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New species of flightless katydids from South Africa (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae)

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Four new species (Amyttacta marakelensis n. sp., A. farrelli n. sp., Paracilacris mordax n. sp., and P. periclitatus n. sp.) of South African Meconematinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are described, and keys to genera Amyttacta and Paracilacris are provided
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Accepted by D. Rentz: 8 Oct. 2008; published: 14 Nov. 2008
19
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN
1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2008 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1933: 1932 (2008)
www.mapress.com
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New species of flightless katydids from South Africa
(Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae)
PIOTR NASKRECKI
1
, CORINNA S. BAZELET
2
& LAUREN A. SPEARMAN
3
1)
Invertebrate Diversity Initiative, CABS, Conservation International Harvard University, 26 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
E-mail: p.naskrecki@conservation.org
2)
University of Stellenbosch, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, JS Marais Building, Victoria St., Stellen-
bosch 7602, South Africa. E-mail: coreybaz@gmail.com
3)
Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901- 8520,
USA. E-mail: spearman@eden.rutgers.edu
Abstract
Four new species (Amyttacta marakelensis n. sp., A. farrelli n. sp., Paracilacris mordax n. sp., and P. periclitatus n. sp.)
of South African Meconematinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are described, and keys to genera Amyttacta and Paracilac-
ris are provided.
Key words: South African katydids, Meconematinae, new species
Introduction
South African Meconematinae were reviewed by Naskrecki (1996), who listed nine species from this country.
Below we describe four additional, new South African species of the Meconematine. This includes two new
species of the genus Paracilacris Chopard, a rather enigmatic taxon placed by Naskrecki in the informal Cyr-
taspis-group of the Meconematinae, in itself a rather poorly diagnosed subfamily of the Tettigoniidae (see
Naskrecki 1996 for a discussion.) The remaining two species belong to Amyttacta Beier, members of the
Amytta-group, a lineage never before recorded south of Zimbabwe. The chiefly West and Central African
Amytta-group was reviewed by Beier (1965), and additional species were described by Beier (1967), Roy
(1967), Ragge and Roy (1971), Gorochov (1993, 1994), Hemp (2001), and Naskrecki (2008).
South African Meconematinae are small (12–23 mm), usually robust-legged katydids, with light green or
brown body coloration. All known S. African species of this group are brachypterous or micropterous, stand-
ing in a sharp contrast to primarily arboreal, mostly fully winged West and Central African members of this
subfamily. All species in S. Africa appear to be associated with grasslands or open edges of Podocarpus for-
ests, and have not been collected from trees or vegetation taller than 1–2 m.
Also, unlike the mostly insectivorous members of the Meconematinae from other parts of Africa, S. Afri-
can species appear to be chiefly graminivorous. Data are lacking for most species, but at least two of the new
species described below have been repeatedly seen feeding of seeds and flowers of several species of grasses.
While individuals of both new species of Paracilacris were seen during the day, their feeding and reproduc-
tive activities were observed only at night, approximately between the hours 20:00 and 1:00. Males of both
Paracilacris and Amyttacta were recorded singing from low vegetation, up to 1 m above the ground.
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
20 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Methods
The new species described below were collected during several surveys of the Orthoptera of South Africa
conducted by students at the University of Stellenbosch, University of KwaZulu-Natal, and entomologists
from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and Conservation International. This paper is the first
in a planned series of publications on South African katydid fauna, supported by the National Science Foun-
dation and Conservation International.
Three methods were employed for collecting meconematine katydids: (1) detecting singing males of katy-
dids at night using an ultrasound detector (2) visual search at night and during the day, and (3) net sweeping of
grasses and low vegetation during the day and at night.
Stridulating males were detected at night by using an ultrasound detector Pettersson D200, and recorded
using a solid-state recorder Marantz PMD660 with a directional microphone Sennheiser ME-66. Since all of
the energy of the calls of A. farrelli n. sp. is in the ultrasonic range, its recordings were made through the ultra-
sound detector, and not directly with the microphone (the frequency response of the microphone was too low
to pick up ultrasonic signals.) Males of P. periclitatus n. sp. were recorded directly with the microphone. Song
terminology in the descriptions below follows Ragge and Reynolds (1998).
Representatives of all encountered new species were collected and voucher specimens were preserved in
95% ethanol and as pinned, dry specimens.
The following conventions were adopted for specimen measurements:
body in the female, the distance from the apex of the fastigium to the apex of ovipositor; in the male,
the distance from the apex of the fastigium to the apex of the subgenital plate
ovipositor the distance from the base of the subgenital plate to the apex of the ovipositor.
