Article

Women in the Profession: The Composition of UK Political Science Departments by Sex

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

This article outlines the composition by sex of political scientists in the UK. The data shows that there are fewer women working in the profession than men and that there is a ‘seniority sex gap’. The data is then broken down in terms of university membership groupings and individual departments in order to produce snapshot rankings. These rankings are then combined to produce an overall ranking of female presence within UK political science departments. Our findings suggest that a ‘leaking pipeline’ persists and that numerical and seniority inequality will continue for a considerable time unless further action is taken.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This phenomenon explains the gap that exists when comparing the number of women in undergraduate studies and the proportion of female political scientists working in university departments, the two 'extremes' of the career. Women are usually underrepresented as faculty members (Abels and Woods, 2015;Akhtar et al, 2005;Elizondo, 2015;Curtin, 2013;Bates et al, 2012;Cowden et al, 2012;APSA, 2005APSA, , 2011. Similarly, this corpus of studies indicates the existence of horizontal and vertical gender segregation in the academy: women are concentrated in activities socially considered to be 'feminine' and in the lowest positions in their organisations (Abels and Woods, 2015;Briggs and Harrison, 2015;Elizondo, 2015;Mershon and Walsh, 2015;Kantola, 2008Kantola, , 2015Curtin, 2013;Hesli et al, 2012;Bates et al, 2012;APSA, 2005APSA, , 2011. ...
... Women are usually underrepresented as faculty members (Abels and Woods, 2015;Akhtar et al, 2005;Elizondo, 2015;Curtin, 2013;Bates et al, 2012;Cowden et al, 2012;APSA, 2005APSA, , 2011. Similarly, this corpus of studies indicates the existence of horizontal and vertical gender segregation in the academy: women are concentrated in activities socially considered to be 'feminine' and in the lowest positions in their organisations (Abels and Woods, 2015;Briggs and Harrison, 2015;Elizondo, 2015;Mershon and Walsh, 2015;Kantola, 2008Kantola, , 2015Curtin, 2013;Hesli et al, 2012;Bates et al, 2012;APSA, 2005APSA, , 2011. ...
... As regards the descriptive representation of women, the analysis shows that female researchers constitute a 'critical mass' in the academy in the five countries studied (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay): 30 per cent of faculty in political science departments and 35 per cent of national research system members. This presence is similar to that found for political science communities elsewhere (see, for example, Abel and Woods, 2015;Curtin, 2013;Cowden et al, 2012;Bates et al, 2012;Elizondo, 2015;APSA, 2011). A comparable proportion of women are found among single-sex authorship articles (29 per cent). ...
Article
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41304-016-0077-4 Research about political science in Latin America shows good progress on issues such as the extension of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, the quality of academic production and the social recognition of the profession. Still, the status of women and diversity in the field has been scarcely contemplated. This fact is striking considering that Latin America is characterised by great inequalities, and scientific communities are not isolated from prevailing social prejudices. The article provides a first approach to the question of the status of women and diversity in the discipline in Latin America, examining women’s presence in professional associations, universities and national research systems. Journals and congresses are also examined in order to assess the participation of women as authors and panellists, as well as the extent to which diversity and gender-related issues are addressed in academic production. The findings point to the existence of a ‘critical mass’ of women in the field, although they are outnumbered by their male counterparts. This feature makes the profession in Latin America more similar to political science communities elsewhere and less like other social sciences in the region, which are feminised disciplines.
... Keywords gender, practitioner survey, UK political science Men are descriptively and substantively over-represented in UK political science. They constitute well over four-fifths of the professoriate (Bates et al., 2012) and are more likely to get published and cited than women (Williams et al., 2015). In what follows, we seek to render explicit the ways in which male and female political scientists experience and perform gender. ...
... The under-representation of women in UK political science is both well-established and frequently lamented by scholars in the profession (e.g. Akhtar et al., 2005;Bates et al., 2012;Childs and Krook, 2006). Among students, women are less likely than men to pursue postgraduate study, partly because of their perceptions of what it entails and the absence of role models, and partly because of time constraints and the perceived incompatibility with family life (Akhtar et al., 2005). ...
... Among professional political scientists, men tend to predominate in terms of overall numbers, and they tend to predominate in greater numbers with every step up the career ladder (see Figure 1). According to data collected in 2011, men and women were equally represented at the most junior levels in UK political science, but there were huge disparities at the highest levels, with women holding only 15% of professorial positions (Bates et al., 2012). ...
