Article

Nelumbo nucifera extracts as whitening and anti-wrinkle cosmetic agent

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Water extract from Nelumbo nucifera was tested for possible functional cosmetic agent. Whitening effect was measured by tyrosinase inhibition assay and DOPA-oxidase inhibition assay, and anti-wrinkle effect was checked by elastase inhibition assay. DOPA-oxidase inhibition effect (whitening effect) of Nelumbo nucifera’s leaf, seed and flower extract was 59%, 57% and 50%, respectively. Nelumbo nucifera’s leaf, seed and flower extract showed 56%, 49%, and 54% elastase inhibition (anti-wrinkle effect) at 200 μg/ml, while adenosine indicated 26% inhibition. Water cream including Nelumbo nucifera’s root, leaf, flower, stem extract did not cause significant skin irritation. Water cream including 4% Nelumbo nucifera extract was stable for 30 days under various temperature conditions. From the study, Nelumbo nucifera’s leaf, flower and seed extracts showed strong possibility for whitening and anti-wrinkle functional cosmetic agent.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin and azelaic acid can reduce signs of skin aging but have also been reported for their inefficiency and side effects [8,10]. Therefore, the need for discovery and development of new strategies to halt skin aging has become highly evident. ...
... Natural compounds are known as activators of antioxidant genes offering protection against UV-induced cytotoxicity [3,4].. Thus, the skin anti-aging abilities of the extracts has been reported by several research groups. In this regard, green tea polyphenols and fruit of P. strobilacea were shown to prevent oxidative damage, antielastase property in several experimental models [8,9]. Caffeic acid and quercetin have also been reported to reduce oxidative stress and inhibit tyrosinase [11]. ...
... Similarly, tyrosinase is an enzyme which catalyzes two rate-limiting steps in melanin synthesis; however, an activation of tyrosinase caused by exposure to UV light or ROS (reactive oxygen species) leads to uncontrolled melanogenesis and pigmentation disorders. Thus, inhibition of these enzymes is important to prevent all these disorders [8] The extracts were tested for their inhibitory effect on elastase and tyrosinase. From all the extracts surveyed, extract of H. madagascariensis, and P. aurantiacum were found to strongly inhibit both enzymes as testified by their higher inhibition percentages (Table 4). ...
Article
Introduction Plants are used by the populations of Foumban (West Region) and Nkol Anga’a (Center Region) for skin care in Cameroon, Central Africa. In this study, the anti-aging potential of the medicinal plants were investigated by evaluating their in vitro antioxidant, anti-elastase and anti-tyrosinase activities followed by the analysis of their protective effect on ultraviolet B light-induced oxidative stress. Methods Antioxidant potential to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen-hydroxyl (OH°), reduce potassium ferrocyanate and phosphomolybdenum and inhibit lipid peroxidation (LP) was assessed while the anti-elastase and anti-tyrosinase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. The protective potential of the most active extracts were determined on ultraviolet B light-induced oxidative stress in fibroblasts and melanoma cells by measuring the mRNA levels of Nrf-2 and HO-1 Results Twenty-six medicinal plants species belonging to sixteen families were stock-listed. The crude extracts of Harungana madagascariensis and Psorospermum aurantiacum possessed high total polyphenol content. Likewise, the antioxidant activity of both plants was comparable to that of ascorbic acid in all the studied oxidative models. Tested at 100 μg/mL, these extracts were found to inhibit the activity of elastase at 100 and 77.58% respectively. Both extracts exhibited low inhibitory activity on tyrosinase as compared to ascorbic acid while the isolated hexane and methanol fractions demonstrated strong antioxidative activities. The hexane fraction of P. aurantiacum induced significant (p < 0.01) up-regulation of antioxidant genes (Nrf-2 and HO-1). Conclusion The above cited plants exhibited high antioxidative, anti-tyrosinase and anti-elastase activities and, their active compounds may be promising for skin care.
... Depression (Sugimoto et al., 2008) Soxhlet apparatus Pain and inflammation (Chakravarthi et al., 2009) Condensed pressure 40 to 45°C then freeze-dried at −30°C (Rajput et al., 2019) Heat at 100°C until the volume is 50% then cooled at RT then preserved with 20% propylene glycol Wrinkles (Kim et al., 2011) Ultrasonic power of 300 W for 55 min at 25°C then pressurecooked in an autoclave at 115°C for 15 min, cooled to RT, and stored at 4°C for 24 hr. Finally, dried at 50°C, grounded using a ring sieve with an aperture size of 185 μm and then purified Diabetes Zeng et al., 2015) F I G U R E 1 (a) shows that Lotus Bound Phenolic (LBP) significantly lowered the intracellular accumulation of lipid (b) shows the antiinflammatory effect of lotus seed protein in RAW 264.7 macrophages (c) shows that the LPSCs (lotus seed procyanidins) by ELF-EMF (extremely low frequency electromagnetic field) exposure and their shielding mechanism opposite to harmful radiation (d) shows that the alkaloid extract of lotus plumule was used against liver injuries induced by carbon tetra chloride ...
... The functional properties of lotus seeds, Nelumbinis semen, as a cosmetic agent was tested. The elastase inhibition assay was done which showed that seeds possessed an anti-wrinkle effect while the tyrosinase inhibition assay and DOPA-oxidase inhibition assay showed the whitening effect of lotus seeds as shown in Figure 4(a) (Kim et al., 2011). ...
Article
Nelumbinis semen is commonly known as lotus seeds that have been used as a vegetable, functional food, and medicine for 7000 years. These are low caloric, a rich source of multiple nutrients and bioactive constituents, which make it a unique therapeutic food. N. semen plays an important part in the physiological functions of the body. Nowadays, people are more conscious about their health and desire to treat disease naturally with minimal side effects. So, functional foods are getting popularity due to a wide range of essential constituents, which are associated to decrease the risk of chronic diseases. These bioactive compounds from seeds are involved in anti-adipogenic, antioxidant, antitumor, cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, anti-microbial, anti-viral, hypoglycemic, etc. Moreover, the relationship between functional compounds along with their mechanism of action in the body, their extraction from the seeds for further research would be of great interest.
... Do grupy roślin stanowiących źródło substancji rozjaśniających skórę można zaliczyć także wiele innych gatunków, szczególnie azjatyckich, np. Fagus crenata, Sapium sebiferum, Zelkova serrata, Rhus vernciflua, Nelumbo nucifera, Astragalus sinicus, Prunus padus, Pinus pinaster, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Aloë, Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng oraz grzyby: Sporotrichum pruinosum, Ganoderma lucidum [7,18,26,28,29,44,54,68,81,82]. ...