Collection codens:
ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA
BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, UK
MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain
MZLU Museum of Zoology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
PPRI South African National Collection of Insects, South African National Department of Agriculture,
Pretoria, Republic of South Africa
SAMC South African Museum, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa
USEC Entomological Collection, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa
Acknowledgments
We thank Bonisiwe Nomthetho Gcumisa, John LaPolla, Daniel Otte, and Greg Cowper for collecting many of
the specimens described in this paper. We would like to thank Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, CapeNature, SAN
Parks and iSimangaliso Wetland Park for permits issued. LAS would like to thank the staff of the South Afri-
can National Parks and Hugo Bezuidenhout for supporting this research; in Golden Gate Highlands National
Park LAS thanks Johan Taljaard, park manager, and Albert Smith, section ranger; in Marakele National Park
LAS thanks Hendrick Mugwabana, park manager, Ndwakhulu Mutobvu, section ranger, and Charles Mapazo,
an excellent ranger who helped immensely. We thank Judith Marshall (BMNH) and Roy Danielsson (MZLU)
for allowing us to study type specimens housed in their collections. PN would like to thank Edward Lohnes of
CABS, Conservation International for his help in preparation of field expeditions to South Africa. Lauren
Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 21
NEW MECONEMATINAE FROM SOUTH AFRICA
Spearman’s work was possible thanks to a 2005–2006 U.S. IIE Fulbright Scholarship. This work has been
supported by the National Science Foundation award no. 0542775 to Daniel Otte and Piotr Naskrecki.
Species descriptions
Amyttacta Beier, 1965
Type species: Amyttacta rhodesica Beier, 1965: 225.
This southern African genus of the Amytta-group has been recorded previously from Angola (A. angolensis
Beier) and Zimbabwe (A. rhodesica Beier), but never south of the Limpopo River, and thus the two species
described below are the southernmost records for representatives of the Amytta-group.
All species of Amyttacta are characterized by relatively simple cerci in the male, which are armed with
small, basal hooks or spines. The 10
th
in the male is well sclerotized, but not overhanging the epiproct (the
posterior edge of the 10
th
tergite bears two elongated processes in A. angolensis), and the subgenital plate has
a pair of small, but distinct styli. None of the known species has sclerotized titillators. The ovipositor is long
(about as long as the hind femur) and nearly straight (only the male is known in A. angolensis.)
Nothing is known about the biology of the previously described species, except for the fact that adults of
A. rhodesica are used by wasps Sphex pelopoeiformis (Dahlbom) as larval food (Beier 1965.) A. farrelli
described below, was found to be exceptionally abundant in Limpopo at grassy sites dominated by common
Guinea grass Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D. Webster. The density of individuals at some sites was 10–15 indi-
viduals/m
2
, and often multiple individuals were seen feeding on the same grass inflorescence. These katydids
were also seen on other species of plants, but no feeding on plants other than Guinea grass was observed.
Males of A. farrelli produce long, ultrasonic calls, in the range of 31–100 kHz (see below). While no mat-
ing was observed, we saw several females carrying or eating large spermatophylaxes, suggesting a significant
paternal investment in this species (Fig. 3D).
Key to known species of Amyttacta (males)
1. Macropterous, wings extending well past the tip of the abdomen...............................................................2
- Brachypterous, wings completely hidden under the pronotum ...................................................................3
2. Tenth abdominal tergite with a pair of elongated median lobes; cercus straight........... A. angolensis Beier
- Tenth abdominal tergite without a pair of median lobes; cercus slightly bent inwards...A. rhodesica Beier
3. Cercus bent downwards when seen from the side (Fig. 1D), its basal part with a small, hook-like lobe
(Fig. 1E)............................................................................................................................... A. farrelli n. sp.
- Cercus straight when seen from the side (Fig. 1L), its basal part with a multi-lobed projection at the base
(Fig. 1J)...................................................................................................................... A. marakelensis n. sp.
Amyttacta farrelli n. sp.
(Figs. 1A–I, 3C–D, 4A–B)
Type locality. REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: Limpopo, Lebowa, Bolobedu Dist., nr. Duiwelskloof,
(23°37'37.5''S, 30°22'11.9''E), 855 m, 28.ii.–2.iii.2008, coll. B. Gcumisa, C. Bazelet & P. Naskrecki—male
holotype (PPRI)
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
22 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Differential diagnosis. A. forrelli can be distinguished from A. rhodesica and A. angolensis by the strong
reduction of wings (the last two are fully winged.) From A. marakelensis it differs in the larger body size as
well as the shape and armature of the male cercus.
Description (male, except where specified)
General. Body small, slender, cylindrical (Figs. 3C, D); male brachypterous, female squamipterous.
Head. Antennal scapus unarmed. Fastigium of vertex parallel-sided, blunt apically, as wide as 1/2 of
antennal scapus, not reaching apex of antennal sockets, flat dorsally; antennae about twice as long as body;
frons flat, vertical; eyes circular, weakly protruding.
Thorax. Humeral sinus of pronotum absent, lateral lobe almost 3 times as long as high; anterior margin of
pronotum straight, flat; metazona flat (Fig. 1A), posterior edge of metazona narrowly rounded. Prosternum
unarmed.
Legs. Legs slender. Front coxa armed with long spine, front femur unarmed ventrally; genicular lobes of
front femur unarmed. Front tibia unarmed dorsally, with 3 spines on posterior and 3 on anterior ventral mar-
gin; tympanum bilaterally open, oval. Mid femur unarmed ventrally. Mid tibia not noticeably thickened in
basal part, unarmed dorsally, with 3 spines on posterior and 4 on anterior ventral margin. Hind femur unarmed
ventrally, genicular lobes of hind femur unarmed; dorsal spines of hind tibia with alternating size, smaller and
larger.
