categorized as personal enablers of well-being and mitigators against the unfavorable impact of life events and difficulties [3,26]. Third, our interest also results from prior theoretical arguments and empirical findings indicating that the predisposition to act according to ethical standards and accepted rules of good, honest and/or moral behaviors, as well as having thoughts and taking actions that contribute to the good of oneself and others, contribute to an attainment of complete eudaimonic well-being and better health [23,[27][28][29][30]. In particular, prior research indicate that a tendency to act according to moral standards and ethical behaviors is associated with lower risks of incident cognitive impairment not dementia, depression and unfavorable healthrelated behaviors as well as lower limitations in mobility and less difficulty in instrumental activities of daily living among middle-aged and older adults [30][31][32]. ...
Article
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Personal factors, such as character strengths, have been shown to be favorably associated with concurrent and future well-being. Positive associations have also been reported between purpose in life and concurrent and subsequent health and well-being. Evidence on antecedents of purpose in life is, however, limited. This study examines whether the adherence to moral standards and ethical behaviors (AMSEB) is associated with subsequent purpose in life. Data from the Health and Retirement Study obtained from a sample of 8,788 middle-aged and older adults in the US (mean age = 64.9 years, age range 50–96 years) were used. The prospective associations between AMSEB and purpose in life were examined using generalized linear models. A rich set of covariates and prior outcomes were used as controls to reduce the risk of reverse causation. The robustness analyses included computation of sensitivity measures, E-values, and running a set of secondary analyses conducted on subsamples of respondents and using a limited set of covariates. It was found that middle-aged and older adults who demonstrated higher AMSEB reported a higher sense of purpose in life after the 4-year follow-up period. This association was found to be monotonic, moderately robust to potential unmeasured confounding and independent of demographics, prior socioeconomic status, prior health conditions, and health behaviors as well as prior psychological predispositions such as dispositional optimism and life satisfaction. It was also robust to missing data patterns. Policymakers and health practitioners may consider a predisposition to adherence to moral standards and ethical behaviors as a potential intervention target, as its improvement and/or maintenance has the potential to improve longevity and to help promote healthy and purposeful aging.
... Strengths-based approach to management is managing employees with a strengths focus. It is argued that the employees whose strengths are recognised in the workplace are happier, more fulfilled, and have more energy to achieve their goals and perform better at work (Linley et al., 2009 Park et al., 2004;Welch et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2011;Woerkom & Meyers, 2015). Ideally, organisations should have a strengths culture (applying a strengths framework to the organisation's human resource activities) (Linley & Harrington, 2006a;Tombaugh, 2005) and a strengths-based psychological climate (employees' positive perceptions of strengths-based philosophies) (Woerkom & Meyers, 2015) for managers and employees to realise their strengths and strengths requirements of the different roles in organisations. ...
Conference Paper
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Shaikh, A., et al. "Impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation in SAARC countries." (2016).
... A sample question is "Hope is an essential part of who I am in this world". We selected hope because it is a representative of character strengths and substantially related to well-being (Park et al., 2004;Valle et al., 2006). The Chinese version of the scale has demonstrated good internal consistency (i.e., α = .87; ...
Article
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The growing concerns regarding the risks of transmitting the COVID-19 virus has intensified the job-related stressors commonly encountered by teachers in various cultural contexts. Evidence shows how the COVID-19 crisis has negatively impacted teachers' mental health outcomes such as stress, depression, and quality of life, which highlights the significance of designing psychological programs to boost teachers' well-being. This study examined the effects of a well-being intervention based on the Positivity, Relationship, Outcomes, Strength, Purpose, Engagement, and Resilience (PROSPER) framework on well-being outcomes among 76 in-service teachers (Mage = 26.05 years, SD = 4.71, range = 20–45; female = 93.4%) in Hong Kong. Participants completed survey measures associated with the seven PROSPER outcomes at baseline and 2-month follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that there were statistically significant multivariate effects for intervention conditions, Wilks' Lambda F(7, 58) = 4.50, p = .01. Results demonstrated that teachers who were assigned to the intervention condition (n = 36) had significantly higher scores than those in the control condition (n = 40) on positivity (b = 0.41, 95% CI [0.16, 0.65], p = .01), strength (b = 0.62, 95% CI [0.23, 1.01], p = .01), purpose (b = 0.61, 95% CI [0.18, 1.04], p = .01), and resilience (b = 0.57, 95% CI [0.07, 1.07], p = .04). Our findings provide evidence on the mental health benefits of the PROSPER-based psychological intervention program for preschool teachers.
... Virtues are positive qualities which are widely regarded as morally valuable (e.g., wisdom, courage, justice), and character strengths are ways of expressing virtues (e.g., creativity, kindness; . Identifying, developing, and using character strengths is associated with well-being across the life span (Ivtzan et al., 2016;Jach et al., 2018;Mongrain & Anselmo-Matthews, 2012;Park et al., 2004;Proctor et al., 2011), as well as greater achievement in academic contexts (Niemiec, 2013;Park & Peterson, 2009;Shoshani & Shwartz, 2018;Weber & Ruch, 2012). As a result, schools are increasingly implementing programs which help youth to identify and employ character strengths (Lavy, 2019;Waters, 2011). ...
Article
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Schools are increasingly bolstering student character strengths to promote academic success and well-being. Schools' character-promotion efforts would benefit from involving students' caregivers. Online resources may be an accessible way to engage students' families, but further research is needed to maximize accessibility and engagement. A brief character strengths program was developed and integrated within online accounts accessed by parents of kindergarten students. Content analysis of parent focus groups (N = 14, 86% women) indicated that access to and engagement with the program was improved by several factors, including visuals, intuitive navigation, strength-based content, and school-based recruitment. Content analysis of caregivers' (N = 54, 91% women, M age = 36.52, SD age = 4.40) responses to the program's reflection questions indicated that parents prefer highly applicable content, particularly information about noticing and developing character strengths in their child. Finally, exploratory descriptive statistics indicated that single parents, fathers, and parents of racial minority children were less likely to engage with the program which alludes to the additional barriers faced by these socio-demographic groups. The results provide specific suggestions for involving parents in school-based character promotion efforts, as well as highlight the importance of additional research to better understand the needs of diverse families. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41042-022-00072-4.
... Examples of such seminal articles are those written by Mercer (2016), Oxford (2016), andMacIntyre et al. (2019). According to MacIntyre (2016), four of the most applicable contributions of PP to L2 education are (1) a shift from negativity to positivity, (2) the character strengths model including six components of humanity, courage, justice, temperance, transcendence, and wisdom (Park et al., 2004), (3) shift from the PERMA model to the EMPATICS model for explaining wellbeing within PP (Oxford, 2016), and (4) the concept of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) which pertains to a state of wellbeing occurring when an individual is completely absorbed in the task that (s)he loses track of time. ...
Book
This book argues that, in line with the tenets of positive psychology in SLA and the rhetorical/relational goal theory, positive teacher-student interpersonal relationships are deemed to be of great significance for empowering students to accomplish favorable academic outcomes and to successfully learn a second/foreign language (L2), whether at its affective, behavioral, or cognitive levels. Therefore, understanding the role of teacher interpersonal behaviors and their effect on students' learning gains in the domain of SLA is of utmost importance, particularly as this line of research is at its nascent stage of development, and, as a result, available empirical evidence is still inconclusive. To address this issue, drawing on the mixed methods design, this book mainly aims to, first, empirically scrutinize the role of “5Cs” positive teacher interpersonal variables (i.e., care, clarity, closeness, confirmation, and credibility) in L2 students' affective, behavioral, and cognitive learning outcomes through the mediation of student-perceived learner empowerment in the L2 context of Iran. Second, it is intended to show how L2 teacher educators, teachers, and materials developers, among other key educational stakeholders, can facilitate the provision of interpersonally rich language learning environments with the ultimate goal of enhancing students' L2 learning.
