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Sentence Completion for Understanding Users and Evaluating User Experience


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Projective techniques are used in psychology and consumer research to provide information about individuals' motivations, thoughts and feelings. This paper reviews the use of projective techniques in marketing research and user experience (UX) research and discusses their potential role in understanding users, their needs and values, and evaluating UX in practical product development contexts. A projective technique called sentence completion is evaluated through three case studies. Sentence completion produces qualitative data about users' views in a structured form. The results are less time-consuming to analyze than interview results. Compared with quantitative methods such as AttrakDiff, the results are more time consuming to analyze, but more information is retrieved on negative feelings. The results show that sentence completion is useful in understanding users' perceptions and that the technique can be used to complement other methods. Sentence completion can also be used online to reach wider user groups.
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The original place of publication in Interacting with Computers, 2014, 26, 3, pp. 238-255:
Sentence completion for understanding users and evaluating user
Sari Kujala
, Tanja Walsh
, Piia Nurkka
, Marian Crisan
Aalto University, School of Arts, Design and Architecture, PO Box 31000, FI-00076 Aalto,
Tampere University of Technology, Human-Centered Technology, PO Box 589, FI-33101
Tampere, Finland,
Abstract: Projective techniques are used in psychology and consumer research to provide
information about individuals' motivations, thoughts, and feelings. This paper reviews the
use of projective techniques in marketing research and user experience research and
discusses their potential role in understanding users, their needs and values, and evaluating
user experience in practical product development contexts. A projective technique called
sentence completion is evaluated through three case studies. Sentence completion produces
qualitative data about users’ views in a structured form. The results are less time-consuming
to analyze than interview results. Compared to quantitative methods such as AttrakDiff, the
results are more time consuming to analyze, but more information is retrieved on negative
feelings. The results show that sentence completion is useful in understanding users’
perceptions and that the technique can be used to complement other methods. Sentence
completion can also be used online to reach wider user groups.
Keywords: User experience evaluation, projective techniques, sentence completion, user values
1. Introduction
As Hassenzahl and Tractinsky (2006) describe, user experience (UX) goes beyond the task-oriented
approach of traditional HCI and focuses on hedonic aspects of use such as fun and pleasure. The
hedonic aspects of user experience are those that satisfy universal human needs but do not
necessarily have any utility value. As Vyas and van der Veer (2006) point out, products may be
liked not only because they offer functional features but also because of other irrational and
subjective reasons. They give the example of how an Apple iPod is not just a portable music player;
it also represents users’ social status.
User experience is a vague concept and there is little common agreement on its full nature and
scope (Law et al., 2009). The ISO standard 9241-110 (2010) defines user experience broadly as the
users’ perceptions and responses in regard to their interaction with a system or product. Based on
Law’s et al. (2009) survey of 275 user experience researchers and practitioners, user experience is
agreed to be dynamic, context-dependent, and subjective. Many researchers also highlight the
importance of emotions (Forlizzi and Battarbee, 2004; Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006; Isomursu
et al., 2007; Mahlke, 2005) and the holistic and phenomenological nature of user experience
(McCarthy and Wright, 2004; Swallow et al., 2005).
It is known that people do not just passively undergo emotional experiences, but they actively
interpret the meaning of these experiences and construct memories of them (Holland and Kensinger,
2010). Accordingly, user experience is frequently seen as constructive (Battarbee, 2003; Sanders
and Dandavate, 1999; Vyas and van der Veer, 2006; Wright et al., 2003) and sense making
(McCarthy and Wright, 2004). For example, Vyas and van der Veer (2006) state that users are not
concerned with products as such, but with the values and meanings products bring to their lives.
The evaluation of user experience is challenging as users may find it difficult to express their
experiences if directly asked to. As Vermeeren et al. (2010) point out user experience is subjective,
so objective usability measures such as task execution time or the number of errors are not
sufficient for user experience evaluation. The solution is to develop not only quantitative
questionnaire measures such as Finstad’s (2010) usability metric for user experience, but also
practical methods to determine what is relevant from the user point of view and how users interpret
and reflect their experiences and create meanings with a product.
There are a wide variety of user experience evaluation methods (Vermeeren et al., 2010; Bargas-
Avila and Hornbæk, 2011). One frequently used method (Bargas-Avila and Hornbæk, 2011), is the
AttrakDiff semantic differential questionnaire developed by Hassenzahl (2004), which provides
quantitative information about user experience. However, as user experience is personal, holistic
and complex, it is difficult to determine whether users find the predefined properties essential and
meaningful to them. In addition, because the predefined measures may not reveal all the aspects of
user experience, many researchers like open, qualitative evaluation methods (Vermeeren et al.,
2010). Furthermore, the quantitative results do not explain the reasons behind the ratings – the very
reasons, which would provide developers direct input on how to improve their designs.
Furthermore, although qualitative methods such as interviews can be used, certain dimensions of
experience cannot directly be asked (Springett, 2009). For example, it is known that for social
desirability reasons, some users do not mention status or prestige issues in self-reports (Richins,
1994). Springett (2009) points out that direct questioning tends to lead to general statements of user
attitudes and reactions without efficiently unpacking the reasons behind them. To deeply understand
user experience, it is necessary to find out users’ interpretations and views and to circumvent the
problems of direct questioning created by social barriers and researchers' presuppositions.
Several non-verbal methods have been developed to measure users' emotional responses to
products, for example SAM (Bradley and Lang, 1994) and PrEmo (Desmet, 2003). However, while
measuring users' emotional responses is useful when comparing two different designs, it does not
provide information about the reasons for the emotional responses and therefore may be less
applicable for product development (DiSalvo et al., 2004).
The openness and experimental format of cultural probes may be seen as particularly suited for non-
task-focused parts of user experience (Boehner et al., 2007; Swallow et al., 2005) and some
researchers have developed new user experience evaluation techniques inspired by cultural probes.
For example, Swallow et al. (2005) developed user-directed evaluation of user experience called
“Do Something…” challenges. The participants are asked to select five items from a list of
emotional adjectives and carry out activities with the product that are related to the adjectives. The
idea is that an open-ended exercise promotes the use of the product in inventive ways and
encourages reflection on the feelings that the product use evokes. The technique seems to provide
interesting feedback from users with the five usage scenarios selected, but it is intended to be
supplemented with anticipation and reflection interviews.
In psychology, projective techniques have been used to bypass or circumvent the conscious
defenses of respondents to gain unconscious information from them. Projective techniques typically
present respondents with an ambiguous stimulus, such as an inkblot, and ask them to describe what
they see or to generate a response (Lilienfeld et al., 2000). The rationale here is that as the stimulus
itself has little meaning, the respondents are interpreting it based on their own views.
In product development and user experience evaluation, projective techniques are not well-known
and are rarely utilized, although they seem to provide a promising approach for understanding user
motivations and interpretations of their experiences with products. The purpose of this study is to
improve understanding of projective techniques and their possible role in understanding users and
evaluating user experience. Accordingly, firstly the experiences of using these techniques in
marketing and user experience research are reviewed; and secondly, the results of applying a
projective technique - sentence completion - in understanding user needs and values and evaluating
user experience are presented.
1.1 Projective techniques in consumer and marketing research
Projective techniques have also been adapted for consumer and marketing research to study user
motivation, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, attitudes and experiences (Chang, 2001; Donoghue, 2000;
Steinman, 2009; Will et al. 1996). The types of techniques used are slightly different from those
used in psychology. Consumer researchers do not employ ambiguous stimulus material that may
produce a wide variety of answers but more practically direct respondents to produce material
related to a particular research topic. The techniques used include association (connecting the
research object with words, images, or thoughts), story construction, bubble drawings (completing
speech bubbles in a cartoon), and completion (finishing sentences or stories) (Donoghue, 2000).
Even "expressive" methods such as role-playing are mentioned (Will et al, 1996; Donoghue, 2000).
Hoyer and MacInnis (2007, p. 60) give an example of a completion technique and describe a study
in which cigarette smokers were asked why they smoked. Most of the smokers said they enjoyed it
and believed that smoking in moderation was fine. However, when they were given incomplete
sentences like “People who never smoke are _____”, Respondents filled in the blanks with words
like happier and wiser. And when given sentences like “Teenagers who smoke are _______”,
respondents answered with words like crazy and foolish. Hoyer and MacInnis (2007) conclude that
these smokers were clearly more concerned about smoking than their explicit answers indicated.
Zinkhan et al. (1999) give an example of a more product-oriented use of a projective technique.
They used a story completion-based projective technique to learn about consumer motivations for
constructing personal Web pages. The respondents were exposed to a scenario in which an
imaginary person purportedly displayed affect related to the development of a Web page. Then the
90 respondents were asked to write a brief story or commentary about the likely motives of the
imaginary Web page creator. Using the technique Zinkhan et al. (1999) were able to identify several
classes of motivations and interestingly, less than 20% of the responses were related to rational or
utilitarian reasons for creating personal pages. For example, creating Web pages was seen to satisfy
the need to construct and convey creators’ identities and the need for power. Thus, as the authors
conclude, the technique seemed to help in identifying hidden or socially sensitive motivations
although it can’t be known how general the motivations are.
