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Online Dating: A Critical Analysis From the Perspective of Psychological Science

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Abstract

Online dating sites frequently claim that they have fundamentally altered the dating landscape for the better. This article employs psychological science to examine (a) whether online dating is fundamentally different from conventional offline dating and (b) whether online dating promotes better romantic outcomes than conventional offline dating. The answer to the first question (uniqueness) is yes, and the answer to the second question (superiority) is yes and no. To understand how online dating fundamentally differs from conventional offline dating and the circumstances under which online dating promotes better romantic outcomes than conventional offline dating, we consider the three major services online dating sites offer: access, communication, and matching. Access refers to users' exposure to and opportunity to evaluate potential romantic partners they are otherwise unlikely to encounter. Communication refers to users' opportunity to use various forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to interact with specific potential partners through the dating site before meeting face-to-face. Matching refers to a site's use of a mathematical algorithm to select potential partners for users. Regarding the uniqueness question, the ways in which online dating sites implement these three services have indeed fundamentally altered the dating landscape. In particular, online dating, which has rapidly become a pervasive means of seeking potential partners, has altered both the romantic acquaintance process and the compatibility matching process. For example, rather than meeting potential partners, getting a snapshot impression of how well one interacts with them, and then slowly learning various facts about them, online dating typically involves learning a broad range of facts about potential partners before deciding whether one wants to meet them in person. Rather than relying on the intuition of village elders, family members, or friends or to select which pairs of unacquainted singles will be especially compatible, certain forms of online dating involve placing one's romantic fate in the hands of a mathematical matching algorithm. Turning to the superiority question, online dating has important advantages over conventional offline dating. For example, it offers unprecedented (and remarkably convenient) levels of access to potential partners, which is especially helpful for singles who might otherwise lack such access. It also allows online daters to use CMC to garner an initial sense of their compatibility with potential partners before deciding whether to meet them face-to-face. In addition, certain dating sites may be able to collect data that allow them to banish from the dating pool people who are likely to be poor relationship partners in general. On the other hand, the ways online dating sites typically implement the services of access, communication, and matching do not always improve romantic outcomes; indeed, they sometimes undermine such outcomes. Regarding access, encountering potential partners via online dating profiles reduces three-dimensional people to two-dimensional displays of information, and these displays fail to capture those experiential aspects of social interaction that are essential to evaluating one's compatibility with potential partners. In addition, the ready access to a large pool of potential partners can elicit an evaluative, assessment-oriented mindset that leads online daters to objectify potential partners and might even undermine their willingness to commit to one of them. It can also cause people to make lazy, ill-advised decisions when selecting among the large array of potential partners. Regarding communication, although online daters can benefit from having short-term CMC with potential partners before meeting them face-to-face, longer periods of CMC prior to a face-to-face meeting may actually hurt people's romantic prospects. In particular, people tend to overinterpret the social cues available in CMC, and if CMC proceeds unabated without a face-to-face reality check, subsequent face-to-face meetings can produce unpleasant expectancy violations. As CMC lacks the experiential richness of a face-to-face encounter, some important information about potential partners is impossible to glean from CMC alone; most users will want to meet a potential partner in person to integrate their CMC and face-to-face impressions into a coherent whole before pursuing a romantic relationship. Regarding matching, no compelling evidence supports matching sites' claims that mathematical algorithms work-that they foster romantic outcomes that are superior to those fostered by other means of pairing partners. Part of the problem is that matching sites build their mathematical algorithms around principles-typically similarity but also complementarity-that are much less important to relationship well-being than has long been assumed. In addition, these sites are in a poor position to know how the two partners will grow and mature over time, what life circumstances they will confront and coping responses they will exhibit in the future, and how the dynamics of their interaction will ultimately promote or undermine romantic attraction and long-term relationship well-being. As such, it is unlikely that any matching algorithm that seeks to match two people based on information available before they are aware of each other can account for more than a very small proportion of the variance in long-term romantic outcomes, such as relationship satisfaction and stability. In short, online dating has radically altered the dating landscape since its inception 15 to 20 years ago. Some of the changes have improved romantic outcomes, but many have not. We conclude by (a) discussing the implications of online dating for how people think about romantic relationships and for homogamy (similarity of partners) in marriage and (b) offering recommendations for policymakers and for singles seeking to make the most out of their online dating endeavors.

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... Dating apps offer several advantages over conventional forms of relationship initiation (e.g., meeting in person; see Finkel et al., 2012;Sharabi & Dykstra-DeVette, 2019). While some of these benefits may resonate more strongly with LGBTQIA+ users, others are unique to this community's experiences on dating apps. ...
... For example, dating apps allow people to control their self-presentation and may allow LGBTQIA+ users to explore their gender and sexuality in ways they could not safely do offline. Dating apps also provide people with a larger dating pool (Finkel et al., 2012), which may be especially beneficial for expanding access to potential partners among minority populations. Additionally, people who lack strong LGBTQIA+ networks offline may discover that dating apps reduce uncertainty about others' identities and contribute to valuable support networks (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). ...
... Participants also found dating apps useful for expanding the dating pool. One advantage of dating apps is that they increase the choices people have in potential partners (Finkel et al., 2012), and our results suggest that this may be especially important for users in thin dating markets (such as LGBTQIA+ users). By reducing uncertainty about others' identities, dating apps also contributed to a sense of belonging by connecting users with the broader LGBTQIA+ community (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). ...
Article
This mixed-methods study explores dating app use within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+) community. LGBTQIA+ dating app users ( N = 231) from across the U.S. were surveyed about their relationship initiation experiences. Thematic analysis was used to identify the benefits and challenges participants faced on dating apps and their motives for adopting (or avoiding) dating apps specifically for the LGBTQIA+ community (e.g., Grindr, Her, Butterfly). Participants described benefitting from dating apps, but also confronting significant challenges such as discrimination and the erasure of identity. Just over half (55.0%) of the sample reported using LGBTQIA+ dating apps, which functioned as safe spaces, reduced uncertainty about others’ identities, and were better adapted to community norms. Multiple logistic regression was also used to test predictions regarding user adoption. Findings have implications for understanding how people in historically thin dating markets are using mobile technology to expand their opportunities for relationship initiation.
... (Finkel et al., 2012). Online dating has rapidly expanded to become the most common way to meet a romantic partner, displacing conventional relationship intermediaries such as friends and family in what has been described as "a process of technologydriven disintermediation" (Rosenfeld et al., 2019, p. 17756). ...
... The possibility that online dating may play a role in shaping marital dynamics first began to attract attention in the early 2000s with eHarmony's efforts to develop a scientific matching system (Carter & Buckwalter, 2009). As Finkel et al. (2012) noted, if online dating indeed has the potential to be more effective than traditional pathways to marriage, then it may serve "to boost happiness and to reduce the great suffering and costs associated with relationship distress and dissolution" (p. 5). ...
... However, little research has been conducted since in an effort to explain these effects on marital quality and stability. Although the literature on online dating is flourishing (for a review, see Finkel et al., 2012), there is a notable lack of knowledge about the trajectories and long-term outcomes of the relationships that are emerging from these platforms. ...
Article
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This study takes a relational stage approach to understanding the role of online dating in the progression of relationships toward marriage. Fifty interviews were conducted with individuals from across the United States (ages 21–62; M age = 33.42) who were married or engaged to someone they met via online dating. The results present a comprehensive view of online dating through 4 stages and 13 subcategories of relationship development. Participants described meeting through a process of technology-enabled relationship initiation. Once the relationship escalated offline, they entered a period of multimodal development that demonstrated the enduring influence technology continued to have after meeting in person. Throughout this process, participants stressed the role of online dating platforms in breaking down barriers and reinforcing divisions. Three outcomes for marriage were also uncovered. Findings from this study suggest that online dating is changing more than where couples meet and have theoretical and practical implications.
... Over the last decade, the expansion of internet availability and consumer electronics (e.g., smartphones, smartwatches, tablets, etc.) allowing consistent access have revolutionized the way millions of people seek out romantic and sexual partners, birthing the term "online dating." Online dating involves using internet-based dating applications to facilitate relational experiences ranging from casual sexual encounters to committed romantic relationships (e.g., Finkel et al., 2012;Gatter & Hodkinson, 2016). Prior work affirms widespread adoption of online dating methods more generally; for example, in 2019 as many as 48% of U.S. adults aged 18-29 and 30% of individuals of all ages reported using a dating site or app (Vogels, 2020), with 39% of cross-sex couples reporting that their relationships originated online (Rosenfeld et al., 2019). ...
... Previous research also suggests that online dating represents a novel and unique context, distinct from that of offline dating (e.g., Finkel et al., 2012). For example, online dating allows people to evaluate detailed profiles with expressed dating desires (e.g., relationship, hookup) that may be less evident or salient in offline contexts. ...
... Given that people communicate differently in online and offline contexts (e.g., Young et al., 2017), it is unsurprising that some research supports the notion that online dating and offline dating represent fundamentally different relational contexts (Ciocca et al., 2020;Finkel, 2012;Finkel et al., 2015;Gatter & Hodkinson, 2016.). For example, dating and sexual experiences originating in the offline domain may occur within a more interconnected social web (e.g., a romantic pair that meets at work), whereas experiences originating from online platforms may evolve through electronic communication and involve less (or no) social overlap, allowing a more discreet experience. ...
Article
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Objective: Nearly 50% of adults under age 29 report using some form of online dating to find sexual partners or romantic relationships. Limited evidence suggests online and offline dating behaviors and experiences can vary. We aimed to expand understanding these differences by examining how attachment styles are associated with online and offline search for partners and emotional responses to sexual experiences. Methods: In a sample of single adults (N = 247; Mage= 27.34), we examine how attachment styles relate to individual differences in how people search for partners and respond to sexual experiences with partners met online and offline. Results: Individuals high in attachment anxiety reported higher use of online dating apps and more negative experiences (e.g., lower satisfaction, more guilt) following their most recent sexual encounters with partners met online and offline and reported feeling more used after engaging in sexual activity specifically with partners met offline. Individuals high in avoidance also reported more negative experiences following their most recent sexual encounters but only with partners met offline. Conclusions: This study moves our understanding by highlighting nuances in how attachment insecurity is associated with differences in online dating app use and emotions following sexual experiences when meeting partners online and offline.
... Existe una conexión clara entre las relaciones estables propias y la recuperación de la enfermedad, las posibilidades de atraer enfermedades, la longevidad de la vida y la felicidad (Diener & Seligman, 2002;Pinker, 2014;van Lankveld et al., 2018;Waldinger & Schulz, 2010;Waring, 1985;Wilson & Oswald, 2005). Se encontró que la soledad, por otro lado, deteriora la salud (Cacioppo & Patrick, 2008;Finkel et al., 2012;Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010, 2015Pinker, 2014;Ross et al., 1990;Seeman & Berkman, 1988;Waring, 1985). La soledad no solo influye en la capacidad para realizar las actividades del día a día, como la capacidad de concentración o de dormir bien, sino que puede tener un efecto terminal en la salud (Cacioppo & Cacioppo, 2018;Cacioppo & Patrick, 2008;Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010;Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010, 2015, al aumentar la mortalidad incluso en un 26% (Cacioppo & Cacioppo, 2018). ...
... There is a clear connection between one's steady relationships and disease recovery, the chances of attracting disease, the longevity of life, and happiness (Diener & Seligman, 2002;Pinker, 2014;van Lankveld et al., 2018;Waldinger & Schulz, 2010;Waring, 1985;Wilson & Oswald, 2005). Loneliness, on the other hand, was found to deteriorate one's health (Cacioppo & Patrick, 2008;Finkel et al., 2012;Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010, 2015Pinker, 2014;Ross et al., 1990;Seeman & Berkman, 1988;Waring, 1985). Loneliness does not only influence one's ability to perform day-to-day activities, such as the ability to concentrate or to have good sleep, but it can have a terminal effect on health (Cacioppo & Cacioppo, 2018;Cacioppo & Patrick, 2008;Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010;Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010, 2015 by increasing mortality by even 26 percent (Cacioppo & Cacioppo, 2018). ...