... A modo de conclusión, el tener un sentido o propósito es la intencionalidad o visión que las personas tienen hacia el futuro y se caracteriza por un impulso vital o entrega a una causa (Frankl, 1994;Ramsey y Blieszner, 1999), permite situarse más allá de los logros o derrotas del momento y ver las cosas en su debida perspectiva, pudiendo llenar de alegría la vida aún en medio de circunstancias muy difíciles, ya que hay una valoración de los aspectos positivos y del bienestar. Además, tiene que ver con el cuestionamiento de la propia experiencia, el salir de sí (autotrascendencia) y modificar sustancialmente los parámetros vitales, los valores y actitudes fundamentales (Park et al., 2004) para ser personas adultas mayores generativas. Como indican Limón y Chalfoun (2017), el empoderamiento en la vejez tiene que ver con la concepción de que la persona mayor tiene potencialidades por desarrollar y con el análisis de fortalezas y capacidades, en donde el aprendizaje permanente es un valor importante y necesario. ...
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La presente obra emerge como resultado del trabajo colaborativo y sinérgico construido por educadores/as e investigadores/as pertenecientes a diferentes universidades en el contexto iberoamericano, todos ellos interesados en la comprensión y estudio de la generatividad a lo largo del ciclo vital, con un interés particular en las implicaciones socioeducativas de dicho constructo para el desarrollo de la profesionalidad docente en diversos ambientes y contextos histórico-culturales. Para cumplir con estos objetivos descritos, se han organizado los capítulos en 4 partes temáticos. Todos ellos, en su conjunto, favorecen un abordaje diverso, complejo y profundo de la generatividad, fundamentado en el desarrollo de investigaciones recientes en Iberoamérica, favoreciendo una sistematización actualizada y versátil sobre el desarrollo humano en el campo de las ciencias sociales y de la educación.
... This cognitive aspect makes SWL susceptible to improvement based on people's ability to plan, organize, and reflect on their life circumstances. Improving SWL can be important, as higher SWL has been associated with prosocial behaviors such as problem-solving, asset building, and work performance (Fredrickson, 2001;Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002;Park et al., 2004;Tugade & Fredrickson, 2004). It has also been associated with avoidance or recovery from antisocial behaviors such as delinquency, drug use, and bullying (Estevez et al., 2009;Laudet et al., 2009;Maccagnan et al., 2019;MacDonald et al., 2005;Moore et al., 2012;Olson et al., 2020;Suldo & Huebner, 2004). ...
Article
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This article proposes an approach to intervening in harms that is based on the integration of positive psychology and restorative justice. We begin by reviewing the importance of interpersonal relationships to restorative justice. Next, we discuss harms as viewed in restorative justice. We then explore the concept and language of happiness through models of satisfaction with life (SWL) from positive psychology. We end the article by proposing the integration of models of SWL into the practices of restorative dialogue and the development of restoration plans.
... Positive psychology is the scientific study of life most worth living, well-being, and human flourishing, and approaches to optimal functioning [1,2]. Research on positive psychology-based positive interventions (PIs) has demonstrated that such PIs may help people properly exert their character strengths in their lives, and accordingly generate positive effects on different aspects of their lives [3]. PIs have proven to be effective in enhancing people's positive emotions [1,2,[4][5][6] and mitigating depression [1,2,[6][7][8]. ...
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Positive interventions (PIs) that are based on the theory of positive psychology have proven to be effective in improving well-being and alleviating depression. However, little research has explored the effect of dosing intervals on experimental effects. As such, this study designed strength-based PIs using cognitive reframing theory and compared flexible and fixed dosing intervals to find out which one could more effectively reduce depression with equal total amounts of dosing. The 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (8-item CES-D) and the Positive reframing scale (PRS) were adopted as research instruments. A total of 193 Taiwanese college students were recruited as the research sample and they were randomly assigned to experimental Group A (fixed dosing intervals), experimental Group B (flexible dosing intervals), and the Control Group. The research participants received 17-day interventions with follow-up tests administered in the seventh week of the experiment. Ultimately, 157 participants completed the experiment. According to the ANCOVA results, participants in experimental Group A showed significantly lower degrees of depression than those in the Control Group in both post-test and follow-up stages and displayed greater effect size in the follow-up stage than in the post-test stage. The results indicated that the design of fixed dosing intervals enabled the participants to effectively integrate reflections on reframing learned during PIs into their life. On the contrary, participants in experimental Group B exhibited no significant difference in the degree of depression from those in the Control Group during either the post-test or follow-up stage and manifested poorer effects in the follow-up stage than in the post-test stage. These results demonstrated that fixed dosing intervals achieved better effects than flexible dosing intervals. Participants receiving fixed dosing intervals could more effectively execute cognitive reframing and showed longer-lasting experimental effects, whereas participants using the design of flexible dosing intervals were more prone to forget to implement PIs and attain less positive effects as a result.
... Findings of the present study are consistent with the outcomes of earlier researches; where CEI was found significantly positively associated with SWLS (Kashdan & Steger, 2007) and positive experience found positively correlated to both components of CEI and negative experience found negatively correlated with both the components (Gallagher & Lopez, 2007;Miljković & Jurčec, 2016). More researches reported scoring higher on trait curiosity found significantly related to higher well-being (Cacioppo et al., 1999;Park et al., 2004;Vittersø, 2003). Curiosity is presumed to play an important role in the development of well-being through a number of mechanisms. ...
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The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship of curiosity with subjective well-being (Life satisfaction, positive experience, and negative experience) in Hindi-speaking Indian youth. Eleven hundred forty-nine (N = 1149) participants with the mean age of 18.50 (SD = 1.6) completed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory – II, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and General Self-efficacy Scale. Correlational analysis indicates significant association of self-efficacy beliefs with both components of curiosity as well as all three components of subjective well-being. On the other hand, stretching component of curiosity measure found significantly correlated other variables used in the study, and the embracing components found correlated only with positive experience component of subjective well-being. Path analysis suggests that self-efficacy beliefs significantly mediate the association of new experiences with life satisfaction, negative experience and uncertain experiences with life satisfaction, negative experience of a person. Also, self-efficacy beliefs have partial mediation on the association of stretching and embracing with positive experience. Findings suggest that being able to control thoughts, behavior and actions contributes positively to emotional as well as cognitive development at all stages of life.
... In addition to emotional well-being issues, in this case, the author assumes that the learning population is important to have character strength. Implicitly the character strength of the learning citizens who become prisoners means building behavioral traits or patterns that are based or related to positive moral dimensions, not negative ones, which are supported by Park, Peterson, & Seligman (2004), who directly link one of the criteria. The main characteristic of "character strength" is that these characters contribute greatly to realizing the full potential and aspirations of someone in building a good life, which benefits themselves and others. ...
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The phenomena that occur in prisoners are very complex such as loss of life satisfaction, hope, and independence, and they have limitations in social interaction. In addition, other phenomena often occur in prisoners, namely the dropping out of school because they have to undergo a period of detention (Kintamani, 2012). While in the socialization institution, they still get the right to enjoy proper education through equality education. As citizens learning equality education, they can also not be separated from the problems that prisoners often experience. Seeing this phenomenon, the author assumes that learning about citizens is important for subjective well-being and character strength. When citizens learn to have subjective well-being and character strength, they can have life productivity (Holder, 2012). This article is discussed using the literature review method by conceptualizing the grand theory and the results of previous research on subjective well-being and the strength of character combined in the learning process of equality education in social institutions. The purpose of this paper is to support research literature exploration of subjective well-being and exploration of character education
... Numerous theories, particularly in psychology, have been established due to extensive research. Several examples include Rokeach (1973), Hofstede (1980), Crosby et al. (1990), Schwartz (1994), Cawley et al. (2000) and Park et al. (2004), If you want to change your customers' behavior, it may take some time. It depends heavily on location and time (Howard and Sheth, 1969). ...