Boddy (2005) and Steinman (2009) reviewed the research related to the validity and reliability of
projective techniques in consumer research. Haire's (1950) shopping list study is the first published
study on projective techniques. He asked 100 women to write a brief description of a woman's
personality and characteristics based on two versions of a shopping list. The lists were identical,
except that one included Nescafé instant coffee and another traditional coffee. The shoppers of
traditional coffee were described in a more positive manner whilst the Nescafé shoppers were
described as lazy and inefficient household planners and schedulers. Haire’s (1950) shopping list
study was performed in the United States, but the study has been replicated in other locations such
as Norway and France and the original findings have remained consistent across international
replications (see Steinman, 2009 for review).
Both Boddy (2005) and Steinman (2009) state that Haire's (1950) study and its numerous
replications indicate that projective techniques are a useful approach to better understand consumer
feelings. Boddy (2005) also finds many positive reports by market research practitioners of the
usefulness of projective techniques. However, both Boddy (2005) and Steinman (2009) agree that
research into the reliability and validity of using projective techniques is lacking. Steinman (2009)
argues that despite the popularity of projective techniques, the small sample sizes and monetary and
time commitments associated with them may have limited publications in academic journals.
In summary, varied projective techniques are used in consumer research and the results are found
useful. Several advantages in using projective techniques have been identified, including the
amount and richness of the information collected. Compared to direct questioning using attitude
scales, projective techniques yield a wider range of responses providing understanding of a
consumer's thoughts and feelings, experiences, and motives (Donoghue, 2000; Doherty and Nelson,
2010). Indirect questioning also reduces the social desirability bias that results from respondents
wishing to avoid embarrassment and project a favorable image to others (Fisher, 1993; Doherty and
Nelson, 2010; Will et al., 1996). In addition, projective techniques are often inspiring to users as
using them is fun and engaging for both participants and researcher alike (Doherty and Nelson,
2010; Will et al., 1996) and often stimulates discussion (Will et al, 1996). The primary disadvantage
of projective techniques found is the degree of difficulty and subjectivity related to the
interpretation of the complex data (Doherty and Nelson, 2010; Will et al, 1996; Steinman, 2009). In
addition, the reliability of measures is difficult to establish (Donoghue, 2000).
The experiences of projective techniques in consumer research are positive and thus, it seems likely
that the same techniques could be applied also for evaluating user experience.
1.2 Projective techniques in user experience research
As mentioned, projective techniques are relatively unknown in HCI and user experience research.
Design-oriented cultural probes, initially developed by Bill Gaver (1999) and others, have some
similarities to projective techniques. Cultural probes are a set of packages of, for example, maps,
postcards, and other materials combined with tasks designed specifically for the research setting and
which aim to provoke responses from the users (e.g. Gaver et al., 1999). Cultural probes are widely
used and numerous variations have been developed (Boehner et al., 2007). The original cultural
probes were not designed to provide data about users, but rather to spark design inspiration along
with personal communication (Gaver et al., 1999); as such they often focus on emotional aspects of
interaction design (Boehner et al., 2007). That approach was similar to the constructive type of
projective techniques used in consumer research as users were given ready-made materials and
asked to construct something describing their experiences. Projective techniques in consumer
research in contrast, aim to understand consumer motivations and experiences.
Cultural probes are often adapted to provide information that will give clearer guidance to the
design process as a type of user requirements gathering or collecting feedback on a particular
application (Boehner et al., 2007). Many employ probes as a means of supporting interviews, or
else interviews are used to support the interpretation of probe results. These kinds of information-
oriented probe variants tend to present more clear-cut and focused questions to obtain better data.
Boehner et al. (2007) argue that these focused studies work against the original idea of breaking
preconceptions and creating personal and sensitive communication between designers and users.
However, there are several needs for both cultural probes and projective techniques. There is a need
to spark inspiration in the early concept design. Furthermore, product development companies need
more systematic techniques for gathering user feedback related to the experiential aspects of use
that can be generalized to one or several target user groups.
A study by McDonagh et al. (2002) is one of the rare attempts to utilize projective techniques in
design. They adapted the projective technique of product personality profiling (PPP) from market
research to design in order to elicit user perceptions and emotional responses to products.
Participants were asked to imagine a product as a person with a particular personality, and provide
information regarding its character and lifestyle. McDonagh et al. found that the technique provides
an insight into how the user perceives to be the target consumer and it helps to reveal social value
systems and emotional responses to products. The limitations of the technique they mention are that
interpretation of the results may be complex and may lead to over-using stereotypes.
In summary, projective techniques are not currently widely used in user experience research except
in the form of cultural probes to obtain inspiration for design and to establish a conversation with
users. However, looking at the advantages found through their use in consumer research, projective
techniques could potentially be useful for understanding user experience. Since user experience is
multidimensional and complex and the relevance of the dimensions can vary from one product and
user to another, it is difficult to design good scales. In some situations therefore, it may be more
useful to gather inspirational data, stimulate discussion and get a deeper understanding about what
is important to users and how their interpret their experiences with products. Projective techniques
could be useful for understanding user needs and values as well as gathering user feedback on
existing prototypes and products.
1.3 Sentence completion
In this study, we explore the possibilities of a semi-structured projective technique called sentence
completion in understanding user needs and values and evaluating user experience. This technique
is well established in both psychology and marketing: for example, Soley and Smith (2008)
reviewed some studies showing that the results of sentence completion correlate with real life
behavior by the respondents.
Sentence completion is a combination of a projective technique and a questionnaire, whereby
respondents are provided with beginnings of sentences (called sentence stems) that they then
complete in ways that are meaningful to them (Soley and Smith, 2008, p. 132). Sentence
completion can be used to assess variety of constructs, including motivations and attitudes (Soley
and Smith, 2008, p. 131). By providing only the beginning of the sentence, a researcher gives the
topic, but respondents have the freedom to respond to it as they wish.
Users are instructed to answer quickly and without thinking too much as there are no correct
answers. Sentence completion does not give ready answer categories that could reveal the
researcher's point of view about the topic but users are invited to interpret the sentence stimulus
from their own perspective. Soley and Smith (2008, p. 144) pointed out that the sentence
completion tests appear to be more useful across cultures than bipolar scales, because they are less
likely to be culturally biased. Users are using their own words and they are instructed to describe
their first reactions to, and associations with, the given topics.
Sentence completion has also some practical benefits, especially compared to interviews. The
answers are given in a written form which helps the analysis work and it is useful in industrial
contexts where relatively fast and easy to apply methods are needed (Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila et
al., 2008) and in international settings where the need for remote methods that can be used online
has been identified (Monahan et al., 2008).
2. Research method
The sentence completion technique was applied adopting the multiple-case research design strategy
(Yin, 1994; Dubé and Paré, 2003). Multiple case studies were performed to understand the
influence of variability in context and to gain more generic research results (Yin, 1994).
The goal was to adapt sentence completion as a means to understand user needs and values and
evaluate user experience and test the suitability of the technique in practical cases. As shown in
Table 1, the cases represent diverse applications covering various dimensions of user experience, all
of which enhances the generalizability of the results (Eisenhard, 1989). Apart from sentence
completion, additional methods were used to validate the results and to allow comparisons of the
usefulness of different methods.=The preliminary results of sentence completion use in Case Study 1
and 2 have been published in Kujala and Nurkka (2009) and Walsh et al. (2010) respectively. We
have also applied sentence completion for identifying needs and values related to computer usage in
a parallel case study published in Nurkka et al. (2009).
Table 1. Summary of case studies.
Practical problem
Number of
Designing a game that
motivates children to
exercise and is acceptable
to parents.
Evaluating UX of a
Smartphone in a late
phase of product
development with a cross-
cultural sample.
completion web
Evaluating the usability
and UX of the camera in
two different mobile
usability testing,
2.1 Developing the sentence completion technique for understanding users and evaluating
user experience
The development of the sentence completion technique started from scratch, as it had not been used
before for understanding users or evaluating user experience. The aim was to gather practical
qualitative data for product development purposes. Rather than considering the sentence completion
technique to be used alone, it was seen as a supplementary technique to support other methods. The
technique could be used for identifying users' views about what is relevant in their experience of a
certain product or to stimulate discussion between users and designers.