... Lotos orzechodaj-ny (Nelumbo nucifera) to kolejny przykład rośliny, której ekstrakty z liści, kwiatów i nasion wykazują właściwości wybielające i przeciwzmarszczkowe. Objawiały się one, jako efekt inhibicji tyrozynazy, DOPA-oksydazy oraz elastazy, przy czym nie stwierdzono podrażnień skóry, a przygotowane kremy z dodatkiem wodnych ekstraktów z N. nucifera zachowywały trwałość przez miesiąc [29]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Streszczenie Składniki wybielające skórę są obecne w wielu roślinach, grzybach i bakteriach. Stanowią one cel wielu badań w przemyśle kosmetycznym. Obok ekstraktów o działaniu wybielającym, stosowane są czyste substancje aktywne pochodzenia naturalnego lub poszukiwane są związki syntetyczne o ta-kim działaniu. Działanie większości substancji sprowadza się do zakłócenia procesów melanogene-zy, tylko nieliczne substancje mają aktywność rozkładu melaniny. Wstęp W wielu kulturach pojmowanie piękna wiąże się nie tylko z młodą i jędrną, ale tak-że z jasną i pozbawioną zmian pigmentacyjnych, nieskazitelną skórą. Przebarwienia skórne w wielu kulturach (szczególnie azjatyckich) mogą stanowić problem natury es-tetycznej, a często także i psychologicznej [42]. Skłania to do poszukiwania składników kosmetyków mogących pomóc w zapobieganiu powstawania przebarwień lub w ich usuwaniu. Taki efekt można uzyskać unikając czynników sprzyjających powstawaniu przebarwień, np. promieni słonecznych, lub sięgając do tego, czym dysponuje współ-czesna branża kosmetyczna. Obecnie kosmetologia dysponuje dość szerokim wachla-rzem komponentów rozjaśniających skórę, ale wciąż są poszukiwane nowe, zwłasz-cza takie, które w bezpieczny i prosty sposób zlikwidują plamy i przebarwienia.
... The rational thinking that healthy was important than beautifully. Modern cosmetics just not used to support beautifully, so that it was care healthy [1]. The skin with healthy care and positive thinking in everything create beautifully building of human charming face. ...
... Many people still use dangerous material in their cosmetics. Part of them was known that and others was not known [1]. The dangerous material for example mercury in cosmetics, support many trouble and up normal metabolism in the body. ...
... Water extract from Nelumbo nucifera showed DOPA-oxidase inhibition effect (whitening effect) was 59%, 57% and 50% from the leaf, seed and flower extract respectively. Thus, it is evident that Nelumbo nucifera leaf, flower and seed extracts have the potential to be used for skin whitening and as anti-wrinkle functional cosmetic agents (Kim et al., 2011). The constituents isolated from this plant including nuciferine, Nmethylasimilobine, (-)-lirinidine, and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-6a,7-dehydroaporphine showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis. ...
Article
Tyrosinase is a key regulatory multifunctional enzyme containing copper that is responsible for the biosynthesis of melanin that determines the color of the skin. Accumulation of excessive melanin causes various dermatological disorders including melasma and age spots. Also, tyrosinase is responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits and vegetables. It deteriorates the color clarity of plant-derived food product which results in loss of nutritional quality. The study of Tyrosinase inhibition is an active field of research in dermatological, biomedical, food and agricultural science and also has potential impact in the domain of insect physiology. Despite several developments on tyrosinase inhibitors, their safety concern still requires investigations due to their undesirable side-effects. Research in this context is being carried out to find potent and safe leads as tyrosinase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This review provides comprehensive overviews of various tyrosinase inhibitors obtained from medicinal plants with their mechanism of action. Several medicinal plants as tyrosinase inhibitors have been extensively studied and successfully marketed. The polyphenol and stilbenes group of phyto-molecules have been established as effective tyrosinase inhibitors. Few of these molecules however have been clinically investigated in the context of potential anti-melanogenic medicinal plants. Tyrosinase inhibitors are commercially available for cosmetic purposes to lighten the complexion. Clinically, they are also used in the treatment of hyper-pigmentary disorders. They are equally applicable for the anti-browning agents in the food-processing industry. This review will be useful for the development and evaluation of tyrosinase inhibitors from medicinal plants.
... To prevent rapid degradation, different derivatives have been introduced, such as ascorbyl phosphate salts, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl glucoside and ethyl ascorbyl ether. These derivatives are susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by tissue esterase and a-glucosidase, thereby yielding ascorbic acid [21][22][23]. Adenosine exhibits anti-wrinkle properties [24], and it is mostly used as an active ingredient in anti-wrinkle and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle cosmetics in the Republic of Korea. ...
... To prevent rapid degradation, different derivatives have been introduced, such as ascorbyl phosphate salts, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl glucoside, and ethyl ascorbyl ether. These derivatives are susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by tissue esterase and α-glucosidase, thereby yielding ascorbic acid [21][22][23]. ...
Article
Objective: The Korean Cosmetic Act regulates the use of functional cosmetics or cosmeceuticals) by the law. Four functional cosmetic groups, whitening, anti-wrinkle, UV protection, and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle, were categorized according to the Korean Cosmetic Act and Functional Cosmetics Codex. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) was employed for the simultaneous detection of arbutin (and its decomposed product, hydroquinone), niacinamide, ascorbyl glucoside, ethyl ascorbyl ether, and adenosine in functional cosmetic products such as cream, emulsion, and lotion. Methods: Separation by HPLC-DAD was conducted using a C18 column with a gradient elution of 5 mM KH2 PO4 buffer (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and methanol (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid). The wavelengths for the detection of arbutin, hydroquinone, niacinamide, adenosine, ascorbyl glucoside, and ethyl ascorbyl ether were 283, 289, 261, 257, 238, and 245 nm, respectively. Results: This method exhibited good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.999), precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) < 2%), and mean recoveries (89.42% - 104.89%). The results obtained by monitoring 100 market samples showed that the detected levels of the tested materials are within the acceptable authorized concentration. Conclusion: The method developed herein is simple and can be used for market survey and quality control of functional cosmetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In ancient medicine, lotus petals were utilized to prepare wholesome beverage to treat hypertension, cancer, diarrhea, fever, weakness, infection and body heat imbalance [4]. Several studies have been reported as hepatoprotective [5], antimicrobial [6], anti-platelet [7], hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic [8], whitening and anti-wrinkle [9] and Antioxidant [10,11] activities in the flower and floral parts of N. nucifera. The N. nucifera flowers were rich in flavonoids, particularly Kaempferol derivatives, Quercetin derivatives and Anthocyanins [12]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the lotus stamen tea on the treatment of hyperlipidemia. 4 weeks, randomized, controlled interventional study was performed in 30 participants with hyperlipidemia by divided into 2 groups, oral lotus stamen tea group and control group. This study decided to give an intervention for 4 weeks and followed up the subject at 2nd and 4th week. But this paper showed the results from preliminary study, lotus stamen tea group, 2 weeks of intervention and followed up at 2nd week of the study. After 2 weeks of intervention, lotus stamen tea could decrease blood total cholesterol level and LDLcholesterol level. Blood HDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were not changed, There was no adverse effect and no abnormal kidney and liver function of this intervention, blood kidney function level and blood liver enzymes level were not changed. This study showed the new evidence of lotus stamen might be used as alternative treatment or supplement for dyslipidemia.