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Purpose The individual’s set of values determines how they make decisions and navigate various personal and professional issues. This study aims to investigate the substitutability of self-improvement values for self-transcendence values in fostering responsible consumption behaviors in society, using Schwartz’s Basic Human Values as the theoretical foundation. Design/methodology/approach Focus group discussions are used to investigate the research problem. Representative samples of 100 centennials or Generation Z college students (50 undergraduate and 50 postgraduate students) and 45 millennials or Generation Y working employees were chosen for focus group talks to ensure the findings’ correctness. Using thematic analysis, the information gathered was coded and analyzed manually. Findings The paper looks into whether people’s self-transcendence values play a role in getting them to act responsibly when they buy things. This study gives us much new information about how people’s values change and how people buy things in today’s world. Research limitations/implications This study explains how changing values make people want to be more responsible with their money and adds to the literature on sustainable consumption and consumer behavior. Using the lens of Schwartz’s Basic Human Values, this study extends the theoretical domain of responsible consumption. Originality/value The concept of sustainable consumption is essential for the next generation’s well-being. The sustainable development goal (SDG) 12 of responsible consumption is the focus of this study. This is a novel study to examine and understand factors that can facilitate consumers to consume responsibly to attain the SDGs. This is also one of the first studies on responsible consumption, using focus group discussions as the research methodology.
... Regarding criterion validity, general life satisfaction/well-being is a crucial and therefore well-studied outcome of the VIA trait space. Our results are in line with previous research that showed positive correlations between life satisfaction and most or all of the 24 character strengths with hope, gratitude, capacity for love, and zest (i.e., character strengths covered by positivity) ranging among the strongest and modesty/humility and prudence (i.e., covered by dependability) ranging among the weakest correlates Park et al., 2004;Proyer et al., 2011;Ruch et al., 2007;Weber et al., 2013). Furthermore, it is plausible that dependability as the most socially beneficial core strength, which also comes with some personal costs, is weakly associated with well-being at most. ...
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The Values in Action (VIA) framework encompasses 24 universally valued character strengths. Recent factor-analytic work has identified three global core strengths (metatraits) that proved to be well-interpretable and cross-culturally replicable: positivity, dependability, and mastery. So far, there are no scales to measure these core strengths. In the present study, we applied an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm to select three 6-item scales from the 96-item IPIP-VIA-R inventory. Thereby, we constructed balanced-keyed scales that cover the heterogeneous constructs well, showed good model fit and reliability across six samples from Germany and the U.K. (total N = 2,754), and achieved scalar measurement invariance across countries. Furthermore, we demonstrated the scales’ validity by locating the three core strengths in a nomological net with personality and value metatraits, life satisfaction, and behavioral criteria. Available in the public domain, these both valid and economic core strengths scales may further stimulate integrative research on personality and values.
... Sheehy (2018) [69] makes a compelling case for having an attitude of "curiosity-driven research", asserting that the technology we employ in the present time is directly tied to curiosity-driven experimentation. Interestingly, curiosity is a significant strength that is most commonly linked to satisfaction with life, well-being, and positive relationships; ( Buschor, Proyer, and Ruch, 2013; Park et al., 2013) [70,71]. ...
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This study aims to ascertain the level of science process skills (SPSs) among pre-service science teachers and to describe how these skills are reflected in their learning approach during the knowledge acquisition process. Additionally, we intend to explore those factors (i.e., those related to cognitive reasoning) that are utilized by pre-service teachers during science experiments conducted at home, in terms of the attainment of SPSs. The course documents of 36 pre-service science teachers were used to help further our understanding of the nature of learning about science through active participation in the inquiry process. Data collection procedures were conducted during a Laboratory Application Course; the participating students were required to undergo the Science Process Skills Test, completed to ascertain their pre-existing skills, as well as a project report investigating the factors affecting plant growth to ascertain levels of SPSs. These data were analyzed using a document analysis method. Data from a Science Process Skills Test were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program, along with the descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that the skills that achieved the highest averages included the formulation of preparation predations, as well as experimentation, while the lowest point averages went to the subcategories of proof through experience and communication. Upon an examination of the project reports, several pre-service teachers soon realized they had made certain errors during the design phase of the experiment, and returned to the initial stage. Still others made errors in the descriptions of variables, findings, and inferences, with the smallest minority committing errors in terms of observation. Students who possessed a meaningful learning approach were deemed as having internalized and recalled concepts in a meaningful way.
... Whereas general humility involves how people think about their shortcomings and strengths across domains, intellectual humility is chiefly concerned with epistemic limitations 16 . In a similar vein, modesty emphasizes increased social awareness and not wanting to monopolize the spotlight or draw too much attention to one's accomplishments, whereas intellectual humility focuses on recognizing one's ignorance and intellectual fallibility 17 . General humility and modesty are also psychometrically distinct from intellectual humility 18,19 . ...
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In a time of societal acrimony, psychological scientists have turned to a possible antidote — intellectual humility. Interest in intellectual humility comes from diverse research areas, including researchers studying leadership and organizational behaviour, personality science, positive psychology, judgement and decision-making, education, culture, and intergroup and interpersonal relationships. In this Review, we synthesize empirical approaches to the study of intellectual humility. We critically examine diverse approaches to defining and measuring intellectual humility and identify the common element: a meta-cognitive ability to recognize the limitations of one’s beliefs and knowledge. After reviewing the validity of different measurement approaches, we highlight factors that influence intellectual humility, from relationship security to social coordination. Furthermore, we review empirical evidence concerning the benefits and drawbacks of intellectual humility for personal decision-making, interpersonal relationships, scientific enterprise and society writ large. We conclude by outlining initial attempts to boost intellectual humility, foreshadowing possible scalable interventions that can turn intellectual humility into a core interpersonal, institutional and cultural value. Intellectual humility involves acknowledging the limitations of one’s knowledge and that one’s beliefs might be incorrect. In this Review, Porter and colleagues synthesize concepts of intellectual humility across fields and describe the complex interplay between intellectual humility and related individual and societal factors.
... To fulfill this aim we turned to crafting and discussing critical incidents that were positive. Such moments suggested competence in our work as MTEs and supported our representations of self by using positive personal traits or character strengths such as kindness, self-control, creativity, or curiosity (Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004). Contrasting our experiences with critical incidents that left us feeling the need to leave mathematics teacher education with experiences that seemed to encourage us to further engage with our work, inspired our initial inquiry and desire to understand why negative incidents seemed to be privileged in mathematics teacher education. ...
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As critical friends, we participated in a longitudinal collaborative self-study to explore and challenge our assumptions and beliefs for purposes of improving our understanding and practice (Bullough & Pinnegar, 2001). During this process, we became critical friends as co-authors-- that is, dynamic meaning-makers whose critical friendship surpassed our expectation to act as “a sounding board” (Schuck & Russell, 2005 p. 107), challenge one another, support the reframing of events, and join in the professional learning experience (Loughran & Northfield, 1996). As co-authors, we pushed the boundaries of what we expected of a critical friend through dialogue and collaborative meaning-making. Valuing our whole selves in pursuit of our self-study, we crossed the borders of professional practices to include the silent and unspoken stories from our complex individual identities (Hostetler, Mills, & Hawley, 2014) beyond that of teacher educator researchers. We also invited the knowledge, experience, tensions, and life narratives stemming from our identities as mothers, wives, women of faith, and as minorities in our institutions. In this paper, we describe the process of being and becoming critical friends as co-authors by answering the following questions: How do these recursive processes--meaning-making transactions/ dialogic interactions-- generate our critical friendship? How do these processes evoke and/or sustain critical friends as co-authors? Our discoveries make visible how self-study guided us to: (1) disarm the boundaries of our individual selves by disrupting our existing understanding of self in relationship to our past lived experiences; (2) cross into a collaborative space where we are able to co-author our narrative lives through a collaborative conference protocol; and (3) push the boundaries of our present work as teacher educator researchers by transforming our professional inquiries through co-authoring.
... These results agree with the study by Dunbar et al., (28), who found that music performance signi cantly increased positive affects. Although further evidence is required, this result could support the importance of music education, since it provides tools to increase their positive affects, so important for emotional intelligence development (39,40). This is important not only for musicians, but also for the population as a whole, since music education allows many schoolchildren to play simple pieces without necessarily being musicians. ...
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Background: Currently, there are few empirical studies that demonstrate the effects of music on specific emotions, especially in the educational context. For this reason, this study was carried out to examine the impact of music to identify affective changes after exposure to three musical stimuli. Methods: The participants were 71 university students engaged in a music education course and none of them were musicians. Changes in the affective state of non-musical student teachers were studied after listening to three pieces of music. An inter-subject repeated measures ANOVA test was carried out using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to measure their affective state. Results: The results revealed that: i) the three musical experiences were beneficial in increasing positive affects and reducing negative affects, with significant differences between the interaction of Music Experiences x Moment (pre-post); ii) listening to Mahler’s sad fifth symphony reduced more negative affects than the other experimental conditions; iii) performing the blues had the highest positive effects. Conclusions: These findings provide applied keys aspects for music education and research., as they show empirical evidence on how music can modify specific affects of personal experience.