Wings. Tegmen reduced, shorter than pronotum, completely hidden under metazona of pronotum; anterior
margin nearly straight; hind wing absent. Costal field not dilated at base; veins Sc and R diverging towards
apex of tegmen; right stridulatory area with large, fully developed mirror (Fig. 1F). Stridulatory file elevated
on thickened vein, sharply bent in middle, with 33 teeth, 0.55 mm long, 0.03 mm wide (Fig. 1G). Female teg-
men squamiform, shorter than half of pronotum.
Abdomen. Tenth tergite with posterior edge sclerotized, slightly raised, and with small, triangular incision;
epiproct unmodified. Cercus long and slender, bent inwards (Fig. 1C); distinctly bent downwards when seen
from side; unarmed, but with small, hook-like projection at base (Fig. 1E); apex narrowed, blunt; paraprocts
strongly enlarged and forming large, blunt projection pointing down and overhanging subgenital plate (Fig.
1D); sclerotized epiphallus absent; subgenital plate unmodified, broadly trapezoidal, straight apically; styli
cylindrical, about twice as long as wide, parallel (Fig. 1B). Female subgenital plate broadly trapezoidal, with
wide, shallow apical incision (Fig. 1I).
Ovipositor. Ovipositor normally developed; almost straight, about as long as hind femur; apex pointed,
with both valvulae smooth, dorsal edge of upper valvula parallel to lower valvula (Fig. 1H).
Coloration. Coloration light green, antennae concolorous; eyes uniformly colored; face without darker
markings; occiput with two light yellow bands, continuous with bands on pronotum. Pronotum with light yel-
low band on upper side of lateral lobe; hind femur uniformly colored; abdominal sterna without markings;
subgenital plate without markings.
Measurements (6 males, 6 females). — body: male 13.5–14.5 (14.1±.4), female 19–21 (20.4±.8); prono-
tum: male 5–5.5 (5.3±.2), female 5; tegmen: male 2.5, female 1; hind femur: male 9.5–10.5 (10±.3), female
10–11 (10.4±.4); ovipositor: 9.5–10.5 (9.9±.4) mm.
Material examined. Republic of South Africa: Limpopo, Lebowa, Bolobedu Dist., nr. Duiwelskloof,
elev. 855 m (23°37'37.5''S, 30°22'11.9''E), 28.ii.–2.iii. 2008, coll. B. Gcumisa, C. Bazelet & P. Naskrecki25
females, 21 males (incl. holotype, 45 paratypes) (ANSP, MCZ, PPRI, SAMC, USEC); Blyde River Canyon,
elev. 1341 m (24°34'20.5''S, 30°47'55.5''E), 2.iii. 2008, coll. B. Gcumisa—1 female (USEC).
Etymology. Named in honor of Dr. Brian D. Farrell, a prominent coleopterist and evolutionary biologist.
Bioacoustics. Males of A. farrelli were recorded stridulating from low vegetation, often as low as 10 cm
above the ground, between the hours 20:00 and 1:00. Stridulation produced by the males was entirely in the
ultrasonic range, and could not be heard by human listeners. Using an ultrasound detector Pettersson D 200
we were able to measure the frequency range of the calls, which started around 31 kHz, and continued to at
Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 23
NEW MECONEMATINAE FROM SOUTH AFRICA
least 100 kHz. The energy peak, based on the intensity of the signal across the spectrum, appeared to be
around 60 kHz. The call of A. farrelli consists of long echemes (4–25 seconds long), each made up of regu-
larly spaced syllables (approx. 30 syllables/sec at 20°C), and each syllable lasted approximately 0.015 sec
(Figs. 4A, B).
Amyttacta marakelensis n. sp.
(Figs. 1J–O)
Type locality. REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: Limpopo, Waterberg Mtns; Marakele Nat. Park; nr. Thabaz-
imbi; Kwaggasvlakte Section (24°30.869'S, 27°29.586'E), 1060 m, 5–7.iv.2006, coll. Spearman & LaPolla —
male holotype (PPRI)
Differential diagnosis. This species is similar to A. farrelli but differs in the smaller body size and the
unique shape and armature of the male cercus. Females of the two species are nearly indistinguishable, except
for the smaller size of A. marakelensis.
Description (male, except where specified)
General. Body small, slender, cylindrical; male brachypterous, female squamipterous.
Head. Antennal scapus unarmed. Fastigium of vertex parallel-sided, blunt apically, as wide as 1/2 of
antennal scapus, not reaching apex of antennal sockets, flat dorsally; antennae about twice as long as body;
frons flat, vertical; eyes circular, weakly protruding.
Thorax. Humeral sinus of pronotum absent, lateral lobe almost 3 times as long as high; anterior margin of
pronotum straight, flat; metazona flat, posterior edge of metazona narrowly rounded. Prosternum unarmed.
Legs. Legs slender. Front coxa armed with long spine, front femur unarmed ventrally; genicular lobes of
front femur unarmed; front tibia unarmed dorsally, with 2–3 spines on posterior and 3 on anterior ventral mar-
gin; tympanum bilaterally open, oval. Mid femur unarmed ventrally, genicular lobes of mid femur unarmed;
mid tibia not noticeably thickened in basal part, unarmed dorsally, with 2–3 spines on posterior and 2–3 on
anterior ventral margin. Hind femur unarmed ventrally, genicular lobes of hind femur unarmed; dorsal spines
of hind tibia with alternating size, smaller and larger (Fig. 1O).
