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... Indeed, beside the well-acknowledged involvement of the mu-opioid receptor system in the rewarding qualities of pleasant touch (Løseth et al., 2019), opioids might mediate perceptual pleasure across different sensory modalities (Mallik et al., 2017). Biederman and Vessel (2006) propose that inferentially rich stimuli will be preferred because they are accompanied by more activity in regions higher up in the ventral visual stream, which possess higher amounts of mu-opioid receptors. The release of endomorphins and the stimulation of mu-opioid receptors might correlate with the informational value conveyed by stimulation (Biederman and Vessel, 2006), which in turn might activate the limbic hedonic hot-spots in reward-related areas (Lacey et al., 2011;Nadal, 2013). ...
... Biederman and Vessel (2006) propose that inferentially rich stimuli will be preferred because they are accompanied by more activity in regions higher up in the ventral visual stream, which possess higher amounts of mu-opioid receptors. The release of endomorphins and the stimulation of mu-opioid receptors might correlate with the informational value conveyed by stimulation (Biederman and Vessel, 2006), which in turn might activate the limbic hedonic hot-spots in reward-related areas (Lacey et al., 2011;Nadal, 2013). According to these authors, the mu-opioid receptors are essential for the pleasures we derive from acquiring new information. ...
... For this purpose, the brain generates intrinsic reward to learnable and novel stimuli with high informational content (Oudeyer et al., 2007). Experiences are indeed more pleasurable when they can be assimilated while still providing novel information to the observer (Biederman and Vessel, 2006). This hypothesis has been recently demonstrated by Grzywacz and Aleem (2022) who have shown that the absolute quantity of information computed as "Fisher information" (a measure of uncertainty-reducing information quantifying "how much can be learned" from a sensory stimulus) can modulate aesthetic preferences for certain sensory patterns. ...
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Drawing from field theory, Gestalt therapy conceives psychological suffering and psychotherapy as two intentional field phenomena, where unprocessed and chaotic experiences seek the opportunity to emerge and be assimilated through the contact between the patient and the therapist (i.e., the intentionality of contacting). This therapeutic approach is based on the therapist's aesthetic experience of his/her embodied presence in the flow of the healing process because (1) the perception of beauty can provide the therapist with feedback on the assimilation of unprocessed experiences; (2) the therapist's attentional focus on intrinsic aesthetic diagnostic criteria can facilitate the modification of rigid psychopathological fields by supporting the openness to novel experiences. The aim of the present manuscript is to review recent evidence from psychophysiology, neuroaesthetic research, and neurocomputational models of cognition, such as the free energy principle (FEP), which support the notion of the therapeutic potential of aesthetic sensibility in Gestalt psychotherapy. Drawing from neuroimaging data, psychophysiology and recent neurocognitive accounts of aesthetic perception, we propose a novel interpretation of the sense of beauty as a self-generated reward motivating us to assimilate an ever-greater spectrum of sensory and affective states in our predictive representation of ourselves and the world and supporting the intentionality of contact. Expecting beauty, in the psychotherapeutic encounter, can help therapists tolerate uncertainty avoiding impulsive behaviours and to stay tuned to the process of change.
... Inspired by the discovery of a gradient of µ-opioid receptors in perceptual/ cognitive pathways in monkeys, we proposed a theory of cognitive and perceptual pleasure (Biederman & Vessel, 2006). These receptors are sparse in the early sensory stages and grow to reach their maximum density in association areas in the anterior temporal lobes. ...
... The theoretical motivation behind the paper-that information foraging is pleasurable-has received empirical support recently from work exploring the role of surprise and uncertainty on musical pleasure and from the growing literature on curiosity. These newer findings support the view put forth by Biederman and Vessel (2006) that stimuli that present a learning opportunity to the observer, in having the capacity to be understood yet also containing novel information, is pleasing. It is worth noting that this theory also provides a parsimonious explanation for recent data showing that different people (presumably with different life experiences and expertise) often have widely divergent aesthetic tastes (e.g., Vessel et al., 2018) and also why shared experience (e.g., within a culture or subculture), can lead to more convergent tastes. ...