... En un estudio realizado por Toma y colegas (2008) sobre la autorrepresentación en perfiles de citas en línea con ochenta participantes, se encontró que más del 80% de las personas se han presentado de manera diferente en un sitio de citas. Además, las personas pueden salir fácilmente de las conversaciones y bloquear a sus compañeros de conversación y cambiarlos por otros (Finkel et al., 2012), y rara vez brindan una explicación para tal acción (Rashidi et al., 2020;Timmermans et al., 2020). Estos comportamientos están cada vez más presentes, tanto que se aceptan como el costo de estar involucrados en el mundo en línea (ibíd). ...
Article
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humans have the innate need to belong and relate to others. stable relationships are a great influencer of happiness and health and, therefore, should receive stronger attention for their nurture. online environment is steadily becoming the primary source of relationship formation, however, its instability poses threats to build stable relationships. since online communication is increasingly used in relationship formation and communication, it holds opportunities for design interventions that support stable relationship creation. this paper introduces a pyramidical laddering approach that guides the building of online communication from the basis of stable creation of intimacy, to satisfying the needs of belonging and relatedness, to ultimately delivering well-being. the approach that was developed through the authors’ prior research aims to deal with the identified main barriers of online communication, distrust and disengagement, and their influence on the formation of stable connections in order to enable healthy intimacy formation in the online environment. this paper brings attention to the importance of romantic relationships on health and highlights opportunities for further research in the thus far under-researched area of design for relation making to support well-being and health of society.
... Overview As a case study in the utility of our framework, we focus on online dating and its links to racial inequality. Online dating sites are increasingly popular -the majority of romantic relationships now begin online (Finkel et al. 2012). A wide array of scholarship has used the digital trace data resulting from these sites to explore patterns in romantic relationships (Bruch and Newman 2018; Anderson et al. 2014;Lewis 2016). ...
... A wide array of scholarship has used the digital trace data resulting from these sites to explore patterns in romantic relationships (Bruch and Newman 2018; Anderson et al. 2014;Lewis 2016). This data is particularly valuable because romantic partnerships are a uniquely difficult social relationship to characterize (Finkel et al. 2012), as even we ourselves are not always certain why we are attracted to a given individual (Lizardo and Strand 2010). ...
... Having determined the boundaries of the system, two authors of the paper, one with significant experience in the abstraction hierarchy framework, and the other with expertise in the link between social media and social inequality, each created their own Abstraction Hierarchies. Both scholars made use of a recent book-length review of the online dating literature (Finkel et al. 2012) and the abstraction hierarchy model of healthcare described above (St-Maurice and Burns 2017) to do so. The models from these two authors were then combined into a single model, which was reviewed and modified by a third team member with expertise in the study of online dating platforms. ...
Article
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We propose and extend a qualitative, complex systems methodology from cognitive engineering, known as the abstraction hierarchy, to model how potential interventions that could be carried out by social media platforms might impact social equality. Social media platforms have come under considerable ire for their role in perpetuating social inequality. However, there is also significant evidence that platforms can play a role in reducing social inequality, e.g. through the promotion of social movements. Platforms’ role in producing or reducing social inequality is, moreover, not static; platforms can and often do take actions targeted at positive change. How can we develop tools to help us determine whether or not a potential platform change might actually work to increase social equality? Here, we present the abstraction hierarchy as a tool to help answer this question. Our primary contributions are two-fold. First, methodologically, we extend existing research on the abstraction hierarchy in cognitive engineering with principles from Network Science. Second, substantively, we illustrate the utility of this approach by using it to assess the potential effectiveness of a set of interventions, proposed in prior work, for how online dating websites can help mitigate social inequality.
... The recent revolution in the way that individuals search, select, and find romantic or sexual partners has directed people away from conventional means of seeking partners in favor of dating websites and applications (Degen and Kleeberg-Niepage, 2022;Finkel ...
... Second, searching for a romantic or sexual partner has been well identified in the literature as one of the major motives for using online dating websites and dating applications (e.g. Degen and Kleeberg-Niepage, 2022;Finkel et al., 2012;Peter and Valkenburg, 2007;Sharabi and Timmermans, 2021;Sumter et al., 2017;Sumter and Vandenbosch, 2019;Timmermans and De Caluwé, 2017). Therefore, single individuals who desire to have a partner may be particularly interested in using dating technology to search for a romantic partner, and their unmet relationship desires and needs may fuel their motivation to use dating platforms to satisfy these desires and needs (e.g. ...
... Theme 3 also appears to resemble the category of "the Self" that was identified in the study by Degen and Kleeberg-Niepage (2022), which reflects the struggle experienced by the German and Danish participants when using online dating apps and their negative feelings that arise from remaining unmatched. The difficult experiences reported by our participants also appear to derive from the notion that the search for a romantic partner often requires time and energy and is often associated with stress and frustration (Finkel et al., 2012), as well as pressure (Degen and Kleeberg-Niepage, 2022). Specifically, three participants experienced feelings of uncertainty and discomfort when using dating technology due to not knowing if and when they would receive any answer to an initial message and whether they would be able to find a suitable partner at all. ...
Article
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The current article presents the results of interviews with 30 Polish never-married singles (14 women and 16 men) aged 20–43 years. Four themes were identified: (1) ambiguous perception of the usefulness of dating services as a means to search for a romantic partner, (2) acquiring skills in using dating services, (3) personal difficulties and failures in using dating services, and (4) online dating as self-obligation. The participants positioned themselves with regard to dating technology through ambiguous opinions and beliefs about the usefulness of dating services. They perceived using dating services to be a task that requires skills in self-commodification and self-branding and a good opportunity to gain practice in dating; they experienced various difficulties related to using dating platforms, and sometimes they reported a feeling of self-obligation to use such services. Single adults related to dating technology in various modes in the context of their singlehood and relationship desires.
... Mobile dating apps are not able to filter users who have violent histories or criminal records. Fake accounts that deceive or sometimes even scam people are still not fully monitored and regulated (Finkel et al., 2012). Communication is indirect, i.e., mediated by the app, so it is more susceptible to deception, and daters are not granted the opportunity to evaluate the inon-verbal cues behind another party's textual statements (Goffman in Southerton, 2017; Souza e Silva and Frith in Southerton, 2017). ...
... Attribution is more than just making sense of events and understanding people. By widening the networks of users and bridging the gap between millions of people worldwide, ICTs enable people to form social perceptions about and build relationships with others they will most likely not meet in face-to-face encounters (Finkel et al., 2012). For a collectivist culture, which tends to hold in-group biases and evaluate people based on their social relations (Maio & Augoustinos, 2005;Azevedo, 1997), the capacity to be able to develop more personal interactions is essential. ...
... Thus, aside from connecting people, ICTs also facilitate the meeting of cultures. Finkel et al. (2012) also pointed out that ICTs provide a different platform for romantic exploration while not essentially changing the meaning and nature of the human search for intimacy and relationships. This explains why there are still evident traces of societal conventions in online platform interactions, such as the core elements of traditional dating persisting in online dating. ...
Article
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Where do digital citizens attribute their successes and failures in using dating technologies? Using the tenets of attribution theory and its explication in digital spaces, narrations of fifty-two dating application users in the Philippines were sought and investigated. Interviews were able to document the nature and types of attributions of productive and botched online dating experiences among Filipinos. Thematic analyses revealed that successful dating experiences are linked to internal or dispositional attributes such as the person's perceived physical beauty, positive personality attributes, and luck. Unsuccessful dating experiences are linked to situational attributes such as the date's problematic personality and physical flaws. Further, external stable attributions such as poor internet connection and proximity issues also are perceived as causes of faults. Overall, Filipino mobile app daters attribute success and failures in online dating encounters to individual ideals, cultural factors, and technological features. In addition, available technology and the features of digital spaces allow dating app users to reinforce their existing intrinsic and extrinsic dispositional attributions, while at the same time challenge prevailing determinants of attributions in the context of dating practices. The interdependence of human agency and digital environments results in the ever-malleable and active formations of digital culture and society.
... According to some findings, dating applications can lead to superficial connections and tend to mostly focus on one's physical appearance due to their greater space of imagery (Ryan 2016;Sykes 2014). Furthermore, these platforms often include general poor behaviour such as bullying and body shaming (Thompson 2018), thus creating a general issue of trust within the online dating environments (Finkel et al. 2012;Miguel 2018). ...
... The importance of these findings increases as people are more turning to dating applications to create relationships. However, they do not seem to be successful in attaining and creating relationships (Finkel et al., 2012;Timmermans & Courtois, 2018). The way that dating applications are impacting and changing the initiation of relationships' raises questions about whether they even allow formation of deeper and steady romantic connections (Lovink 2019;Singer 2020;Sprecher, Wenzel, and Harvey 2008;Turkle 2012;. ...
... As romantic relationships are important for overall health (Finkel et al. 2012;van Lankveld et al. 2018;Waldinger and Schulz 2010;Waring 1985;Wilson and Oswald 2005), the lack of steady, strong relationships is detrimental to one's health, so much so that it can even lead to premature death (Grant, Hamer, and Steptoe 2009;Hawkley and Cacioppo 2010;Holt-Lunstad, Smith, and Layton 2010;Holt-Lunstad et al. 2015;Pressman et al. 2005). Therefore, the way the applications are built and the way they influence behaviour and foster communication can be crucial, not just for romantic formation, but for overall health and wellbeing of its users. ...
Conference Paper
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Currently, there are more than 1500 dating applications, allowing people to connect with a single swipe. However, there is a rising concern about the behaviour encouraged by these digital forms of interactions in relation to negative effects on user wellbeing. Using an evocative autoethnographic approach combined with literature review, this study aimed to explore potential connections between the interaction design, user interactions, and user experiences within dating applications by following weekly experiences over four dating applications. The experiences were recorded with a journal, then explored using emotion capture cards, and visualised in emotionally mapped timelines. It was found that even within the first forty-five minutes of using the dating applications, significant negative emotions were experienced by the researcher. This study calls for more efforts and research from the design perspective to create interactions that are mindful and that nourish the wellbeing of users and support healthy and steady relationship developments.
... In our model, "perceived benefits" refer to the perceptions of positive outcomes associated with users' HIV-preventive intentions. This study used five items that were outlined by Finkel et al. (2012) to measure users' perceived benefits. The following items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.909) were screened out: ...
... /fpsyg. . measurement was adapted from the studies by Finkel et al. (2012) and Chen et al. (2021). The adapted measurement included the following five items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.879): (1) When using Hello Group, I may be concerned that the platform will disclose too much information about me; ...
Article
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“Hooking up” refers to the act of experiencing sexual intimacy with strangers without committing to a romantic relationship. Social media provide more convenient conditions for hooking up; however, it also poses a greater risk for HIV infection. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors influencing the HIV-preventive intentions of those who engage in online dating to devise effective strategies for preventing the spread of HIV. This study consisted of a questionnaire that was distributed to 520 users of the Hello Group application. The survey results revealed that structural equation modeling is a useful framework for understanding the risk of HIV transmission in casual hookup encounters. In addition, combining the health belief model with the theory of planned behavior can provide recommendations for enhancing HIV-preventive intentions among users of dating applications. The results showed that mindfulness, the Chinese cultural context, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy were the main predictors of users' HIV-preventive intentions when using online dating applications. Among the perceived HIV risks, only perceived barriers had a negative effect on users' HIV-preventive intentions. In addition, attitude, subjective norms, and behavior control served as mediating variables between independent variables and HIV-preventive intentions; however, the mediating effect of attitude on perceived benefits and intentions was not significant. According to our study, some users misunderstand the risks and make incorrect assessments of the cultural risks of hooking up. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the research on the psychological tendencies of users and risk intervention when studying the concept of hooking up.