... "Zest" is perceived as a person's approaching life with excitement and energy (Park & Peterson, 2009). According to researchers, "zest" possesses a strong, consistent positive relationship with health, emotional well-being, autonomy, and positive interpersonal relationships and life satisfaction observed within all age groups (Park et al., 2004;Peterson et al., 2005). Weber and Ruch (2012) proved gratitude, zest, love of learning, perseverance and curiosity to be positively associated with school-related satisfaction. ...
Article
Research on students’ social-emotional health is important for quality learning and well-being at school, especially during the challenges of the Covid-19 pandemic times. Purpose: to investigate younger school-age students’ social-emotional health, satisfaction with life, and perceived school climate in the Covid-19 pandemic crisis and the predominance of distance learning by longitudinal research strategy. Method: Social and Emotional Health Survey-Primary (SEHS-P; Furlong et al., 2013) and Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS; Huebner, 2001). The sample was 84 junior school-age students (10 –12 years old) from Lithuanian schools. The results and conclusions: The first months of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis led to the deterioration of social-emotional health and satisfaction of younger school-age students. However, after 8 months of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis (re-test), some improvements in students’ emotional health, satisfaction with life, and classroom microclimate were observed. No gender-based differences were identified among students. The results revealed positive and significant correlations between the younger school-age students’ social-emotional health, satisfaction with life, and perceived school climate; the conducted regression analysis showed that family plays a significant role in junior school students’ social-emotional health. The teachers’ support for distance learning students could have improved their classroom microclimate and the knowledge of students’ health status could have helped them to adapt to distance learning more effectively during the Covid-19 pandemic crisis.
... It is important to note that the VIA is still being refined, so the list of strengths may change accordingly. 49 Therefore, further research is needed to test the VIA among patients with breast cancer with various characteristics. ...
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Objective: To explore the patients' experiences on character strengths that Chinese patients experience after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Design: A qualitative, exploratory study using semistructured interviews based on the patients' lived experience after being diagnosed with breast cancer. Ethics approval was granted. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Values in Action Classification of Strengths provided conceptual framework for analysing strengths. Directed content analysis based on the classification of strengths and framework analysis were used to analyse transcribed data. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guideline was followed. Setting: The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital in China. Participants: Adult patients over 18 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between October 2019 and December 2020 were recruited. We used purposive sample method to collected data from 24 participants diagnosed with breast cancer. Results: Six themes (virtues) emerged from our analysis. In addition, two new subthemes (character strengths) emerged in this study, selflessness and pragmatism, respectively. Patients with breast cancer described a large repertoire of character strengths they used or wished for during survivorship, including gratitude, hope, humility, kindness, humour, honesty and forgiveness. Cultural values (eg, collectivism, familyism, Confucianism and Buddhist beliefs) helped structure the experiences of Chinese patients' character strengths. Patients wanted their character strengths to be more noticed, appreciated and encouraged by others and reported their psychological trajectory of using personal strengths. Conclusion: The findings indicated that patients with breast cancer believing character strengths are important to them. Medical staff should pay more attention to motivating and cultivating character strengths of patients with breast cancer. Attention to make strength-based practices workable in clinical health promotion programmes is necessary. The healthcare system should develop tailored individualised psychological services that specifically address patients' needs for the application of personalised character strengths. Trial registration number: NCT04219267, Pre-results.
... Each element of PERMA can be targeted through the development of character strengths (Seligman, 2011). Character strengths are positive traits expressed on a continuum and represented by one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Park et al., 2004). Robust associations have been established between character strengths and a variety of broad constructs indicative of well-being that are demonstrated to be universally valued across cultures, intrinsically fulfilling, and malleable (McGrath, 2015;. ...
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Animal-assisted therapy in counseling (AAT-C) provides several key enhancements to counseling practice, including the promotion of emotional regulation and social skills. Various approaches exist for integrating counseling theories with AAT-C; however, the inclusion of therapy animals in positive psychology practice has yet to be explored in the counseling literature. In this article, we propose an integrated counseling treatment approach that blends AAT-C with the PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment) theory of well-being. We review key concepts of PERMA and AAT-C, as well as delineate the beneficial mental health effects of human–animal interactions through the theoretical underpinnings of positive psychology. We then link animal involvement in AAT-C to specific intervention strategies and the understood mechanisms of change described in the PERMA model, followed by the description of a brief hypothetical counseling case example. We conclude with ethical considerations and implications for clinical mental health counseling practice and research.
... The 24character strengths in the classification include social intelligence, fairness, leadership, citizenship, forgiveness, humility, prudence, self-regulation, appreciation of beauty, gratitude, hope, humor, spirituality, wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, transcendence, creativity, curiosity, love of learning, open-mindedness, perspective, honesty, bravery, industry, zest, kindness, and love (Kabakçı et al., 2019). There is an important criterion about character strengths and virtues; these should be observable, consistent, measurable, individually different, contributory to individual well-being, valued morally, should be evaluated as important by society, and noticeable from an early age (Park, et al., 2004). ...
Article
Strengths not only increase the well-being of individuals, but also help them to overcome their negative life experiences in a better way. In this study, it is aimed to increase five-character strengths and in the same time manage anxiety levels of individuals by 13 sessions strength-based group psychological counseling program formed by the researchers. 18-21 aged 20 individuals (60% female, 40% male) from various departments participated in experimental and control group. Data showed a statistically significant decrease in the anxiety levels and an increase in the character strengths of zest for life and hope in the experimental group. Using character strengths as a tool may open a novel way for literature and members of different professions by interdisciplinarity to deal with anxiety. Developmental psychologists, psychological counselors, family counselors, members of profession work in parenting education, child development specialists, preschool teachers and school principals may play vital roles in preventing high anxiety levels at an early life phase. Moreover, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and psychological counselor specialists may help individuals to maintain their wellbeing and manage their anxiety in an encouraging atmosphere. In this way, psychologically healthier individuals may constitute healthier societies in long term.
... Character strengths are the second pillar of positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). The VIA inventory of character strengths (see Park et al., 2004) comprises a list of 24 character strengths classified under 6 broad virtues. Under the virtue of courage in this inventory is the character strength of persistence which involves, according to , maintaining effort by learners to solve problems in the face of obstacles and difficulties. ...
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This study aimed to examine a theory-driven model to explain how language learner’s trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and e􀀀ort as two learner character strengths predict learner enjoyment as a positive emotion and anxiety and boredom as two negative classroom emotions, and how these variables, collectively, predict resilience in language learning. The underlying relationship between these variables was tested via a comprehensive model within a positive psychology perspective using the partial least squares structural equationmodeling (PLS-SEM) approach. The paths in the final structuralmodel indicated that L2 learner TEI did not significantly explain their resilience directly but rather completely indirectly through the mediation of learner negative and positive emotions. Learner e􀀀ort, directly and indirectly, predicted L2 resilience and its predictive power in it was much larger than that of TEI. In addition, enjoyment and boredom directly influenced L2 resilience and also mediated the relationship between learner character strengths and resilience. Anxiety did not significantly predict learner L2 resilience directly since its influence was rather dependent on the role of enjoyment and boredom in L2 resilience. These findings widely support the claims within positive psychology domain that recognize the vital role of character strengths and learner emotions in enhancing L2 learner resilience.
... Also, in a study conducted by Beermann and Ruch (2009) humour has been found to be positively associated with all the six virtues of VIA but most strongly with the virtues of transcendence, wisdom, and humanity. Among the strengths which have the highest positive correlation with the factors such as lifesatisfaction and the subjective well-being (Ruch et al., 2011;Peterson et al., 2007;Park et al., 2004) one of the most accredited character strengths is humour . People who are suffering from chronic illnesses, humour has been found to have a mediating role in higher life satisfaction . ...