Article
Does gender matter in the way in which we ‘perform’ academia? Drawing on the results of a practitioner survey, we argue that gender does matter, culturally and structurally, and can be institutionalised so that women are disadvantaged. This is not to deny women’s agency or the advances that they have made. Rather, we highlight the inequality of the playing field in which the academic endeavour is conducted. Uniquely, we ask UK political scientists about their perceptions of the impact of gender in their working lives and explore their views on recommendations for change.
... Our research is concerned with understanding the ways in which these issues may be particularly acute among ECRs combining this challenging point in their career with parenthood. Existing research has documented gender pay gaps and the under-representation of women in senior positions, the 'chilly' institutional climate that women face as well as the gendered cultures and systematic gendered barriers experienced in universities (Allen and Bates et al., 2012;Bird, 2011;Henehan and Sarkees, 2009;Savigny, 2014). Within the extant literature on ECRs, there is increased recognition that female ECRs experience a unique set of challenges and are more likely to face barriers in completing their postgraduate study and establishing their academic careers due to a lack of supportive environments, a lack of mentoring as well as increased likelihood of being trapped in teaching heavy roles (Ackers and Gill, 2005;Crabb and Ekberg, 2014;White, 2006). ...
... Studies into UK political science indicate that while there has been an overall increase in the number of women in the profession to about 30%, a significant 'seniority gap' persists (Awesti et al., 2016;Bates et al., 2012). This under-representation of women at the senior levels is not just a matter of numbers, it also links to wider practices and behaviours in the discipline. ...
Article
Full-text available
Supporting increasing equality and diversity in the recruitment and retention of Early Career Researchers from the widest pool of talent available is high on the agenda of universities and policy makers. Notwithstanding this, the demanding nature of academic careers has a disproportionate effect on Early Career Researchers, who may face indirect obstacles in their career development particularly following a period of maternity or parental leave. Our research seeks to expose the nexus of challenges, from job insecurity to the pressures of raising new families that Early Career Researchers face during this critical juncture in their career trajectory. Focusing on Politics and International Studies Departments in the United Kingdom, we document the institutional mechanisms that exist to support Early Career Researchers returning from maternity and parental leave through a Heads of Department and an Early Career Researcher survey to gain an understanding of needs and the impact of institutional measures. Adopting a feminist institutionalist analysis, we map gendered outcomes in the university, through formal and informal rules, which mitigate against those Early Career Researchers taking maternity and parental leave. We end by identifying specific measures which would help to ensure that the university is more supportive of Early Career Researchers taking maternity and parental leave.
... What began as a two-day event hosted by the Political Economy Research Centre (PERC) at Goldsmiths (March [19][20]2015) -What are the alternatives to financialisation? -has become this collection of short interventions that mobilises different topics of expertise to answer two simple questions: what needs to change in our understanding of the economy? ...
... and until the Localism Act 2011 introduced a 'general power of competence' 19 it was widely assumed that the derivatives use by local government was banned. 20 However, City of London banks, brokers and advisors 21 quietly engineered around the Hammersmith regulations, selling LOBO loans laced with derivatives with impunity from UK law. ...
... Consequently, the initial framings and research trajectories have been shaped by the temporality of the pandemic which was largely conceived as the landmark event for the drastic changes, given its unprecedented character and recency. At the outset, several studies have acknowledged the long-standing pre-pandemic structural problems concerning the underrepresentation and 'ontological insecurity' of women, marginalised groups, and precarious faculty in academia [16][17][18][19][20] [21] (p. 753) [22] (p. ...
... [71] (pp. 15,16) With reference to childhood, schooling, and capitalism, Ferguson [79] (p. 129) similarly points towards the potential for an 'alternative way of being' that escapes capitalisation and disciplining due to the very fact that 'the social reproduction of labour does not take place under the direct control of capital'. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to engage critically with the scholarly narratives and the emerging literature on the gender impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in academia. It outlines the key contours and themes in these scholarly discourses and conceptions, acknowledging their richness, depth and strengths especially given the short timespan within which they have developed since 2020. The article then suggests broadening and historicising the critique advanced by the literature further. In doing so, the hierarchies and vulnerabilities exposed in the academic domain by the pandemic are positioned within a holistic understanding of crisis-ridden characteristics of social relations under capitalism.