... Another advantage of the Web is that people who have specific interests or exhibit socially undesirable characteristics can more easily find a partner to interact with online. Online venues open up a wide audience of possible partners (Finkel et al., 2012) over which much information is given (Heino et al., 2010;Lawson & Leck, 2006), so giving a sense of better control over marriage choices (Barraket & Henry-Waring, 2008). ...
... At the opposite, the use of the Net may encourage homogamy due to the availability of information about partners and the potential to pre-select contacts based on users' characteristics (Schwartz, 2013). Sites dedicated to partner selection tend to collect large amounts of information about their members, and to create matches based on compatibility, which often translates into the similarity of potential partners (Finkel et al., 2012;Gottlieb, 2006). About this last point, some empirical evidence would seem to suggest that even in online dating, at least in the initial contact, a great deal of emphasis is placed on homogamy ( ...
Article
In this article places where spouses first met in Italy are studied. The focus is on online settings in the most recent marriage cohorts (2000-2016). The aim is to investigate trends over time of using the Internet as a meeting place and to explore whether Internet dating can affect assortative mating and homogamy rules. Information on first marriages is analysed to study highly committed and long-lasting relationships between partners. Data used for the analyses come from the nationally representative survey "Family, Social Subjects and Life Cycle" carried out by the Italian National Statistical Institute (Istat) in 2016 on a sample of about 32,000 individuals made available in 2020. The results allow a preliminary quantification of the phenomenon and document an increase in meetings occurring online in Italy (from 0.4 per cent in the marriage cohort 2000-2009 to 2.5 per cent in the marriage cohort 2010-2016). Furthermore, data support the idea that online contexts show homogamy paths not different from those that characterize offline dating venues. Meeting a partner online does not seem to imply heterogamy.
... Online dating refers to the practice of using internet-enabled information and communication technology to meet potential partners for all manner of intimate arrangements, including dating, sex, longterm relationships, and more. The term is conceptualized in contrast to conventional offline dating, which encompasses the myriad ways people meet potential partners through non-internet-mediated activities, such as via existing social networks (e.g., a mutual friend or coworker introducing two single people to each other), chance face-toface encounters (e.g., approaching a stranger at a coffee shop), and dedicated physical events or venues (e.g., through speed dating events or at bars or clubs) (Finkel et al., 2012). ...
... Online dating can be viewed as the latest form of commercial matchmaking and relational intermediation based on the current technology, superseding approaches like printed personal advertisements (Cocks, 2009) and video dating (Ahuvia & Adelman, 1992). Finkel et al. (2012) identified three generations of online dating technology: (a) online personal advertisement sites, (b) algorithm-based matching sites, and (c) smartphone-based dating applications. The launch of Match in 1995 effectively marked the start of the first generation, and many competitors soon emerged in its wake. ...
Article
Online dating websites and apps offer an array of conveniences that have captivated those looking to form new relationships. However, as these platforms have grown in popularity, companies have had to grapple with their potential to act as catalysts for sexual violence and abuse both on and offline. In light of increasing anecdotal, popular media, and law enforcement reports, there is growing academic interest in online dating as a specific avenue of technology-facilitated sexual violence, with its own potential contextual drivers and safeguards. Using a scoping review methodology, the authors map this emerging literature's contours, characterize its theoretical, methodological, and empirical contents, and identify lacunae and opportunities for future research. Areas addressed in the current literature include the prevalence of digital sexual harassment and abuse, individual differences in victimization and perpetration, mechanisms by which online dating technologies facilitate or impede sexual violence, and responses from industry, policymakers, and the general public. Among other gaps, there is need for additional longitudinal and experimental research, qualitative analyses of online dating technologies' digital architectures, and investigation into the psychological and social sequelae of online dating violence.
... The internet is one such environment, as it increases the perceived availability of alternative mates and facilitates secrecy from the primary relationship partner (Clayton et al., 2013McDaniel et al., 2017Vossler, 2016. The internet has not only made it easier than ever to connect with alternative partners but also specifically with those who are already mated (Sharabi et al., 2021), as indicated by the rise of sites designed exclusively for those seeking extradyadic involvement (Finkel et al., 2012Vossler, 2016. ...
... The hegemony of monogamy, however, cannot carry the promise of fidelity. The growing demand for applications that facilitate extradyadic affairs (Finkel et al., 2012Vossler, 2016 indeed demonstrates that sex is often sought outside of what is considered a committed relationship (e.g., Allen et al., 2005Blow & Hartnett, 2005. Whereas most prior studies have focused on partner and relationship factors that make both online and offline infidelity more likely (see Fincham & May, 2017;Vossler, 2016, for reviews), the present research turns the spotlight on the characteristics of the alternatives that lessen people's ability to resist their allure. ...
Article
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Committed individuals cope with the threat of alternative partners by using strategies that undermine their allure. However, in an era, in which alternative mates lurk around every corner, these strategies may lose their effectiveness. Two studies investigated this possibility , examining how being the target of online mate poaching influenced perceptions of current and alternative partners. In both studies, partnered undergraduate students chatted online with a confederate of the other sex who behaved either flirtatiously or neutrally. Then, participants completed a measure of implicit perception of their partner (Study 1) or described a sexual fantasy (Study 2). The fantasies were coded for expressions of desire for current and alternative partners. Results showed that receiving mate poaching attempts decreased the appeal of current partners while increasing the desirability of alternatives. These findings Statement of Relevance: Committed individuals cope with alternative partners by using strategies that undermine their allure. However, in an era, in which alternative mates lurk around every corner, these strategies may lose their effectiveness. Two studies investigated this possibility, showing that receiving mate poaching attempts decreased the appeal of current partners while increasing the desirability of alternatives. These findings demonstrate the circumstances that weaken resistance to temptations, pointing to a route by which online interactions impair relationship functioning.
... Finkel and colleagues [23] stated that dating interventions are capable of changing user behaviour. As it is not clear what causes changes in behaviour and to what extent the design of the digital interaction influences behaviour, which is an imperative to explore. ...
... Relationships greatly influence one's health and overall wellbeing. There is a clear connection of one's stable relationships with disease recovery, disease development, longevity of life, and overall happiness [23,[25][26][27][28][29]. Therefore, understanding the way dating applications are constructed is not only important for the romantic outcome of users but also to their overall health and wellbeing. ...
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Dating applications and dating sites are designed interventions that can change behaviour and influence user wellbeing. However, research from the design perspective around relation-making interventions is still scarce. This paper presents findings of a scoping review that aimed to collect current published knowledge on the influence of online communication on user behaviour, to understand its implications for relation-making. The study gathered findings from across disciplines to provide a holistic understanding of the various influences that online environment and interactions can have on user behaviour. Keyword combinations were run through five databases with a priori criteria and produced 1651 results published from the date range of 2016 to 2020. From the results, 717 abstracts were screened, and 82 papers were selected for full screening, out of which 46 were included for thematic analysis. The findings of the review show how interaction design and the online environment can influence user behaviour and thus impact how users form relationships. This scoping review is an initial study to provide an overview in a currently under-researched area. Its contribution is in presenting the needs and opportunities for future research and summarises the practical implications for interaction design that nurtures relationships.
... In fact, more than one third of American couples that married between 2005 and 2012 had met online (Cacioppo et al., 2013). From a theoretical point of view, it has been argued that online dating differs from offline dating in three crucial respects (Finkel et al., 2012). First, online dating services provide convenient access to an unprecedented number of potential partners: The number of people that one can get in touch with exceeds the number of people that one meets in one's everyday normal life by far. ...
... If one is constantly hoping that "an even more congruent soul mate is waiting […] on the next website" (Coren, 2006), the willingness to commit to one particular person is likely to be undermined (see Finkel et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The personalization of digital environments is becoming ubiquitous due to the rise of AI-based algorithms and recommender systems. Arguably, this technological development has far-reaching consequences for individuals and societies alike. In this article, we propose a psychological model of the effects of personalization in digital environments, which connects personalization with motivational tendencies, psychological needs, and well-being. Based on the model, we review studies from three areas of application—news feeds and websites, music streaming, and online dating—to explain both the positive and the negative effects of personalization on individuals. We conclude that personalization can lead to desirable outcomes such as reducing choice overload. However, personalized digital environments without transparency and without the option for users to play an active role in the personalization process potentially pose a danger to human well-being. Design recommendations as well as avenues for future research that follow from these conclusions are being discussed.
... Machines map our homes, respond to verbal commands 33 and perform regular household tasks 34 . Algorithms shape romantic matches for online dating services 35,36 . Machines are likely to increasingly substitute for humans in the raising of our young 37 and the care for our old 38 . ...
... To address these issues, practitioners will sometimes be forced to make value trade-offs between competing and incompatible notions of bias 58,59 or between human versus machine biases. Additional questions regarding the effect of algorithms remain, such as how online dating algorithms alter the societal institution of marriage 35,36 and whether there are systemic effects of increasing interaction with intelligent algorithms on the stages and speed of human development 53 . These questions become more complex in 'hybrid systems' composed of many machines and humans interacting and manifesting collective behaviour 39,67 . ...
Chapter
Machines powered by artificial intelligence increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic, and political interactions. This chapter frames and surveys the emerging interdisciplinary field of machine behaviour: the scientific study of behaviour exhibited by intelligent machines. It outlines the key research themes, questions, and landmark research studies that exemplify this field. The chapter starts by providing background on the study of machine behaviour and the necessarily interdisciplinary nature of this science. It then provides a framework for the conceptualisation of studies of machine behaviour. The chapter closes with a call for the scientific study of machine and human–machine ecologies and discusses some of the technical, legal, and institutional barriers that are faced by researchers in this field. Finally, studying intelligent algorithmic or robotic systems can result in legal and ethical problems for researchers studying machine behaviour.
... It is not uncommon that dating platforms target specific users (e.g., sexual minorities, elderly daters, or racial minorities), which creates niche dating markets (Schwartz and Velotta 2018). In addition, dating sites/apps often rely on similarity-based algorithms to match users sharing common characteristics (Finkel et al. 2012). With the filtering function available on many dating platforms, users also can search for potential partners who meet their preexisting preferences (Curington et al. 2021;Xiao and Qian 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the growing racialized immigrant population in Canada and advances in dating technologies, this study examines Chinese immigrants' partner preferences and mate selection processes through the lens of online dating. We draw on in-depth interviews with 31 Chinese immigrants who have used online dating services in Metro Vancouver to search for different-sex partners. Chinese immigrant online daters show strong preferences for dating Chinese. They emphasize permanent residency status and similarity in age at arrival when evaluating potential partners. Given their preferences, Chinese immigrants strategically choose the dating platforms they primarily use. Men exhibit higher selectivity in their preferences and choices of platforms. Notably, platforms catering to Chinese users create "digital ethnic enclaves" where Chinese immigrant daters congregate. The findings illuminate the intersection of race, gender, immigrant status, and age at arrival in shaping divergent experiences of mate selection and immigrant assimilation in the digital era.
... The Internet is changing the world of love and romance, playing the role of matchmakers. Aaron (2012) emphasized that "online dating is extremely important as online dating is already a significant part of initiating romantic relationships in developed countries." ...