Wings. Tegmen reduced, shorter than pronotum; completely hidden under metazona of pronotum; anterior
margin nearly straight; hind wing absent. Costal field not dilated at base; veins Sc and R diverging towards
apex of tegmen; left stridulatory area with large, poorly defined (Fig. 1M). Stridulatory file elevated on thick-
ened vein, strongly curved, with 26 teeth, 0.4 mm long, 0.02 mm wide (Fig. 1N). Female tegmina squami-
form, shorter than half of pronotum.
Abdomen. Tenth tergite with posterior edge sclerotized, slightly raised, and with small, triangular incision;
epiproct unmodified. Cercus long and slender, bent inwards (Fig. 1K); straight when seen from side (Fig. 1L);
unarmed but with multi-lobed projection at base; apex slightly distended, blunt (Fig. 1J); paraprocts strongly
enlarged and forming large, bulbous projection pointing up, above subgenital plate; sclerotized epiphallus
absent; subgenital plate broadly trapezoidal, straight apically; styli cylindrical, about twice as long as wide,
parallel. Female subgenital plate broadly trapezoidal, with wide, shallow apical incision.
Ovipositor. Ovipositor normally developed; almost straight, shorter than hind femur; apex pointed, with
both valvulae smooth, dorsal edge of upper valvula parallel to lower valvula.
Coloration. Coloration light green, antennae concolorous; eyes uniformly colored; face without darker
markings; occiput with two light yellow bands, continuous with bands on pronotum. Pronotum with light yel-
low band on upper side of lateral lobe; hind femur uniformly colored; abdominal sterna without markings;
subgenital plate without markings.
Measurements (2 males, 3 females). body: male 11.5–13 (12.3±1.1), female 20.2–21.2 (20.8±.5); prono-
tum: male 5, female 4.5–4.9 (4.6±.2); tegmen: male 2.3–2.5 (2.4±.1), female 1.5; hind femur: male 8–8.2
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
24 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
(8.1±.1), female 8.9–9.8 (9.4±.5); ovipositor: 8 mm.
Material examined. Republic of South Africa: Limpopo, Waterberg Mtns; Marakele Nat. Park; nr. Tha-
bazimbi; Kwaggasvlakte Section, elev. 1060 m (24°30.869'S, 27°29.586'E), 5–7.iv. 2006, coll. L. Spearman &
J. LaPolla—3 females, 2 males (incl. holotype, 4 paratypes) (ANSP, PPRI).
Etymology. Named after the type locality of the new species, Marakele National Park in Limpopo Prov-
ince.
Other species of Amyttacta examined:
Amyttacta rhodesica Beier, 1965
Listed by Beier (1965) only from the type locality in Zimbabwe, here recorded for the first time from Angola.
Material examined. Zimbabwe: Mashonaland, Salisbury Experimental Station, x.1957, coll. J.A. Whel-
lan—3 females, 2 males (incl. holotype, 2 paratypes) (BMNH); Angola: Dundo (Lunda), A. O. P., coll. A. DE
B. Machado—1 male (MNCN).
Amyttacta angolensis, 1965
Known only from the type locality in Angola (Beier 1965).
Material examined. Angola: Moxico Dist., Munhango, (12°10'S, 18°33'0''E), 20.ix. 1927, coll. M. Burr—
1 male (holotype) (BMNH).
Paracilacris Chopard, 1955
Type species: Paracilacris lateralis Chopard, 1955: 273.
Paracilacris is a genus endemic to eastern parts of South Africa, and its species are associated with mid-
dle to high elevation grasslands. It is closely related to the genera Acilacris Bolivar and Aroegas Peringuey,
but differs in the presence of a sharply incised, horizontal subgenital plate in the male, a strongly projecting
fastigium of vertex, and the male cercus with a large, basal tooth.
Little is known about the biology of the species of this genus, but it is likely that they all feed on flowers
and seeds of grasses. P. periclitatus n. sp. was observed feeding on flowers of several unidentified species of
grasses. All species of Paracilacris have been collected during the day by grass sweeping, but their feeding
and reproductive activities most likely take place only at night. Males of P. periclitatus start stridulating
around 19:30, and continue well past midnight.
Key to known species of Paracilacris
1. Titillator as in Fig 3B, covered with numerous hooks; female subgenital plate with a pair of pointed,
upcurved lobes (Figs. 2M, N); pronotum without a distinct dark band on the lateral lobe (Fig. 2H)...........
.......................................................................................................................................P. periclitatus n. sp.
- Titillator as in Fig. 3A, anchor-shaped; female subgenital plate without or with pointed lobes, but lobes
never curved up on the sides of the ovipositor; pronotum with a distinct dark band on the lateral lobe (Fig.
2A)...............................................................................................................................................................2
2. Male cercus tapered apically, without a distended lobe; ovipositor nearly straight (Fig. 2P), female sub-
Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 25
NEW MECONEMATINAE FROM SOUTH AFRICA
genital plate with a pair of pointed lobes (Fig. 2O).......................................................P. lateralis Chopard
- Male cercus with a large, subapical lobe (Fig. 2B); ovipositor strongly curved (Fig. 2G); female subgeni-
tal plate without pointed lobes (Fig. 2F)..............................................................................P. mordax n. sp.
Paracilacris mordax n. sp.