... Consequently, there is now a wide-ranging literature on gender and/or women in academia. For example, much analysis has focused on the representation of women in the profession (e.g., Bates, Jenkins, & Pflaeger, 2012;Demos, Berheide, & Segal, 2014) to reveal the failure to convert high(er) rates of female participation in HE into academic and leadership positions occupied by women. Work has also examined differences in male and female citation rates (Maliniak, Powers, & Walter, 2013;Williams, Bates, Jenkins, Luke, & Rogers, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeWe evaluate the use of metaphors in academic literature on women in academia. Utilizing the work of Husu (2001) and the concept of intersectionality, we explore the ways in which notions of structure and/or agency are reflected in metaphors and the consequences of this. Methodology/approachThe research comprised an analysis of 113 articles on women in academia and a subanalysis of 17 articles on women in Political Science published in academic journals between 2004 and 2013. FindingsIn the case of metaphors about academic institutions, the most popular metaphors are the glass ceiling, the leaky pipeline, and the old boys’ network, and, in the case of metaphors about women academics, strangers/outsiders and mothers/housekeepers. Usage of metaphors in the literature analyzed suggests that the literature often now works with a more nuanced conception of the structure/agency problematic than at the time Husu was writing: instead of focusing on either structures or agents in isolation, the literature has begun to look more critically at the interplay between them, although this may not be replicated at a disciplinary level. Originality/valueWe highlight the potential benefits of interdependent metaphors which are able to reflect more fully the structurally situated nature of (female) agency. These metaphors, while recognizing the (multiple and intersecting) structural constraints that women may face both within and outwith the academy, are able to capture more fully the different forms female power and agency can take. Consequently, they contribute both to the politicization of problems that female academics may face and to the stimulation of collective responses for a fairer and better academy.
... These findings are supported by research concerning the (de) valuation of research undertaken by women (Benschop and Brouns, 2003;Kantola, 2008;, the impact of teaching and administration loads on female Figure 6. Proportion of Female Academics within UK Political Science (sources: Bates et al., 2012;Bennie and Topf, 2003;Topf, 2009). academics both in terms of research outputs and career progression (Allen and Atchison, 2018;Mitchell and Hesli, 2013), and the impact of (gendered) workplace cultures (Bird, 2011;Savigny, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
We present data on the proportions and seniority of female and male political scientists working in the UK. Comparing the results with previous research from 2011, we find that progress has been made. However, progress has been incremental and we find no qualitative changes in the status of female political scientists: they continue to be outnumbered by their male counterparts; they are overrepresented in the least senior job groups and underrepresented in the most senior; and the average female political scientist occupies a less senior position than the average male counterpart. We also run regression analyses to explore the impact of broader contextual factors on the proportion of female political scientists within a unit and that unit’s ‘gender seniority gap’. We find evidence that gender equality kitemarks, university mission group membership, the gender of the Head of Unit and Vice-Chancellor and the proportion of female members of university governance bodies appear to matter for one or both of these measures but not always in the direction that might be expected. These results, then, raise questions about what strategies might be pursued by those who wish to improve the status of women in the profession.
... Determinadas características de esta disciplina dificultan la implementación de la perspectiva de género. Además de persistir una relativa marginalización de las mujeres en la profesión (Bates, Jenkins y Pfaelger 2012;Elizondo 2015;Tolleson-Rinehart y Carroll 2006), se sigue otorgando un estatus secundario a los estudios de género (Atchison 2013: 228;Valiente 2002: 770), lo que comporta la (re)producción de un conocimiento politológico basado en una rígida separación entre vida pública y vida privada que considera a los hombres como los actores políticos por antonomasia (Foster et al. 2013;Lovenduski 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pese al prolífico marco normativo sobre perspectiva de género en la docencia universitaria, su implementación no ha sido efectiva. Este artículo presta atención al currículum de la Ciencia Política. En primer lugar, a través de distintos indicadores cuantitativos, analizamos las guías docentes de primer curso de todos los grados de Ciencia Política impartidos en España y realizamos un análisis de contenido cualitativo de los principales manuales introductorios. En segundo lugar, evaluamos el impacto que la ceguera al género detectada tiene sobre el alumnado, mediante el estudio de caso de una universidad, a través de grupos de discusión. La brecha existente entre el marco normativo sobre transversalidad de género en el ámbito universitario y la práctica de su implementación, concretamente en el currículum, nos permite reflexionar sobre cómo este déficit puede limitar el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico del alumnado y hacer que su futura práctica profesional reproduzca las desigualdades de género.
... In this case, the stereotype threat was reduced by lowering the sense of risk for the student to be judged based on the stereotype that representatives of her gender (i.e., women) are poor at math (Spencer, Steele, and Quinn 1999). The outcome of repeated exposure to social challenges for women is their attrition at the postgraduate, postdoctoral, and faculty levels of academic rank (APSA 2005;Bates, Jenkins, and Pflaeger 2012;Monroe and Chiu 2010;Timperley 2013). Among faculty, Timperly (2013) identified several factors from the literature that serve as barriers that prevent women's progression in political science. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender differences in academic performance and attitudes are widespread in male-stereotyped disciplines but rarely are studied in the social sciences. To assess the extent that gender influences the behavior of undergraduate women in political science, participation was analyzed in a large (N = 130) introductory comparative-politics class at the University of Bergen—a large public university in Norway. In the 2016 fall semester, observers documented classroom behaviors of men and women using a protocol that characterizes types of in-class participation. Findings showed that women participate less than expected given their observed numbers in the classroom. After the semester ended, we provided an opportunity for students to describe why they chose to participate and whether they felt that barriers existed in the classroom that prevented them from expressing their opinions. This article characterizes those responses and presents the first study to draw conclusions about the gendered educational experience in political science by integrating these qualitative and quantitative results.
