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Persian soldiers and Persians of the Epigone. Social mobility of soldiers-herdsmen in Upper Egypt

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... Egyptologists tend to focus on earlier pharaonic periods Egyptian history and, apart from Demotists, have historically not been as concerned with the Ptolemaic period. This period has traditionally been considered "no longer a part of 'pharaonic Egypt' but rather of the 'late period,' la basse époque, low in terms of both date and cul-16 See also Vandorpe 2008;La'da 1997La'da , 2002Manning 2010: 31. Ethnic groups have no biological/genetic basis, but much early scholarship assumed such a relationship. ...
... 25 For example, as is readily apparent in several papyri, people with a "Hellene" identification used their preferential status in arguments against 21 Thompson 2001a: 307-310;Clarysse and Thompson 2006: 138-140. See also Vandorpe 2008 for legal ethnic designations in general and the use of the term "Persian" in particular. 22 Clarysse and Thompson (2006: 143-145) cite the cases of Pasikles, Diodorus, and Petechonsis as people of definite Egyptian background (based on names of family members) in the Arsinoite nome who have achieved the status of "tax-Hellene;" though not labeled specifically as "Hellenes," they possess taxexemptions which were available only to individuals of "Hellene" status . ...
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... 53 Vandorpe 2008, 87-108. 54 Vandorpe 2002, 325-336. 55 Alston 1995Dietze-Mager 2007, 111-116 and 119-120. in service [private property of a son acquired by military service] 56 and the Roman citizenship after their discharge), but they were also since the beginning of the Roman Empire legally not allowed to marry during their military service, thus during 20 (legionaries) or 25 (auxiliaries) years. ...
... In the less Hellenized parts of Upper Egypt, as in Pathyris and Latopolis, Persians are predominant. 77 In addition, a subgroup of the Persians is called "Persian of the epigone" (Πέρσης τῆς ἐπιγονῆς), which are "Persians of the reserve troops", i.e. children of Persian soldiers, but also Persian soldiers who are in certain periods not employed and thus, not paid. 78 Since "Macedonians of the reserve" are not (yet) attested in the second century B.C., these soldiers were apparently employed in a more permanent way. ...
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