(Figs. 2A–G, 3A)
Type locality. REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: Free State, Golden Gate Highlands National Park, vic. Glen
Reenen Rest Camp, Oribi Loop (28°30.343'S, 28°39.208'E), 2094 m, 3.xi.2005, coll. L. Spearman & J.
LaPolla—male holotype (PPRI)
Differential diagnosis. This species is similar in coloration and appearance to P. lateralis, but can be dis-
tinguished by the unique form of the male cercus (Fig. 2B) and the short, strongly curved ovipositor (oviposi-
tor long, nearly straight in P. lateralis.) From P. periclitatus it differs in the details of the reproductive
structures in both sexes, smaller body size, and the shape of the male tegmen.
Description (male, except where specified)
General. Body small, robust, cylindrical; male brachypterous, female squamipterous.
Head. Fastigium of frons small, separated from fastigium of vertex by distinct gap. Fastigium of vertex
parallel-sided, blunt apically, slightly narrower than antennal scapus, almost reaching apex of antennal sock-
ets, flat dorsally; antennal scapus unarmed; antennae as long as body; frons slightly convex, oblique; eyes cir-
cular, weakly protruding.
Thorax. Pronotum surface smooth; humeral sinus of pronotum absent; marginal fold of pronotum very
narrow, smooth, lateral lobe almost 2.5 times as long as high; anterior margin of pronotum straight, flat; meta-
zona weakly convex (Fig. 2A), posterior edge of metazona broadly rounded. Prosternum unarmed; thoracic
auditory spiracle hidden under pronotum.
Legs. Legs short, robust. Front coxa armed with long spine, front femur unarmed ventrally; genicular
lobes of front femur unarmed. Front tibia unarmed dorsally, with 4 spines on posterior and 4 on anterior ven-
tral margin, ventral spines on front tibia short, about half as long as tibia diameter; tympanum bilaterally open,
oval, about twice as long as wide. Mid femur unarmed ventrally, genicular lobes of mid femur unarmed; mid
tibia not noticeably thickened in basal part. with 1–2 small spines dorsally, with 3 spines on posterior and 3–4
on anterior ventral margin. Hind femur unarmed ventrally, genicular lobes of hind femur unarmed; dorsal
spines of hind tibia with alternating size, smaller and larger.
Wings. Tegmen reduced, completely hidden under pronotum; apical part truncate, nearly straight; anterior
margin rounded; hind wing absent. Costal field narrow; veins Sc and R close together, parallel along their
entire length; right stridulatory area with large, fully developed mirror; mirror roughly rectangular; left stridu-
latory area with large, fully developed mirror (Fig. 2D). Stridulatory file elevated on thickened vein, straight,
with 19 teeth, 1.2 mm long, 0.06 mm wide (Fig. 2E). Female tegmina squamiform, shorter than quarter of
pronotum.
Abdomen. Tenth tergite unmodified; epiproct unmodified, triangular. Cercus short, straight; straight when
seen from side; with large, inner tooth; apex strongly flattened dorso-ventrally and distended laterally (Fig.
2B); paraprocts not sclerotized, forming short, finger-like lobes pointing down; sclerotized epiphallus anchor-
shaped, with long, straight middle arm (Fig. 3A). Subgenital plate elongate, narrowly trapezoidal, with small,
triangular apical incision; styli absent (Fig. 2C). Female subgenital plate broadly trapezoidal, with very shal-
low apical incision (Fig. 2F).
Ovipositor. Ovipositor strongly curved, as long as 1/2 of hind femur, apex with strong apical teeth on both
valvulae, dorsal edge of upper valvula parallel to lower valvula (Fig. 2G).
Coloration. Coloration light brown, with dark markings, antennae concolorous; antennal scapus with light
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
26 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
stripe, continuous with that on head; eyes with dark, horizontal band; face brown; occiput with dark brown
median stripe, continuous with that on pronotum. Pronotum with narrow, dark brown stripe dorsally and
wider, dark brown bands on lateral lobes; abdominal terga with dark brown stripe laterally, light brown dor-
sally. Legs unicolorous.
Measurements. (3 males, 1 female). - body: male 11.5-14 (12.4±1.4), female 14; pronotum: male 6,
female 6; tegmen: male 2.5, female ; hind femur: male 9-9.5 (9.3±.3), female 9.5; ovipositor: 4 mm.
Material examined. Republic of South Africa: Free State, Golden Gate Highlands National Park, vic.
Glen Reenen Rest Camp, Oribi Loop, elev. 2094 m (28°30.343'S, 28°39.208'E), 3.xi. 2005, coll. L. Spearman
& J. LaPolla1 male (holotype) (PPRI); same locality, elev. 2089 m (28°30.34'S, 28°39.165'E), 5.xi. 2005,
coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla1 female (paratype) (PPRI); same locality, elev. 2088 m (28°30.339'S,
28°39.153'E), 5.xi. 2005, coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla1 male (paratype) (PPRI); Golden Gate Highlands
National Park; vic. Glen Reenen RestCamp; Oribi Loop, elev. 2069 m (28°30.366'S, 28°39.211'E), 5.xi. 2005,
coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla1 male (paratype) (ANSP); same locality, elev. 2011 m (28°30.355'S,
28°39.215'E), 31.iii. 2006, coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla1 nymph male; same locality, elev. 2009 m
(28°30.332'S, 28°39.181'E), 31.iii. 2006, coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla1 nymph male (ANSP); Golden
Gate Nat. Park, Echo Ravine trail, elev. 1928 m (28°30'18.3''S, 28°37'8.6''E), 4.iii. 2008, coll. P. Naskrecki &
C. Bazelet1 nymph male (ANSP).
Etymology. The specific epithet mordax [Lat.], meaning “biting”, reflects the apparently very aggressive
nature of this small new katydid, as reported by one of its collectors, Dr. John LaPolla.