... Despite these difficulties, the field of neuroaesthetics is growing. The mechanisms we proposed in Biederman and Vessel (2006) and tested in Yue, Vessel, and Biederman (2007) provide an explanation for how pleasure from visual experiences can be individual yet reflective of shared experience and can range from the mundane to the profound. We are pleased to see that these ideas continue to have relevance and impact. ...
Chapter
A gradient of µ-opioid receptors extends from early sensory areas of the cerebral cortex to associative cortex, with the greatest density of receptors in the most anterior associative regions. In 2006, Biederman and Vessel proposed that the hedonic value of perceptual and cognitive experience is a function of activation of this gradient. A desire for opioid activity provided by this gradient renders us infovores, always seeking novel but richly interpretable experiences. Richly interpretable experiences engage the opioid-dense anterior regions of the gradient, while novel experiences engage neural ensembles that have yet to undergo adaptation. Support for this proposal derives from the greater activity elicited in opioid-rich parahippocampal cortex for preferred over nonpreferred scenes, with neural network modeling of visual aesthetic responses suggesting that representations in later stages are more predictive of aesthetic responses, and psychopharmacological experiments that support the potential involvement of endogenous opioids.
... Viewing nature for ten minutes prior to experiencing a mental stressor has shown to stimulate heart rate variability and parasympathetic activity (Brown et al. 2013), while viewing a forest scene for 20 minutes after a mental stressor has shown to return cerebral blood flow and brain activity to a relaxed state (Tsunetsugu et al. 2005). Yet, repeated viewing of real nature, unlike non-nature, does not reduce viewers' level of interest over time (Biederman and Vessel 2006). Browning et al. (2014) state that, in office design, a view of nature has a restorative and healing effect, which encompasses four biophilic-design attributes. ...
... Many studies proved that the manifestation of water feature in space reduces stress and increases the feelings of tranquility by lowering heart rate and blood pressure (Biederman and Vessel 2006). Water features help improving concentration and memory restoration, awareness and psychological responsive-ness (Biederman and Vessel 2006;Browning et al. 2014). ...
... Many studies proved that the manifestation of water feature in space reduces stress and increases the feelings of tranquility by lowering heart rate and blood pressure (Biederman and Vessel 2006). Water features help improving concentration and memory restoration, awareness and psychological responsive-ness (Biederman and Vessel 2006;Browning et al. 2014). Moreover, a visual preference study indicates that the view of clean water represented a preferred view to all participants (Heerwagen and Orians 1993). ...
... However, research shows that animals and humans learn through play (e.g., van Eck, 2006). Recent neuroscience research indicates our brain rewards us for learning and curiosity (Berridge, 2003;Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Bodner, 2017;Jepma et al., 2012;Klenowski et al., 2015). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) reveals the same area of the brain (dopaminergic center, reward center) activates when we are learning, tackling a complex problem or exhibiting curiosity ( Gruber et al., 2014). ...
... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) reveals the same area of the brain (dopaminergic center, reward center) activates when we are learning, tackling a complex problem or exhibiting curiosity ( Gruber et al., 2014). Release of this endogenous chemical cocktail of endorphins provides reward and pleasure similar to exogenous sources of pleasure (e.g., sex, drugs, and alcohol) that many people actively seek (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Bodner, 2017;Jepma et al., 2012;Klenowski et al., 2015). The commercial game industry is well aware of this hard wiring in our brains and targets elements that promote learning, problem-solving and curiosity to increase player persistence and profits (Koster, 2014;McGonigal, 2011;Schell, 2015). ...
... Our brain rewards us for learning, so learning is fun (Berridge, 2003;Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Bodner, 2017;Jepma et al., 2012;Klenowski et al., 2015). However, education is not always fun because many educational experiences are poorly designed (Schell, 2015) and/or the method of transmission is wrong (Koster, 2014). ...