Article
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Online dating platforms are evolving cyber communication environments that has radicalized the traditional environment of meeting potential romantic partners and business partners. Online dating is an emerging area of discourse in the African scope; that calls for more inquiries in the "why" this burgeoning new space. The dominant argument seems conflicting in relation to the perceived susceptibility to deception and other vices that seems prominent here. Yet in the African context within the context of conservative dominant dating traditions it seems to continue to blossom as an alternative and perhaps preferred ways especially among young people in search of a romantic partner. It is based on this that we sought to examine why young females in Nigeria use online dating platforms, gratification gained from using it, and most dominant mode of communication. Using the survey method, we studied eight hundred and eighty nine (889) single women in the south Eastern part of Nigeria, within the age bracket of 18-40 years living in the state capitals of Imo, Anambra and Ebonyi. Two major Findings from the study resonate from literature. First, that majority of the respondents 66.4% are active users of online dating platform, who use it mostly on daily basis. Second, multiple response answer (MRA), findings show that the most gratified need desired by the respondents is emotional needs (36.4%). Literature has shown that users of online dating sites use the platform for socialization and meeting romantic partners. This study corroborates existing argument that suggests that despite some of its dysfunctional functions, anonymity, and a quick and easy access to dating tradition that breaks the barrier of physicality including age and technological advancements contributes to it continued success. This could be linked to the anecdotal evidence that some users have successfully dated and married partners that they met on online dating sites. This therefore aligns with literature that online dating is now an acceptable way for dating, as the African society have also keyed into this new trend.
... When used in the context of developing intimate relationships for people with disabilities, online communication can be done through web-based dating sites or smartphone applications that target either the general population or specific groups, such as people with disabilities [32]. Studies have shown that participants with a disability successfully developed long-term relationships with partners they met online [33][34][35]. ...
Article
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Experiences of people with disabilities regarding dating applications and websites is sparsely addressed in the literature. Objectives of this scoping review were to ascertain the factors influencing the experiences of people with disabilities in relation to their use of dating apps and websites, as well as to identify solutions to improve their participation in online dating. All references in French or English published since 1993, reporting the experience of at least one person with a disability or a potential partner concerning the use of dating applications and websites to develop intimate relationships were included. Selection and extraction were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis- Extension for Scoping Reviews criteria by two independent reviewers. Data were analyzed by coding according to the main categories of the International Classification of Functioning. Fifteen peer-reviewed studies and 51 Gy literature references were selected from a search of Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Google. Thematic analysis revealed important themes, such as the Person Beyond Disability, Elicited Emotions, Self-Stigmatization, Safety Concerns with Online Dating, Potential Partner's Perception, Online Environment, Type of Applications and Websites, Compatibility Between Applications or Websites and Adaptive technology, Initiating Contact: for better or for worse, Using Applications and Websites Safely, Dating Online versus In-Person, Disclosing the Disability. Themes could be facilitators and barriers to online dating. Disclosure of disability is at the heart of the experiences reported. Possible solutions to improve social participation included education, improvements for applications and websites, and enhancing accessibility and security.
... The subject of whether it is possible to predict RQ based on personality has previously been addressed in previous study. Previous studies on similarity, actor, and partner variables, on the other hand, relied on a simple correlational approach, such as that derived from structural equation-based modeling, and found only minor effects [12,13]. Based on aspects of marital interaction in a current union, such as communication, conflict, and mood factors [14], several techniques using mathematically more complicated models optimised the predictive replicative capacity for break-up [15]. ...
Preprint
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To what extent can machine learning be used to forecast the outcome of a relationship based on both participants' personalities? Relationship satisfaction, disputes, and separation intentions of 79 partners were predicted two years after they completed questionnaires about their personality qualities in this study. To guarantee that the results of the linear regression models are repeatable, a 10x10-fold cross-validation was carried out. The findings show that machine learning approaches can improve relationship quality prediction (37 percent of the variance explained) and that a partner's assessed relationship quality is mostly determined by his or her own personality features. In this paper, two methods are used to examine the impact of similarity factors (Distances, Moderators, and Combination counts) on the Relationship Quality (RQ): (i) Multiple Regression (MR) and (ii) Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). The purpose of multiple linear regression (MLR) is to examine the mutual effect of several characteristics on the RQ by modelling the linear connection between the explanatory (independent) factors and response (dependent) variables. This paper's key contribution is the introduction of an Effective Prediction Module (EPM), which employs a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) to predict Relationship Quality (RQ) from similarity parameters (Distances, Moderators, and Combination counts). According to the results, PNN has the best prediction accuracy. The EPM had the highest accuracy due to the benefits of PNN.
... Online dating has also been proven to provide greater convenience and control, as well as increase access to potential partners (Annisa MP Rochadiat et al., 2017); (Eli J. Finkel et al., 2012). With the convenience offered by dating applications, users can control the presentation of themselves that they want to portray on the dating application. ...
Article
Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, tren aplikasi jodoh pun dimulai. Aplikasi Kencan adalah platform yang memungkinkan komunikasi dengan pengguna lain dan menyediakan pencocokan dengan pengguna lain atau dengan mitra yang berpotensi kompatibel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui motivasi dan pengaruh penggunaan aplikasi kencan. Sebagai tinjauan literatur, penelitian ini meninjau penelitian sebelumnya dengan serangkaian proses tertentu. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa motivasi penggunaan aplikasi kencan terbagi menjadi beberapa kategori seperti relasional, intrapersonal, hiburan, dan sosial. Efek yang diberikan oleh penggunaan aplikasi kencan juga memiliki sebelas efek signifikan.
... Trend online dating terus merambah di seluruh penjuru nusantara. Perubahan perilaku sosial masyarakat Indonesia dalam mencari jodoh membuat para kaum lajang tidak segan untuk mencari pasangan hidupnya di dunia maya (Finkel, et al, 2012) Menjamurnya biro jodoh online di Indonesia, membuktikan bahwa pangsa pasar masih terbuka lebar dan terus berkembang pesat. Penetrasi internet di Indonesia yang terus meningkat hingga mencapai lebih dari 30% total penduduk Indonesia. ...
Article
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Konsep perjodohan terus berubah di tengah perkembangan zaman. Perkembangan era digital membuka peluang baru untuk beragam situs internet yang menawarkan layanan biro jodoh secara online. Biro jodoh online memiliki banyak metode, ada yang biasa dan ada pula yang berbasis syari’at Islam. Penelitian ini berfokus pada biro jodoh sebuah kebutuhan atau tuntutan dan tawaran solusi dari layanan aplikasi biro jodoh online. Penelitian ini menggunakan kajian kualitatif dengan metode deskriptif analitis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sejauh ini biro jodoh online masih menjadi kebutuhan sebagai solusi untuk mencari pasangan, dikarenakan biro jodoh online merupakan bentuk terobosan baru dalam hal pencarian jodoh. Biro jodoh online juga menawarkan solusi yaitu bantuan jasa bagi mereka yang mencari pasangan atau jodoh ketika seseorang kesulitan mencari pasangan hidup bagi yang membutuhkannya.The concept of matchmaking continues to evolve with the times. The development of the digital era opens up new opportunities for various internet sites that offer online matchmaking services. The online matchmaking bureau has many methods on each website or application site, some are ordinary and some are based on Islamic law. This study focuses on a matchmaking agency for a need or demand and offers solutions from an online matchmaking bureau application service. This study uses a qualitative study with a descriptive analytical method. The results show that so far online matchmaking bureaus are still a necessity as a solution for finding a partner, because online matchmaking bureaus are a new form of breakthrough in terms of finding a mate. The online matchmaking bureau also offers a solution, namely service assistance for those who are looking for a partner or mate when someone is having trouble finding a life partner for those who need it.
... Friendship relationships can be established both in the real world and in the online world. Online friendships can be made through social media, online dating applications, and even games (Finkel et al., 2012;Griggs et al., 2021). Both offline and online, these friendships involve humans with other humans. ...
Conference Paper
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Today's social relations can be done by someone both offline and online. Online social relationships can not only be woven with fellow humans. Chatbot as a form of artificial intelligence continues to develop various skills that resemble humans. This study aims to understand the use of chatbots as friends in human life, especially focusing on the advantages and limitations. The method used is a literature review that involves 10 articles about chatbots as human friends from the user's point of view. Article databases used in this review are ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Emerald Insight, and ProQuest Research Library. Chatbots are friends with various conveniences such as being easily accessible by anyone, anytime, and anywhere. Chatbots are considered to have various emotional skills that can understand their users without judgment. The weakness of chatbots is the potential for failure to understand users' talk. Chatbots can act as everyday friends when there are no human friends to contact with.
... dating profiles, in the form of profile texts, can be used to serve either of the goals. On webbased dating sites, the profile text is often created in a section called "This is me" or "Who am I?", in which profile owners are asked to describe themselves in their own words [14], for example by writing about their occupation, personality, favorite interests and activities, and desired relationship partner and relationship goals. ...
Article
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This paper investigates origins and consequences of perceived profile text originality. The first goal was to examine whether the perceived originality of authentic online dating profile texts affects online daters’ perceptions of attractiveness, and whether perceptions of (less) desired partner personality traits mediate this effect. Results showed the positive impact of perceived profile text originality on impression formation: text originality positively affects perceptions of intelligence and sense of humor, which improve impressions of attractiveness and boost dating intention. The second goal was to explore what profile text features increase perceptions of profile text originality. Results revealed profile texts which were stylistically original (e.g., include metaphors) and contained more and concrete self-disclosure statements were considered more original, explaining almost half of the variance in originality scores. Taken together, our results suggest that perceived originality in profile texts is manifested in both meaning and form, and is a balancing act between novelty and appropriateness.
... Dating, though seemed simple to some, it is common for most to have an impression that the urge to form romantic relationship and finding an appropriate partner a simulating experience (Finkel et al., 2012). Hence, it has been apparent for people to get on this matter. ...
Conference Paper
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Dating apps aim to help you meet someone. Many found success in finding love online encouraging dating apps developers to further ingrained themselves into the modern-day matchmaking culture. This study recommends a research model examining the antecedents of users' intention to continuously use dating apps. It focuses on the influence of gratifications from the use of dating apps towards perceived usefulness and continuance intention as well as the role of perceived usefulness as a mediator. The result shows a positive relationship between gratifications and continuance intention. Although not strong, the perceived usefulness does acts as a mediator in this relationship.
... Online Dating: A Critical Analysis From the Perspective of Psychological Science (Finkel et al., 2012) 130 21,7 ...
Chapter
El uso de análisis espectroscópico en síntesis orgánica para la identificación de sustancias, ha sido una importante herramienta que permite realizar caracterizaciones de la estructura y composición de las moléculas estudiadas. Sin embargo, estos métodos, a pesar de su gran utilidad, no proporcionan información sobre las características fisicoquímicas de las muestras. Es por esto, que la introducción de técnicas analíticas, como el Análisis Termogravimétrico (TGA) y la Calorimetría de Escaneo Diferencial (DSC), posibilitan el conocimiento de estas propiedades, facilitando el manejo de los compuestos obtenidos en procesos de purificación y análisis posteriores. Se analizan nuevos alquinos y azidas, obtenidos en el laboratorio de Síntesis Orgánica, aplicando las técnicas TGA y DSC. Se reportan resultados en una rampa de temperatura de 25 a 1000°C. Estos compuestos son comparados con sustancias patrón (precursores) utilizando los mismos parámetros de análisis.
... Once widely stigmatized as the domain of the desperate and socially inept, online dating has recently exploded in popularity (Rosenfeld & Thomas, 2012), owing largely to the rapid diffusion of geo-social networking applications (GSNAs), like Tinder and Grindr (Finkel et al., 2012). GSNAs are used by individuals of all social backgrounds, but occupy a special niche among sexual minorities including gay men, lesbians, and bisexual persons (Anderson et al., 2020;Gudelunas, 2012). ...