The first sentences were developed relating to user needs and values associated with user
experience (Hassenzahl et al., 2010; Kujala and Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, 2009).=As Hassenzahl et
al. (2010) showed, the fulfillment of universal psychological needs is the major source of positive
experience with products; accordingly they described universal psychological needs as competence,
relatedness, popularity, stimulation, meaning, security, or autonomy. The same psychological needs
have also been called user values in the context of using products (Kujala and Väänänen-Vainio-
Mattila, 2009), human needs (Oulasvirta and Blom, 2007) and concerns (Desmet and Hekkert,
2007). Identifying these user needs and values is important both in the early phases of the design
process and later when evaluating the user experience.
When sentence completion is used for evaluating user experience, the beginnings of the sentences
used should focus on respondents' personal experiences and perceptions of the product or service
under evaluation. As there were no existing sentences, we created some related to the user
experience dimensions identified in the literature (Jordan, 2000; Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006;
Desmet and Hekkert, 2007). Although the set of sentences may not represent all dimensions of user
experience, our focus was initially adapting sentence completion for gathering user information and
2.2 Ensuring validity of sentence completion
Although we were developing a sentence completion technique for product development purposes
and not as a strict psychometric measurement tool, we followed the recommendations of Lilienfeld
et al. (2000) so as to develop as valid a technique as possible. First, Lilienfeld et al. (2000)
recommend that the projective technique should have a number of items designed to assess the
same construct as this means measurement error can typically be averaged out by aggregating
across multiple items. Thus, we created several sentence stems (beginnings of sentences)
representing each user experience dimension. As the beginning of the sentences also guide
respondents, we started the evaluation with general sentences like 'Using the product is___'. The
general sentences are open enough that they do not lead respondents to answer according to any
preconceived expectations. Later in the questionnaires, more specific topics were probed such as
'The appearance of the product is___'. In this way the questionnaire included multiple items for
potentially gathering information related to varied user experience dimensions.
Second, Lilienfeld et al. (2000) recommend that the projective technique should consist of
ambiguous stimuli that are especially relevant to the construct being assessed. In the case of
sentence completion, the stimulus was specifically selected to be related to user values and user
experience. Sentences are a more direct stimulus compared to the Rorschach inkblots used in
psychology, so it is quite straight-forward to develop relevant stimulus material. In addition, as the
concepts of user needs, user values and user experience are still abstract and not clearly defined, the
first more open sentence stems ensured that the most important issues from a user point of view
were also identified. These first sentence stems were more general to give respondents more
freedom to describe their experiences in their own words, but the later sentence stems were more
focused on certain dimensions of user experience. In each case, the sentence stimulus material was
also piloted to make sure that it was understood as intended and based on the feedback and results
the sentences that inspired users to produce responses were selected for the actual study.
Third, as Lilienfeld et al. (2000) recommend, we used an iterative and self-correcting approach to
developing sentence completion whereby, the developer begins with a tentative formulation of the
construct to be assessed and then progressively revises these constructs and the stimuli assessing
them on the basis of new data. The cross-case research supported the iterative development of
sentence completion. The sentence completion material was developed and piloted for each case
study. Feedback was gathered and the sentences were iteratively developed each time.
3. Cases: understanding users and evaluating user experience
The sentence completion technique was applied and developed through several case studies.
3.1 Case Study 1
Case Study 1 tested the sentence completion technique in an industrial partner’s development case.
The goal of the case study was to identify needs, values and attitudes that parents hold regarding
their children’s spare time and activities. Because the industrial partner’s goal was to develop a
game that would encourage children to exercise more, the values of parents were particularly
interesting as not only is raising children value loaded from a parent’s point of view, but also the
parent’s values may be expected to affect product acceptance and user experience. In addition to
sentence completion, the parents and children were also interviewed. Here, however, we discuss
only the results of the parents’ interview and sentence completion results.
Although interviewing and sentence completion are different approaches, we wanted to compare the
results in order to see how well sentence completion provides new information. The strength of
interviews is in openness of the approach; semi-structured interviews can provide information that
the interviewer did not expect. On the other hand, it was not known how well the open sentence
completion task would work. Although the interviews could certainly provide rich information
about additional aspects such as context of use, we focused on user needs and values as this was the
main target of the study.
3.1.1. Methods
Ten families were recruited for the study through a circle of acquaintances of the researchers,
mailing lists and through a newspaper ad. There were three single-mother families and seven
nuclear families with one to four children whose ages ranged from 5 to 14 years. The age of the
parents ranged from 31 to 45 years and they represented various professions. Participants were
rewarded with movie tickets.
One parent per family completed 24 incomplete sentences (Appendix A). The sentences were
constructed based on the value categories identified by Kujala and Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
(2009). The focus was on respondents’ needs and values relating to their children exercising. All the
interviews followed the same structure: first there were general questions about the family and
about the parent’s own free-time (e.g. what the family is like, what they do together, what kind of
interests and hobbies the parent has), then there were general wellness and exercise related
questions (e.g. does any family members exercise, what motivates her/him to exercise, do they have
any sports gear or devices). The last half of the questions were child related questions probing a
wide range of topics – from the child’s personality, general hobbies, and exercise habits to aspects
that might motivate /demotivate the child to exercise.
At the beginning of the interview session, one parent (8 mothers and 2 fathers) was asked to fill in
the sentence completion questionnaire and a background information form. After that they were
interviewed. With four families both parents were present at the interviews. The interviews lasted
from one to one and half hours.
All the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The results were analyzed in three steps.
First, user values were identified and enumerated based on the categories formed by Kujala and
Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila (2009). To ensure the reliability of the results, two researchers
independently analyzed them. The researchers identified user values and counted them, both in
sentence completion and the related interviews. Next, because the user value categories identified
by Kujala and Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila (2009) partly overlap, the original value categories were
further modified to be more explicit and to better describe the identified values related to children
exercising: 1) Emotional and hedonistic values, 2) Social values, 3) Self-actualization and
achievement, 4) Good behavior, 5) Safety, and 6) Well-being. Two researchers then independently
categorized the identified values using the new coding categories and one outside coder who had
not participated in the study categorized 50% of the data. An interrater reliability analysis using the
Kappa statistic was performed to determine the consistence of the identified value categories among
raters. Third, the value categories identified in the interviews and sentence completion were
compared to find any similarities and differences between the methods.
3.1.2. Results
The respondents completed 223 sentences (92.9%) out of the 240 original sentence stems. There
were only 76 (34%) one or two word responses, most were full sentences. The length of the
responses varied depending on the sentence stem type. For example, the sentence stem ‘My child is
most interested in’ provided only one or two word responses, whereas the sentence stem ‘My
child’s best experience was…’ provided long responses such as ‘staying over night in a tent in their
own garden which was exciting enough and safe’. Table 2 shows more examples of the parents’
responses to the sentence completion.
Table 2. Examples of the parents’ responses.
The most important thing to me is...
... the well-being of me and my family.
My child is most interested in
… computer games.
My children exercise...
... irregularly, but willingly when they have company.
It is important in my child's physical activities
... she enjoys it and it is good for her health.
My child receives positive attention in physical
activities if...
... he participates or succeeds e.g. meets a goal.
The emotion my children’s exercising arouses...
... is that I should encourage them more to regularly exercise.
My child’s best experience was...
... down-hill skiing as there were friends.
Regarding my child's physical activities I want to
... the company he has and how he is behaving.
The parents stressed emotional, hedonic and social values. They wanted their child to have fun and
to have positive experiences. For example, they responded that it is important that the child's
physical activities include: ‘joy’, ‘joy and positive experience of the self’, ‘that she enjoys it, has
fun’ and ‘that she likes it’. They also wanted the family or child and friends to do things together.
For example, eight parents replied that friends and/or family encourage the child to exercise. In
addition, the answers revealed that self-actualization and achievement were important; for example,
the parents replied that their child gets positive attention in physical activities if ‘she succeeds, e.g.
makes a goal’, ‘he tries and keeps up with others’, ‘he succeeds’, and ‘he does his best’.
The sentence completion results were compared to the interview results. The numbers of identified
user values were very consistent between the two raters, the Pearson correlation coefficient was .93
(p=.000) for interviews and .96 (p=.000) for sentence completion. Slightly more user values were
identified with the sentence completion technique (M=12.1, SD=3.5) than with interviewing
(M=10.4, SD=4.6). However, the difference was not statistically significant with ten participants
(p=.091, Wilcoxon test).
In content analysis, we were interested to discover which value categories each of the methods
could reveal. The interrater reliability for the two raters was found to be almost perfect for the
interviews (Kappa = .822) and substantial for sentence completion (Kappa = .710) using Landis and
Koch’s (1977) guideline for interpretation. The interrater reliability for the three raters and 50% of
the data was satisfactory for the interviews (Kappa = .706) and very good for sentence completion
(Kappa = .828).
The content analysis showed that the interviews and sentence completion provided similar results.