Thesis
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This study implemented a convergent parallel mixed methods approach to investigate game-based learning within an educational game compared to a modified entertainment game. Participants (N=31) were recruited from public middle and high schools as well as home school groups. Comparative data of participants’ perceptions, preferences and learning outcomes were investigated to inform better educational game design. This study also considers player personality to determine how dispositional curiosity influences an individual’s approach, acceptance, and interaction with novel learning environments, specifically games. Findings show a statistically significant gain in genetics academic knowledge after the game-based learning intervention. The difference in knowledge gained for the two games was not statistically significant. All dimensions of engagement, motivation and curiosity were statistically significantly higher for the modified entertainment game. Increases in scientific curiosity was statistically significantly higher for the modified entertainment game while scientific curiosity statistically significantly decreased after playing the educational game. Qualitative analysis revealed five themes and provided deeper understanding of game design features that enhance learning, curiosity and engagement from the player’s perception. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results suggest overall convergence and enhanced understanding of theoretical and practical implications of this research and identifies key relationships between game design, player perceptions and learning outcomes to inform better educational game design and implementation.
... This tuning is called equal temperament. It does not reflect the more natural tuning used by competent players of fretless stringed instruments, or wind instruments, which is relative to the central tone (tonic) of the piece being played, 13 and in which the semitones between contiguous notes are not all the same size. So in this sense, 14 a freshly tuned piano, tuned in equal temperament, is slightly out of tune-yet most listeners tolerate the compromise without even noticing it, even though the difference in sound between chords played in different tunings is substantial and easily heard when they are juxtaposed. ...
... The pitch percept changes linearly with exponential change in frequency. This change gives us the idea of pitch height: a note is higher if it is nearer the high frequency end, which corresponds with the right hand end of a piano keyboard, or the sound of a small animal, while lower tones are leftward on the keyboard, or more like the sound of most large animals (whales being a notable exception 13 Some pieces do not have tonics, and in this context, the ideal is often equal temperament. 14 In fact, the octaves on a piano are tuned slightly large, because this gives a more harmonious sound; the effect is called "stretch". ...
... Information efficiency determines three key factors of IDyOT's operation: first, it is predictive: it uses its information to assist its perception and hence operation in its environment; second, it processes input from its environment so as to construct the most efficient possible model of that environment; third, it applies the most expensive resource of all, active attention, only to those structures that contain sufficient information to warrant it. This third factor entails that IDyOT is, in the terms of Biederman and Vessel [13], an infovore: that it, it is curious [178,175]. Biederman and Vessel provide a biological account of the developments necessary to make this the evolutionary norm in humans: the process of learning causes mu-opioid release, and thus becomes a desirable end in its own right. ...
Article
This paper presents a theory of the basic operation of mind, Information Dynamics of Thinking, which is intended for computational implementation and thence empirical testing. It is based on the information theory of Shannon, and treats the mind/brain as an information processing organ that aims to be information-efficient, in that it predicts its world, so as to use information efficiently, and regularly re-represents it, so as to store information efficiently. The theory is presented in context of a background review of various research areas that impinge upon its development. Consequences of the theory and testable hypotheses arising from it are discussed.
... In accordance with this notion, studies have observed performance benefits on cognitively challenging but non-rewarding tasks (e.g., the The hedonic value of the nature used in restoration research (i.e., mainly green-and bluespace) is well-established. Ample environmental psychology research shows thatat least in WEIRD samplespeople have an aesthetic preference for natural landscapes and elements over urban settings (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Yue, Vessel, & Biederman, 2007;Vessel, Maurer, Denker, & Starr, 2018), with researchers tracing this preference backamongst othersto our shared evolutionary past (Wilson, 1984) or to differences in processing demands imposed by natural versus urban scenes (Joye, Steg, Ünal, & Pals, 2016). Inasmuch as the experience of aesthetically appealing stimuli (like nature scenes) has hedonic value (Skov & Nadal, 2020), beautiful nature might be better able to fulfil hedonic goals than stimuli that are aesthetically less appealing. ...