Article
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Geo-social networking applications (GSNAs) like Tinder and Grindr are popular tools for connecting with people for romance, sex, and other purposes, particularly among sexual minorities. This paper draws on narrative interviews with 13 bisexual persons (5 cisgender men, 6 cisgender women, 2 trans/nonbinary persons) to explore their GSNA use, including motives and gratifications, relational dynamics, and implications for individual identities and cultural understandings of bisexuality. Participants presented complex and ambivalent accounts of their GSNA use, revealing a variety of relational aspirations and experiences. Whatever users’ goals, cultural meanings associated with bisexuality shaped online interactions in ways that impeded their fulfillment, with binegativity routinely preventing relationship formation in the first instance or precipitating relationship dissolution. Despite these challenges, bisexual persons regularly have successful digitally-mediated encounters which can reshape private and collective understandings of bisexuality. GSNAs expose users to new experiences and discourses that help them make sense of their erotic predilections, including partner sex/gender sexuality. They may also play a role in the broader sea change in attitudes toward bisexuality by facilitating the formation of mixed orientation relationships wherein stereotypes are gradually replaced by direct personal experience.
... However, the pandemic and subsequent mitigation efforts constrained people's ability to socialize and form new relationships with others due to changing norms around interactions, fewer public spaces to meet people, and preventative health behavior to avoid exposure to COVID-19 (e.g., staying home, social distancing). Physical proximity and opportunities to interact are necessary to start new relationships-they are among the most significant predictors of whether two people start a romantic relationship (Finkel et al., 2012). With fewer opportunities for physical and sexual intimacy (Frederick et al., 2017), the pandemic has likely stymied many romantic relationships from ever forming. ...
Article
Dramatic social changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic shifted the dating scene and the likelihood of people starting new relationships. What factors make individuals more or less likely to start a new relationship during this period? In a sample of 2285 college students (Mage = 19.36, SD = 1.44; 69.2 % women; 66.7 % White) collected from October 2020 to April 2021, anxiously attached and extraverted people were 10–26 % more likely to start a new relationship. Avoidantly attached and conscientious people were 15–17 % less likely to start a new relationship. How people pursued (or avoided) new romantic relationships closely mirrored their broader patterns of health and interpersonal behavior during the global pandemic.
... Hubungan romantis yang terbentuk secara online ini juga telah merevolusi proses pemilihan pasangan dan menghasilkan beberapa perubahan yang paling mendalam dan luas pada pacaran tradisional yang telah terlihat dalam beberapa dekade. Alih-alih bertemu dengan orang secara fisik (tatap muka), mobile dating app Bumble memperkenalkan pengguna ke profil virtual, dan sebagian besar komunikasi awal mereka terjadi secara eksklusif melalui saluran termediasi yang menyaring isyarat sosial yang biasanya diandalkan orang untuk membentuk kesan 'tatap muka' (Finkel, Eastwick, Karney, Reis, & Sprecher, 2012). ...
Article
Mobile dating app Bumble has been known as the 'feminist version of Tinder' because it allows women to have complete control over their conversation activities, and is seen as a new technological landscape, where women doing an online dating through the process of initiate conversations, explore relationships ranging from sexual desires. This study uses a Critical approach, with phenomenological methods, with unstructured interviews with 43 female Jabodetabek informants, to answer what experiences they encountered while using Bumble. The results of the study found that Bumble's feature that seemed to empower women allows them to negotiate and participate in creating a dream relationship, even though it is considered to be against traditional gender norms inherent in society, starting from the most abundant and easy-to-find relationships such as friendships, to relationships that require more effort to find, like boyfriends or husbands, as well as other events that they experienced while using the mobile dating app Bumble, from the fun to the disappointment.
... When compared to traditional dating, online dating has various advantages (Finkel et al. 2012); for example, online daters do not have to incur the costs of travel, make dinner reservations, or allocate physical time prior to an initial date (Azad I. and Wibowo 2011). Bengzinga (2014) formulated a cost equation evaluating the difference in dating offline compared to online dating site membership, proving that the latter is more cost-effective. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in economic hardship, psychological stress, anxiety, and depression in a significant proportion of the global population. However, the bidirectional effectsof social isolation and pre-existing or developed psychological stress could inform sexual behaviorsand affect digital dating outcomes. Additionally, it is unknown whether intimate behaviors andrelationships have been equally affected across the genders during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to contrast the course of intimate relationships pre-and post-COVID-19, with a focus on diverse genders, digital dating, mental health, and behavior. A review of the dating landscape during COVID-19 is developed in this study, encompassing themes including diverse genders, sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, the state of psychological wellbeing, and interactions with digital dating apps. The authors reviewed the trends and challenges of digital romance. Dating before and during the pandemic is explored, discussing how COVID-19 experiences may inform future romantic partnerships. Mobile dating applications saw a surge in downloads and usage across popular platforms, including Tinder (3 billion swipes in March 2020) and Ok Cupid (700% increase in dates), with the top 20 dating apps gaining 1.5 million daily users. Cross-sectionally, being younger, single, and having higher levels of stress was a predictor of higher dating-app usage during the COVID-19 lockdowns. Risky sexual behavior and having multiple sexual partners were reduced during social distancing as there was an increased worry of contracting the virus. Heightened incidents of domestic/intimate partner abuse have caught the headlines in several countries. COVID-19 during lockdown has also posed barriers to accessing support and help from sexual and mental health services.
... First, the application's design sees a magnitude of potential matches presented to users and thus has the potential to generate perceptions of an endless supply of potential partners (Chernev et al., 2015;D'Angelo & Toma, 2017). Second, users swipe on potential matches based primarily on a series of pictures, which some researchers (Finkel et al., 2012) have described as a medium for increased sexual objectification and superficiality. Third, the application allows users to communicate with multiple romantic interests concurrently and does not actively promote relationship development beyond initial matchmaking. ...
... Nowadays, online dating which has been described as a process of "encountering potential partners through online profiles" (Finkel et al. 2012, p.3), has become a widely accepted method for individuals to meet potential partners. According to Rosenfeld et al. (2019), online dating has dramatically subverted the pattern of seeking and establishing courtship and relationships. ...
Conference Paper
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Online self-presentation plays a vital role in online dating applications due to online filtering and contacting the desirable potential partners through presentational clues. Applying qualitative data collected from young female participants and the theoretical Two-Component Model of Leary & Kowalski (1990) on the motivation process and construction process, this paper presents an overview of a study based on the comprehension of participants’ motivation process for dating profiles to explore the construction process of online dating self-presentational approaches. The results indicate that through the self-presentational clues of photography, text, and video display for constructing online dating profiles, young women can selectively and strategically demonstrate the partial and ornamental self with physical and ideological attractiveness. Simultaneously, they struggle with their ideal and real self in the process of online dating self-presentation.
... Dvehiljaditih godina, nakon nastanka Fejsbuka i ostalih platformi došlo je do razvoja kvantitativnih i kvalitativnih istraživanja onlajn komunikacije i pronalaženja romantičnih i seksualnih partnera (Couch, Liamputtong, and Pitts, 2011;Kang, and Hoffman, 2011;Finkel, Eastwick, Karney, Reis, and Sprecher, 2012). Ovakvi odnosi su se održavali putem veb kamera, ćaskanja internet pošte koji su predstavljali filter za sledeći korak upoznavanja tj. ...
Article
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The basic assumption of this paper is that the Internet has taken on a "matchmaking role" in creating emotional and marital relationships that are determinated with matching algorithms on the one hand, and virtual dating on the other. Therefore, our goal is to examine the basic social factors that contributed to the Internet's role in this regard. Accordingly, we will consider the potential consequences of such a transformation. First, we will analyze broader social processes that lead to the extraction of people from primary and direct relationships and to their re-rooting with the help of technological intermediaries. In this way, new communities based on the network principle are re-created, with the consequences of the building of friendly and emotional relationships. A revolutionary change of Internet technology is the possibility of making close connections with people who did not know each other before. In this regard, we will analyze the circumstances that led to the sphere of intimate relations becoming the most technologically mediated social sphere in the 21st century, because the Internet has become an irreplaceable, possible sovereign middleman of love affairs. The conclusion is that algorithms, not the "game of fate", will determine who will produce offspring with whom, in the future.
... 7Mehta et al. (2020) note that age of first marriage continues to increase and that there are large numbers of unmarried persons ages 40 and older, increasing the pool of potential spouses. Further the growing use of mobile-online dating apps(Finkel et al., 2012) provides a structure for meeting prospective mates at all ages. ...
Article
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Mehta et al. (Am Psychol 75:431–444, 2020) coined the term established adulthood to cover the age-range 30–45. Established adulthood comes after emerging adulthood (18–29), but before middle adulthood (45–65). There has been considerable theoretical and empirical work on emerging adulthood since Arnett (Am Psychol 55:469–480, 2000) proposed it, one important element being the five features model of psychological/phenomenological states accompanying emerging adulthood (Arnett Emerging adulthood: the winding road from the late teens through the twenties, Oxford University Press, 2004; Reifman et al. J Youth Dev 2:37, 2007a). Per the model, emerging adulthood is a time of (1) identity seeking, (2) open possibilities, (3) self-focus/responsibility for oneself, (4) stress/instability, and (5) feeling in-between adolescence and adulthood. Despite the richness of the five features approach, Mehta et al. did not extend it to established adulthood, focusing instead on practical challenges associated with careers, marriage/relationships, and parenting. The present theoretical review paper, therefore, extends and expands the five features model to established adulthood. Specifically, established adulthood should entail (1) solidifying identity, (2) somewhat diminishing sense of possibility in work/career and other domains, (3) focusing on others, (4) continuing stress, albeit in different domains from emerging adulthood, and (5) considering oneself an adult, although not necessarily fully wise. Although established adulthood emphasizes solidification, there remain aspirations and opportunities for new endeavors (e.g., becoming a grandparent or company head). Evidence from the literature supporting or not supporting these propositions is reviewed and future research directions are discussed.
... Dating apps allow a convenient and easy access at any time through smartphones to other individuals looking for potential partners, whom they would be unlikely to encounter in other contexts. In addition, dating apps are considered a non-threatening way to establish a connection by allowing virtual communication with a potential partner before a first meeting in person (Anzani et al., 2018;Finkel et al., 2012). Dating apps have been considered in studies of RSBs, as they provide easy and quick access to a large number of potential sex partners and allow for virtual or in-person contact with more than one person simultaneously (Anzani et al., 2018). ...
Article
Risky sexual behaviors (RSBs) are a prevalent public health concern among adolescents and young adults. Dating apps, which are relatively new technological means to meet sexual partners, are on the rise among this population. However, the scientific literature is mixed regarding the association between the use of dating apps and RSBs, with most studies focusing exclusively on condom use. The present study examined the associations between dating app use and a comprehensive range of RSBs, as well as the moderating role of sexual satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires assessing the level of activity on dating apps, sexual satisfaction, and RSBs were completed by 342 adolescents and young adults. The results revealed significant positive associations between dating app use and a variety of RSBs. Sexual satisfaction was a significant moderator of the link between dating app use and impulsive sexual behaviors. Specifically, dating app use was positively associated with impulsive sexual behaviors at both low and high levels of sexual satisfaction, but more strongly so at low levels of sexual satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of examining a wide variety of RSBs beyond condom use and have meaningful implications for the prevention of RSBs among youth.