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Humour is one of the mesmerizing qualities possessed by human beings which provides a positive and funny outlook towards the stressful events that take place in one's life, making the coping process efficient. According to the studies conducted earlier, humour has been conceptualized as a multi-faceted construct, with adaptive and maladaptive styles of humour. The affiliative and self-enhancing styles of humour have been studied to be beneficial for mental health. Whereas, the aggressive and self-defeating styles of humour are considered to be detrimental to it. This research theorized that there is an association between the styles of humour and the types of self-esteem, which has been supported by various studies. The findings indicate that both types of self-esteem are positively associated with the self-enhancing and affiliative styles of humour and negatively associated with self-defeating humour. The possible positive relation between aggressive style of humour and explicit self-esteem is also discussed along with the implication of humour in various fields.
... This is interesting because zest was not significantly directly related to school achievement. Nevertheless, zest plays a significant role for school satisfaction (Weber and Ruch, 2012;Weber, 2018) and for satisfaction in general (e.g., Park et al., 2004;Ruch et al., 2014;Weber, 2021), and school satisfaction plays a significant role for school achievement, as has been shown in the present study. As another example, curiosity is not directly related to school achievement, but is related to enjoyment of learning, which is in turn positively related to school achievement. ...
Article
This study is embedded in the theoretical framework of the engine model of positive schooling. Accordingly, relations were investigated between students’ endogenous input variables (i.e., character strengths), process variables (i.e., school satisfaction, enjoyment of learning, and academic self- efficacy), and school achievement as an outcome variable. A sample of 300 students (between 10 and 17 years of age) completed web-based self- report measures for all key variables. Specific character strengths (e.g., love of learning, zest, hope, perseverance, and perspective) were substantially positively related to school satisfaction, enjoyment of learning, academic self-efficacy, and/or school achievement. Exploratory mediation analyses supported the basic assumption that processes (i.e., school satisfaction, enjoyment of learning, and academic self-efficacy) mediate the relations between character strengths as input variables and school achievement as an outcome variable. The findings underline the benefit of studying inputs, processes, and outcomes simultaneously to better understand the interplay among relevant variables in the context of positive schooling.
... Described and measured in The Values in Action (VIA) Classification of Strengths, the 24 character strengths include creativity, curiosity, openness, love of learning, perspective, bravery, persistence, honesty, zest, intimacy, kindness, social intelligence, teamwork, fairness, leadership, forgiveness, modesty, prudence, self-control, appreciation of beauty, gratitude, hope, humor, and spirituality. They have been proven to be associated with positive psychological dimensions, such as life satisfaction [12][13][14] and stress coping [15]. Character strengths like hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity have shown positive associations with general mental health [16] and negative associations with depression and anxiety [17][18][19][20]. ...
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Will Chinese people change in terms of their character strengths when disasters strike? As far as the most recent COVID-19 pandemic is concerned, we provide an explorative answer from the impacts of positive traits included in the Values in Action Classification of Strengths upon Chinese people. We conducted a large-scale online survey from 1 January 2019 to 13 February 2020, with 12,878 respondents nationwide, covering all the administrative regions in China and all age intervals. The changes in the 24 character strengths before and during the pandemic were compared. Results revealed a significant increase in teamwork triggered by the pandemic among Chinese people. Fine-grained differences in demographic variables were also examined. Results showed that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly boosted teamwork for both males and females. Concerning age differences, only younger adults (18–25-year-old) showed a significant increase in teamwork. Besides this, it was also discovered that females always performed a higher teamwork tendency than males, and the elderly higher than the younger, regardless of the pandemic.
... Positive thinking is a set of positive and personal qualities that includes the following six basic virtues: courage, love, knowledge, interaction with the group, spirituality and religiosity and selfcontrol and justice (Seligman, 2004). Baylis and Seligman (2009) state that positive thinking is optimism and it is also looking at the good side in everything and looking for the exciting face in life, even if it is a flash of light. ...
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This research aimed to identify the effectiveness of a training programme on positive thinking skills in reducing the level of university students' tendency towards intellectual extremism. The quasi-experimental research design was utilised. Twenty students participated in the research and were divided into 10 students in the experimental group and 10 in the control group. The training programme and the scale of the tendency towards intellectual extremism were applied to them. Data were analysed by the Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. The findings illustrated that there were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental and the control groups on the tendency towards intellectual extremism scale and its components after applying for the programme, in favour of the experimental group. In addition, there were no significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group in the post and follow-up measurement of the tendency towards intellectual extremism and its components a month later. The research recommends conducting training courses and workshops for faculty members on how to familiarise students with positive thinking skills, which are reflected in the students' thinking and their reduced level of intellectual extremism. Keywords: Positive thinking skills, tendency towards intellectual extremism, university students.
... A major focus in the positive psychology literature has pertained to personal character strengths-the natural feelings, thoughts, and behaviors which reflect positive human traits that one strives to use and in order to reach their optimal level of functioning (Govindji & Linley, 2007;Park et al., 2004). Peterson and Seligman (2004) made a key contribution to this construct with their classification of 24 character strengths based on cross-cultural and historical reviews. ...
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Women with mental illness (MI) face a number of risks and challenges, yet also have unique strengths that enhance their coping and resilience. Research in psychology has found character strengths to improve quality of life, subjective life satisfaction, and well-being. However, more research is needed to identify the strengths of women with MI in particular. The present qualitative study was conducted to address this gap in the literature, and characterize the strengths of women with MI. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the interviews from 20 women with MI. Data analysis led to the identification of 5 themes: stereotype utilization, survivorship strength, mental health sisterhood, working the system, and the inherent strength of womanhood. Several strengths of women with MI incorporated lessons from management of double stigmas and oppressive institutions, as well as strategies that emerged to convert barriers into advantages. Other strengths involved fortitude and empowerment from socialization around their gender, in addition to relational values and abilities. Findings suggest the value of strengths-based psychosocial rehabilitation interventions for this group to support the recovery of women with MI, and the need for public policy to prevent trauma and stigmatization of women with mental illness.
Article
Background Adolescents with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) are at higher risk of academic underachievement, stigmatization, and mental health issues. However, the complete elimination of disorder-related deficits and external challenges is an impracticable solution for enhancing their well-being. Aim The study adopts a strength-based approach to understand the role of an innate factor, i.e., self-concept, in the association between character strengths and well-being of adolescents with SLD. Methods A correlational research design following a mediation analysis was adopted to examine the association between the study variables on a sample of 115 adolescents with SLD from India. Results Self-concept functioned as a partial mediator between the life-satisfaction construct of well-being and six character strengths: Appreciation of beauty and excellence, Perseverance, Judgment, Leadership, Perspective, and Zest. Gender differences were identified with regard to the study variables. Conclusions and implications Self-concept of adolescents with SLD could partly contribute to enhanced character strengths awareness to protect well-being. Further, the crucial role of internal factors like self-concept and character strengths in improving the well-being of this population was highlighted. Thereby encouraging future research on SLD to adopt approaches that focus on innate strengths rather than deficits and external sources of well-being.
Article
Previous research demonstrated that both spirituality and curiosity were positively associated with life satisfaction. However, limited research investigated the relationship between spirituality and curiosity. One hundred eight Chinese Christian teachers participated in an online questionnaire that measured their spirituality, curiosity, and life satisfaction. Results showed that three dimensions of curiosity, namely, joyous exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance, were significantly associated with spirituality. Deprivation sensitivity was found to be a significant competitive mediator (suppressor) of the relation between spirituality and life satisfaction, indicating the anxiety embedded in deprivation sensitivity might interfere with Christian teachers’ life satisfaction. The finding provides support for the importance of fostering psychological capital and developmental assets for Christian teachers’ positive development.
Article
Background The positive psychology and neurodiversity movements both aim to promote and improve wellbeing through strengths-based approaches. However, little is known about how positive psychology can support the wellbeing of autistic people. The present study investigated character strengths profiles as a potential tool to identify strengths-based interventions that could enhance wellbeing outcomes for autistic adults. To our knowledge, this is first study to use this method as a possible way of improving the wellbeing of autistic adults in the community in the UK. Method Forty-seven self-reported formally diagnosed (83%) and self-identifying (17%) autistic adults completed online self-rated standardised questionnaires about their character strengths and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics and correlational analyses were used to evaluate the profile of character strengths and their relationship to overall life satisfaction. Results Character strengths most frequently reported by autistic adults were Honesty, Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence, Love of Learning, Fairness, and Kindness. Higher levels of life satisfaction were associated with character strengths of Gratitude, Hope, and Honesty. Conclusions The most frequent character strengths were consistent with autistic traits reported in the wider body of autism literature, such as intense interests and strong attention to detail. The present study provides preliminary findings and recommendations for potential future strengths-based interventions that could enhance life satisfaction of autistic adults in a community setting. Further investigation with larger samples is needed to replicate the emerging findings on this topic.