... We submitted two preregistered hypotheses. First, guided by the notion that aesthetically attractive nature constitutes pleasurable stimulation (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Yue et al., 2007), and that providing something pleasurable before working on a nonrewarding task increases the willingness to work on that task, we hypothesized that participants in the beautiful nature condition would click more buttons than participants in the pixelated nature condition (Hypothesis 1). At the time of the preregistration, we believed that this effect would take place irrespective of the number of clicking tasks participants had to perform. ...
Article
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Ample research shows that spending time in natural (vs. urban) environments, or merely watching nature scenes, can seemingly replenish depleted cognitive resources and thereby improve cognitive functioning. While such findings are traditionally explained by referring to Attention Restoration Theory (ART), in the present research, we outline and test a potential alternative explanation for nature-related performance benefits. Our account centers on the notion that the aesthetically pleasing character of nature scenes simply fosters individuals' willingness to work, including working on the cognitive tasks used in attention restoration research. After outlining our theoretical proposal, we report the results of a preregistered showcase study in which we asked participants (N = 219) to watch a slideshow of fifteen photos of natural scenes/elements. The beauty of the slideshow images was manipulated by presenting either aesthetically attractive nature images (beautiful nature condition) or nature images where the aesthetic qualities had been removed through pixilation (pixelated nature condition). We subsequently tested the effect of this manipulation on participants' performance on a simple and mindless “clicking task”, consisting of freely clicking radio buttons. We also varied the number of clicking tasks participants had to perform (between-subjects); while all participants had to click buttons after the nature slideshow, a subset of them also had to do the clicking task before watching the slideshow images. Results show that participants who only had to do the clicking task once (i.e., after the slideshow) and who had watched beautiful nature, clicked more buttons, and reported to feel more motivated to click buttons compared to participants who had watched relatively unappealing pixelated nature images. This general nature-related performance enhancement could account for the general pattern of positive nature effects on cognitive tasks without requiring ART's additional assumptions of resource replenishment and resource specificity.
... The main goal was to tease out the different parameters of complexity and test for them separately. To this end, we used i) insertion of simple, computer-generated structures, either nonfractal or fractal of different fractal dimensions, ii) changes in scaling hierarchy in natural elements in processed images, iii) addition of forms, either natural or built, simple or highly complex and at the same time not familiar for the particular environment-thus also teasing out aesthetical preference from familiarity [43,44]. ...
... To more accurately circumscribe the reception of these manipulations by the participants in the survey, we also examined changes in whether an image was deemed as interesting, "making sense" or familiar. We expected image versions that were deemed more beautiful to be also seen as more interesting, because of the increased amount of information they presented for the viewer to explore [43]. The question about whether an image is "making sense" was used as a way to assess what has been described as coherence in environmental psychology [44][45][46]. ...
Article
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There is extensive evidence today linking exposure to natural environments to favorable changes in mental and even physical health. There is also a growing body of work indicating that there are specific geometric properties of natural scenes that mediate these effects, and that these properties can also be found in artificial structures like buildings, especially those designed before the emergence of modernism. These geometries are also associated with aesthetic preference–we seem to like what is good for us. Here, using a questionnaire-based survey, we have tried to elucidate some of the parameters that play a role in formulating a preference for one form over the other. The images used were nature scenes from the Alpine landscape with various manipulations to alter their complexity, or with additions of computer graphics or various buildings. In all cases, the presence of a natural scaling hierarchy and of either fractal graphics or of ornate, non-local pre-modern buildings was always preferable to the alternative. We discuss these findings under the light of recent evidence in the field and conclude that they support the idea of the existence of a preference of our perceptive system for certain types of visual organization.