... This disparity is not unique to the United States. In the United Kingdom, for instance, women comprise 34% of lecturers and senior research fellows but only 15% of professors (Bates, Jenkins, and Pflaeger 2012). ...
Article
Women are underrepresented among political science faculty and leave academic careers at far greater rates than their male colleagues. Women’s lower research productivity is one reason for the declining number of women in advanced academic ranks. Mentoring can provide necessary advice and feedback to encourage scholarly production, but research shows that female scholars face challenges in traditional mentoring arrangements. We propose that peer mentoring can provide a missing link by supporting research productivity. Using a case study of an existing peer-mentoring group, we document how writing groups can provide flexible mechanisms for peer mentoring that circumvent the obstacles women face with mentoring and complement existing mentoring relationships. We discuss the structure of this group—as well as a survey-based assessment of it—to demonstrate how this approach can be readily adopted by other women in the profession who seek to expand their network of mentors to include peers in their subfield.
... The articles that adopted a survey approach showed an even greater differentiation between the US and UK sample: without exception the US sample adopted far more advanced forms of multivariate and quantitative analysis and as a result the use of statistics in these journals was considerably more sophisticated than the UK sample (see for example Ellis and Sami 2012;Roscoe 2012). The articles that adopted a survey approach in the UK sample had a tendency to make use of more straightforward questionnaire analysis (see for example Bates et al 2012;Hamenstädt 2012). Concerning observational analysis, there was a tendency in both journal samples to provide reflective and/or somewhat autobiographical accounts of teaching and learning initiatives. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research method employed, and the degree of theoretical engagement. The evidence highlights the dominance of U.S. authors in the U.S. sample, the underlying focus attached to examining developments at a course level in the United States as opposed to a broader focus in the United Kingdom, the more advanced use of statistical analysis in the United States, and the lack of direct theoretical engagement in both the United States and United Kingdom. The article outlines factors that explain this state of affairs as well as identifying broader trends, including areas of research that were omitted.
... Political science is still very much a gendered institution (Acker, 1992), and "far from ideal" as the experiences of women in the discipline differ significantly from those of men (Tolleson-Rinehart & Carroll, 2006, p. 511), and cultural sexism has become an ordinary feature of women's academic lives (Savigny, 2017). Prior studies have demonstrated women are underrepresented in this discipline in the US (Maliniak et al., 2008;Mitchell & Hesli, 2013), Europe (Akhtar et al., 2005;Bates & Savigny, 2015;Bonjour et al., 2016), the UK (Bates et al., 2012;Bennie & Topf, 2003;Knights & Richards, 2003), New Zealand (Curtin, 2013;Timperley, 2013), and Japan (Steele, 2016). Globally, women comprise less than a third of political scientists (Livingstone-Peters, 2020), as reflected in almost all national political science associations' (PSA) memberships, except in Tunisian and Turkish PSAs, where women made up 57.5% and 53.6% of members, respectively (Abu-Laban et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on the gender gap in political science and international relations (IR) has increased significantly in the last couple of decades. However, little is known about how male and female scholars are publishing their works in non-Western-based IR journals. Our study aims to unpack this by examining publications and authorship patterns in IR journals published in Indonesia. The case study represents a non-English speaking country with pivotal roles in international politics and geopolitical aspects, particularly in the Indo-Pacific. Indonesia is the world’s fourth most populous nation and the third largest democracy, located between the Indian Ocean and the China Sea. The country is critical to regional stability and progress in Southeast Asia. Indonesia also has over seventy IR departments in various universities nationwide, and one professional association that aims to support teaching and research on IR. We asked whether men always outnumber women in terms of publishing academic papers. What is the pattern of topics published? And are there any shared interests between the two sexes? Using bibliographic data from seven IR journals published in Indonesia between 2000 and 2019 (N = 783), this paper highlights some key similarities with previous studies in Western societies. The findings suggest women produce fewer articles than men, and ‘gender homophily’ among men limits women’s leadership in scholarly publication. Yet, men and women shared equal interest in topics such as ‘security’, ‘military’, and ‘governance’, indicating that gendered preferences may not always be the best evidence to suggest that IR is a masculine discipline.