... Nelumbo nucifera is composed of flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds. Notably, all lotus organs have nutritional and medical values and are deemed specific foods and herbs [14]. Traditionally, lotus flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds have been used as antidiarrheals, diuretics, antipyretics, and antimicrobial and antihyperlipidemic agents [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Solar ultraviolet (sUV) radiation remains a major cause of skin aging. Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) is a well-known edible plant widely grown in Asia, including Korea, China, and Japan. The lotus consists of flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds, and all parts reportedly possess nutritional and medical values. Traditionally, lotus flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds have been used as antidiarrheal agents, diuretics, antipyretics, and antimicrobial and antihyperlipidemic agents. In addition, the Nelumbo nucifera lotus embryo has been shown to possess sedative and antipyretic properties and can relieve hemostatic thirst and treat eye diseases. Recently, Nelumbo nucifera lotus flower extract has been widely used in cosmetics due to its ability to reduce wrinkles and its whitening effects. Numerous cosmetics using Nelumbo nucifera lotus embryo extracts are commercially available. However, the active components of Nelumbo nucifera remain elusive. Lotusine is a phytochemical and soluble alkaloid found in lotus embryos. Herein, we examined the anti-wrinkle effect of lotusine using sUV-exposed human keratinocytes. We observed that lotusine reduced sUV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression and modulated transcriptional activities of activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). sUV-induced AP-1 and NF-κB activity could be activated via multiple signal transduction cascades, including the p38 MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and Akt pathways in the skin. Lotusine inhibited the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90RSK, MKK3/6-p38, and Akt-p70S6K pathways. Overall, our findings suggest that lotusine has potential benefits related to MMP-1 expression and skin aging following sUV exposure. Hence, the lotus can be developed as a valuable functional food and cosmetic material.
... This also triggers the use of harmful whitening substances on cosmetic formulas [4]. This phenomenon occurred not only in Indonesia but also in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Korea and other countries [5] [6]. ...
... These studies are evidence that lotus is beneficial to the skin. There has been active research on utilizing these properties to develop cosmetics for whitening and wrinkle care using lotus extracts (15)(16)(17). Some cosmetic products on the market actually contain the extracts. ...
Article
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seed is widely used as a traditional medicine in countries of Asia. Among many functions of the lotus seed, one interesting activity is its skin protection from the sunlight and scar. In this study, we focused on the skin protective property of lotus seed tea against ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Two groups of a hairless mouse model, water as control (water group) and lotus seed tea (LST group), were administrated a fluid drink water for six months. After 6 month of administration, UVB exposure was carried out to both groups for another 3 months. During and after the administration, the skin moisture content and the morphological and histopathological analyses through biopsy were carried out. Prior to UVB irradiation, no significant difference was discovered in the skin moisture content for the water group and LST group (P<0.05). However, drastic changes were observed after the UVB treatment. The LST group showed a clear evidence of skin protection compared to the control group (P<0.05). The moisture content, epidermal and horny layer thickness, and protein carbonyl values all revealed that the intake of the lotus seed tea enhanced protection against UVB exposure. As a result, the long-term intake of the lotus seed tea showed the effect of preventing loss of skin moisture, mitigating the formation of abnormal keratinocytes, and contributing to protein oxidation inhibition.
... Petals are found to be useful in the therapies of hematemesis, eczema, weak spleen and stomach trouble[17,18]. So far, the researchers have reported that the extract of N. nucifera flowers possess Hepatoprotective[19], Antiplatelet activity[20], Antimicrobial activity[21], Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic[13], Whitening & anti-wrinkle effect[22], Antioxidant activities[23][24][25]. Flavonoids is the main principle phytochemical containing, high levels of Kaempferol derivatives, followed by Quercetin derivatives and Anthocyanins[26]found in the petals of N. nucifera. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study was formulated in order to evaluate anti-renotoxic responses in flowers of an Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Methods: Gentamicin at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day was used intra-peritonealy for 14 days in rats to induce renotoxicity. Experiment was conducted for 14 days comprising four groups with six animals in each group. Different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Flower petal extract (NNFPE) were given orally along with Gentamicin for 14 days. Study parameters include Body wt changes, Urine output, Serum Creatinine and Urea, oxidative stress parameters and histological study of the kidney. Results were given as mean±Standard Error of Mean (SEM). Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Results: Administration of NNFPE significantly decreases Kidney weight, Serum Creatinine, urea levels in treated groups in a dose dependent manner when comparing to toxic group. Body weight and urine output were significantly increased in NNFPE, treated groups when compared to the toxic group. Significantly increased activities were seen in SOD, CAT, and GPx in NNFPE dose dependent treated rats when comparing to toxic group. Remarkably, decreased MDA and increased renal GSH levels were seen in dose dependently treated NNFPE. Histological reports show extensive destructions were seen toxic group, very less damage were noted in the graded doses of NNFPE treated rats when comparing to toxic group. Conclusions: The present study reveals that the hydroethanolic Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Flower Petal extract has renoprotective activity.
... Indian lotus, Chinese water lily and sacred lotus) and synonyms Nelumbium nelumbo, N. speciosa, N. speciosum and Nymphaea nelumbo (Duke et al., 2002).In ancient medicine, lotus petals were utilized to prepare wholesome beverage to treat hypertension, cancer, diarrhea, fever, weakness, infection and body heat imbalance (Yen et al., 2006). So far, the researchers have reported as hepatoprotective (Rao et al., 2005), antimicrobial (Brindha and Arthi, 2010a), anti platelet (Brindha and Arthi, 2010b), hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic (Supasorn Sakuljaitrong et al., 2013), whitening and anti wrinkle (Kim et al., 2011) and Antioxidant (Brindha and Arthi, 2011;Kirithika et al., 2013) activities in the flower and floral parts of N. nucifera. The N. nucifera flowers were rich in flavonoids, particularly Kaempferol derivatives, Quercetin derivatives and Anthocyanins (Chen et al., 2013). ...
... Leaves and Stem Haematopoietic [27] 13 Leaf, Flower, Seed Cosmetic agent [28] 14 Lotus liquor from leaves & blossoms Antioxidant activities, Reducing oxidative stress and the risk of chronic diseases [19] 15 Rhizome Diuretic activity [29] 16 Rhizome Psychopharmacological [30] 17 ...
... Their seed have demonstrated antioxidant and antifertility action Deepa et al.(2008). N. nucifera water leaves extract has anti-tumor activity and has significant potential as a chemotherapeutic agent Yang et al. (2011), hot water extract of different parts (flowers, roots, seed and leaf) of plant N. nucifera show antiwrinkle and skin whitening effects, leaf extracts can be used as a source of natural antioxidant for potential preventative therapies against angiogenesis-related disease Kim et al. (2011). Every year, millions of people get affected by diabetes. ...
Article
Full-text available
A recent survey has demonstrated that traditional healers and herbalists frequently use Nelumbo nucifera plant to treat diabetes. The plant investigated here has been previously reported as natural folk medicine, but until now no scientific investigation of potential anti-diabetic effects have been reported. Plant leaves of Nelumbo nucifera were screened out for quantitative analysis of phytochemicals, in-vitro anti-diabetic activity (Alpha-amylase inhibitory assay) and In-vivo anti-diabetic assay of animals (rabbits). Quantitative analysis indicates that different phytochemicals were present in plant leaves extract/fractions. In-vitro antidiabetic analysis results poses that butanol fraction is significantly more active than other fractions or extract in antihyperglycemic activity with minimum IC50 value of 48.26 µg/ml. For In-vivo anti-diabetic assay, animals (rabbits) were examined and were divided into 10 groups and except blank group, all were treated with standard and plant extracts/fractions doses (25mg and 50mg per Kg body weight) as an aqueous suspension. Their blood sugar level was thoroughly recorded with a glucometer before the administration of sample and standard drug. Alloxan Monohydrate was administrated orally (as an ice-cold water solution) at dose rate 150mg/kg body weight for one week to make animals hyperglycemic. In-vivo analysis indicates that butanol fraction is the most active fraction in antihyperglycemic activity. So Leaves of N. nucifera can be used as antidiabetic remedy. So, it is strongly recommended that N. nucifera leaves should be elucidated further for isolation of active phytochemicals.