Both methods revealed all the value categories, but when the replies of individual participants were
analyzed, altogether 38 out of the 54 (71%) identified categories were same in the interviews and
sentence completion. Some value categories were identified more often in only one of the methods
(See Table 3). The parents mentioned practical safety and good behavior more often during
interviews than in sentence completion. In the interview, the parents may have had more time to
consider different topics and both safety and behavior are socially accepted topics that parents may
be supposed to speak about. On the other hand, in sentence completion, the parents focused slightly
more on well-being and emotional and hedonic values. In all except one interview, the participants
mentioned emotional and hedonic values, however these values were mentioned almost twice as
often in sentence completion (42 times) than in the interviews (25 times).
Table 3. The value categories identified by interviewing and sentence completion (1=Emotional and
hedonistic values, 2=Social values, 3=Self-actualization and achievement, 4=Good behavior,
5=Safety, 6=Well-being).
Sentence completion
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 6
1, 2, 3, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 6
2, 4, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1, 2, 3, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1, 2, 3, 6
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 3, 6
Sentence completion seemed to help one participant to express a sensitive issue better than in the
interview as she mentioned how children tease each other on a general level: “Teasing relates to
team sports, self-esteem is affected. It probably relates to physical education in schools.” In
sentence completion she responded that her child is prevented from exercising by ‘friends? –
weather’ and that the child’s exercise is embarrassing if ‘he stays beside, does not participate
although he can’ and the emotion my child’s exercising arouses=is ‘I am nervous for him, I am upset
when he does not participate’.
Interviewing required more time than gathering data with sentence completion did. Each interview
lasted from one to one-and-a-half hours, while the sentence completion took from five to fifteen
minutes. Furthermore, the analysis of the interviews was more demanding as the long audio
recordings needed to be transcribed and there was more material to analyze. For example, the
outside researcher spent an average of 20 minutes analyzing an interview, but an average of 4
minutes analyzing sentence completion replies.
On the other hand, formulating the sentence stimulus material for the first time took more time,
piloting, and developing iteratively the sentence stems took more time than preparing the interview
questions. Moreover, the interviews did provide more detailed information about user needs and
context of use. For example, the interviews at the families’ homes told us more about the
environment where the children play and the children’s favorite activities and sports equipment.
3.1.3 Conclusions
This small exploratory case study showed that sentence completion was effective in identifying user
needs and values related to children’s exercise. The results were a good starting point for designing
a game concept that is attractive to both parents and children. The comparison of these results with
the interview results showed that sentence completion provided similar information about user
needs and values in a fraction of the time and that the analysis was also more straightforward.
However, interviews provided more information about user behavior and context of use that was
not probed for by the sentences. Formulating the sentence stimulus material and piloting it also took
more time than preparing interview questions.
3.2 Case Study 2
In Case Study 2 we tested sentence completion in our industrial partner’s product development
case. The goal was to explore how applicable a remote online sentence completion questionnaire
would be in a cross-cultural sample evaluating user experience of a Smartphone. Our industrial
partner, whose products are sold worldwide, was interested to gain input to designers about
different dimensions of user experience and to develop their remote user experience evaluation
Globalization and the search for experiential aspects of technology products and services have
increased the demand for cross-cultural user feedback we wished to obtain here. Fast and reliable
user data collection enables designers to gain understanding of users from different locations and
contexts. This makes remote methods, especially online questionnaires, attractive for global user
data collection as they are practical, cost-effective and wide scale (Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila et al.,
2008). Monahan et al. (2008) reported that no common practice currently exists on how user
experience can be studied remotely in international contexts and therefore the development of
suitable remote methods is needed. As mentioned earlier the sentence completion tests appear to be
more useful across cultures than bipolar scales, because they are less likely to be culturally biased
(Soley and Smith, 2008, p. 144). Therefore, it was found attractive for gathering cross-cultural user
3.2.1 Methods
The standard online questionnaire procedure of the industrial partner was used to perform the study.
One hundred and thirty of our industrial partner’s employees from 10 different countries, including
China, Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Japan, Singapore, the UK, the USA and the United Arab
Emirates, were invited to answer to an online sentence completion questionnaire. The participants
were volunteers and they were not rewarded. The response rate was 75% (97 out of 130). The
Smartphone evaluated was a prototype in a late phase of product development and which the
respondents had used for 5 months. Most users came from the USA (26%) or China (17%).
Respondents included engineers, developers and business people, the majority of them were men
and most were between 25-39 years old. The survey was in English and the users were able to
answer fluently in English. The survey was open in a web-tool for 7 days.
The remote online questionnaire comprised of 14 sentences to be completed (See Appendix B). The
sentence stems were developed to evaluate various dimensions of user experience presented in the
literature (Jordan, 2000; Hassenzahl, 2004; Hassenzahl and Tractinsky, 2006; Desmet and Hekkert,
2007): Usability (Sentences 9, 10, 14), utility (Sentence 2), visual/haptic/acoustic aesthetics
(Sentence 5 and 6), identification (Sentence 12), and socio-pleasure (Sentences 11 and 13). Mostly
the sentence stems were very open focusing on experiential aspects ‘how the product feels’ and the
respondents could describe the varied user experience dimensions with their own words. In some
sentences the user experience dimensions e.g. aesthetics were directly probed with the sentence
stems. Identification was probed by Sentence 12 describing the typical owner of the product as a
product provides identification by expressing one’s self (Hassenzahl, 2004) and it is known that the
respondents find it easier to express this kind of status issues when they are thinking other people
than themselves (Richins, 1994).
Users were asked to complete the sentences in the following way: “Please complete the sentences
so that they describe how you feel. Respond quickly without thinking too long. You can leave a
sentence without an answer if you feel it is not relevant to your situation”. At the end of the survey,
users were asked to give open feedback to the product development team.
An affinity diagram (Holzblatt et al., 2005) was used in the analysis of the data from the completed
sentences in order to categorize the individual responses for each of the sentence completion task
(see an example in Figure 1). The higher level topics that emerged were labeled using the voice of
the respondent. A user could also have had more than one answer item in one sentence, e.g. when
asked to complete “Using my Smartphone is...” one participant answered “enjoyable, but sometimes
frustrating”, where enjoyable is one answer item and frustrating another answer item.
3.2.2 Results
The respondents completed 1234 sentences (90.9%), forming 171 answer categories (See Appendix
B). Table 4 presents examples of the sentence responses and Figure 1 gives an example of the
resulting answer categories. According to our industrial partner, during previous product
evaluations similar kinds of user groups had not been keen on giving answers to open questions.
Therefore, our industrial partner was surprised how sentence completion tasks were successful in
eliciting such a large amount of free-text answers. The large number of completed answers indicates
that the sentence completion method inspired respondents to communicate their product
experiences as reported feedback and as a result we were able to get information about users’
personal feelings and thoughts from different user experience dimensions.
Figure 1. The categories formed from sentence completion results with sentence number 6 (My
smartphone feels...). Smartphone refers here to the name of the Smartphone under evaluation.
Sentence completion yielded data for product user experience analysis and ideas for design. The
summary of the Smartphone user experience (see Table 5) were presented to and discussed with the
product developers. The findings were mostly related to usability, but usability and user experience
intertwine especially in positive issues. For example, the users report that the phone feels
professional and other people want to buy it when it is cheaper (an example in Table 4). This is
related to identification and socio-pleasure, the phone supports users professional identity and it is
presentable in front of other people. Also sleek and elegant refers to that. The phone is not just an
efficient tool, but it feels positive and powerful.
Table 5. A summary of the Smartphone user experience evaluation
Professional & confident
Form & size feels comfortable in hand
Keep in touch & communicate
High quality opening mechanism
Rich & diverse functions
Supporting my daily life
Browsing & e-mailing
Sleek & elegant
Touch screen
Summary of
User Experience
Slow UI SW
HW heats up
Not as expected
Complicated to use
Battery life too short
Touch responsiveness
Music & Video & Games
Not good for quick/rough everyday use
Feeling stressed & frustrated
Interestingly, according to our industrial partner, some answer categories found in the data were
new to them and yielded new points of view about the product’s user experience. From product
development point of view, feedback and problems related to technical issues, utility and usability
can often be found rather fast with a smaller testing team, but intangible user experience is more
challenging to evaluate. Thus, the answers related to visual/haptic/acoustic aesthetics (Sentences 5
and 6), identification (Sentence 12), and socio-pleasure (Sentences 11 and 13) were bringing new
insight. For example, these sentences provided information on how and in which ways the device
was meaningful for the users and supported their daily life. The responses also revealed how the
product reflected the feeling of professionalism and how it made them feel confident. The answers
categorized in “Not as expected” gave insight into issues related not only to utility or usability but
more also to what qualities in the device made them feel that it was not as they expected. This new
information was important in product development itself but it can also be used when designing
future user experience evaluation surveys.
Case Study 2 demonstrated that a remote online sentence completion questionnaire is a relatively
fast and easy way of gathering international user data – providing the users have access to a
computer and the internet and are able to understand and write in English if the questionnaire can’t
be translated.