... This finding is a matter of reflection for the future of the editorial policy of EPS. The gender gap in political science, as well as the need for gender studies, has received attention(Bates et al. 2012;Bates and Savigny 2015;Evans and Amery 2016). The EPS publication record reflects this need.UK universities are the most productive and influential institutions in EPS. ...
Article
Full-text available
European Political Science (EPS) has been a leading political science journal since its launch in 2001. This article examines the contribution of European Political Science over its 20-year history. The bibliometric analysis draws on Web of Science data and VOSviewer software. These tools help detect collaboration networks, bibliographic coupling and co-citations to identify the most relevant topics and knowledge appearing in European Political Science. The evaluation of EPS reveals four areas of interest: migration, education, comparative politics and democracy. Recent interests include the current debate on populisms, social media and political parties, with antecedents and implications that transcend national boundaries.
Article
How pluralist is political studies? How are resources distributed across the discipline? In this article, we turn one of the fundamental questions of politics – who gets what, when, and how – back on to the study of politics itself. Our focus is on two areas that are central concerns to pluralism: gender and sub-discipline. We pose two specific questions: What is the gender and sub-disciplinary composition of political studies? And how are various resources – ranging from jobs to prizes – distributed along gender and sub-disciplinary lines? In addressing these questions, we draw on a pilot and partial audit of departments, journals, and other key indicators from 1998-2018. The paper contributes to long-standing debates about the character of political studies and the extent to which the field is pluralistic or not.
Article
Despite significant advances in women’s status in political science departments in New Zealand and internationally, women remain underrepresented in the profession. This review article discusses five factors that are identified in the literature as problems for women’s progression in political science: the double bind, gender devaluation, the ‘chilly climate’, the culture of research and the chronological crunch. The specific causes of these factors and the extent of their impact on women’s status and performance in the discipline have not yet been fully established. A review of the international political science literature, however, reveals a growing dedication both to identifying the key variables impacting on women’s success in political science and to advancing strategies that might improve the status of women in the profession. I suggest that New Zealand’s political science community should make similar commitments in order to more effectively reduce gender gaps in the presence, status and outcomes of female scholars across the discipline.
Article
Full-text available
How Political Science Can Be More Diverse - Volume 48 Issue 3 - Carol Mershon, Denise Walsh
Article
This symposium explores the ways in which women are descriptively represented in political science, by exploring the ways in which they are positioned institutionally in Spain, Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom. The symposium also explores the ways in which structures may serve to disadvantage women, by analysing HE policy and citation practices. Critical theory reminds us that in observing power structures we can seek to change them, and so our conclusion reflects on some more practical suggestions.
Article
UK Higher Education has recently entered uncharted waters-this includes changes to the fee structures in England and ever increasing pressure to perform to measurables such as Key Information Sets, Destinations of Leavers in Higher Education data and a plethora of Key Performance Indicators. In this article, we highlight key findings from recent research regarding the status of women in the profession-with particular emphasis upon evidence that may suggest a gender divide in terms of research and teaching. We then go on to explore primary data from a number of sources to explore whether male and female academics in the UK have different priorities, and question to what extent recent reforms will exacerbate a 'glass ceiling' or 'leaking pipeline' and further challenge the diversity of the profession.
Article
The article analyses publication patterns according to gender in three Political Science and International Relations journals based in Britain (Political Studies, British Journal of Political Science, and Review of International Studies). Examining publications from 1991 to 2011 in terms of authorship, seniority of author, and number of citations and responses, our findings suggest that women are less likely to be published as sole or lead author than their male counterparts are but that they are just as likely to be cited. Furthermore, since 2000, women are now over-represented in comparison with their presence within the discipline in publications that have at least one female author.
Article
This symposium has highlighted that some positive change has been achieved for women's status in the profession. The authors are cautiously optimistic. At the same time, we argue that this does not allow for complacency and we suggest a number of positive strategies that may also be beneficial.
Article
This article provides a case study analysis of the provision of gender and political studies education in the United Kingdom (UK). The article notes the lack of gender and politics modules available to students at the undergraduate level and links this to the under-representation of women within the discipline but also to the wider political and economic context. The article reflects upon the extent to which the study of gender and politics has been promoted within the UK, arguing that despite the key role played by national groups such as the Political Studies Association’s Women and Politics group, the wider discipline is yet to view gender as a core part of the curricula.
Article
With its eighteenth annual volume, the Journal of Institutional Economics (JOIE) has come of age. This editorial report looks at the growth of the journal, summarises some of its achievements, reviews progress in addressing diversity and gender balance, outlines current editorial policy, and considers some further issues that are important for the future.