... To prevent rapid degradation, different derivatives have been introduced, such as ascorbyl phosphate salts, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl glucoside and ethyl ascorbyl ether. These derivatives are susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by tissue esterase and a-glucosidase, thereby yielding ascorbic acid [21][22][23]. Adenosine exhibits anti-wrinkle properties [24], and it is mostly used as an active ingredient in anti-wrinkle and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle cosmetics in the Republic of Korea. ...
Article
OBJECTIVE: The Korean Cosmetic Act regulates the use of functional cosmetics) by the law. Four functional cosmetic groups, whitening, anti-wrinkle, UV protection and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle, were categorized according to the Korean Cosmetic Act and Functional Cosmetics Codex. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodi-ode array detection (DAD) was employed for the simultaneous detection of arbutin (and its decomposition product, hydro-quinone), niacinamide, ascorbyl glucoside, ethyl ascorbyl ether and adenosine in functional cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions and lotions. METHODS: Separation by HPLC-DAD was conducted using a C18 column with a gradient elution of 5 mM KH2PO4 buffer (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and methanol (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid). The wavelengths for the detection of arbutin, hydroquinone, niacinamide, adenosine, ascorbyl glucoside and ethyl ascorbyl ether were 283, 289, 261, 257, 238 and 245 nm, respectively. RESULTS: This method exhibited good linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.999), precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) < 2%) and mean recoveries (89.42-104.89%). The results obtained by monitoring 100 market samples showed that the detected levels of the tested materials are within the acceptable authorized concentration. CONCLUSION: The method developed herein is simple and can be used for market survey and quality control of functional cosmetics. R esum e OBJECTIF: La Loi Cosm etique cor eenne r eglemente l'utilisation de cosm etiques ou de produits fonctionnels). Quatre groupes cosm eti-ques fonctionnels, a savoir les blanchissants ment, les anti-rides, les anti-UV, et les combinaisons de blanchiment et anti-rides, ont et e class es selon la r eglementation cosm etique cor eenne et le Codex des Functional Cosmetics. Dans cette etude, la Chromatographie liquide a haute performance (HPLC) coupl ee a une d etection a r eseau de photodiodes (DAD) a et e utilis ee pour la d etection simul-tan ee de l'arbutine (et son produit de d egradation, l'hydroquinone), du niacinamide, du glucoside d'ascorbyle, de l' ether d'ascorbyle d' ethyle, et de l'ad enosine dans les produits cosm etiques fonction-nels tels que les cr emes, emulsions, lotions etc. METHODES: La s eparation par HPLC-DAD a et e effectu ee en utili-sant une colonne C18 avec un gradient d' elution d'un tampon 5 mM KH2PO4 (contenant 0.1% d'acide phosphorique) et de m etha-nol (contenant 0.1% d'acide phosphorique). Les longueurs d'onde pour la d etection de l'arbutine, de l'hydroquinone, du niacinamide, de l'ad enosine, du glucoside d'ascorbyle, de l' ether l'ascorbyl d' ethyle sont 283, 289, 261, 257, 238 et 245 nm, respectivement. R ESULTATS: Cette m ethode pr esente une bonne lin earit e (R 2 ≥ 0.999), une pr ecision inf erieure a 2% (exprim ee en ecart-type relatif (RSD), et des recouvrements moyens (89.42 de-104.89%). Les r esultats obtenus en analysant les 100 echantillons du march e ont montr e que les taux des substances test ees se situ-ent dans les limites des concentrations autoris ees. CONCLUSION: La m ethode d evelopp ee ici est simple et peutêtre utilis ee pour l' etude du march e et le contrôle de qualit e des pro-duits cosm etiques fonctionnels.
... Tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase), a copper-containing enzyme catalyses the oxidation of hydroxyphenols to their quinone derivatives, which then polymerize spontaneously and initiate 'enzymatic browning' (Shi et al., 2001). The use of natural inhibitors of tyrosinase is stimulated by the need to replace sulfating agents in processed foodstuffs and demand by cosmetic industry for natural whitening agent (Kim et al., 2011). In this study, all extracts of the seed, rhizome and stem of lotus plant exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory effects with IC 50 of 2.2, 1.2 and 2.3 respectively (Fig. 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Lotus plant (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) is well known for its therapeutic effects despite its ability to accumulate heavy metals. This study evaluates antioxidant properties and heavy metal content of seed, stem and rhizome of lotus that grown in ex-tin mining pond. Total phenolic content, DPPH-radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity were determined on methanol extracts. Contents of ash, lead and chromium were determined on dried, ground samples. The highest concentration of phenolic content, ash, lead and chromium is in the seeds. Tyrosinase inhibition activity is highest in the rhizome and lowest in the stem. Correlation of DPPH-radical scavenging activity is good with tyrosinase inhibition activity (P < 0.01). The concentration of lead found exceeded the permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius. Therefore, assessment of metal contamination should be a mandatory priority to utilization of abandoned ex-tin mining area for edible plant cultivation.
... It is also useful against a variety of skin disorders [16]. Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) extract has been observed to show potent antioxidant and antityrosinase activities and has been found to have higher potential to be further developed as functional cosmetic agent [17,18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Multiple emulsions have excellent encapsulating potential and this investigation has been aimed to encapsulate two different plant extracts as functional cosmetic agents in the W/O/W multiple emulsions and the resultant system's long term stability has been determined in the presence of a thickener, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Methods Multiple W/O/W emulsions have been generated using cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and a blend of polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether and cetomacrogol 1000(R) as hydrophilic emulsifiers. The generated multiple emulsions have been characterized with conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, phase separation and rheology for a period of 30 days. Moreover, long term shelf-storage stability has been tested to understand the shelf-life by keeping the generated multiple emulsion formulations at 25 +/- 10[degree sign]C and at 40 +/- 10% relative humidity for a period of 12 months. Results It has been observed that the hydrophilic emulsifiers and HPMC have considerably improved the stability of multiple emulsions for the followed period of 12 months at different storage conditions. These multiple emulsions have shown improved entrapment efficiencies concluded on the release rate of conductometric tracer entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of the multiple emulsions. Conclusion Multiple emulsions have been found to be stable for a longer period of time with promising characteristics. Hence, stable multiple emulsions loaded with green tea and lotus extracts could be explored for their cosmetic benefits.