Article
Background: The Government of Canada’s Online Streaming Act attempts to incorporate online streaming services into the “single system” of the Broadcasting Act. The legislation has been heavily criticized for a variety of reasons, and constructive debate has been hampered by the lack of a clearly defined policy rationale or public interest objective—in large part because the term “broadcasting” is ill-defined in the Internet context. Analysis: This article applies Georgist political economy to reinterpret Dallas Smythe’s concept of the “audience commodity” for the purpose of integrating emergent theories about the economics of attention and freedom of speech in the context of broadcasting and online media regulation. The principal argument is that a resource-centric view of human attention creates a technology-neutral conceptual basis for determining the scope of what is and is not media broadcasting. Conclusions and implications: The conceptual framework developed aligns the audience commodity concept with the contemporary business reality of content creators and helps draw some defining lines around the concept of “broadcasting” in the era of Internet platforms. Transitioning the fundamental basis for the definition of “broadcasting” from one of transmission methods to one of controlling the bottlenecks of attention would make it far easier to construct meaningful legislation in the public interest.
Preprint
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For gay and bisexual men who are confronted with minority stress, online dating sites may provide opportunities for coping. Extant research has largely neglected this and did not sufficiently account for different motivations of use. Two survey studies served to address the research interest (Study 1: N = 97, Study 2: N = 25,884). The present work finds evidence that the use of online dating sites can have limited buffering effects on associations between minority stress and well-being. Findings contribute to extant work on online dating and mental health of gay and bisexual men.
Chapter
When dating online, 54% of American women negatively judge even one abbreviation, misspelling, or poorly chosen emoji in a first message, making typos one of the biggest predictors of an in-person date proposal (Fisher and Fisher, Helen, and Justin R. Garcia. 2015. Singles in America 2014. http://www.singlesinamerica.com/). Yet, in a relationship, alternative spellings, repaired typos, and emojis in text messages signal closeness and intimacy (McSweeney, The Pragmatics of Text Messaging: Making Meaning in Messages (1 edition), Routledge, 2018). In spoken contexts, informal language such as slang and colloquial expressions typically decrease social distance and are therefore markers of positive politeness (Brown and Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage (Reissue). Cambridge University Press.). Furthermore, displaying positive politeness is constrained by the relationship type. In an increasingly digital world where most relationships have some digital mediation, the norms for expressing pragmatic information in digital writing have evolved to reflect that reality. By exploring how politeness is performed in online dating from the first message to the established relationship, this chapter proposes that the informal features of digital communication are pragmatically parallel to the informal features of spoken conversations. This parallelism speaks to the digital orality of orthographic features such as typos, respellings, and emojis.
Book
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The book develops a critical theory approach based on Habermas’s communication theory to understand how AI algorithms influence intimate relations, human emotions, and the crucial value of trust in democratic societies.
Article
With the development of technology, smartphones and the various applications in them have become a part of people's lives. Individuals can get information using their smartphones, shop, and even socialize with mobile applications and search for a partner with whom they can establish romantic intimacy. The aim of this study is to take a closer look to the mobile dating application use and to investigate what kind of changes these applications cause in the romantic partner choices of individuals and to investigate the common characteristics of people who use these applications; the motivation of using these applications and the results caused by the use of mobile dating applications. The researches on the subject of the study were subjected to analysis and synthesis processes. The method used in the research is meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is a method that aims to reach a synthesis from this result by examining the researches made on a specific subject (Büyüköztürk, Çakmak, Akgün, Karadeniz, Demirel 2019: 241). The data of this study consists of research on mobile dating applications and romantic relationships. These studies were obtained by searching the keywords "mobile dating apps", "tinder", "online dating" from various databases and the results were included in the study. During the search, few studies on these practices were found in Turkey. In the study, studies conducted outside of Turkey are predominantly. This can be counted among the limitations of the study. As a result of the research, it has been seen that individuals increasingly use these applications to socialize in today's world, and with the change of technology, the culture and accordingly the ways of establishing close relationships of individuals have also changed. Key words: mobile dating, tinder, mobil applications, online dating, ockupid
Article
Research on hookups established that they are facilitated by alcohol consumption, interpreted as meaningless fun, and couched in ambiguous communication to avoid intimacy. In the United States, hookup culture is associated with a life course stage called “emerging adulthood.” This stage allows college students to suspend longer term relationships, parenthood, and the dictates of domesticity that will organize normative adult lives while establishing the careers that will help fund such goals. Hookups allow a mode of sexual engagement that buffers them from the burdens of serious intimacy and normative life course milestones. Scholars examined how the hookup scripts differ for queer hookups and the centrality of heternormativity in the enactment of hookup culture (e.g., Lamont et al. 2018). Less has been said about differences between straight and queer hookups from a life course perspective; this paper takes up this perspective, drawing on 28 interviews with queer participants about their college hookups. Participants' expectations about post‐college intimacy, love, and sex are less fixed, and they are therefore open to more expansive possibilities of intimacy in college than their straight peers. By taking a life course perspective, this paper shows how queer temporalities reveal and challenge the heteronormativity that governs hookup culture.
Chapter
One aspect of relationships that is of interest when examining the reproduction of social inequalities are those that are reproduced in online dating relationships. With advances in technology resulting in more people meeting online, there is an increased need to study online dating relationships to fully understand them. There is research that indicates that social inequalities such as ageism, racism, homophobia, and gender-based violence, among other issues, are occurring frequently in online dating relationships. The purpose of this chapter is to explore how discrimination permeates the online dating world, resulting in unique challenges for its users.
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Zusammenfassung Der vorliegende Praxisbeitrag befasst sich mit der Kurzvideoplattform TikTok. Er beschreibt die Funktionsweise der Plattform und geht auf den bisherigen Stand der TikTok-Forschung ein. Im Fokus stehen dann Sexualaufklärung, LGBTIQ + sowie Beziehungs- und Datingberatung auf TikTok.
Article
In online dating platforms, users tend to focus their attention on a subset of popular peers, leading to congestion. We consider the potential efficacy of an informational intervention, namely, the disclosure of peers’ recent demand. We evaluate our treatment’s efficacy in mitigating congestion and improving matching efficiency, conducting a randomized field experiment at a large mobile dating platform. Our results show that the intervention is particularly effective at improving matching efficiency when presented in tandem with a textual message-framing cue that highlights the capacity implications of the peer demand information. Heterogeneity analyses further indicate that these effects are driven primarily by those users who most contend with congestion in the form of competition, namely, male users and those who rely more heavily upon outbound messages for matches.
Chapter
This chapter analyses the role of smartphones in people’s emotional and relationship dynamics. Several central dimensions will be explored, referring to the relationship between mobile technologies and intimacy, especially focusing on practices like flirting via social network platforms, using online dating apps and sexting. The analysis outlines that smartphones can be fruitfully interpreted as ‘infrastructures of intimacy’, connecting up closely to people’s emotional lives. Thus, the chapter addresses how the smartphone intertwines with everyday experiences connected to intimacy and relationships and how users elaborate different interpretations of what intimacy is according to the differences characterising the diverse online platforms they use daily.
Article
The multidisciplinary field of personal relationships has focused primarily on strong ties (romantic relationships, friendships, family relationships). However, acquaintances (weak ties) are pervasive in people's lives, contribute to well‐being, influence strong ties, and can become strong ties over time. This review article synthesizes several areas of literature about the role of acquaintances (weak ties) in the web of relationships and about the formation of acquaintanceships. The terms acquaintances and weak ties are used interchangeably in this article to refer to the type of relationship that exists in the peripheral layers of social networks. In the first section, I discuss the literature on factors associated with the size of people's acquaintance network, needs met by acquaintances (compared to those of closer ties), health and happiness benefits of interaction with acquaintances, and the dark side of acquaintances including having unwanted acquaintances. In the second section, I discuss how acquaintanceships are formed, and particularly the type that can develop into a closer tie. This section summarizes research from the literatures on friendship formation, relationship initiation, attraction, and first interactions of dyads at zero‐acquaintance. I end the article by identifying several research topics on acquaintances that could be studied by the next generation of scholars.
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Incels-a ragtag collection of young males who have rallied around their shared experience of romantic rejection-have slowly emerged as an online group of interest to researchers, no doubt as a result of several high-profile attacks. Much of this work has centered around incels' dating experiences, sexual attitudes, and online forums. However, it is possible that their moniker, short for involuntary celibate, has resulted in an overemphasis on their sexual exclusion and frustration. Recent work has identified social isolation as a key aspect of inceldom, which may help explain why incels have responded negatively to romantic rejection. The present study thus sought to examine the role of social support and loneliness in experiences of rejection in a sample of incel (n = 67) and non-incel (n = 103) men. Results provided some support for the recently developed Incel Traits scale, its first known use in a sample of incels. Incels also reported more feelings of loneliness and less social supports than non-incel men, which were associated with multiple mental and relational health issues. Further, incels reported using more solitary and problematic coping mechanisms. These results suggest that incels may be missing a key buffer in sheltering them from the adverse effects of romantic rejection. It also extends previous findings highlighting the importance of attachment styles in differentiating incels from non-incels, which may perpetuate feelings of isolation. Implications for how this may relate to incel discourse and clinical interventions are discussed.
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La inteligencia artificial forma ya parte de nuestro día a día, y muchas veces no somos conscientes de ello. Son algoritmos de inteligencia artificial los que nos recomiendan qué libro leer, qué productos adquirir, qué nueva serie ver, dónde alojarnos o comer, o con quién salir. Su amplia penetración ha generado un debate sobre hasta qué punto su presencia puede influyendo en nuestras decisiones. Sin embargo, este debate no ha tenido, por el momento, un reflejo muy amplio en la investigación empírica. Por ello, en este trabajo comprobamos si los algoritmos pueden influir las decisiones con diferentes tipos de recomendaciones (explícitas y encubiertas), en contextos de decisión de impacto para las personas como la política y las citas románticas. Además, exploramos cómo las personas juzgan el desempeño de los algoritmos en un terreno donde no es tan común la interacción con ellos: el campo del arte. Nuestros resultados, a lo largo de nueve experimentos, muestran que la mera recomendación de un supuesto algoritmo puede influir en las decisiones humanas y que el desempeño de la inteligencia artificial en el terreno artístico resulta minusvalorado cuando el público conoce su autoría. Comprender mejor cómo los juicios y decisiones humanas se ven afectados en la interacción con sistemas algorítmicos resulta esencial para evitar subestimar el efecto de la recomendación y la presencia del algoritmo en nuestras vidas.
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Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples of its operation in several practical contexts. Possible explanations are considered, and the question of its utility or disutility is discussed.
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S. E. Taylor and J. D. Brown's (1988) position that mentally healthy people exhibit positive illusions raises a dilemma: How do people function effectively if their perceptions are positively biased? Using Gollwitzer's deliberative-implemental mindset distinction, we assessed whether people in a deliberative mindset show less evidence of positive illusions than people in an implemental mindset. Participants completed a mindset task and assessments of mood, self-perceptions, and perceived (in)vulnerability to risk. Deliberation led to worsened mood, greater perceived risk, and poorer self-perceptions, relative to implementation; control (no mindset) participants typically scored in between. Study 3 demonstrated that the mindset manipulation corresponds to how people actually make decisions or implement them. Results suggest that people use relatively realistic thinking when setting goals and more positive thinking when implementing them.
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Previous research on the interpersonal effects of computer-mediated communication (CMC) reveals inconsistencies. In some cases CMC has been found to be impersonal, task-oriented, and hostile. Other reports show warm personal relations, and still others show gradual adjustments in interpersonal relations over time. The past research results are also difficult to compare, as their research methods reveal inconsistent approaches. These inconsistencies include the treatment of time limits on group development, the neglect of nonverbal behavior in face-to-face, comparison groups, and other measurement issues. Each of these factors may obscure our understanding of the way CMC partners get to know and come to relate to each other through CMC. The present study attempts to address some of these concerns. This study explored the effects of computer conferencing on the interpersonal messages with which people define their relationships, known as relational communication. Observers rated the relational communication from transcripts of CMC conversations or from videotapes of face-to-face three-person groups who had worked in several sessions. Analyses showed that CMC groups achieved more positive levels on several dimensions of interpersonal communication than did face-to-face groups. On other dimensions, no differences between conditions were found. In no case did CMC groups express less intimacy or more task-orientation than face-to-face groups. Implications are drawn suggesting that under certain conditions, CMC may promote positive relational effects in ways that previous theories have not considered, and in some ways superior to more traditional media.