Paracilacris periclitatus n. sp.
(Figs. 2H–N, 3B, 4C–D)
Type locality. REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu Natal, Ugum Distr., Ingeli Forest, 30 km E Koks-
tad (30°30'5.8''S, 29°42'32.1''E), 1384 m, 9.iii.2008, coll. D. Otte, P. Naskrecki & G. Cowpermale holotype
(PPRI)
Differential diagnosis. This species is easily distinguished from other member of the genus by its uniform
coloration, lacking dark, lateral stripes of the remaining two species. The sclerotized part of the epiphallus (tit-
illator) is covered with numerous hooks (Fig. 3B) (titllator smooth in other species), and the female subgenital
plate has a pair of characteristic, upcurved, pointed lobes.
Description (male, except where specified)
General. Body large for the genus, robust, cylindrical; male brachypterous, female squamipterous.
Head. Fastigium of frons not developed. Fastigium of vertex triangular, blunt apically, as wide as 1/2 of
antennal scapus, not reaching apex of antennal sockets, flat dorsally; antennal scapus unarmed; antennae
slightly longer than body; frons flat, slightly oblique; eyes circular, weakly protruding.
Thorax. Pronotum surface smooth; humeral sinus of pronotum absent; marginal fold of pronotum very
narrow, smooth, lateral lobe almost 2.5 times as long as high; anterior margin of pronotum straight, flat; meta-
zona convex (Fig. 2H), posterior edge of metazona broadly rounded. Prosternum unarmed. Thoracic auditory
spiracle minute, circular, completely hidden under pronotum.
Legs. Legs slender. Front coxa armed with long spine, front femur unarmed ventrally; genicular lobes of
front femur unarmed. Front tibia unarmed dorsally, with 2–3 spines on posterior and 1–3 on anterior ventral
margin, ventral spines on front tibia short, about half as long as tibia diameter; tympanum bilaterally open,
oval, about twice as long as wide. Mid femur unarmed ventrally, genicular lobes of mid femur unarmed; mid
tibia not noticeably thickened in basal part. unarmed dorsally, with 2–3 spines on posterior and 3–4 on ante-
rior ventral margin. Hind femur unarmed ventrally, genicular lobes of hind femur unarmed; consecutive dorsal
spines of hind tibia of similar size.
Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 27
NEW MECONEMATINAE FROM SOUTH AFRICA
Wings. Tegmen reduced, completely hidden under pronotum; narrowly rounded; anterior margin rounded;
hind wing absent. Costal field narrow; veins Sc and R close together, parallel along their entire length; right
stridulatory area with large, fully developed mirror; mirror roughly cicrular; left stridulatory area with large,
fully developed mirror (Fig. 2K). Stridulatory file elevated on thickened vein, nearly straight, bent in proximal
fourth, with 61 teeth, 2.1 mm long, 0.06 mm wide (Fig. 2L). Female tegmina squamiform, shorter than quarter
of pronotum.
Measurements (3 males, 1 female). body: male 11.5–14 (12.4±1.4), female 14; pronotum: male 6, female
6; tegmen: male 2.5, female ; hind femur: male 9–9.5 (9.3±.3), female 9.5; ovipositor: 4 mm.
Abdomen. Tenth tergite unmodified; epiproct unmodified, rounded. Cercus short, straight; horizontal
when seen from side, and with large, inner tooth; apex tapered (Fig. 2I); paraprocts not sclerotized, forming
short, finger-like lobes pointing down; sclerotized epiphallus elongate, parallel-sided, truncated apically, and
covered with minute hooks (Fig. 3B). Subgenital plate elongate, narrowly trapezoidal, with small, triangular
apical incision; styli absent (Fig. 2J). Female subgenital plate broadly rectangular, with deep, triangular apical
incision (Fig. 2M), posterior lobes narrow, curved upwards (Fig. 2N).
Ovipositor. Ovipositor strongly curved, shorter than half of hind femur, apex with strong apical teeth on
both valvulae, dorsal edge of upper valvula parallel to lower valvula (Fig. 2N).
Coloration. Coloration light green (Fig. 3E) to pinkish-brown (Fig. 3F), antennae concolorous; antennal
scapus without markings; eyes with dark, horizontal band; face green; occiput with two light yellow bands
behind eyes. Pronotum with sparsely distributed, small, brown or blue dots and patches; abdominal terga with
densely distributed, dark dots. Legs without distinct markings; ovipositor brown.
Measurements (6 males, 6 females). — body: male 14–17 (15.6±1.1), female 17.5–21 (19.1±1.2); prono-
tum: male 8.3–9 (8.6±.3), female 7–8.1 (7.6±.5); tegmen: male 5–5.5 (5.4±.2), female 1–1.2 (1.1±.1); hind
femur: male 10.5–11.5 (11.1±.4), female 12–12.5 (12.1±.2); ovipositor: 4.5–5.5 (5.2±.4) mm.