... Normally, the skin contains collagen and elastin which are formed and degraded continuously to keep the natural structure of the skin and protect it from damage. 29 Skin and body care products contain natural ingredients which contain anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and antioxidant activities, so can be used to decrease skin ageing. These natural ingredients include several phytochemicals such as saponins, terpenoids, vitamins, carotenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and tannins. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ageing is an expected problem that affects the skin of all mammals and could be avoided by herbal protection. Therefore, our study was done to determine anti-ageing and immunomodulatory effect of apricot seed standardized extract and its major compound; amygdalin. The dried powder was extracted using 70% ethanol (3 × 1.5 L) by an Ultra-Turrax® T25 homogenizer, then the extract was investigated for its anti-ageing and immunomodulatory activity. In-vitro anti-cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2), anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and immunomodulatory activities (lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic activity) were done using standard methods. The results revealed that the apricot seed 70% ethanol extract showed a promising activity as anti-ageing by collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition assays (IC50 was 44.29 ± 1.7 µg/mL and 37.23 ± 0.96 µg/mL, respectively). While, amygdalin had a potent activity as collagenase and elastase inhibitor (21.70 ± 0.92 µg/mL and 17.78 ± 1.3 µg/mL, respectively) which was better than the standard drug EGCG (IC50 was 24.7 ± 1.6 μg/mL and 18.2 ± 1.5 μg/mL, respectively). Immunostimulant results for apricot seed 70% ethanol extract and amygdalin increased in gradient concentration with valuable effects. Standardization of extract using HPLC analysis and amygdalin as marker was done where its content was 5.72 g/100 g extract. Vitamin E was estimated as 0.1052 mg/g dry powder of apricot seed and this revealed its nutritive importance. In conclusion, we recommended the use of apricot seed extract or amygdalin as therapeutic adjuvant in skin creams for prevention of skin ageing.
... The N. nucifera seeds are a rich source of bioactive flavonoids and show various biological activities including anti-hepatotoxic, anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and strong antioxidant activities. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Previously, the studies have been performed on the extraction optimization and antioxidant activities of phytochemicals from various plant materials but limited data has been found regarding the influence of various extraction factors on the extraction of flavonoids from N. nucifera seed. In the present study, the cumulative effect of four factors including the particle size of the flour, microwave treatment time, the concentration of methanol as extracting solvent and soaking time on total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of N. nucifera seed kernel was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical tool used for the multivariate optimization. ...
... Lotus seed tea has been documented to prevent ultraviolet B irradiation and loss of skin moisture [37]. It was reported that water extracts from lotus seed had a 75% whitening effect and 49% anti-wrinkle effect at 200 µg/mL [38]. A total of 13 flavonoids in lotus leaves have been separated and identified [39], thirty-eight flavonoids were identified in nine tissue that included leaves, petals, stamens, pistils and tori, lotus plumules, stalks, seed coats, seed kernels [13] and anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin flavonoid in nine different tissue of twelve lotus cultivars were also analyzed [40], of which most flavonoids have been detected in dry lotus seed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seeds are widely consumed as functional food or herbal medicine, of which cotyledon (CL) is the main edible part, and lotus plumule (LP) is commonly utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the chemical components of CL and LP in dry lotus seeds, not to mention the comparison between wild and domesticated varieties. In this study, a widely targeted metabolomics approach based on Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-electrospray ionization-Tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was utilized to analyze the metabolites in CL and LP of China Antique ("CA", a wild variety) and Jianxuan-17 ("JX", a popular cultivar). A total of 402 metabolites were identified, which included flavonoids (23.08% to 27.84%), amino acids and derivatives (14.18-16.57%), phenolic acids (11.49-12.63%), and lipids (9.14-10.95%). These metabolites were classified into ten clusters based on their organ or cultivar-specific characters. Most of these metabolites were more abundant in LP than in CL for both varieties, except for metabolites belonging to organic acids and lipids. The analysis of differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) demonstrated that more than 25% of metabolites detected in our study were DAMs in CL and LP comparing "JX" with "CA", most of which were less abundant in "JX", including 35 flavonoids in LP, 23 amino acids and derivatives in CL, 7 alkaloids in CL, and 10 nucleotides and derivatives in LP, whereas all of 11 differentially accumulated lipids in LP were more abundant in "JX". Together with the fact that the seed yield of "JX" is much higher than that of "CA", these results indicated that abundant metabolites, especially the functional secondary metabolites (mainly flavonoids and alkaloids), were lost during the process of breeding selection.
... Phenolic compounds are mostly present in grape's skin, pulp and seeds. Compared to other plant parts, a higher number of phenols are present in seeds 31 . Polyphenols (proanthocyanidins) of grape seed shows free radical scavenging activity and reduced hyper pigmentation in female melasma patients 32 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Tyrosinase (polyphenolic oxidase) is a multifunctional and copper containing enzyme. Tyrosinase is an enzyme which is responsible for melanin biosynthesis which is responsible for color of the skin. Melanin is synthesised in melanocyte cells by melanogenesis process. Melanogenesis protects skin surface from harmful ultraviolet radiations. Melanin is mainly synthesized in plants, micro organisms and mammalian cells. Melanin pigment is responsible for hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. When melanin is present in very less amount it causes local vitiligo and posttraumatic hypopigmentation. When melanin is present in very less amount it causes local vitiligo and posttraumatic hypopigmentation. Abnormal amount of melanin deposit in the specific sites of skin causes abnormal skin colored patches like solar lentigos, chloasma, freckles, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation etc. Tyrosinase is also responsible for color changes in fruits due to enzymatic reactions. Tyrosinase inhibitor compounds are used in cosmetics, food, agriculture science and also used in remedy for imbalance in pigmentations. Some Indian herbal plants and agents like Aloe barbedensis, Crocus sativus, Curcuma longa, Camellia sinensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycine max, Nelumbo nucifera, Hemidesmus indicus, Vitis Vinifera, Broussonetia papyrifera, resorcinol, arbutin, kojic acid, hydroquinone and ascorbic acid have antityrosinase enzymatic activity. So these plants and inhibitory agents are used in cosmetic industries due to their tyrosinase inhibitory effects or antityrosinase activity or antihyperpigmentation effects. Keywords: Anti-hyperpimentation, Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Melanin, Herbal drugs.
Article
Prunus padus bark extract was tested for use as a natural cosmetic ingredient. P. padus bark extract was obtained by hot water extraction and succeeding maturing processes. Total polyphenol and flavonoid concentrations were measured, and safety test (cell toxicity test), efficacy tests (antioxidation, antiwrinkle, whitening), and temperature stability tests were conducted in experiments. Total polyphenol and flavonoid concentrations were 714.7±0.5 mg/g and 72.1±2.2mg/g, respectively. Compared with other natural antioxidants, polyphenol concentration in P. padus bark extract was extremely high. P. padus bark extract showed lower cell toxicity in 100–500 μg/ml concentration by MTT assay. P. padus bark extract indicated 71% DPPH free radical scavenging activity (antioxidation), 36% elastase inhibition (antiwrinkle), and 38% tyrosinase inhibition (whitening) at 350 μg/ml, respectively. W/O/W lotion formulation containing 1% P. padus extract was prepared and stability tests were done to see variations in cosmetic properties. Viscosity, pH, particle size, and appearance of lotion containing 1% P. padus extract maintained stable condition for 28 days. Particle size of lotions showed homogeneous 362–426 nm ranges during stability tests. From this study, P. padus bark extract displayed strong possibility as a natural antioxidative cosmetic agent.