Article
Does diversity in political science departments matter? In addressing the question, this article helps assess the value of increasing diversity in the discipline overall. Members of gender, race, and sexual orientation minority groups remain underrepresented in political science departments. What effects does underrepresentation have? To answer this question we rely upon a 2009 American Political Science Association (APSA)-sponsored survey of all faculty in U.S. political science departments. We study responses to questions about the number of female; racial minority; and lesbian, gay, or bisexual faculty members in political science departments. We test hypotheses about the relationship between the degree of departmental diversity and the friendliness, collegiality, and productivity of the associated faculty. We find that diversity, significantly affects intra-departmental relations, productivity, and perceptions of the treatment of female and racial/ethnic minorities. For both attitudes toward racial minorities and attitudes toward sexual minorities, greater diversity is generally associated with more positive attitudes. Women and racial/sexual minorities perceive their departments as less “friendly” than men and non-minorities. The presence of five or more women triggers a rise in the unfriendliness of a given department; this pattern does not appear for racial/sexual minorities.
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide a platform to converse on barriers and challenges faced by three marginalised groups – women, black minority ethnic (BME) groups, and students living with a disability – throughout the course of doctoral study in political science in the United Kingdom. Much of the literature devoted to inequalities in academia tends to focus on established academics already in a post; the experiences of PhD researchers as the future of the profession have largely been neglected. However, in order to understand the underrepresentation of structurally disadvantaged groups, more insight into what is taking place earlier in the career pipeline is necessary. Based on an online survey and a small number of qualitative interviews, the article’s findings are split into seven different themes, reflecting both challenges that are faced by all PhD researchers, such as financial pressures, as well as those such as isolation, institutional support, and perceptions of disadvantage, that were found to be much more pronounced among minority groups. The article is a preliminary reflective discussion that aims to start a broader conversation about equality and diversity experiences among PhD researchers across the discipline, not just in the UK but on a global scale.
Article
This article explores the way in which the UK Political Studies Association (PSA) has sought to tackle issues of inclusion within the profession. UK political science is dominated by white males, and while women have made progress, we argue this is less so for black, Asian and minority ethnic colleagues. In both cases, we view progress as likely to be limited without proactive intervention strategies. We draw on work that we have recently been doing with the PSA and offer some positive strategies for embedding this agenda within the profession. We argue that for a vibrant, pluralist and healthy political science, a diversity of academics is needed, and that learned societies and professional organisations have a key role to play in advancing this agenda.
Article
Disregard of gender and of women’s contributions in the higher education curriculum is still a widespread phenomenon. Building on feminist institutionalism, this article explores the forms and types of resistance that efforts to engender the higher education curriculum must contend with and discusses the ways in which resistance to curricular reform is entrenched in a web of both gender-specific and apparently gender-neutral academic informal (non-written) rules. In doing so, the authors use empirical evidence collected by an action-research project undertaken at a faculty of political and social sciences in a Catalan public university (Spain). The Spanish case is intriguing because mainstreaming gender in higher education has been prescribed by various national and regional laws that are nonetheless poorly implemented. The article also reflects on the positive feedback loop action-research projects can facilitate within gendered institutions such as universities and pinpoints the role of feminist agency in counteracting resistance to institutional change.
Article
It is with great pleasure that we present this special issue showcasing contemporary feminist political research, theories and practices in Canada. In an era characterized by global movements and numerous transformations that range from the economic to the environmental, the political to the cultural, from macro- through to micro-scales, including complex debates about the fluidity of gender, and where “backlash” against the symbols and agents of past feminist activism is rife, this special issue queries where do we find feminism(s) today? The responses to this question, as well as to the interrogation of the place of gender in the discipline of political science more generally, are undoubtedly diverse and contested. The collective efforts contained in this special issue feature a mere taste of the rich range of thought-provoking recent scholarship on feminisms. And even with this necessarily condensed portrayal (the articles in this issue are shorter than is normally the case to allow for more work to be featured), the special issue is ground-breaking in that it marks the first time the Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique has dedicated an entire issue to topics of gender and feminisms.
Article
Full-text available
Research about the history and status of political science in Latin America grow significantly in the past years. Still, one element is scarcely considered: the issue of gender equality in the discipline. This article seeks to identify gender differences in the academic trajectories of scholars in two countries: Brazil and Uruguay. The focus is on the degree of internationalization of their academic careers. Internationalization is measured in two dimensions: academic training abroad and publication of articles in foreign journals. The analysis relies on primary data collected from the curriculum vitae (CV) published by the national research system of each country: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq – Lattes) (Brazil) and Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación (ANII-SNI) (Uruguay). The evidence suggests that in both cases women are underrepresented in the universe and publish fewer articles (both in national and foreign journals) than their male counterparts. However, the data show that there are no gender differences in access to training and publication opportunities abroad, nor in the countries of destination.