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We examined emotional transmission in 68 couples in which one member was preparing to face a major stressful event, the New York State Bar Examination. This event is the final hurdle in the course of legal training, and it typically evokes high levels of distress in examinees. Examinees and partners provided daily diary reports of their activities and emotional states for 35 days surrounding the event. Concurrent and prospective analyses indicated that examinees' depressed mood on a given day was related to partners feeling less positive and more negative about the relationship. However, as the examination approached, this association declined to a negligible level. These results suggest that partners increasingly made allowances for examinees' negative affect. In this way, partners preserved their ability to be supportive when examinees needed the support most.
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This work investigates assortative mating and convergence in personality and their effect on marital satisfaction. Measures of personality were collected from a sample of married couples before they met and twice after they were married. Results showed evidence for assortative mating but not for convergence in an average couple. Similarity and convergence in personality predicted later marital satisfaction. These results indicate that similarity and convergence in psychological characteristics may benefit relationships and that while spouses may choose partners with similar personalities they do not become more like their partners in the early part of their marriage.
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This research examined how certain features of online date-finding systems affect the types of message strategies users generate to refuse requests for romantic dates. An experiment analyzed how 190 participants rejected a date request from a member of the opposite sex. Politeness strategies varied as a function of the relationship between the requester and rejector (acquaintance vs. stranger) and the type of media (email vs. online dating messaging service). Results illuminate effects of interface characteristics and dyads’ relationship type on date refusal messages. Online daters exploited certain communication features provided by dating website messaging services which allow new ways for romantic refusals to be performed that were not previously available in face-to-face communication or earlier forms of computer-mediated communication.
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A meta-analysis that included 19 samples with a total of 3848 participants showed that scores on four of the Five-Factor Model personality factors correlated significantly with level of relationship satisfaction by intimate heterosexual partners. The four personality characteristics were low neuroticism, high agree-ableness, high conscientiousness, and high extraversion. The associations between an individual's per-sonality characteristics and the relationship satisfaction of the individual's intimate partner did not vary significantly from men to women or from married to unmarried individuals. The results of the meta-analysis provide support for the utility of the Five-Factor Model of personality in understanding an important realm of life, intimate relationships.
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This study investigates advertising for romantic partners in the daily newspaper. A telephone survey of U.S. daily newspapers shows that mate finding is becoming a matter of mediated information, suggesting a new function for the media. Media dependency theory predicts that individuals will tend to turn to the mass media for this information. The adoption of innovation model explains the process needed to do so.
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Using ethnographic and survey data on low-income families residing in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we examine the relationship between women's patterns of union formation and their experience of physical and sexual abuse. Both sets of data suggest that women who have been physically or sexually abused are substantially less likely to be married or to be in stable, long-term cohabiting relationships. The data also suggest that the timing and different forms of abuse may have distinctive associations with union formation. Women who have experienced abuse beginning in childhood, particularly sexual abuse, are less likely to be in sustained marriages or stable cohabiting relationships and instead are more likely to experience transitory unions: multiple short-term, mostly cohabiting unions with brief intervals between them. Women who have not been abused in childhood but experience adult physical abuse, however, are less likely to be in either a marriage or a cohabiting union, long-term or transitory; and some have withdrawn from having relationships with men. The relevance of these findings for the decline of marriage among low-income women and men is discussed.
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This work examines how individual differences in assessment and locomotion shape goal pursuits in ongoing relationships. The Michelangelo phenomenon describes the role that close partners play in affirming versus disaffirming one another's pursuit of the ideal self. Using data from a longitudinal study of ideal goal pursuits among newly committed couples, we examined whether the action orientation that characterizes locomotion creates an optimal environment in which to give and receive affirmation, whereas the evaluative orientation that characterizes assessment creates a suboptimal environment for giving and receiving affirmation. Consistent with hypotheses, locomotion is positively associated with partner affirmation, movement toward the ideal self, and couple wellbeing, whereas parallel associations with assessment are negative. We also explore the behavioral mechanisms that may account for such associations.
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To evaluate the impact of actual and perceived similarity on interpersonal attraction, we meta-analyzed 460 effect sizes from 313 laboratory and field investigations. Results indicated that the associations between interpersonal attraction and both actual similarity (r = .47) and perceived similarity (r = .39) were significant and large. The data also indicate that (i) actual similarity was important in no-interaction and short-interaction studies, (ii) there was a significant reduction in the effect size of actual similarity beyond no-interaction studies, and (iii) the effect of actual similarity in existing relationships was not significant. Alternatively, perceived similarity predicted attraction in no-interaction, short-interaction, and existing relationship studies. The implications of perceived similarity, rather than actual similarity, being predictive of attraction in existing relationships are discussed.
Chapter
Understanding interpersonal relationships requires understanding actors, behaviors, and contexts. This 2002 volume presents research from a variety of disciplines that examine personal relationships on all three levels. The first section focuses on the factors that influence individuals to enter, maintain, and dissolve relationships. The second section emphasizes ongoing processes that characterize relationships and focuses on issues such as arguing and sacrificing. The third and final section demonstrates that the process of stability and change are embedded in social, cultural, and historical contexts. Chapters address cultural universals as well as cross-cultural differences in relationship behaviors and outcomes. The emergence of relational forms, such as the interaction between people and computers, is also explored. Stability and Change in Relationships will be of interest to a broad range of fields, including psychology, sociology, communications, gerontology, and counselling.
Book
The Adaptive Decision Maker argues that people use a variety of strategies to make judgments and choices. The authors introduce a model that shows how decision makers balance effort and accuracy considerations and predicts which strategy a person will use in a given situation. A series of experiments testing the model are presented, and the authors analyse how the model can lead to improved decisions and opportunities for further research.
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Consumer choice is often influenced by the context, defined by the set of alternatives under consideration. Two hypotheses about the effect of context on choice are proposed. The first hypothesis, tradeoff contrast, states that the tendency to prefer an alternative is enhanced or hindered depending on whether the tradeoffs within the set under consideration are favorable or unfavorable to that option. The second hypothesis, extremeness aversion, states that the attractiveness of an option is enhanced if it is an intermediate option in the choice set and is diminished if it is an extreme option. These hypotheses can explain previous findings (e.g., attraction and compromise effects) and predict some new effects, demonstrated in a series of studies with consumer products as choice alternatives. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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Using retrospective reporting as a source of “longitudinal” data, an analysis is presented of the varying degrees of homogamy between a homogeneous sample of engaged girls and three men with whom each had had a serious relationship. Evidence is presented which suggests that (a) there is a general tendency to become more homogamous through the mate selection period on some dimensions (e.g., education) but to become less so on other dimensions (e.g., urbanity); (b) some of the patterns more easily fit a theory based on variations in opportunities to meet different kinds of partners, others more easily fit a normative theory; (c) social changes during the selection period (geographical or social mobility) influence the level and pattern of homogamy.
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The authors investigated whether mind-set influences the accuracy of relationship predictions. Because people are more biased in their information processing when thinking about implementing an important goal, relationship predictions made in an implemental mind-set were expected to be less accurate than those made in a more impartial deliberative mind-set. In Study 1, open-ended thoughts of students about to leave for university were coded for mind-set. In Study 2, mind-set about a major life goal was assessed using a self-report measure. In Study 3, mind-set was experimentally manipulated. Overall, mind-set interacted with forecasts to predict relationship survival. Forecasts were more accurate in a deliberative mind-set than in an implemental mind-set. This effect was more pronounced for long-term than for short-term relationship survival. Finally, deliberatives were not pessimistic; implementals were unduly optimistic.
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Computers have changed not just the way we work but the way we love. Falling in and out of love, flirting, cheating, even having sex online have all become part of the modern way of living and loving. Yet we know very little about these new types of relationship. How is an online affair where the two people involved may never see or meet each other different from an affair in the real world? Does online sex still involve cheating on your partner? Why do people tell complete strangers their most intimate secrets? What are the rules of engagement? Will online affairs change the monogamous nature of romantic relationships? These are just some of the questions Professor Aaron Ben Ze'ev, distinguished writer and scholar, addresses in the first full length study of love online. Accessible, shocking, entertaining, enlightening, this book will change the way you look at cyberspace and love forever. Aaron Ben Ze'ev is a Professor at the Univeristy of Haifa in the Philosophy Department and has been the Rector of the University since 2000. He has published articles for many journals such as Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Philosophical Psychology, and Theory & Psychology among others. He has also had numerous books published including The Subtlety of Emotions (MIT Press, 2000) and The Perceptual System: A Philosophical and Psychological Perspective (Peter Lang,1993), both of which have been translated into Hebrew.
Article
This accessible yet research-based text offers both foundational theories and practical applications of analysis and criticism of mass media portrayals of sex, love, and romance in a wide variety of mass media, from entertainment to advertising to news. The multidisciplinary methodological perspective comes out of a media literacy approach and embraces a variety of traditions along the quantitative-qualitative continuum. Focused on portrayals of male-female coupleship, the book is centered around the 12 major myths and stereotypes of Galician's Dr. FUN!'s Mass Media Love Quiz, each of which has a corresponding Dr. Galician Prescription that encapsulates healthy strategies--rarely found in the mass media--to counteract that myth or stereotype. Readers learn how to identify, illustrate, deconstruct, evaluate, and reframe the mass media's mythic and stereotypic portrayals of sex, love, and romance. They also learn how to use their own formal critical evaluations to clarify their own values and--as media consumers or mass communication creators--to share their insights with others. Thus, the learning objectives encompass all three major educational domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Part I of this book covers the five foundations: Myths and stereotypes of love and coupleship; Models of realistic and constructive love and coupleship; Mass media storytelling approaches, techniques, and devices; Research and theories of mass media effects; and Strategies and skills of media literacy. Part II is devoted to exploring the myths and stereotypes identified in the Quiz. Following several brief case studies and a summary of related research and commentary, each chapter focuses on analyses and criticisms of portrayals of sex, love, and romance in the content of news and advertising, as well as entertainment using Galician's Seven-Step Dis-illusioning Directions. Each chapter concludes with a "Dis-illusion Digest." While critical of unrealistic portrayals and the damage they can cause unsuspecting media consumers, Galician--a media literacy advocate--is not anti-media. Rather, her goal is to empower consumers to use these portrayals with more awareness of their possible consequences, to resist adopting them as models for actual behavior, and to consciously reframe them into more realistic, productive scenarios. This unique text is an engaging classroom resource for media literacy, media and relationships, and media and society coursework.
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This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
Article
When Lewis Carroll's Alice falls down the hole into Wonderland, she encounters a variety of situations in various places: a garden, a forest, a pool, a kitchen, a castle, and a courtroom, among others. The characters she meets who become her acquaintances, friends, and enemies differ depending on her location in her travels, and, of course, her size. She follows the White Rabbit who is terrified of her larger-than-human height in the hallway. She learns to adjust her size to match the places, objects, animals, and people who cross her pathways. People have likened “cyberspace” to the world found through the mirror, the virtual reality on the other side contrasted to the everyday physical world. As the experience of people online accumulated, researchers differentiated modes of relating within cyberspace such as the use of the asynchronous and the synchronous or real-time media. They have begun to illuminate differences in the types of spaces, places, or settings online (see Baker, 2002, 2005; Baker & Whitty, 2008; McKenna, 2007; Whitty & Carr, 2006). A current line of inquiry attempts to explicate interactions that originate but do not remain in cyberspace, or relationships that span online and offline places. Researchers of online relationships recognize that people online often “felt as though they have gotten to know each other quite well” (Walther & Parks, 2002, p. 549) before meeting offline (Baker, 1998), entering “mixed mode relationships” (Walther & Parks, 2002, p. 542).