Article
Objective: The present study was formulated in order to evaluate anti-renotoxic responses in flowers of an Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Methods: Gentamicin at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day was used intra-peritonealy for 14 days in rats to induce renotoxicity. Experiment was conducted for 14 days comprising four groups with six animals in each group. Different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Flower petal extract (NNFPE) were given orally along with Gentamicin for 14 days. Study parameters include Body wt changes, Urine output, Serum Creatinine and Urea, oxidative stress parameters and histological study of the kidney. Results were given as mean±Standard Error of Mean (SEM). Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results: Administration of NNFPE significantly decreases Kidney weight, Serum Creatinine, urea levels in treated groups in a dose dependent manner when comparing to toxic group. Body weight and urine output were significantly increased in NNFPE, treated groups when compared to the toxic group. Significantly increased activities were seen in SOD, CAT, and GPx in NNFPE dose dependent treated rats when comparing to toxic group. Remarkably, decreased MDA and increased renal GSH levels were seen in dose dependently treated NNFPE. Histological reports show extensive destructions were seen toxic group, very less damage were noted in the graded doses of NNFPE treated rats when comparing to toxic group. Conclusions: The present study reveals that the hydroethanolic Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Flower Petal extract has renoprotective activity. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.
Article
In this research, water and ethanol extract of Momordica charantia shells, fruits and seeds were tested to see possibility as natural functional cosmetic agent. Water and ethanol extract showed 69.45 mg/g and 70.87 mg/g polyphenol concentration, respectively. Momordica charantia water and ethanol extracts did not indicate cell toxicity up to 1,000 innodatamug/mL concentration in MTT assay. Tyrosinase inhibition effects of water and ethanol extract were lower than arbutin, however, ethanol extract showed better DOPA oxidation inhibition effect than arbutin. Elastase inhibition effects of ethanol extract displayed similar efficacy with adenosine at higher concentrations. Solution formulations (5% extract) were stable for 28 days in both extracts, however, lotion formulation (1% extract) showed considerable variation in viscosity whereas ethanol extraction indicated relative stability. In conclusion, water and ethanol extract of Momordica charantia shells, fruits and seeds indicated strong possibility for whitening and antiwrinkle functional cosmetic ingredient.
Article
Full-text available
As skin ages it deprives its charming youthful expression. Aging may be simple chronological passing of the years or photoaging induced by exposure to the sun. The free radical fabricated in the body commenced response of receptors of nuclear signaling, mitochondrial damage, protein oxidation, telomere based DNA damage, genetic mutations and decrease of many hormone levels. Due to this aging skin displays variable epidermal thickness, dermal elastosis, reduced collagen, increased matrix degrading metalloproteinases, severe atrophy, telangiectases, inflammatory infiltrates and vessel ectasia. The secondary metabolites such as quercetin, polyphenol, flavonoid and flavonol, ellagic acids are obtained from plant extracts, provokes the free-radical scavenging activity, antagonize the UV signaling pathway, inhibition of elastase activity and matrix metalloproteinase expression and increase of expression of procollagen type I. Herbal cosmetics play a leading role in impeding and reversing aging of skin. The botanical ingredients present in herbal cosmetic impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. The imperative efforts are constrained to associate the medicinal plants with possible mechanism based on scientifically validated, leading to the emergence of novel cosmeceuticals for prevention of sagging. The information of present review assists the cosmetics scholar for development of novel herbal antiaging formulation producing the reduction of wrinkles, redness and abnormal discolorations that result from aging. The combination of listed medicinal plant can be produced immensely efficient, low toxicity and cost impressive product compared to synthetic antiaging formulation. This review can put forward revolt in the field of cosmetic market.
Article
Full-text available
Skin aging is caused by several factors. UV exposure in addition to oxidative stress elevate inflammatory mediators causing degradation of the extracellular matrix, which are regarded as the major cause of skin wrinkles, one of the signs of aging. Topical applications of active ingredients protect against dermal photodamage and scavenge radicals can delay skin aging. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors against degradation of collagen, elastin and hyaluronan are the key strategy to combat cutaneous aging. In addition, actives with the efficacy to enhance extracellular matrix production including those with UV protection efficacy are playing an important role in skin aging protection. Naturally-derived compounds for combating skin wrinkles are gaining more interest among the consumers as they are perceived to be milder, safer and healthier. This article therefore briefly addresses the causes of skin aging and extensively summarizes on herbs appraisal for skin wrinkles treatment. Therefore, delaying aging of skin using the functional herbs would maintain the individual's appearance with high aesthetic and psychosocial impacts.
Article
Lotus fibers are pulled from different period of lotus root. Alkaline was used as degumming agent to remove non-cellulose impurities of lotus fibers. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR were used to characterize surface morphology and microscopic structure of lotus fibers before and after degumming. The effect of alkaline degumming on tensile properties of lotus fibers is investigated. The results show that impurities remove, hydrogen bond rupture, and crystallinity of partly armorphous chain occur during alkaline degumming. All of these changes play roles in influencing fiber tensile breaking force and elongation at break.
Article
Water extracts of root, leaf, branch and fruit of Cudrania tricuspidata were tested to use as natural antiwrinkle and whitening cosmetic ingredient. Root extract indicated 86.5 mg/g polyphenol concentration and 55.5 mg/g flavonoid concentration. From MTT test, root, branch and fruit extract did not show cell toxicity up to 1,000 μg/mL, however, leaf extract displayed significant cell toxicity in concentrations higher than 200 μg/mL. Cudrania tricuspidata root extracts displayed excellent 81% tyrosinase inhibition (whitening effect), 58% elastase inhibition (antiwrinkle effect) at 500 μg/mL and showed minor UVB absorbance. When solution and lotion formulation were made including Cudrania tricuspidata root extract, they are stable at 25 °C for 21 days, but showed significant deviation in viscosity and particle size at 47 °C. From the study, Cudrania tricuspidata root extract demonstrated good potential for natural whitening and antiwrinkle cosmetic agent.
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop the separation process removing sediment in sea buckthorn seed ethanol extract, and to investigate the antioxidant and antibacterial behavior for the sediment removed ethanol extract (SBS extract). Sediment such as low solubility materials and oil component was simply removed by filtering after storing the crude extract containing celite for 16 h in a refrigerator at 4 °C. The SBS extract displayed strong antioxidant activity in the stability test as a function of both storage time and temperature when compared to vitamin C and BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole) as typical antioxidant ingredients. The bactericidal ratio of the SBS extract against E. coli increased with an increase in the addition of the test agent, and this was particularly significant at concentrations greater than 1,000 μg/ml addition. The bactericidal ratio of 1,000 μg/ml SBS extract against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aerusinosa and E. coli was 96.4, 98.6, 91.5, and 52.2% after 2 h, and 98.2, 99.7, 99.3, and 82.6% after 4 h, respectively. These results suggest that the SBS extract may be used as a functional food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic agent.
Article
In this study, plant extracts including 25% Saururus chinensis, 20% Morus bombycis stem and 20% Morus papyrifera stem were tested to use as possible cosmetic agent. As cosmetic effect test, cell toxicity test, elastase inhibition assay, tyrosinase inhibition assay, anti-oxidation assay and temperature stability test were done as cosmetic assays. Plant extract showed low cell toxicity, excellent elastase inhibition and anti-oxidation effect, however, tyrosinase inhibition effect was lower. Skin, lotion and essence formulation was made using plant extracts and temperature stability test was done. Skin and essence indicated good stability, however, lotion showed phase separation and severe viscosity variation, which means lotion formulation change. From the research, plant extracts including Saururus chinensis, Morus bombycis stem and Morus papyrifera stem were suitable for possible cosmetic agent.