3.2.3. Conclusions
In Case Study 2 we used a remote online sentence completion questionnaire to collect a large
amount of qualitative data about the different dimensions of user experience of a Smartphone for
product development purposes. Case Study 2 demonstrated that sentence completion can be
effectively performed online to quickly gather useful international data. The study results helped the
industrial partner to identify essential user experience issues from user point of view and they
provided feedback about different dimensions of product user experience. Sentence completion can
be applied in online questionnaires, which is an important factor in international studies or when
large user groups need to be reached.
3.3 Case Study 3
Case Study 3 evaluated usability and user experience of two mobile phone cameras and compared
the results of usability testing, an adapted version of the AttrakDiff questionnaire (Hassenzahl et al.,
2003; Hassenzahl, 2004) and sentence completion. The AttrakDiff was selected as it is one of the
most frequently used user experience evaluation methods (Bargas-Avila and Hornbæk, 2011). The
goal was compare the usefulness of sentence completion and the AttrakDiff in evaluating user
3.3.1 Methods
Although the 20 participants lived in Finland, they included exchange students or immigrants from
Africa, Anglo-America, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. There were five participants from
each part of the world. Fourteen were men and the mean age of the participants was 25.0 years.
None of the participants were previously familiar with the phones. Participants were rewarded with
movie tickets.
Ten of the participants evaluated the camera on the basic Nokia 3720 classic mobile phone and ten
participants evaluated the camera on the Nokia N86 smartphone.
The sentence completion material was based on the questions used in Case Studies 1 and 2, but the
number of sentences was reduced to 16 in order to avoid participant fatigue as three methods were
used during the same test session. The questionnaire included 16 sentences to be completed. Only
15 of the 28 AttrakDiff items were selected for the questionnaire so that the evaluation session
would not be too long for the participants (see Figure 2). As the cameras are inside the mobile
phone, the items related to appearance were not valid and could not be used. In addition, as the
internal consistencies of the AttrakDiff’s three scales are high, Cronbach’s alphas were .85, .95 and
.90 (Hassenzahl, 2004), the shortened version was expected to provide approximately same results
as the long AttrakDiff. The removed items were simple, direct, manageable, integrating, classy,
valuable, inclusive, presentable, aesthetic, inviting, sympathetic, and motivating.
Based on a pilot test, the wording of the three of the 15 items was modified to make them clearer to
cross-cultural users. ‘Brings me closer’ was changed to ‘supporting social life’, ‘human’ was
changed to ‘human-centered’, ‘easy-challenging’ was changed to ‘easy to use-difficult to use’. In
addition, two slightly new word pairs were added: ‘useful-useless’ and ‘fun-boring’. The scale used
was from one to six instead of from one to seven so as to avoid respondents selecting excessively
neutral options as seen in the study of Lee et al. (2002).
The evaluation began with a standard usability test in which users performed eight common phone
camera-based tasks, including taking photographs and transferring them to a computer. The tasks
were always presented in the same order. After the usability test, the user experience of the phone
cameras was evaluated by sentence completion and the AttrakDiff questionnaire (Hassenzahl,
2004). Finally, the participants were interviewed.
Two researchers used an affinity diagram method to analyze the data from the completed sentences
(Holzblatt et al., 2005) in order to categorize the individual responses.
3.3.2 Results
Using the phone cameras appeared to be slightly complicated in the usability test with users
encountering an average of 7.4 usability problems. For example, eight users had difficulties finding
the camera and two users could not find it without help.
In spite of the problems with basic functions, the users rated N86 very positively with the adapted
AttrakDiff (see Figure 2). Nokia 3720 was rated to be rather typical and amateurish but easy to use
and practical. The users considered the phone cameras to be easy to use. Comparing the sentence
completion answers with the AttrakDiff ratings, the respondents gave a similar rather positive view.
For example, the African users of N86 responded: ‘When I use this phone camera I feel…very
happy everything going on nice’ and ‘…cool and can use it anywhere’. The responses of the
sentence ‘Using this phone camera is…’ were categorized into four kinds: Easy (6 responses),
Slightly disappointing (5 responses), OK (4 responses), Nice/Comfortable (4 responses).
Figure 2. Means of the adapted AttrakDiff questionnaire responses.
However, there were also some negative user experiences. One reason is that sentence completion
directly probed for possible problems and all except one of the users mentioned a problem such as a
difficult to use function (twelve users) or low quality (seven users). Fifteen of the problem
responses gave specific feedback to the designers, such as ‘the zoom function is hidden’, ‘you can’t
take 2 pics fastly’, ‘the arrows are not clear’, ‘taking two pictures in short succession is clumsy’ and
‘the camera button feels wrong’. In addition, the sentence ‘This phone camera is not suitable for…’
elicited the downsides of the phones such as ‘taking pictures from far’ and ‘transfer of computer’,
and ‘taking photos of landscapes (the quality of little details is poor)’.
In addition to the two problem related sentences, six Nokia 3720 and two N86 users mentioned
something clearly negative in other responses. For example, they replied that 'using it is sort of
difficult because of multifunction', 'using it is difficult in the beginning, because it doesn't have the
shortcut to the camera', 'people think that the pictures will not be good enough', ‘people think their
images are darker’ and ‘people think that I take it with an old camera’. One of the Latin Americans
gave the most negative replies saying that 'using it is not good', 'the problem is quality' and 'when
using the phone camera he feels frustrated' and 'other people think that he can't buy a good phone'.
The same person also had difficulties finding the camera in the usability test while he rated the
phone camera to be extremely ease to use, very practical and rather clear with AttrakDiff.
Particularly striking is that two Africans rated the N86 phone camera as being very easy to use and
practical with AttrakDiff (both gave 1), although they faced more usability problems than other
users. Furthermore, although their sentence completion answers were overall very positive, they did
provide some explanations: for example, the African who had the highest number of usability
problems said that using the mobile phone for the first time is not easy, but at the same time when
using it he feels cool and can use it anywhere. Thus, it looks like that because the mobile phone was
so 'cool' they forgave the difficulties with it or considered that the reasons for the difficulties lay
with themselves.
As the Nokia 3720 was a basic model, five of the users described its identification and typical
owners in slightly negative terms: ‘middle aged’, ‘who don’t use it’, ‘older… my parents’ age’,
‘people who don’t usually take photos with a phone camera’. On the hand, people from Eastern
Europe seemed to appreciate the basic model more, describing the typical owner to be: ‘average
person, no gadget owner’ and ‘a normal person who prefer to have a phone for basic necessities (not
to show off and not to have the phone only for calls and SMS)’.
3.3.3 Conclusions
Usability testing, sentence completion and AttrakDiff provided slightly different feedback about the
two mobile phones. As expected, usability testing was clearly best for providing details of the
usability problems and their reasons. Some information was also received about users' likes and
dislikes: for example, many complained that the phone camera took too long to take a picture.
Both AttrakDiff and sentence completion provided more feedback on the hedonic dimensions of
user experience compared to usability testing. AttrakDiff provided very easy to analyze results in a
structured manner. Users seemed to overrate the ease of use with AttrakDiff. This may be because it
may not be nice to admit to having difficulties with a product, or sometimes users did not notice
usability problems; some even claimed the problem lay with themselves and not the product.
Compared to AttrakDiff, sentence completion was better for gathering negative feedback and
reasons for the negative feelings. In an extreme case, the respondent described how ‘using the
phone feels frustrating’ in the sentence completion and still he rated the phone to be very easy to
use in the AttrakDiff questionnaire. It should be noted however, that because the results of this Case
Study were qualitative, the end analysis demanded more effort.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
In this article we have discussed the potential role of projective techniques in understanding users;
what is important to them, their needs and values and how they interpret their experiences with
products. Projective techniques are based on the idea that individuals' characteristics, needs, and life
experiences influence their interpretation of ambiguous stimuli and that by using projective
techniques the problems of direct questioning can therefore be circumvented. Use of these
techniques in marketing research suggested that they could potentially be useful for providing the
information about individuals' motivations, thoughts and feelings that are relevant in examining
user experience.
This study presents our first steps in developing a sentence completion technique for identifying
user needs and values and evaluating user experience, taking the recommendations of Lilienfeld's et
al. (2000) as a foundation. Our goal was to develop a practical technique for gathering qualitative
user feedback for product development purposes rather than to develop a strict measurement tool.
Sentence completion was selected as it appears practical to use in product development contexts. As
users are completing given sentences, this technique is not as ambiguous as other projective
techniques, the responses can be focused on the preferred topics, responses are received in a
structured written form and the technique can also be used online to reach more representative user
The three case studies (summarized in Table 6) demonstrated the use of sentence completion for
different purposes in product development. The technique was used for identifying user needs and
values in the concept design phase (Case Study I), gathering information about user experience after
trial use (Case Study II) and evaluating user experience in conjunction with usability testing (Case
Study III). Sentence completion was shown to be useful for these different purposes as well as
identifying different dimensions of user experience (User values in Case I, different user experience
dimensions in Cases II and III).