... Ample environmental psychology research has shown that natural landscapes and elements (more so than urban settings) are widely considered to be aesthetically rewarding (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Yue, Vessel, & Biederman, 2007;Vessel, Maurer, Denker, & Starr, 2018), with researchers tracing this aesthetic preference back -amongst others -to our shared evolutionary past (Wilson, 1984) or to differences in processing demands imposed by natural versus urban scenes (Joye, Steg, Ünal, & Pals, 2016). Inasmuch as executing cognitive tasks in restoration studies is experienced as work, viewing nature might provide an aesthetic reward before engaging in that work. ...
... We submitted two preregistered hypotheses. First, guided by the notion that aesthetically attractive nature scenes/stimuli constitute a visual reward (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Yue et al., 2007), and that providing a reward before work increases work motivation, we hypothesized that participants in the high reward nature condition would click more buttons than participants in the low reward condition (Hypothesis 1). At the time of the preregistration, we believed that this effect would take place irrespective of level of workload. ...
Preprint
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In the present research, we propose and test the notion that nature, through its aesthetically rewarding qualities, can increase work motivation. In a preregistered study, we asked participants (N = 219) to watch a slideshow of either aesthetically rewarding (high reward condition) or relatively unrewarding nature scenes/elements (low reward condition), while also varying pre-slideshow workload (high vs. low workload). Following the slideshow, all participants had to perform a mindless routine task, i.e., clicking radio buttons. We found that under a low (vs. high) workload, participants who had watched aesthetically rewarding nature clicked more buttons, and reported to feel more motivated to click buttons compared to participants who had watched unrewarding nature. These findings testify to the motivational potential of aesthetically rewarding nature, and raise the possibility that cognitive nature benefits observed in restoration studies are not solely indicative of resource replenishment, but might also reflect increases in work motivation.
... Neurobiological research indicates that an individual's previous interactions with nature-based environments will influence their experience with INE. Biederman and Vessel (Biederman and Vessel, 2006) suggest that visual stimuli associated with semantic memories (e.g. facts or knowledge) and episodic memories (e.g. ...
... This is because triggering memories releases endorphins that create positive and pleasant feelings. Naturebased stimuli associated with more memories and experiences are thus likely to lead to greater positive feelings (Shibata and Suzuki, 2002;Biederman and Vessel, 2006). INE research to date has focused on the strength and impact of the nature-health relationship, rather than on how an individual develops relationships with nature-based places over time (Boniface, 2006). ...
Article
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Engaging in outdoor nature-based spaces has significant positive physiological and psychological health benefits. Although the integration of nature into indoor spaces is rarely considered a health-promoting tool, it may be an effective method for increasing nature engagement in a largely urbanized world. This paper presents an overview of indoor nature exposure (INE) by summarizing the current evidence of INE through the use of a scoping methodology. Results show that INE can be a health-promoting tool through the interaction of nature-based stimuli and individual characteristics (e.g. gender, age). Moreover, the results of the current literature need to be interpreted with consideration to methodological issues, such as the lack of participant characteristics, the issue of exposure realism and little qualitative data to highlight individual experiences. The scoping review process allowed for the summation of results and for a framework to be created in order to better understand how INE is facilitated.
... However, one's liking toward a surrounding environment is enhanced as a result of repeated exposure, which changes the way people perceive and process information (Zajonc, 1968). Therefore, it is presumable that encounter with new and unfamiliar objects may elicit pleasure, but after certain point, a degree of typicality will ease processing, driving appreciation and greater well-being among hotel employees (Berghman & Hekkert, 2017;Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Hekkert, 2014). ...
... The effect becomes more prominent in the presence of the typicality effect suggesting that people prefer novel designs as long as the reasonable degree of typicality is also present (Hekkertet al., 2010). It has been claimed that the human brain draws pleasure from processing new and innovative objectives (Biederman & Vessel, 2006). Learning or being exposed to new things can be rewarding and therefore aesthetically pleasing (Blijlevens et al., 2014). ...