Material examined. Republic of South Africa: KwaZulu Natal, Ugum Distr., Ingeli Forest, 30 km E
Kokstad, elev. 1384 m (30°30'5.8''S, 29°42'32.1''E), 9.iii. 2008, coll. D. Otte, P. Naskrecki & G. Cowper11
females, 9 males (holotype and paratypes), 3 nymphs, 1 nymph male (ANSP, PPRI, SAMC, USEC).
Etymology. The specific epithet periclitatus [Lat.] (= endangered) refers to the potentially precarious situ-
ation of the only known population of this species, restricted to a small, remaining strip of the natural
Podocarpus forest, surrounded by active pine and Eucalyptus plantations.
Bioacoustics. Males of P. periclitatus were recorded stridulating from low, herbaceous vegetation between
the hours 19:30 and 11:30. A large portion of their call was within the audible part of the spectrum, and, while
rather quiet, they could be heard from a distance of about 10 m. The call consists of echeme-sequences 4–60
sec. long, each divided into echemes at the rate of 3.49–3.67 echemes/sec at 20°C, and each echeme divided
into three syllables (Figs. 4C, D.) The energy peak within the recorded spectrum (which was limited to 44 kHz
at the upper margin) was around 16 kHz, making the call audible to the human ear.
Other species of Paracilacris examined:
Paracilacris lateralis Chopard, 1955
(Figs. 2P–O)
Listed by Chopard (1955) from KwaZulu Natal and eastern Cape, here it is recorded for the first time from
Free State.
Material examined. Republic of South Africa: KwaZuluNatal, Royal Natal National Park, Tugela Val-
ley, on meadow near river, Station No. 261, elev. 1524 m (28°43'60''S, 28°55'0''E), 4.iv. 1951, coll. P. Brinck
and G. Rudebeck (Station No. 261)1 male (holotype) (MZLU); Eastern Cape, Elands Height, 15 miles SW
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
28 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
Mount Fletcher, on grassy hill side, Station No. 217, elev. 1829 m (30°51'31.44''S, 28°22'35.36''E), 9.iii. 1951,
coll. P. Brinck and G. Rudebeck (Station No. 217)1 female (allotype) (MZLU); Free State, Golden Gate
Highlands National Park; vic. Glen Reenen Rest Camp; Oribi Loop, elev. 2006 m (28°30.359'S, 28°39.184'E),
30.iii. 2006, coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla1 female, 1 nymph female.
References
Beier, M. (1965) Die afrikanischen Arten der Gattungsgruppe "Amytta" Karsch. Beiträge zur Entomologie, 15(3/4), 203
242.
Beier, M. (1967) Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Gattungsgruppe Amytta Karsch (Orth.: Meconematinae). Eos, Madrid,
42, 305–310.
Chopard, L. (1955) Orthoptera Ensifera. In: Hanstrom, B., P. Brinck. and G. Rudebeck, [eds.], South African Animal
Life, Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951, 2, 266–300.
Gorochov (1993) A contribution to the knowledge of the tribe Meconematini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zoosystemat-
ica Rossica, 2(1), 63–92.
Gorochov, A.V. (1994) A new species of Anepitacta from Cameroon (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zoosystematica Ros-
sica, 3, 34.
Hemp, C. (2001) Two new species of Amytta Karsch (Orthoptera: Meconematinae) from East Africa (Tanzania, Mt. Kil-
imanjaro). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 10(1), 129–134.
Naskrecki, P. (1996) Systematics of the southern African Meconematinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Journal of African
Zoology, 110, 159–193.
Naskrecki, P. (2008) New species of arboreal predatory katydids from West Africa (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Mecone-
matinae). Zootaxa, 1732, 1–28.
Ragge, D.R. and Roy, R. (1971) Le Massif des Monts Loma (Sierra Leone), fascicule 1. IX. Orthoptera Tettigoniidae.
Mémoires de l' Institut Fondamental d' Afrique Noire, 86, 249–259.
Ragge, D.R. and W. J. Reynolds (1998) The songs of the grasshoppers and crickets of western Europe. Colchester, Essex
(Harley Books), pp. i-x, 1-591.
Roy, R. (1967) Récoltes du Dr M. Gaillard à Kolda, Sénégal 1963–1966, Orthoptères et ordres voisins. Bulletin de l'
Institut Fondamental d' Afrique Noire, Série A, 29 (4), 1538–1567.
Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 29
NEW MECONEMATINAE FROM SOUTH AFRICA
FIGURE 1. Amyttacta farrelli. A. male head and pronotum, lateral view; B. male subgenital plate; C. apex of male abdo-
men, dorsal view; D. ditto, lateral view; E. male right cercus, dorsal view; F. male left tegmen; G. stridulatory file; H. ovi-
positor; I. female subgenital plate; A. marakelensis. J. male right cercus, dorsal view; K. apex of male abdomen, dorsal
view; L. ditto, lateral view; M. male left tegmen; N. stridulatory file; O. spines on hind tibia.