Chapter
Skin aging is the result of programmed senescence and prolonged environmental injury to skin. Human skin is continuously exposed to environmental influences and is therefore subjected to both intrinsic as well as extrinsic aging processes. Aged skin is characterized by loss of skin tone and resilience, increased roughness and dryness, irregular pigmentation, sunburn, accelerated skin aging, wrinkles and several malignant skin cancers. The plant secondary metabolites have been exploited for their potential activities like anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, skin whitening, anti-cancer, etc. Several scientific validations on natural products derived from traditional system of medicine have been developed in this context. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Therefore, an attempt has been made through this chapter to highlight on skin aging pathways and natural bioactive molecules for management of skin aging.
Chapter
Lotus flowers, fruit and leaves
Article
Full-text available
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as sacred lotus, has primarily been used as food throughout the Asian continent, and its medicinal values have been described in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the chemical profiling and pharmacological activities of N. nucifera. Herein, we critically reviewed and analysed the phytochemical and pharmacological reports of N. nucifera. Our search for the keyword ?Nelumbo nucifera pharmacology? in all databases reported in Web of Science yielded 373 results excluding reviews and abstracts in document types. Two hundred and forty-three spectrum natural compounds from different parts of N. nucifera belonging to diverse chemical groups, including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins have been reported. In addition, distinct pharmacological activities, mainly against cancer, microbial infection, diabetes, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity, have been associated with crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds. This review highlights potential use of neferine, liensinine, isoliensinine, and nuciferine in clinical trials. In depth, mechanism of the potential chemical entities from N. nucifera via structure activity relationship needs to be explored to guarantee the stability and safety for the clinical use. Copyright
Article
The phytochemicals of the ethanolic extracts of petals and stamens of lotus flowers from several lotus cultivars belonging to the Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (namely 'lotus white flower' and 'lotus pink flower') were studied by color reaction test and HPTLC analysis. The lotus pink flower stamens showed a highest amount of ethanolic extractives (ca. 18.33±2.14% of dry material weight). The several the ethanolic extracts of N. nucifera petals and stamens showed similar qualitative phytochemicals. The crude extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoinds, tannins and polyphenols. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The analyzed lotus pink flower stamens ethanolic extract showed a highest antioxidant activity at IC 50 = 0.61±0.16 μg/ml and lotus pink flower petals ethanolic extract showed a highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect at IC 50 = 2.25±0.21 μg/ml. N. nucifera flowers could be provide a potential natural source of phytochemicals and could be beneficial to the cosmetic properties.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pancreatic beta cell protective and glucose uptake enhancing effect of the water extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCSE) by using rat insulinoma (RIN)‐m5F cells and 3 T3‐L1 adipocytes. RIN‐m5F cells were stimulated with interleukin‐1β and interferon‐γ, and the effect of TCSE on insulin secretion and cytokine‐induced toxicity was measured by ELISA and MTT assay, respectively. The glucose uptake and protein expression were measured by fluorometry and western blotting. Antidiabetic effect of TCSE was measured using streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. TCSE dose dependently increased cell viability and insulin secretion in RIN‐m5F cells. In addition, TCSE increased both the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 translocation in 3 T3‐L1 adipocytes via PI3K pathway. Finally, TCSE significantly lowered blood glucose and diet intake and increased body weight in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. The level of serum insulin and hepatic glycogen was increased, whereas the level of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, dipeptidyl peptidase‐4, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was decreased in TCSE‐administered rats. TCSE also increased glucose transporter 4 protein expression in the adipose tissue and liver of TCSE‐fed diabetic rats. Our results suggested that TCSE preserved RIN‐m5F cells from cytokine‐induced toxicity and enhanced glucose uptake in 3 T3‐L1 adipocytes, which may regulate glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. TCSE also increased glucosetransporter 4 protein expression in the adipose tissue and liver of TCSE‐fed diabetic rats. Our results suggestedthat TCSE preserved RIN‐m5F cells from cytokine‐induced toxicity and enhanced glucose uptake in 3 T3‐L13T3‐L1adipocytes, which may regulate glucose metabolism in diabetic rats.
Article
Purpose The extraction of phytochemical compounds has ever remained confusing and problematic for the researcher and manufacturers. The diversity in extraction conditions may influence the biological activities of the phytochemical compounds. The present study was planned to optimize the influence of four extraction variables on free radical scavenging potential of Nelumbo nucifera seed kernel (NNSK) extracts. Methods The extraction process was optimized by a 4-factorial central composite design using response surface methodology. The extracts of NNSK flours obtained at five levels of particle size, microwave treatment time, solvent concentration, and extraction time were analyzed for (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacity (DPPH-RSC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HRSC), and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-tetrazolium sulfate) radical scavenging capacity (ABTS-RSC). Results A significant (p < 0.05) positive effect of the selected extraction variables was observed on the scavenging capacity of the extracts against each of the tested radical. The optimum levels of sieve mesh number, microwave treatment time solvent concentration, and extraction time to achieve maximum value of free radical scavenging were found to be as follows: 113.521 meshes, 2.31 min, 99.87% and 1.21 h for DPPH-RSC, 62.99 meshes, 0.92 min, 42.74% and 2.02 h for HRSC and 136.36 meshes, 0.66 min, 47.43%, and 2.22 h for ABTS-RSC. Conclusions The free radical scavenging potential of the extracts was significantly influenced by each of the studied extraction variables. The study suggests the use of optimum conditions for the extraction of phytochemicals with good antioxidant potential.
Article
Background: The dermis, composed predominantly of dermal fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM), consists of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin and is associated with wrinkle formation and dermal elasticity. As the major constituent of the dermal matrix, collagen strengthens the skin, enhances its elasticity and protects it from external factors, such as ultraviolet (UV) rays, skin inflammation, intracellular metabolites, and aging. Aims: Economic growth and long-life expectancy have increased the interest in beauty, with extensive studies conducted to evaluate the anti-aging and health-promoting benefits of bioactive substances. Methods: In this study, we used natural ingredients, Trapa japonica fruit is a hard, aquatic plant that grows in ponds or marshes and contains protein and starch. To develop the ingredients for comprehensive skin improvement, this study investigated the effects of the trapa japonica fruit extract on the improvement of skin cells. Conclusion: We investigated the role of the fermented hot-water trapa japonica fruit extract to isolate the active ingredients with antiwrinkle effects in vitro and ex vivo situation through human dermal fibroblast cell proliferation via activating TGF-β1/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-photoaging effect of neferine upon exposure of mice to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. An in vivo photoaging model was established by repeatedly exposing mouse dorsal skin to UV-A and UV-B radiation for 12 weeks. Through skin photographs, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, skin wrinkles, epidermal thickness and dermal collagen were analyzed in the UV-irradiated mouse skin. Furthermore, the levels of endogenous antioxidants, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were measured to determine the extent of UV-induced oxidative stress that was associated with photoaging. The results demonstrated that the topical application of neferine following UV irradiation reduced oxidative stress by increasing SOD and GPx activities, and attenuated the photoaging process. Histological and ultrastructural examination revealed that neferine delayed skin wrinkle formation by inhibiting epidermal hypertrophy and collagen loss and degradation. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that neferine effectively prevents UV-induced skin photoaging and photodamage.