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Az oktatás nemzetközivé válása folytán az egyes országok oktatási rendszerei globálisan versengő termékké válnak. Az Ausztriába tanulási céllal ingázó, illetve részben tanulási célból kivándorló tanulók száma a nyugat-dunántúli régióban jelenleg 2000 főre tehető, ami alapján kijelenthető, hogy az osztrák oktatás a magyar oktatás konkurenciájává vált. Jelen tanulmányban bemutatott kutatás során feltártuk, hogy milyen motívumok határozzák meg a szülők iskolaválasztással kapcsolatos döntését, milyen kritika fogalmazódik meg a szülőkben a magyar intézményes oktatással, neveléssel kapcsolatban, az oktatás nevelés mely területén tartják jobbnak és miért az osztrák közoktatási intézményekben folyó pedagógiai munkát, az osztrák iskolák gyakorlata megfelel-e a szülői döntést megalapozó elvárásoknak, illetve jobb és eredményesebb-e az osztrák oktatás a magyarnál a nemzetközi kompetenciamérések tükrében.
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Raziskovalci na področju pozitivne psihologije preučujejo dejavnike, ki pripomorejo k ohranjanju optimalnega človekovega delovanja in uresničevanja njegovih lastnih potencialov. Enega ključnih konceptov v pozitivni psihologiji predstavljajo vrline, opredeljene kot pozitivne lastnosti z visoko moralno vrednostjo. Peterson in Seligman (2004) sta oblikovala klasifikacijo 24 vrlin, ki se uvrščajo pod šest temeljnih vrlin: modrost in znanje, človečnost, pogum, pravičnost, zmernost in transcendentnost. Raziskovalci so v raziskavah na splošni populaciji ugotovili številne koristi posameznikovega poznavanja lastnih vrlin in njihovega udejanjanja v vsakdanjem življenju. Vrline se povezujejo z zadovoljstvom z življenjem in delom, v intervencijskih študijah pa so ugotovili višjo stopnjo sreče in nižjo stopnjo depresivnosti pri udeležencih iz eksperimentalnih skupin. Ker učitelji vstopajo v razred tudi s svojo osebnostjo ter imajo pomemben vpliv na učenje in osebni razvoj svojih učencev, se v prispevku osredinjam na vrline učiteljev. Raziskave kažejo na še posebej pomembno vlogo dveh vrlin, tj. upanja in vneme, ki prispevata k zadovoljstvu, delovni učinkovitosti in k psihičnemu zdravju. Dozdajšnja znanstvena dognanja v prispevku povezujem tudi z nekaterimi ugotovitvami iz raziskave v slovenskem prostoru, v katerem sta se ti vrlini izkazali pomembni tudi za učitelje. Učitelji z višje izraženima vrlinama upanje in vnema so poročali o višjem zadovoljstvu, svoje delo so zaznavali kot poslanstvo, hkrati pa so jih tudi učenci ocenili pozitivneje. V prispevku tako poudarjam pomen vrlin upanja in vneme ter predlagam strategije za njuno spodbujanje pri učiteljih.
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Despite a tremendous amount of research on the topic, we still have little evidence regarding the extent to which transformational leader behaviors (TLBs) cause a number of outcomes. The primary inhibitors include a lack of theoretical precision, the conflation of leader (follower) behaviors with evaluations, as well as measurement and design issues which prevent causal inferences. To address such concerns, we reframe the transformational leadership literature from a signaling theory perspective. Study 1 reviewed existing definitions of transformational leadership. Building on this, we introduce a new definition of TLB: Leader signaling through developmental and prosocial behaviors tailored for each unique stakeholder (e.g., person, dyad, group, organization). Leveraging topic modeling, Study 2 involved the analysis of open-ended survey responses. Using a constant comparative approach, six TLBs were identified: 1. teaching life lessons, 2. introduction to developmental opportunities, 3. providing different perspectives, 4. seeking different perspectives, 5. questioning critical assumptions, and 6. speaking words of affirmation. Studies 3 and 4 were preregistered experiments that showed TLBs cause variation in follower evaluations of the leader as transformational (n = 416; Cohen’s d = .50) and contributions to a public good (n = 320; Cohen’s d = .36), respectively. We conclude with recommendations for theory and practice.
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There are more than 150 (grand and micro) theories of emotion. Even as European phenomenological perspectives do mention self and agency, the mainstream discourse on emotion in psychology is quite limited in presenting a coherent theory of affective process. A key aspect of Euro-American theories of emotion is that, these theories are topographically flat, thus, unable to provide mechanisms of transformation of emotion relevant for well-being. In this paper, a theory-based framework for emotional transformation through understanding Indian concepts in āyurveda, yoga sutras and the nātya is discussed. Second, the paper proposes that it is Śānta (the Indian conceptualisation of peace) alone, that permits a substantive possibility to a radical re-emotion or experiencing and articulating well-being. The concept for a radical re-emotion is called Bhāvanā, indicating the possibility of conscious and radical re-creation and re-imagination of affective relationships with objects, concepts, processes and people in the world, re-orienting from the isolated ‘re-appraisal’, ‘self-regulation and control’ of emotion as discussed in the mainstream paradigm. The paper contends that these culturally relevant models educate and inform global psychology theory and applied practice.
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The risk of suicide in psychiatric hospitals is 50 times higher than in the general population, despite patient safety being a priority for any hospital. However, to date, due to the complexity of assessing suicide risk, there has been no consensus on the suicide prevention measures that should be in place in hospitals. The aim of this work is: To provide an overview of the progress that has been made in the field of inpatient suicide prevention in recent years; discuss the problems that remain; and suggest potential future developments. As new clinical dimensions (notably anhedonia, psychological pain and hopelessness) develop, they should become new therapeutic targets. Team training (like the Gatekeeper Training Program) and the latest advances in suicide risk assessment (such as the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality) should be implemented in psychiatric wards. Suicide prevention plans (e.g., ASSIP, SAFE-T, etc.) represent easy-to-administer, low-cost interventions. The Mental Health Environment of Care Checklist has been proven effective to reduce suicide risk at hospitals. Furthermore, the types of psychotherapy recommended to reduce suicide risk are cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). There are several pharmacological treatments for suicide risk, such as lithium and clozapine, which have been shown to be effective in the long term, as well as ketamine and esketamine, which are more effective in the short term. Following some encouraging recent results, buprenorphine may also be proposed to patients with a suicide risk. Triple chronotherapy rapidly improves depressive symptoms over 9 weeks. Regarding brain stimulation techniques, rTMS has proven to be effective in alleviating multiple dimensions of suicidality.
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Welcome to our Special Issue on Positive Criminology and Positive Psychology. It is our hope that this issue will help generate critical reflection about American criminal justice policy and the possibility of moving the system towards a happier and more prosocial perspective. To begin, this editorial introduction briefly frames positive criminology and positive psychology for the readers, and then reviews the content of the special issue. The link to the full text, electronic version is: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/08874034221133727
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Gratitude has been recognized as virtuous for centuries, but steady psychological research only emerged in the last few decades. Ample evidence has accumulated in a short time that gratitude is associated with better mental health outcomes—in terms of less mental illness and more psychological well-being. This article opens with a broad view of gratitude in terms of its implications for human development. Then we summarize empirical findings on gratitude's advantages to the functioning and well-being of youth and adults. We propose that gratitude fosters mental health and well-being because it is linked to many aspects of positive functioning and because it engages various mechanisms to benefit well-being. In conclusion, gratitude may instill many positive habits for people of various ages to be happy and flourish.