Table 6. Summary of case study results.
Compared to interviewing, sentence completion provided similar information about user needs and
values. Formulating the sentence stimulus material for the first time and piloting it took more time
compared to interviewing, but otherwise sentence completion required less time for performing and
analyzing the results. The results provided important information for designing a game concept.
The remote online sentence completion questionnaire was quick and useful for gathering a large
volume of qualitative and quantitative international data about different dimensions of product user
Sentence completion provided similar results to the adapted AttrakDiff questionnaire when used for
evaluating user experience, but was better for gathering negative feedback and reasons for
evaluations and emotions (although analyzing the results was more demanding. Both methods
provided more feedback on the hedonic dimensions of user experience than usability testing did. As
expected usability testing was best for identifying detailed usability problems.
The results show that sentence completion is useful in gathering information about user needs and
values and experiential aspects of use and that the technique can be used to complement other
methods. A particular strength of the technique is that users use their own words, and thus
compared to multiple-choice or semantic differential questions, they can much more openly express
their values and how a product feels and what kinds of associations it has. However, compared to
open-ended techniques, sentence completion is semi-structured, the ready sentence stems guide
users to specific themes.
As Case Study I showed, sentence completion is effective in gathering focused data, but it requires
less time to perform and to analyze the results than interviewing does. Formulating the sentence
stimulus materials required effort for the first time and piloting the materials took some time. We
hope that the ready sentence stems provide a good starting point for creating materials for new
studies. Many of the sentence stems can be easily reformulated for a new context by just changing
the product name or the topic in the sentence.
Case Study 2 demonstrated that a good representative set of users can be easily reached online.
Although field studies and usability tests provide rich and high-quality data, in practice only a
limited number of users can participate and users may not be willing to raise sensitive issues face-
to-face. In product development, there is utility in gathering cost-efficient international user
feedback, and since it is not often possible to travel to many locations, online methods are necessary
to complement basic methods (Luedemann & Muller, 2010).
As mentioned online questionnaires are considered to be cost-effective, because data collection is
faster and demands less of a work force (eg. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila et al., 2008). Firstly, data is
ready for analysis immediately after delivery (Fan & Yan, 2010). Secondly, the samples can be
bigger and the increased sample size does not make much difference to the total cost of the study as
it would with traditional methods (Benfield & Szlemko, 2006). Thirdly, it is easier to reach
respondents worldwide (Evans & Mathur, 2005). Internet reduces the time and distance between
people, and makes communication more efficient (Ekman & Litton, 2007). In addition, online
questionnaires may be more convenient to respondent as they can answer when suitable for them.
The disadvantage is that the quality of the research may be threatened by errors in the coverage: not
everybody has access or uses Internet as Internet penetration is not evenly distributed across
segments of the population. Furthermore, when studying user experience, non-response should be
considered as a possible threat to the validity of the study. For example, if only respondents having
positive experiences respond, the understanding of the UX remains one-dimensional.
The results of Case Study 3 suggest that in contrast to the adapted AttrakDiff questionnaire,
sentence completion provides more qualitative negative feedback, information that is useful for
improving user experience. For example, the users gave sometimes information about the specific
function causing trouble like “The zoom function is hidden”. This kind of feedback from users
provides developers more direct input on how to improve user experience. However, as the sentence
completion results were qualitative, their analysis demanded more effort.
Sentence completion can provide both the qualitative and quantitative data needed in practical
product development in a rather structured way and as such readymade sentences would be useful
and relatively easy to apply in practice. However, as user experience goals differ from product type
to another, it is challenging to provide a list of sentences and a scale for analyzing the results that
would be applicable to all situations. In addition, understanding of the dimensions of user
experience is still evolving and new sentences should be created as new knowledge is gained.
Furthermore, users use varied wordings for describing their experiences and automatic semantic
analysis tools need to be developed to support analysis work in product development contexts.
The qualitative approach requires extra effort and interpretation in analysis as the researcher must
categorize and summarize the results based on meaning. Therefore, although the analysis is
relatively straightforward, it demands some interpretation and work, and can be a threat to validity.
In order to avoid this threat and to keep the users’ voices alive, we used the users’ wordings as in-
vivo codes in analysis as far as possible. Thus, when the responses were categorized, the categories
were named based on the most commonly used wordings. Using the open general sentences in the
beginning may improve the quality of the responses. Users can describe those experiences that are
most important to them and it can be ensured that users are not being lead too much. For example,
in Case Study 1 the sentences did not probe anything related to wellbeing but the general sentence
“It is important in my child's physical activities that...” revealed that many of the parents considered
wellbeing very important in their child’s exercising.
The use of written words helps the analysis work, but the verbal approach has also some limitations.
Individuals differ in their ability to express themselves verbally. As user experience is holistic in
nature, people may also find it difficult to reflect on it. Furthermore, because users have to evaluate
their user experience based on their memory of the momentary experiences (Hassenzahl and
Ullrich, 2007), they may not remember small details. Users may also be unaware of small details
that may have had impact on overall user experience. For example, in Case Study 3, some users did
not realize that they had a usability problem with the camera (they thought the camera did not have
a zoom, but actually they simply could not find it). Case Study 1 also showed that interviewing is
more efficient for understanding practical needs (e.g. safety) and context of use. Thus, the sentence
completion technique would not be ideal for performing detailed analysis of context of use or
ongoing experiences with product properties. Instead, the technique may be more suitable for
getting a quick overall understanding of how users interpret their experiences and what is
uppermost in their minds when they are evaluating the product.
The quality and richness of the responses produced by sentence completion varied. When users
described a product they owned such as a mobile phone and they had used the product for a long
period, they produced richer answers. Because they had a personal and long-lasting relationship
with the product, the users had much more to say about their experiences in Case Study II than after
the short usability test in Case Study III. It should also be noted that in Case Studies II and III,
where the respondents were from several countries but the sentence completion was performed in
English that those respondents using English as their native language produced more vivid and
longer responses.
One of the challenges of sentence completion is to prioritize users' responses and find out which of
the responses are most relevant from the user point of view (e.g. mentioned user values). One
effective approach would be to use sentence completion to identify the relevant issues and a
questionnaire to get more quantitative data about the importance of the issues among a wider set of
users. We also found out that the order of sentences had an effect on the responses. The respondents
kind of continued the story created by the sentences. Thus, it would be better if the positive or
negative versions of the sentence stem are not placed adjacent to one another as the respondent may
overly attempt to stay consistent with her replies.
Although sentence completion is a projective technique, it is not a direct way of revealing users’
subconscious or innermost thoughts and feelings. If users wish, they are still able to select their
responses and filter out issues that they do not want to reveal. As mentioned, the weakness of the
technique is also that it requires participants to verbalize their thoughts. However, the sentence
completion technique has some aspects that support users in openly expressing their experiences:
The technique is associative in nature and it supports remembering experiences related
to the product. Human memory is essentially associative, linking together related words
and objects and when retrieved one item can cue the recall of related items (Mayes et al.,
2007). Thus, the stimulus words in sentence stems activate the memories related to the
topic and to personal experiences.
The sentence completion tasks are designed to include very open sentence stems such as
‘Using my Smartphone is…’=and ‘It is important in my child's physical activities that…’
that give the respondent the possibility to reflect their experiences in whatever way they
A user experience sentence which probed for the typical user of the product helps people
to express the status related issues when they are thinking about other people than
themselves (Richins, 1994). In fact, one typical technique employed in market research
when measuring the image of the product is to ask a participant to describe the
characteristics of the typical user (Allen et al., 2008).
Using the tool asynchronously as in Case Study 2, the users can respond anonymously
without the researcher being present.
Based on our observations and the good response rates completing sentences seems to be
a fun and motivating task for most of the respondents.
The first steps to ensuring the validity of the sentence completion technique and the resulting data
were performed using the recommendations of Lilienfeld et al. (2000). The sentence stimulus
material was iteratively developed and piloted. We learned how to formulate good quality sentence
stems. For example, only one-word stems or long ones did not stimulate responses well enough.
Formulating new sentence stems must be done carefully: the sentence stems need to be fluent to
read and include a specific stimulus word e.g. the product name, but the stems need to be open
enough that they fit all situations. In addition, the stimulus materials need to be piloted. The case
studies provide a basic set of stimulus materials that can be used in future studies.
We did not develop an analysis key or categorization, so the sentence completion technique
developed here is not a diagnostic quantitative tool. The sentences can be used directly as
informational and inspirational data as or they can be categorized based on frequency to provide
quantitative data. The frequency data is important as companies often appreciate quantitative data
that can be used to evaluate the applicability of the results among wider numbers of users.