Article
Background: We investigated the antioxidant, anti-wrinkles, whitening, and moisturizing properties and amounts of phenolic compounds of ethanol extracts from flowers of 10 resource plants from Namwon and Mt. Jiri., Korea. Methods and Results: We measured antioxidant efficacy based on the total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. We evaluated the inhibi-tory effect on melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity for the whitening effect. Furthermore, we analyzed the elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibition activity for anti-wrinkle capacity. To evaluate the moisturizing effect, we examined hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA expression. In addition, the 19 phenolic compounds were detected using high performace liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the 10 flowers, the antioxidant effect was high in the order of Rosa multiflora, Nelumbo nucifera, and Elsholtzia splendens. Whitening effect was high in the order of N. nucifera, R. multiflora, and Dendranthema zawadskii. As for the anti-wrinkle property, N. nucifera was the most effective followed by R. multiflora. Taraxacum coreanum was the best for moisturizing effect, followed by D. zawadskii, and E. splendens. Seven phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts of the 10 flowers. Conclusions: Overall, the extracts of five flowers extracts showed strong potential as antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle, and moisturizing functional cosmetic agents. © 2020, Korean Society of Medicinal Crop Science. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (2n = 16) (Nelumbonaceae), also known as the Sacred Lotus is an imperative perennial plant of aquatic habitat renowned for its prominent, beautiful, and magnificent flowers with diverse colors and owning nutritional and medicinal significance. Lotus of Asian countries are in shades of pink to pure white. Many bioactive chemical constituents mainly alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolics have been identified in lotus. The medicinal principles relating to phytochemical and pharmacological activities mainly include antioxidant potential. In recent times, attention has mounted significantly in finding antioxidants from natural sources for utilization in foods or medicines. Because of the appraisal of antioxidant activity of plants as medicine, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn which is very significant against damage triggered by the free radicals within a cell and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a living being was explored for the antioxidant prospective of flowers, receptacles, leaves, seeds, and rhizomes. This chapter aims at understanding the antioxidant properties of different plant parts (leaves, flowers, receptacle, seeds, and rhizomes) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, phytochemistry of its various bioactive compounds over and above alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids, etc., and the benefits derived from these phytoconstituents.
Article
Full-text available
e global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multidisciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
Article
Full-text available
*e global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. *erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. *e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multi�disciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
Article
Full-text available
Thee global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multidisciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
Article
None of the study has concluded yet the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study the efficacy of two cosmetic actives intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device Visioscan® VC and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consents in a placebo controlled comparative study with split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with combination of both extracts. In all three groups active formulations were applied to one side of the face while placebo on the other side, once daily over the 60 day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements performed at baseline and on day 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm) and wrinkling (SEw). For example 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22%, perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiate combined treatment superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude diverse antioxidant constituents in both plants have potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus rendering these plants as future of new anti-aging products.
Article
Full-text available
As a part of our ongoing research of the taxane-type constituents from T. baccata L. (Taxaceae) recorded in the Flora of Turkey, 2α, 5α, 10β-triacetoxy-14β-(2-methyl)-butryloxy-4(20),11-taxadiene (I) and taxusin (II) were isolated from the heartwood, in addition to the other taxoids. Their structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT 135, 1H 1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and MS). Molecular mechanic calculations and conformational analysis of I and II have been established using the MM3 program. The most probable conformation for compound I was obtained using semi-empirical molecular orbital methods and X-ray crystal structure results of II. Molecular orbital calculations of the derivative compound 4(20), 11-taxadiene (III) have been carried out to compare semi-empirical and experimental knowledge about molecular geometries in gas phase and solid state.
Article
Inhibitory effects of caffeoylquinic acids isolated from leaves of Artemisia species and other related compounds on the lipoxygenase dependent peroxidation of linoleic acid were studied by kinetic and electron spin resonance(ESR) measurements. The order of inhibition activity was as follows : 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (ID50=2.0×10⁻5 M)=rosmarinic acid > geraniin (2.8×10⁻5 M)>α-tocopherol (3.7×10⁻5 M)>chlorogenic acid (7.5×10⁻5 M)=caffeic acid>ferulic acid (2.5×10⁻4 M). This order coincided well with that obtained from the measurement of radical scavenging activities of these compounds against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl. The inhibition profile of these compounds on lipid peroxidation in the lipoxygenase system was quite similar to those obtained previously in the biological systems of rat liver mitochondria and microsomes. In the separate ESR measurements in alkaline dimethyl sulfoxide solution, all caffeoyl-quinic acids exhibited relatively stable ESR signals assigned as a radical derived from the one-electron oxidation of dihydroxyphenyl group. From these results, it was concluded that the radical scavenging mechanism is commonly operative in both chemical and biological peroxidation systems.
Article
A novel method has been developed for analysis of N-nornuciferine, O-nornuciferine, nuciferine, and roemerine in leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–photodiode array detection (DAD)–electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The method was carried out by using a Shimadzu VP-ODS column with a gradient solvent system of 0.1% triethylamine aqueous solution–acetonitrile. N-Nornuciferine, O-nornuciferine, nuciferine, and roemerine were identified with authentic standard compounds and with MS-spectra. The contents of these compounds were measured by employing DAD. Linearity of around three orders in the magnitude of concentration was generally obtained and limits of detection for these compounds were in the range of 30–90pg.
Article
The effects of Erigeron canadensis extract on melanogenesis and cell toxicity in cultured B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were investigated. E. canadensis extract down regulated melanin synthesis effectively at a non-toxic concentration. Its extract was fractionated by using a recycling HPLC with GS310 column (21.5×500 mm, 10–15 μM) into five fractions. The fraction 1 showed melanin inhibition by 48.0% at 100 mg/ml which was 2.5 times more efficient than the depigmenting effect of commercial arbutin (17.5%) and also did not show cell toxicity. To elucidate the depigmenting mechanism of fraction 1, in vitro and cellular tyrosinase activity, antioxidant activity, and protein level of the main melanogenic enzymes, such as tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 were evaluated. Fraction 1 inhibited melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells by decreasing protein levels of melanogenic enzymes, especially tyrosinase. In conclusion, we suggest that this fraction may be a safe and effective depigmentation agent.
Article
(--)-Nuciferine and its Hofmann degradation product atherosperminine showed divergent psychopharmacological effects. Because nuciferine has been reported to be a neuroleptic and atherosperminine has some chemical resemblance to dopamine, they were investigated for their dopamine-receptor activities. Nuciferine had a pharmacologic profile of action associated with dopamine-receptor blockade; i.e., it induced catalepsy, inhibited spontaneous motor activity, conditioned avoidance response, amphetamine toxicity and stereotypy. On the other hand, atherosperminine produced effects associated with dopamine receptor stimulation, i.e., stereotypy, increase in spontaneous motor activity and amphetamine toxicity, reversal of haloperidol-induced catalepsy and inhibition of conditioned avoidance response, inhibition of morphine analgesia, and potentiation of the anticonvulsant action of diphenylhydantoin. The results are discussed on the basis of the chemical configuration of the two compounds.
Functional food, Hyoil Books
  • J C Park
  • J. C. Park
Cosmeceuticals and active cosmetics
  • P Elsner
  • H I Mailbach
  • P. Elsner