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Research on strengths-based positive interventions (SBPIs) has often supported their effectiveness, but these studies overwhelmingly focus on experiential outcomes such as affect and subjective well-being. Much less is known about their effectiveness for eliciting positive behavioral outcomes. The current article provides a lexicon to clarify distinctions between various types of positive interventions. This is followed by a meta-analysis of studies examining behavioral outcomes from SBPIs. Multiple databases were searched through October 2020. Out of 418 studies evaluating what could be considered SBPIs, only 48 analyses across 29 articles examined group differences in a behavioral outcome. Random-effects meta-analysis of post-test data revealed a small to medium, statistically significant effect, Hedges’ g= 0.32. Evidence was insufficient to suggest small-study or methodological bias. SBPIs seemed effective for eliciting behavioral change relative to control conditions consistent with prior meta-analyses. However, the available data are too limited to support SBPIs as an alternative to traditional approaches that focus on direct symptom reduction.
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The Macro Theory of Positive Functioning integrates key aspects of the Self-Determination Theory and the Broaden and Build Theory. The theory posits a model that provides new perspectives on the development of positive characteristics. The Macro Theory proposes that higher levels of intrinsic motivation and basic needs satisfaction as described by the Self-Determination Theory result in high levels of positive affect (consisting of emotions such as joy). The Broaden and Build Theory proposes that high levels of positive affect result in a broadening of perspective resulting in more engagement with opportunities and relationships, which builds beneficial cognitive and behavioural resources and skills. Such resources and skills may manifest as positive characteristics described and studied in the positive psychology approach. These characteristics include self-compassion, self-efficacy, empathy, emotional intelligence, and character strengths. High levels of these characteristics may result in optimal functioning. Results from model testing with concurrent data designs as well as experimental designs provide initial support for the Macro Theory.
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The development of Peterson and Seligman’s character strength classification has contributed to the development of wellbeing theory and practice in education. There are now hundreds of examples of strength-based education interventions and conceptual frameworks for positive psychology and the humanities. Nevertheless, a constant theoretical gap between education theory and practice remains in the teaching of wellbeing and professional practice. This gap challenges wellbeing educators to differentiate between strength-based teaching and the topic of strengths in a class. It is argued that this distinction has been a persistent problem in wellbeing education research and a limitation of wellbeing education theory leading to two questions: how are strengths taught in schools, and how can character strengths be analysed in the teaching of literature? This chapter theorises the possibilities for teaching character strengths in a literature class. It draws on Peterson and Seligman’s character strengths classification and Tay and Pawelski’s conceptual model for the positive humanities to explore teaching possibilities. The chapter then theorises the opportunities in the context of a soliloquy from Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Finally, a case for integrating teacher professional practice and strengths is presented to support future research.KeywordsEnglish curriculum and pedagogyProfessional developmentStrengthsStudent wellbeingTeacher education
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Résumé Introduction Les recherches en psychologie positive suggèrent que certaines pratiques en psychothérapie engendrent des bénéfices cliniques importants, mais il n’est pas toujours clair pour les cliniciens quelles pratiques prioriser ou bien encore comment les intégrer en psychothérapie. Objectif Cette recherche vise à identifier et expliquer, pour les cliniciens, certaines pratiques cliniques à intégrer dans la pratique psychothérapeutique. Méthode Huit professionnels (incluant : professeurs-chercheurs, psychologues et étudiants au doctorat) se sont réunis durant six rencontres de deux heures afin d’identifier, classifier et décrire comment les résultats de recherches récentes pourraient informer les interventions auprès des clients. Ces conclusions ont subséquemment été spécifiées et bonifiées via une comparaison plus approfondie avec la littérature. Résultats Nous décrivons huit pratiques : (1) Évaluer également ce qui va bien chez les clients (2) Favoriser leur motivation autodéterminée ; (3) Mettre en valeur leurs forces et compétences ; (4) Mettre en lumière leur résilience ; (5) Favoriser l’autocompassion et la bienveillance ; (6) Favoriser le soutien et la cohésion sociale, notamment par la gratitude et la compassion ; (7) Favoriser le développement d’une mentalité de croissance ; et (8) Intégrer soi-même les principes qui favorisent le bien-être psychologique. Conclusion Les cliniciens et leurs clients gagneraient à favoriser ces pratiques en psychothérapie.
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This paper presents a theory of potentially universal aspects in the content of human values. Ten types of values are distinguished by their motivational goals. The theory also postulates a structure of relations among the value types, based on the conflicts and compatibilities experienced when pursuing them. This structure permits one to relate systems of value priorities, as an integrated whole, to other variables. A new values instrument, based on the theory and suitable for cross-cultural research, is described. Evidence relevant for assessing the theory, from 97 samples in 44 countries, is summarized. Relations of this approach to Rokeach's work on values and to other theories and research on value dimensions are discussed. Application of the approach to social issues is exemplified in the domains of politics and intergroup relations.
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This book is about the consequences of happiness. Research has hitherto concentrated on determinants of happiness exclusively. Speculative theories on effects of happiness are contradictory. Some claim that happiness turns people into 'contented cows' and imply that a certain degree of unhappiness is actually better for man and society. Other assert that it precisely leads to zest and makes people and society flourish. This book presents first attempts to identify consequences of happiness empirically. It considers the effects on: outlook, work performance, resistance to stress, health and social functioning. None of the predicted adverse effects are found, but several positive effects are demonstrated.
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Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article presents a theory of potentially universal aspects in the content of human values. Ten types of values are distinguished by their motivational goals. The theory also postulates a structure of relations among the value types, based on the conflicts and compatibilities experienced when pursuing them. This structure permits one to relate systems of value priorities, as an integrated whole, to other variables. A new values instrument, based on the theory and suitable for cross-cultural research, is described. Evidence relevant for assessing the theory, from 97 samples in 44 countries, is summarized. Relations of this approach to Rokeach's work on values and to other theories and research on value dimensions are discussed. Application of the approach to social issues is exemplified in the domains of politics and intergroup relations.
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This meta-analysis used 9 literature search strategies to examine 137 distinct personality constructs as correlates of subjective well-being (SWB). Personality was found to be equally predictive of life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, but significantly less predictive of negative affect. The traits most closely associated with SWB were repressive-defensiveness, trust, emotional stability, locus of control-chance, desire for control, hardiness, positive affectivity, private collective self-esteem, and tension. When personality traits were grouped according to the Big Five factors, Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of life satisfaction, happiness, and negative affect. Positive affect was predicted equally well by Extraversion and Agreeableness. The relative importance of personality for predicting SWB, how personality might influence SWB, and limitations of the present review are discussed.
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The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of social networks that may aid in this process. The biobehavioral mechanism that underlies the tend-and-befriend pattern appears to draw on the attachment-caregiving system, and neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxytocin, in conjunction with female reproductive hormones and endogenous opioid peptide mechanisms, may be at its core. This previously unexplored stress regulatory system has manifold implications for the study of stress.
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Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.
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A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
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Subjective well-being (SWB), people's emotional and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Personality dispositions such as extraversion, neuroticism, and self-esteem can markedly influence levels of SWB. Although personality can explain a significant amount of the variability in SWB, life circumstances also influence long-term levels. Cultural variables explain differences in mean levels of SWB and appear to be due to objective factors such as wealth, to norms dictating appropriate feelings and how important SWB is considered to be, and to the relative approach versus avoidance tendencies of societies. Culture can also moderate which variables most influence SWB. Although it is challenging to assess SWB across societies, the measures have some degree of cross-cultural validity. Although nations can be evaluated by their levels of SWB, there are still many open questions in this area.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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Interdisciplinary conceptions of quality of life are reviewed and an integrative model of quality of life is proposed as a way to correct for terminological inconsistencies and to guide further quality of life research and health care applications. Research and theory supporting the need for routine quality of life assessment and intervention in general medicine, psychiatry, clinical psychology, behavioral medicine, and gerontology is discussed. Clinical guidelines for and research on quality of life assessment and intervention in health care are presented and reviewed. An integrated service delivery system in which quality of life assessments and interventions are considered co-equal with those aimed at ameliorating physical and psychological symptoms is proposed along with a future program of research.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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A virtue is defined as any psychological process that enables a person to think and act so as to benefit both him- or herself and society. Character is a higher-order construct reflecting the possession of several of the component virtues. The process by which the topics of virtue and character fell out of favor in psychology is reviewed, with a call for a rebirth of interest in these concepts in the interface of clinical, counseling, social, and personality psychology.
