Climate on the broad scale, across hundreds of kilometers, brings about the broadscale distribution of vegetation types (Chapters
1 and 2). However, even looking at the world much more locally, we see that there are also very substantial differences in
the average climate. For example, a south-facing slope has a different climate from a north-facing one. The year-round temperature
and rainfall conditions under a tree will be different from those just a few meters away in the open. The temperature right
at the soil surface is different from the temperature a few centimeters under the surface.