The case studies were designed to examine the strengths and limitations of the sentence completion
technique for gathering feedback from users and as such they do not prove the approach’s definitive
validity. Moreover, before systematically examining the validity and reliability of the approach, we
first needed to see whether the technique can be used in the user experience context and develop it
further for this purpose. After the three case studies, the technique appears to be a promising
practical tool to be further tested, but as our theoretical understanding of user experience is still
evolving, the stimulus sentences and their coverage should be checked and developed further based
on the new theory.
By comparing different methods, it was possible to see the differences in the quality and coverage
of the data obtained. For example, the results show that the sentence completion technique seems to
provide more qualitative negative feedback compared to the AttrakDiff. Since designers need
concrete examples of users’ experiences, sentence completion therefore seems to be useful.
However, the challenge in determining the validity of the information is that there is no baseline for
checking the correctness of the data. In addition, although the sentence completion technique is very
open to the interpretations of the respondents, it is not known if it reveals all the relevant
information. The technique may be better suited for identifying what is important and critical to
respondents than providing information comprehensively from all topics. A quantitative comparison
of different measures could show the relationship of sentence completion results to satisfaction, but
as sentence completion provides mostly qualitative data this would not be a straightforward
Systematic research is therefore needed to ensure the validity and reliability of the sentence
completion approach. Lilienfeld et al. (2000) provide some guidelines for future research. First,
there is a need to test construct validity. It means for example that the sentence completion test
should be able to differentiate between two fundamentally different user groups. Even more
important is that the technique has a predictive value in real world settings. There may not be any
need for a diagnostic tool as such, but the goal is to provide feedback for design purposes. The
predictive value would then mean that the technique provides relevant data and designers can really
improve user experience based on the user feedback obtained.
In addition to validity issues, we can borrow from the psychometric literature and examine whether
the sentence completion technique satisfies such criteria as 1) reliability e.g. test-retest reliability,
interrater reliability, and internal consistency, 2) incremental validity e.g. the extent to which an
instrument contributes information above and beyond other information (Lilienfeld et al., 2000).
However, as the goal is to develop a practical evaluation method for design purposes, we can
question to what extent these criteria are applicable. Test-retest reliability may not be relevant, as
user experience is evolving over time, so it could be rather artificial to try to measure it. A certain
degree of interrater reliability though, is desirable for user experience evaluation methods, so that
the results do not depend solely upon the person interpreting them. Internal consistence may also be
slightly pointless as the sentence completion tool aim to cover different aspects of user experience.
On the other hand, incremental quality has pragmatic importance as real product development
contexts have serious time and resource limitations. Taking these factors into account then, a good
evaluation method should provide useful information above and beyond more easily collected data.
This means that a method providing less information can still be useful in practice if it demands less
resources (cf. Vermeeren et al., 2010).
In conclusion, this paper reports the first experiences of using sentence completion to identify user
needs and values and to evaluate user experience. The case studies reported provide examples how
to use sentence completion. Sentence completion produces qualitative data about users' views, but it
is more structured than other projective techniques or cultural probes. The results are less time-
consuming to analyze than interview results are. Compared to quantitative methods such as
AttrakDiff, the results are more time-consuming to analyze, but more data is produced regarding the
reasons for the negative feelings (Case 3). Sentence completion therefore, could complement other
methods in practical product development, as it can provide qualitative data in a structured way and
it can be used online to easily reach both a wide and distant audience of users.
We thank Hannu Soronen, Liinu Helkiö and Iiro Viitanen for their assistance in carrying out the
studies. This research was supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and
Innovation (Tekes) (VALU 40364/06, SUXES 40079/09) and the Finnish Doctoral Program in
User-Centered Information Technology (UCIT).
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Appendix A. Sentence completion form used in Case 1.
Please,=complete=the=sentences=below=so=that=they=describe=you=and=your=family.=The re=is=no =w ron g=rep lies,=
respond=rath er=qu ickly =with ou t=thin king =too=lo ng.=Yo u=ca n=lea ve =a=sen ten ce=w itho u t=an=an sw er=if=yo u=fee l=
that=it=is=not=suitable=for=you r=situatio n.=By =a=child=w e=m e an =here =you r=sch oo lNaged=children.=If=you=have=
My=child=is=most=interested=in=__________ ___ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ =
I=give=pos itiv e =at te n tio n =t o =my=child=if =_ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _=
My=child=receives=positive=attention=in=physical=activities=if=_____ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _=
It=is=impo r ta n t=in =my=child 's=p h y sic a l=ac tiv itie s=t h a t=_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _=
From=my=child's=point=of=view,=the=most=important=thing=related=to=physical=activities=is_______ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _=
I=want=that=by=e xe rc is in g=my=child =_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _=
The=problem=with=my=child's=exercise=is=_____________________ ____ ____ _____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____=
I=wish=th a t=when=e x er cis in g =m y =child=look s =like =_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _=
Regarding=my=child's=physical=activities=I=would=like =to =k no w=____ ___________________________________=
In=the=fu tu r e,=I=wish=m y=c h ild =_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _=
Appendix B: 14 Sentences and Summary of Results=
Number of
1. Using my Smartphone is…
2. The functions of my Smartphone are…
3. My Smartphone is best for…
4. My Smartphone is not suitable for…
5. I think the appearance of my Smartphone is…
6. My Smartphone feels…
7. When I use my Smartphone, I feel…
8. I’m happy with my Smartphone, because…
9. The problem with my Smartphone is…
10. It is irritating that my Smartphone…
11. If other people have paid attention to my Smartphone,
12. The owner of Smartphone is typically…
13. In my own culture, my Smartphone…
14. Compared to other Smartphones, my Smartphone is…
... Please complete the following sentence: "After having read the abstract of this paper, I expect ___" This incomplete sentence is an example of a sentence stem used in the sentence completion technique. Originally used in psychology studies [12,18,23,44,46], the sentence completion technique (SCT) has recently been transferred to the feld of user experience (UX) design where it is used as a user research method to elicit user feedback [8,30,31,68]. ...
... Sentence completion combines a projective technique and questionnaire whereby respondents are provided with the beginnings of sentences that they complete in ways that are meaningful to them [57]. Previous studies in UX have shown the relevance of SCT to explore users' needs or to evaluate UX [30,31,68]. One of the main interests of the technique also lies in the ability to collect rich qualitative data remotely and in a cost-efective way [68]. ...
... However, by doing so, they sometimes have to reach a challenging compromise between the scientifc quality of a method and its practicability [67]. Regarding the sentence completion method, Kujala et al. [31] stated that their "goal was to develop a practical technique for gathering qualitative user feedback for product development purposes rather than to develop a strict measurement tool. Sentence completion was selected as it appears practical to use in product development contexts. ...
... We set out a user-centered contextual inquiry involving an online questionnaire based on the format of sentence completion [42] and a semi-structured interview [43]. The Ethical Review Board approved this project at Eindhoven University of Technology, the Institutional Review Board of Partners Healthcare: reference ERB2020ID8. ...
... The questionnaire study was aided with sentence completion [42] tasks to encourage office workers to disclose their concealed experiences and opinions. As a semi-structured projective technique, the sentence completion task is designed with unfinished sentences. ...
... As a semi-structured projective technique, the sentence completion task is designed with unfinished sentences. As such, the respondent has the freedom to interpret and complete the sentence based on their wish [42]. The sentence completion technique has been widely applied in HCI and design studies and proved effective in assessing user experiences, behavioral motives, and expectations towards new technology [44]. ...
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Eating healthier at work can substantially promote health and well-being among knowledge workers. However, little has been investigated on designing digital tools and interventions specialized in improving workday eating routines. This paper presents a user-centered contextual inquiry based on mixed-methods with an online questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study aimed to understand knowledge workers’ eating experiences and identify design opportunities and application strategies of digital tools to improve current practices. The questionnaire feedback from 54 Dutch knowledge workers revealed that their concerns over productivity, health and nutrition, energy support, and well-being could be decisive in shaping their eating routines at work. Furthermore, the results of 12 interview sessions suggested a set of expected digital features to encourage healthy eating at work, including health knowledge access, goal setting and self-tracking, technology-assisted health programs, and social support. Additionally, our findings also indicated that these digital features should be integrated into the office setting to offer personalized feedback and contextualized health interventions. Based on these findings, we derive design opportunities for workplace digital tools to promote healthy eating and discuss their potential contributions and future work to improved office vitality.
... Additionally, they were designed based on the same theoretical UX model proposed by Hassenzahl [32] and are comparable [15]. We also employed a third method, Sentence Completion [33], to provide an independent view of the results from the two quantitative methods. ...
... Table 1 presents the correlated dimensions between UEQ and AttrakDiff [15]. To complement the quantitative results from UEQ and AttrakDiff, we also applied sentence completion [33]. In this method, the respondents are provided with the beginning of sentences and complete them in ways that are meaningful to them [35], allowing us to get their responses according to the information we need. ...