Article
Examines educational attainment as a dimension of assortative mating. Barriers to marriage between persons with unequal amounts of formal schooling increased between the 1930s and the present. These increases may be the result of trends in average educational attainment, age at leaving school, and age at marriage. The degree to which schools affect the selection of marriage partners is dictated by the degree to which leaving school and marriage occur closely together and by the educational attainments of marriage partners. Variation in the average age at leaving school and marriage and in educational attainment induce variation in educational assortative mating. Trends in age at marriage affect both the structure of marriage and inequality within and between generations.
Article
A model of breakup decisions is proposed that extends interdependence theory. This dependence model asserts that the primary issue in understanding breakup decisions is degree of dependence on a relationship. Dependence is great when important outcomes in the current relationship are not available elsewhere. Need satisfaction dependence measures identify important needs in a relationship and compare satisfaction of those needs in the current relationship to satisfaction in alternative relationships. Two longitudinal studies provide good support for the dependence model. Need satisfaction dependence measures significantly differentiated between subjects who remained in their relationships and those who voluntarily broke up. The studies also compared the model to simpler breakup models and assessed whether commitment mediates the link between dependence and breakup decisions.
Article
Used a longitudinal study of heterosexual dating relationships to test investment model predictions regarding the process by which satisfaction and commitment develop (or deteriorate) over time. Initially, 17 male and 17 female undergraduates, each of whom was involved in a heterosexual relationship of 0-8 wks duration, participated. Four Ss dropped out, and 10 Ss' relationships ended. Questionnaires were completed by Ss every 17 days. Increases over time in rewards led to corresponding increases in satisfaction, whereas variations in costs did not significantly affect satisfaction. Commitment increased because of increases in satisfaction, declines in the quality of available alternatives, and increases in investment size. Greater rewards also promoted increases in commitment to maintain relationships, whereas changes in costs generally had no impact on commitment. For stayers, rewards increased, costs rose slightly, satisfaction grew, alternative quality declined, investment size increased, and commitment grew; for leavers the reverse occurred. Ss whose partners ended their relationships evidenced entrapment: They showed relatively low increases in satisfaction, but their alternatives declined in quality and they continued to invest heavily in their relationships. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Homogamy in personal values is indicated by a study of one hundred couples, including samples of both pre-married and married couples. To test the theory suggested by Winch that this homogamy is due to natural limitations of one's “field of eligibles,” these natural couples are compared to artificial couples which are matched on the basis of similar social characteristics. It is found that such controls account for a significant amount of homogamy, but a substantial degree of homogamy remains unexplained in this manner.
Article
Objective —To determine whether situations involving multiple options can paradoxically influence people to choose an option that would have been declined if fewer options were available. Design —Mailed survey containing medical scenarios formulated in one of two versions. Participants —Two groups of physicians: members of the Ontario College of Family Physicians (response rate=77%; n=287) and neurologists and neurosurgeons affiliated with the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (response rate=84%; n=352). One group of legislators belonging to the Ontario Provincial Parliament (response rate=32%; n=41). Intervention —The basic version of each scenario presented a choice between two options. The expanded version presented three options: the original two plus a third. The two versions otherwise contained identical information and were randomly assigned. Outcome Measures —Participants' treatment recommendations. Results —In one scenario involving a patient with osteoarthritis, family physicians were less likely to prescribe a medication when deciding between two medications than when deciding about only one medication (53% vs 72%; P<.005). Apparently, the difficulty in deciding between the two medications led some physicians to recommend not starting either. Similar discrepancies were found in decisions made by neurologists and neurosurgeons concerning carotid artery surgery and by legislators concerning hospital closures. Conclusions —The introduction of additional options can increase decision difficulty and, hence, the tendency to choose a distinctive option or maintain the status quo. Awareness of this cognitive bias may lead to improved decision making in complex medical situations.(JAMA. 1995;273:302-305)
Article
Using the five-factor model of personality, this study investigates the contribution of personality traits to marital adjustment. The sample is composed of 446 couples who completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, which measures the personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, as well as the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that self-reported and partner-reported personality traits were significant predictors of self-reported marital adjustment for both men and women. Personality traits were found to contribute to the prediction of marital adjustment over and above the effect of neuroticism.
Article
This study presents analyses of data from the National Comorbidity Survey to assess the extent to which problems within marriage spill over to produce work loss. Results indicate that marital distress is positively associated with work loss—particularly among men in their first 10 years of marriage. Based on the average earnings of participants, work loss associated with marital problems translates into a loss of approximately $6.8 billion per year. These findings suggest that family interventions targeted at the prevention of marital problems may result in important psychosocial and economic benefits for business and society.
Article
We used longitudinal data involving parents and children to investigate the intergenerational transmission of marital quality and instability and the effects of parental divorce on children's marital quality. Results indicated that parental divorce increased daughters' likelihood of divorce, that some life course factors mediate the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that parental divorce had little impact on children's marital quality, and that the transmission of marital quality is moderated by parent and child gender. We discussed possible mechanisms for the intergenerational transmissions of marital instability and marital quality.
Article
This study contributes to the literature on compatibility in courtship by seeking to identify empirical links between social homogamy, similarity in leisure interests and role performance preferences, and the dynamics of premarital relationships. Data were collected from 168 working-class and middle-class couples married for the first time in central Pennsylvania during the early 1980s. The more similar individuals' role performance preferences and leisure interests were to those of the other sex in the sample, the more compatible they were with the person they married. Nonetheless, even after controlling for how likely individuals were to find a compatible mate in the population of other-sex persons, people tended to be better matched than they would have been had they been randomly paired (i.e., assortative mating appears to be taking place on the basis of leisure interests and role performance preferences). Assortative mating also was found with regard to social characteristics (age, education, religion), but such social similarity was related neither to similarity in couples' leisure interests nor to their role preferences, and, with one exception, social similarity was not significantly related to their courtship experiences and evaluations. Similarity in leisure interests and compatible role preferences, however, were related both to partners' subjective evaluations of their courtships (i.e., love, ambivalence) and to how they reportedly interacted with each other (i.e., conflict, efforts to enhance the quality of the relationship). In the conclusion, we place our findings within the context of previous writings on compatibility and mate selection and argue for the importance of establishing empirical linkages between various combinations of the partners' social and psychological attributes and their courtship experiences.
Article
Using retrospective reporting as a source of “longitudinal” data, an analysis is presented of the varying degrees of homogamy between a homogeneous sample of engaged girls and three men with whom each had had a serious relationship. Evidence is presented which suggests that (a) there is a general tendency to become more homogamous through the mate selection period on some dimensions (e.g., education) but to become less so on other dimensions (e.g., urbanity); (b) some of the patterns more easily fit a theory based on variations in opportunities to meet different kinds of partners, others more easily fit a normative theory; (c) social changes during the selection period (geographical or social mobility) influence the level and pattern of homogamy.
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Although much has been learned from cross-sectional research on marriage, an understanding of how marriages develop, succeed, and fail is best achieved with longitudinal data. In view of growing interest in longitudinal research on marriage, the authors reviewed and evaluated the literature on how the quality and stability of marriages change over time. First, prevailing theoretical perspectives are examined for their ability to explain change in marital quality and stability. Second, the methods and findings of 115 longitudinal studies—representing over 45,000 marriages—are summarized and evaluated, yielding specific suggestions for improving this research. Finally, a model is outlined that integrates the strengths of previous theories of marriage, accounts for established findings, and indicates new directions for research on how marriages change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Rising imprisonment rates and declining marriage rates among low-education African Americans motivate an analysis of the effects of incarceration on marriage. An event history analysis of 2,041 unmarried men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggests that men are unlikely to marry in the years they serve in prison. A separate analysis of 2,762 married men shows that incarceration during marriage significantly increases the risk of divorce or separation. We simulate aggregate marriage rates using estimates from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and find that the prevalence of marriage would change little if incarceration rates were reduced.
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This study examined the associations between self‐reported attachment style dimensions and romantic relationship functioning over 1 year in a sample of heterosexual dating couples between the ages of 18 and 25 (115 dyads at T1, 57 dyads at T2; 74% Caucasian). Relationship functioning was assessed at multiple levels of analysis via self‐reports of interpersonal functioning, observers' ratings of dyadic interactions, and measures of autonomic responding during the interactions. No significant cross‐sectional associations were found between attachment style dimensions and interpersonal functioning. However, individuals who reported greater attachment‐related anxiety at T1 described their relationships as being of lower quality, were rated by observers as interacting less positively, and exhibited greater electrodermal reactivity during interactions 1 year later.
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Although major computer-mediated communication theories incorporate assumptions about the potency of chronemic cues, the claim that chronemic cues shape online message interpretation has received little empirical attention. This article reports the results of two studies designed to assess the influence of reply rate in benign and complex relational e-mail. Study 1 demonstrates that reply rate functions as an immediacy cue, with some evidence for overall sex differences in the perception of e-mail. Nevertheless, Study 2 demonstrates that reply rate is not directly associated with perceived quality of social support e-mail, instead finding a three-way interaction between emotional empathy, participant sex, and reply rate on message quality. Among the more important implications of these results is that although chronemic cues are significantly associated with online message interpretation, obtained effect sizes suggest that the influence of these cues is not as potent as some dominant computer-mediated communication theories imply.
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This study examined the world of Internet dating. It explored the motivations of daters, their styles of courtship, and how they negotiated problems of trust and deception. The authors employed in-depth interviews and participant observation with men and women who met online. Internet daters sought companionship, comfort after a life crisis, control over presentation of themselves and their environments, freedom from commitment and stereotypic roles, adventure, and romantic fantasy. The authors also studied the development of trust between daters, the risks they assume, and lying online. Most participants in the study eventually met, which sometimes resulted in abrupt rejection and loss of face, but other times ended in marriage.
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Divorce is a relatively common stressful life event that is purported to increase risk for all-cause mortality. One problem in the literature on divorce and health is that it is fragmented and spread across many disciplines; most prospective studies of mortality are based in epidemiology and sociology, whereas most mechanistic studies are based in psychology. This review integrates research on divorce and death via meta-analysis and outlines a research agenda for better understanding the potential mechanisms linking marital dissolution and risk for all-cause mortality. Random effects meta-analysis with a sample of 32 prospective studies (involving more than 6.5 million people, 160,000 deaths, and over 755,000 divorces in 11 different countries) revealed a significant increase in risk for early death among separated/divorced adults in comparison to their married counterparts. Men and younger adults evidenced significantly greater risk for early death following marital separation/divorce than did women and older adults. Quantification of the overall effect size linking marital separation/divorce to risk for early death reveals a number of important research questions, and this article discusses what remains to be learned about four plausible mechanisms of action: social selection, resource disruptions, changes in health behaviors, and chronic psychological distress. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
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A central theme in contemporary psychology is the distinction between implicit and explicit evaluations. Research has shown various dissociations between the two kinds of evaluations, including different antecedents, different consequences, and discrepant evaluations of the same object. The associative–propositional evaluation (APE) model accounts for these dissociations by conceptualizing implicit and explicit evaluations as the outcomes of two qualitatively distinct processes. Whereas implicit evaluations are described as the outcome of associative processes, explicit evaluations represent the outcome of propositional processes. Associative processes are further specified as the activation of mental associations on the basis of feature similarity and spatiotemporal contiguity; propositional processes are defined as the validation of activated information on the basis of logical consistency. The APE model includes specific assumptions about the mutual interplay between associat