Article
This article examines the state of the political science discipline in New Zealand, focusing on the numbers of women in the profession, the representation of women in the discipline’s journal, and the place of gender in the political science curriculum. While women in New Zealand political science have been active as a community for at least 30 years, there has been no systematic review documenting the status of women in the profession. This article provides an analytical starting point through a review of the data that does exist on New Zealand and comparable countries. It discusses the factors that may account for current trends and concludes with some recommendations for the future. It is clear that women have made visible gains in terms of numbers, but continued progress is precarious and dependent on both institutional and individual initiatives.
Article
Full-text available
This article draws on data from a qualitative research study undertaken in an old (pre-1992) UK university with the main aim of investigating the issue of the gender dimension of academic careers. It examines the idea of an individualistic academic career that demands self-promotion, which is still used as a measure of achievement by those in senior positions. However, there is a basic contradiction. While this idea is upheld, men simultaneously gain by an in-built patriarchal support system. They do not have to make a conscious effort to be helped by it, thereby perpetuating the cultural hegemony of individualism. Women are not admitted to this support system, and if they are seen as needing or wanting to set up their own system, this is viewed as a weakness. The answer appears to be for women to strategically harness feminist ways of working in a collaborative and supportive way.
Article
Full-text available
Women now receive political science degrees in record numbers, but female representation among political science faculty still lags behind that of many other disciplines. Only 26% of the 13,000 political science professors in the United States today are women (Sedowski and Brintall 2007). According to our recent survey of international relations faculty in the United States—the 2006 Teaching, Research, and International Politics (TRIP) Survey—women comprise an even smaller proportion of IR scholars: 77% of the IR faculty respondents are men, while only 23% are women. Even more than their counterparts in the wider field of political science, women in IR tend to be more junior and less likely to hold tenure than their male colleagues. Women comprise a minority at every level of the profession, but they are most scarce at the full professor level: Only 17% of political science professors and 14% of IR professors are women (Maliniak et al. 2007c; Sedowski and Brintall 2007).
Article
For the past few years, women political scientists have been working for measures to improve their professional status and increase opportunities available to them in the discipline. The national and regional political science associations have demonstrated their willingness to explore existing situations disadvantageous to women by the appointment of Committees on the Status of Women (CsSW). The regional committees have recently collected a variety of information on the employment status of political scientists in each of three regions. The availability of their reports prompted the Editor of PS to ask me to prepare a summary statement on the current status of women in the profession. In order to provide a more comprehensive discussion I have also assembled some additional data and indicators and the APSA national office kindly provided some data from the 1972–73 Department Chairmen's questionnaire.
Article
What unique problems currently confront women eager to pursue careers in the discipline of political science? This question was a central one for the Association's Committee on the Status of Women, organized two years ago. As a major part of its fact-finding activities, the Committee conducted a mail survey of graduate students and post-graduate professionals in the discipline during the spring of 1970. It is obvious that the development of all careers present obstacles. But the Committee survey was designed to arrive at some balanced and realistic view of those points at which women in particular encounter difficulties that are less prevalent for men in comparable situations. In the background stood the obvious fact, well documented elsewhere, that in the progress over career development hurdles from undergraduate majors in political science through to active roles as adult professionals in the discipline, women show much more marked rates of attrition than men. Clearly a substantial proportion of the extra attrition arises because of a choice on the part of the female at one point or another in favor of a conventional sex role within the family, with a consequent abandonment of career aspirations. However, increasing numbers of women would like to maintain a mix of family and career roles, and there is reason to believe that the current structure of opportunities raises artificial obstacles to such professional participation, and loses important talent to the profession.
Article
In 1969 PS published the findings of APSA's first survey on the status of women in the discipline. The author concluded: “Tokenism is the prevailing pattern.” More than half of the departments had no female faculty members. Among 18 of the “distinguished” departments women comprised only 4.3 percent of the aggregate faculty. Female faculty were concentrated in undergraduate departments, in small departments with 15 or less faculty members and in part-time jobs. Has the status of women in the profession improved since 1969? To the extent that numbers can tell, this report examines the effects of a decade of affirmative action.