... To better understand the results provided by UEQ and AttrakDiff methods, we also applied sentence completion [33]. In this method, the participants had to complete the following sentences: "What I liked the most in CodeBench is . . . ...
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The success of a software application is related to users’ willingness to keep using it. In this sense, evaluating User eXperience (UX) became an important part of the software development process. Researchers have been carrying out studies by employing various methods to evaluate the UX of software products. Some studies reported varied and even contradictory results when applying different UX evaluation methods, making it difficult for practitioners to identify which results to rely upon. However, these works did not evaluate the developers’ perspectives and their impacts on the decision process. Moreover, such studies focused on one-shot evaluations, which cannot assess whether the methods provide the same big picture of the experience (i.e., deteriorating, improving, or stable). This paper presents a longitudinal study in which 68 students evaluated the UX of an online judge system by employing AttrakDiff, UEQ, and Sentence Completion methods at three moments along a semester. This study reveals contrasting results between the methods, which affected developers’ decisions and interpretations. With this work, we intend to draw the HCI community’s attention to the contrast between different UX evaluation methods and the impact of their outcomes in the software development process.
... Sentence completion is a combination of a projective technique and a questionnaire, whereby respondents are provided with beginnings of sentences (called sentence stems) that they then complete in ways that are meaningful to them (Soley -Smith 2008: 132). By providing only the beginning of the sentence, the researcher introduces the context, but it is the respondents' freedom to complete it as they like (Kujala et al. 2014). Its objective is not measurement (as in the case of traditional survey methods), but the exploration of emotions, beliefs, attitudes, motivations. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread shift to online education around the world and in Hungary, too. Educational institutions from kindergartens to universities were forced to adapt rapidly to this new situation, when the space of education moved from classrooms to online video meetings; the regular methods and tools needed to be changed or modified. Nonetheless, we should keep in mind that online education itself was an already existing concept before the pandemic as part of digitalization as a current societal megatrend, however it was not widely used in educational institutions across different programs. By 2021, there are university students who have mostly or exclusively participated in higher education online. Online classes could be a new normal situation to these students instead of the pre-pandemic personal activities in physical classrooms, leading to altering the norms of participation. In our research, we collected answers to open-ended sentences from such students. As we wish to understand how students perceive the differences between online and offline education, we investigated the perceived advantages and disadvantages of online-only education, how this influenced their social networks, study efficiency and their whole experience in university education.
... Sentence Completion is a projective technique used in Psychology and Consumer Research that provides qualitative data on peoples' motivations and values [7]. As the name suggests, it is a task that is composed of stems, i.e. beginning of sentences, that must be completed freely by people with the first words that come to their mind. ...
Digital technology plays a significant role in everyday life, being increasingly integrated at home, work and leisure activities. Its pervasiveness has been changing consumption habits and social interactions. As a result, the number of digital platforms and services grew exponentially and it is expected to continue to expand in future years. In a world that offers a wide range of digital products to people, it is crucial to develop meaningful products. Taking this into account, it seems important to focus on understanding which attributes should be considered in the development process of digital platforms and services to work towards opti- mal solutions for society. A sentence completion task was employed to uncover the motivations, emotions and beliefs of a small sample of individuals who work for a Digital Transformation company. The results highlighted the significance of content, usability, aesthetics, customization and trust. Furthermore, a reflection on the themes suggests that usability is foundational, that content and aesthetics arouse interest and customization elicits positive reactions. Remarkably, it was found that a lack of trust causes discomfort and may negatively impact the use of digital solutions.
... In the daily setup of the diary (Figure 1), participants were asked to (i) We used the sentence completion method, a cost-efficient way to collect rich qualitative insights (Kujala, Walsh, Nurkka, & Crisan, 2013), to trigger spontaneous responses from participants. This method is more inviting than open-ended questions, and thus can be adequate for diary entries (Lallemand & Gronier, 2018) where users have to provide feedback on a repeated basis. ...
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Increasingly aware of the importance of active lifestyles, many people intend to exercise more. One of the main challenges is to translate exercise intentions into actual exercise behaviour, the so-called intention-behaviour gap. To investigate barriers and enablers that affect this gap, we conducted a 7-day diary study with 16 women. Participants indicated what their exercise intentions and behaviour were per day, and whether and why they changed retrospectively during the day. Through the diary study, we gain insights into (i) the intention-behaviour interplay, and (ii) the experienced barriers and enablers that influence this interplay throughout the day. Based on the findings, we contribute new implications for design in supporting people translating their intentions into exercise behaviour. We propose three design concepts to illustrate underlying design opportunities. The focus is on positively influencing the interplay of enablers and barriers of exercising and how these can be addressed through design.
Conference Paper
Mobile applications present a wide range of opportunities for fashion brands to connect with the consumer. To the knowledge of the authors, understanding how users perceive touchscreen features is still in an early stage. Part of an ongoing research, this study aims to collect users’ general views about the concept of a digital magazine that explores the potential of the iPad to advertise content. A sentence completion technique was administered to identify positive and negative aspects, as well as to examine emerging themes. The results provide compelling evidence that interactivity has the potential to attract users. This finding is promising, and future studies should explore how brands can take advantage of this type of platforms to engage with their audience.
Chapter 7 addresses the topic of culture assessment. A culture assessment entails gaining knowledge about an organization’s culture by analyzing it and its evaluation. First, the chapter outlines those characteristics of organizational culture relevant to its analysis because analysts’ conception of culture and its characteristics influence the approach they choose for a culture analysis, including methods. Second, the chapter explores different kinds of data collection methods, including their strengths and related challenges, for collecting information about an organization’s culture. Third, the chapter addresses standards helpful in evaluating the quality of a given culture, and it provides two examples of a culture assessment in practice.
This chapter discusses the major innovators and innovations in the field of personality assessment over the course of the last century. Because many advances in psychological assessment began with adults, the manner in which assessment techniques were extended to children and adolescents is examined. In addition, a history of the development of assessment strategies for child externalizing and internalizing problems and the implications of the recent emphasis on evidence-based assessment are included.
When this chapter appeared in the first edition of Funology in 2003, there was an emerging interest in user experience. However, the information processing theories and models of interaction that were used at the time lacked the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand how to design for experience. So, in ‘Making Sense of Experience’ we offered a vocabulary and a set of concepts to be used by HCI researchers and designers interested in user experience. When we were invited to revise the chapter for Funology 2, we decided to leave it as originally published but to add an endnote reflecting how our ideas have developed since 2003. This ‘endnote’ features as the preface to this chapter, and to also our other chapter, The Enchantments of Technology.
This book reflects the move in Human Computer Interaction studies from standard usability concerns towards a wider set of problems to do with fun, enjoyment, aesthetics and the experience of use. Traditionally HCI has been concerned with work and task based applications but as digital technologies proliferate in the home fun becomes an important issue. There is an established body of knowledge and a range of techniques and methods for making products and interfaces usable, but far less is known about how to make them enjoyable. Perhaps in the future there will be a body of knowledge and a set of techniques for assessing the pleasure of interaction that will be as thorough as those that currently assess usability. This book is a first step towards that. It brings together a range of researchers from academia and industry to provide answers. Contributors include Alan Dix, Jacob Nielsen and Mary Beth Rosson as well as a number of other researchers from academia and industry.
- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
Developers aim at providing value through their systems and products. However, value is not financial only, but depends on usage and users' perceptions of value. In this paper, we clarify the concept of value from the users' perspective and the role of user involvement in providing value. First, theories and approaches of psychology, marketing and human-computer interaction are reviewed. Secondly, the concept of 'user values' is suggested to clarify the concept of value from the user's point of view and a category framework of user values is presented to make them more concrete and easier to identify. Thirdly, the activities and methods for adopting user values in development work are discussed. The analysis of the literature shows that value has been considered in multiple ways in development. However, users' perspectives have received less attention. As a conclusion, we draw future research directions for value-centered design and propose that user involvement is essential in identifying user values, interpreting the practical meaning of the values and implementing them in development work.
Publisher Summary The affinity diagram essentially brings issues and insights across all customers together into a wall-sized, hierarchical diagram. In the interpretation sessions, the individual notes representing the user's data are captured. These interpretation session notes are known as affinity notes and are used to build the affinity diagram. The affinity diagram organizes the individual interpretation session, or affinity notes into a wall-sized, hierarchical diagram; therefore, grouping the data into key issues under labels that reveal the customer's needs. The affinity demonstrates the common issues, themes, and scope of the customer problems and needs all at one place. It is noted that the affinity acts as the voice of the customer and the issues it reveals become the basis for user requirements. The key concepts for an affinity diagram include: affinity note, blue labels, pink labels, and green labels. The affinity diagram is built from the bottom up, grouping individual notes that generally reveal key themes in that data.