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
30 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 2. Paracilacris mordax. A. male head and pronotum, lateral view; B. apex of male abdomen, dorsal view; C.
male subgenital plate; D. male left tegmen; E. stridulatory file; F. female subgenital plate; G. ovipositor; P. periclitatus.
H. male head and pronotum, lateral view; I. apex of male abdomen, dorsal view; J. male subgenital plate; K. male left
tegmen; L. stridulatory file; M. female subgenital plate; N. ovipositor; P. lateralis. O. female subgenital plate; P. ovipos-
itor.
Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 31
NEW MECONEMATINAE FROM SOUTH AFRICA
FIGURE 3. Paracilacris mordax. A. titillator, dorsal view; P. periclitatus. B. titillator, dorsal view; Amyttacta farrelli. C.
male, lateral view; D. female devouring the spermatophylax; Paracilacris periclitatus. E. male, dorso-lateral view (green
form); F. female, dorso-lateral view (brown form).
NASKRECKI ET AL.;
32 · Zootaxa 1933 © 2008 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 4. Oscillograms of male airborne calls. Amyttacta farrelli. A. 5 s fragment of an echeme; B. 0.5 s fragment
showing syllables; Paracilacris periclitatus. C. 5 s fragment of echeme-sequence; D. 0.5 s fragment showing a single
echeme.
... Furthermore, the interaction of general long-term climatic stability since the Miocene and complex microclimates was suggested to be the driver of the exceptional plant diversity in the Cape region of southern Africa (Schnitzler et al., 2011) which might also apply for faunal elements. Highly regional forest endemics, like they are for instance found in many flightless and little vagile dung beetles ( Davis et al., 2001;Medina & Scholtz, 2005;Deschodt & Scholtz, 2008;Mlambo et al., 2011), rose chafers ( S ıpek & Malec, 2016), or longhorned grasshoppers (Naskrecki et al., 2008;Samways et al., 2012), might derive from such past subdivisions. However, in most cases, these are very rare species which are reported from only a tiny fraction of existing forest patches. ...
... Besides Pleophylla, other highly diverse insect groups like canthonine dung beetles (Canthonini), which bear many flightless taxa, exclusively occur in South African forest remains ( Davis et al., 2001;Medina & Scholtz, 2005;Deschodt & Scholtz, 2008;Mlambo et al., 2011). Likewise, considerable diversity of flightless species is found in grassland biomes (e.g., Pope, 1960;Naskrecki et al., 2008), indicating a certain stability of both biomes in the region. This supports the fossil-and modeling-based idea of a longterm mosaic of sufficiently connected grassland and forests that was able to persist in refugia provided by a variety of geological features and different climatic influences during glacial periods. ...
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A new genus (Brachyamytta n. gen.) and ten new species (Proamytta spinifera n. sp., Amyttosa insectivora n. sp., Anepitacta wrightae n. sp., Amyttopsis bakowskii n. sp., A. palmulicerca n. sp., Xiphidiola hokel n. sp., X. lobaticerca n. sp., Brachyamytta rapidoaestima n. sp., B. mculloughae n. sp., and B. maculipes n. sp.) of West African Meconematinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) are described. New distribution records for several species are presented, and unusual egg morphology of A. insectivora is discussed.
Material examined. Republic of South Africa: Limpopo, Waterberg Mtns; Marakele Nat. Park; nr. Tha-bazimbi; Kwaggasvlakte Section, elev
  • Ansp
  • Ppri
4±.5); ovipositor: 8 mm. Material examined. Republic of South Africa: Limpopo, Waterberg Mtns; Marakele Nat. Park; nr. Tha-bazimbi; Kwaggasvlakte Section, elev. 1060 m (24°30.869'S, 27°29.586'E), 5–7.iv. 2006, coll. L. Spearman & J. LaPolla—3 females, 2 males (incl. holotype, 4 paratypes) (ANSP, PPRI).
Named after the type locality of the new species, Marakele National Park in Limpopo Prov-References Beier, M. (1965) Die afrikanischen Arten der Gattungsgruppe
  • Etymology
Etymology. Named after the type locality of the new species, Marakele National Park in Limpopo Prov-References Beier, M. (1965) Die afrikanischen Arten der Gattungsgruppe "Amytta" Karsch. Beiträge zur Entomologie, 15(3/4), 203– 242.
Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Gattungsgruppe Amytta Karsch (Orth.: Meconematinae)
  • M Beier
Beier, M. (1967) Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Gattungsgruppe Amytta Karsch (Orth.: Meconematinae). Eos, Madrid, 42, 305-310.
A contribution to the knowledge of the tribe Meconematini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zoosystematica Rossica
  • Gorochov
Gorochov (1993) A contribution to the knowledge of the tribe Meconematini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 2(1), 63-92.
A new species of Anepitacta from Cameroon (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)
  • A V Gorochov
Gorochov, A.V. (1994) A new species of Anepitacta from Cameroon (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 3, 34.
Le Massif des Monts Loma (Sierra Leone), fascicule 1. IX. Orthoptera Tettigoniidae. Mémoires de l' Institut Fondamental d' Afrique Noire
  • D R Ragge
  • R Roy
Ragge, D.R. and Roy, R. (1971) Le Massif des Monts Loma (Sierra Leone), fascicule 1. IX. Orthoptera Tettigoniidae. Mémoires de l' Institut Fondamental d' Afrique Noire, 86, 249-259.