Article
While women professionals have been part of our discipline from its earliest days there has long been concern that women, as a group, do not have the same opportunties as men. While affirmative action can help women gain access, encourage objectivity in advancement decisions, and provide visibility for women professionals, affirmative action does not address the conflicts women encounter between professional and traditional family roles. Examining the career patterns, job satisfaction, and professional activities, among other things, of men and women Ph.D. recipients in the 1970-75 cohort, the study concludes that while women political scientists have overcome much and have achieved much, women as a group are still encountering obstacles to their professional careers and limitations in their personal lives not faced by men.
Article
While some 40 per cent of the students undertaking political science degrees in the UK are women, about three-quarters of those teaching them are men. This article examines why female undergraduates are less likely to go into graduate work in politics, utilising focus groups conducted with groups of male and female students and interviews with the female students in four large UK universities. The research identifies eight key factors that impacted upon our respondents' decisions to undertake further study. The first four affected both men and women, although there were subtle, yet important, differences in how the women spoke about these issues, and can be somewhat loosely categorised as: money; making a difference; lack of information; and self-confidence. The other four factors influenced the women's, but not the men's, views about graduate work and the profession: stereotyping; role models; family commitments, and time constraints. On the basis of our research, we suggest how national political science associations and individual departments might increase the number of women undertaking graduate work.European Political Science (2005) 4, 242–255. doi:10.1057/palgrave.eps.2210039
Article
Political science has mirrored the political culture even as it has explained it, and at critical times the gendering of political science has left it unprepared to explain notable changes in political life. Here, we examine political science as a gendered institution across three critical time periods: the founding era of the discipline, the 1970s and 1980s, and the present. For each period, we assess the presence, position, and experiences of women in the profession; the norms of gender within the discipline; and the way political science deals with women and gender as subject matter. In general, the position of women in the discipline has improved dramatically over the course of the discipline's first century, and gender-related research has become more institutionalized. Nevertheless, political science has not yet developed a full appreciation of gender as an analytical construct.
Article
In 1995, the Gender Research Committee of the International Studies Association conducted a survey of the membership concerning the impact of gender on members’ lives. In 2006, the Women’s Caucus for International Studies sponsored a follow-up survey utilizing similar questions. A comparison of the findings of the two studies shows increased representation of women within international studies, persistent frustration with the slow pace of progress in women’s access to senior positions and in accommodating family issues, some evidence of a chilly climate for women and a leaky pipeline, and significant differences between men’s and women’s perceptions of the status of women in the profession. The 2006 survey reveals a marked increase in concerns regarding the tension between women’s family responsibilities and the academic environment, identification of structural discrimination, and concerns that men have been disadvantaged by affirmative action for women.
Article
The article provides an in-depth analysis of the gendering processes among PhD candidates in a political science department. It uses Joan Acker's theory of gendered organizations operating through four dimensions: the gendered division of labour, gendered interaction, gendered symbols and gendered interpretations of one's position in the organization. The article combines this approach with theories of hidden discrimination. The key theoretical aim is to contribute to gendered organizational theory by examining the ways in which hidden discrimination and the gendered organization work together. This generates detailed and differentiated knowledge about the mechanisms of hidden discrimination that produce gender inequalities in the department. The findings presented in this article point to the role of gendered division of labour and the lack of information about departmental practices. PhD supervision by men is a particularly strong structural barrier for women because of the gendered nature of interaction in supervision and the difficulties that female PhD students have in a male-dominated environment. The article further contributes to debates on gendered organizations by focusing upon the gendered symbols of expertise in political science. These symbols reproduce the man as the political scientist norm and result in women interpreting their own position as marginal or as outsiders.
Article
Over the last two decades, but particularly in the last 10 years, research into sex, gender and politics has become an established sub-field of political science. This article opens with some reflections on the position of ‘women and politics’ scholars and research within the British political science community. It then moves on to reflect upon the burgeoning literature on women's political representation. In particular, it questions the way in which the relationship between women's descriptive and substantive representation has been operationalised and investigated in empirical research, namely through the concept of critical mass. Seeking to reframe these debates, the article suggests that future research should focus not on the question of when women make a difference, but on how the substantive representation of women occurs.
Hard Work in the Academy
  • P Fogelberg
  • J Hearn
  • L Husu
  • T Mankkinen
Fogelberg, P., J. Hearn, L. Husu and T. Mankkinen (1999), 'Hard Work in the Academy' in P. Fogelberg, J. Hearn, L. Husu and T. Mankkinen (eds.), Hard Work in the Academy: Research in Intervention on Gender Equality in Higher Education, Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, pp. 11–19.
Open Doors and Closed Ceilings: Gender-Based Patterns
  • M T Henehan
  • M R Sarkees
Henehan, M.T. and M.R. Sarkees (2009), 'Open Doors and Closed Ceilings: Gender-Based Patterns