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Forgiving promotes continuity in interpersonal relationships by mending the inevitable injuries and transgressions that occur in social interaction. This article presents a conceptual model positing that forgiveness is prosocial change in the motivations to avoid or to seek revenge against a transgressor. Social-psychological factors that are correlates and determinants of forgiving are reviewed. Also reviewed is the current measurement technology for assessing forgiveness constructs at the offense-specific level, the relationship-specific level, and the dispositional level. The links between forgiveness and human health and well-being are also explored. The article concludes with recommendations for future research on forgiving.
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An experiment was arranged whereby all three judges independently classified into the four selected columns 300 representative words, drawn from the total list according to a principle of representative distribution. The results of this study may be expressed in percentages of the total number of terms that each pair of judges assigned to identically the same columns. Taking only the instances where all three judges agree, we find 141 words or 47 per cent of the list, whereas 6.25 per cent represents the chance expectation. Examining this average agreement more closely we next determine the peculiarities of each individual judge when his placements are compared with those of the other two judges. This analysis calls attention to perhaps the principal source of unreliability, namely the tendency of each judge to have a mental set of "leniency" favoring the inclusion of marginal or doubtful terms in one column rather than another. Four outside judges selected 130 of the 300 terms as strange and unfamiliar to them. The agreement of the three editors for this group of terms averaged only 45 per cent, as against 47 per cent for the total list, and 48 per cent for the remaining 170 more familiar terms. Apparently established usage and familiarity enhances but slightly the reliability of the placement.
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After teaching cognitive and social-problem-solving techniques designed to prevent depressive symptoms, we followed 69 fifth- and sixth-grade children at risk for depression for 2 years We compared these children with 49 children in a matched no-treatment control group The prevention group reported fewer depressive symptoms through the 2-year followup, and moderate to severe symptoms were reduced by half Surprisingly, the effects of the prevention program grew larger after the program was over We suggest that psychological immunization against depression can occur by teaching cognitive and social skills to children as they enter puberty
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The structure of virtue was investigated through the development and construct validation of the Virtues Scale (VS), a 140-item self-report measure of virtues. A factor analysis of responses from 390 participants revealed four factors: Empathy, Order, Resourcefulness, and Serenity. Four virtue subscales constructed from the highest loading items on each factor were correlated with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) scales in two additional samples (ns=181 and 143). One of these samples also completed the DIT measure of Kohlbergian moral development. Meaningful, replicated correlations between the virtue subscales and personality scales and complete lack of relationships between the virtues scales and the DIT indicate that virtue is a function of personality rather than moral reasoning and cognitive development. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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A review of the literature on coaching reveals that very little empirical research has focused on the executive coaching methods used by consultants with managers and leaders in organizations. Within the framework of a 17-dimensional model of systems and psychodynamic theory, the author provides an overview of a conceptual approach to coaching activities that incorporates 5 identifiable components plus an emphasis on goal setting, intervention methods, and hypothesized factors in negative consulting outcomes. A definition of executive coaching is offered as a way of summarizing the literature and differentiating these consulting activities from others for the purpose of improving conceptual clarity and encouraging specific research on the concepts, methods, and outcomes of such activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people's longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents' emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being will both help us better understand SWB indictors and group differences in well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people's well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
Chapter
Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people’s longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents’ emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people’s well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
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DATA ON AVOWED HAPPINESS ARE SUMMARIZED UNDER THE HEADINGS OF (1) MEASUREMENT, RELIABILITY, AND VALIDITY; (2) DIMENSIONS; AND (3) CORRELATES. THE HAPPY PERSON EMERGES AS A YOUNG, HEALTHY, WELL-EDUCATED, WELL-PAID, EXTRAVERTED, OPTIMISTIC, WORRY-FREE, RELIGIOUS, MARRIED PERSON WITH HIGH SELF-ESTEEM, HIGH JOB MORALE, MODEST ASPIRATIONS, OF EITHER SEX, AND OF A WIDE RANGE OF INTELLIGENCE. (2 P. REF.)
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This study examined how unhappiness and self-dissatisfaction are related to behavior, self-perception, social reputation, and the way one is treated by others. Varying in personal negativity (PN)--a composite of unhappiness, dissatisfaction with life, low self-esteem, and nonclinical depression--146 undergraduates (82 women and 64 men) engaged in 3 interactions. Participants' behavior and the behavior of their interaction partners was coded from videotapes. Personality ratings were obtained from participants and from 2 close acquaintances. PN was closely associated with maladaptive social interactions, negative behavioral responses by others, and a negative social reputation and self-image. Although women more clearly expressed PN behaviorally, men and women showed generally similar patterns of correlates. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of unhappiness and self-dissatisfaction may have important consequences.
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One area of positive psychology analyzes subjective well-being (SWB), people's cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives. Progress has been made in understanding the components of SWB, the importance of adaptation and goals to feelings of well-being, the temperament underpinnings of SWB, and the cultural influences on well-being. Representative selection of respondents, naturalistic experience sampling measures, and other methodological refinements are now used to study SWB and could be used to produce national indicators of happiness.
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A sample of 222 undergraduates was screened for high happiness using multiple confirming assessment filters. We compared the upper 10% of consistently very happy people with average and very unhappy people. The very happy people were highly social, and had stronger romantic and other social relationships than less happy groups. They were more extraverted, more agreeable, and less neurotic, and scored lower on several psychopathology scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Compared with the less happy groups, the happiest respondents did not exercise significantly more, participate in religious activities significantly more, or experience more objectively defined good events. No variable was sufficient for happiness, but good social relations were necessary. Members of the happiest group experienced positive, but not ecstatic, feelings most of the time, and they reported occasional negative moods. This suggests that very happy people do have a functioning emotion system that can react appropriately to life events.
Article
Despite repeated failure at attempts to change aspects of their behavior, people make frequent attempts at self-change. The generally negative outcome of many such self-change efforts makes it difficult to understand why so many individuals persist at these attempts. The authors have described this cycle of failure and renewed effort as a "false hope syndrome" characterized by unrealistic expectations about the likely speed, amount, ease, and consequences of self-change attempts. In this article, the authors further develop their conceptualization of this syndrome and review its evidential basis. They review the reasons why so many people tend to fail in their self-change attempts and then examine how people interpret these failures in such a way that they are led to keep trying repeatedly despite apparently overwhelming odds. Finally, the authors discuss the psychological consequences of repeated failure and analyze the distinction between confidence and overconfidence.
Article
The evidence is disturbingly clear: Most major business initiatives--mergers and acquisitions, capital investments, market entries--fail to ever pay off. Economists would argue that the low success rate reflects a rational assessment of risk, with the returns from a few successes outweighing the losses of many failures. But two distinguished scholars of decision making, Dan Lovallo of the University of New South Wales and Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman of Princeton University, provide a very different explanation. They show that a combination of cognitive biases (including anchoring and competitor neglect) and organizational pressures lead managers to make overly optimistic forecasts in analyzing proposals for major investments. By exaggerating the likely benefits of a project and ignoring the potential pitfalls, they lead their organizations into initiatives that are doomed to fall well short of expectations. The biases and pressures cannot be escaped, the authors argue, but they can be tempered by applying a very different method of forecasting--one that takes a much more objective "outside view" of an initiative's likely outcome. This outside view, also known as reference-class forecasting, completely ignores the details of the project at hand; instead, it encourages managers to examine the experiences of a class of similar projects, to lay out a rough distribution of outcomes for this reference class, and then to position the current project in that distribution. The outside view is more likely than the inside view to produce accurate forecasts--and much less likely to deliver highly unrealistic ones, the authors say.
Article
Comments on the article by J. Polivy and P.C. Herman (see record 2002-15790-001) regarding false hopes of self-change. This commentary examines the weaknesses of their model and its supporting data, and offers reviews of recent theory and research suggesting that hope is quite authentic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Summa theologiae Westminster, MD: Christian Classics The Nicomachean ethics Thinking and deciding
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Words of gratitude for the mind, body, and soul
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