Article
The study recognizes the lack of a clear theoretical and empirical link between employees' sense of well-being and hotel design aesthetics, although beautiful environments are associated with optimal human functioning. Drawing on conceptual insights from organizational aesthetics and theory of subjective well-being, this quantitative study explored relationships between workplace design aesthetics, hotel employee subjective well-being and the role of contrast of back-vs. front-of-the-house. Based on cross-sectional data collected from 525 operations-level hotel employees in USA, the study found that backstage employees experience less aesthetic pleasure and report lower levels of well-being than frontstage employees. Design characteristics Unity and Variety positively affect the sense of well-being, while Typicality exhibits a U-type relationship with well-being. The effect of Variety is weaker for back-of-the-house employees. This study is the first attempt to empirically and explicitly connect organizational aesthetics to well-being and identifies a novel way to enhance the well-being of the hospitality workforce.
... Following international investigations, it was shown that 95% of patients and families that were exposed to nature had lower stress levels, more positive attitudes, and improved coping skills [32]. Biederman and Vessel suggested that plants in healthcare spaces and roof gardens could reduce patients' pain, anxiety in therapeutic psychology in 2006 [33]. Eisen et al. conducted a study of art preferences among pediatric inpatients, which showed that children of different ages and genders did not differ much in their choice of artwork. ...
Article
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Since the COVID-19 epidemic, there has been an increased need for well-being and sustainable development, making biophilic design in hospital environments even more significant. However, after investigation, it was found that in many countries including China, the biophilic design of some hospitals is seriously absent, while other parts have the integration of biophilic design, but the standardization and recognition are not high. By restoring the interaction between buildings and nature, biophilic design improves the quality of environments and the health of users. The basic theoretical framework of environmental psychology is followed in this research. The health promotion mechanism, applicable natural features, and relative health advantages of hospital space and environment biophilic design are first investigated. Furthermore, according to the current status of biophilic design applications in the 12 hospitals that have the closest interaction between people and the environment. Combined with the professional and functional requirements of the healthcare spaces and the users’ special demands, we propose appropriate update design methods. The goal of this study was to present ideas for healthy and efficient space environment design and to inspire sustainable environmental design for future healthcare environments.
... In the nineteenth century and up to modern times, having a sense of humour has been highly valued, as it entails complex cognitive and affective interaction (Amir et al. 2015;Biederman & Vessel, 2006) and is firmly correlated with one's well-being and inner balance to the extent of even being considered one of the cardinal virtues (Wickberg, 1998, 85). ...
Chapter
Humour, a positive psychology (PP1.0) construct (Fischer, Carow, & Eger, 2020) is a central component of resiliency. Having a sense of humour is a sign of human strength, intelligence, and psychological maturity (Abel, 2016; Ghaemi, 2011). Humour allows individuals to emotionally distance themselves from a stressful event in order to cope. Humour is considered as a crucial job resource for individuals across cultures. It has been further credited for several positive outcomes such as resilience and well-being (Billig, 2018). The objective of the chapter is to present a critical review of the moderating role of resilience in adaptive humour styles (self-enhancing and affiliative humour) and well-being at work from a PP1.0 perspective. The findings of the study of Bhattacharyya, Jena, and Pradhan (2019) indicate a significant association between the adaptive humour styles and well-being at work, with resilience as a moderator.
... There were three main reasons for running a separate behavioural experiment prior to the fMRI experiment. First, we wanted to validate the stimuli that we would later use during scanning by confirming that aesthetic appreciation is affected by various factors, such as familiarity, perceived dynamism and how evocative the artworks are in conveying a meaning (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Cutting, 2002Cutting, , 2003Kemp & Cupchik, 2007;Leder et al., 2014;Mastandrea & Umiltà, 2016). Second, we wanted to be able select stimuli that would be most effective at achieving our research aims. ...
Article
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Although there is growing interest in the neural foundations of aesthetic experience, it remains unclear how particular mental sub‐systems (e.g., perceptual, affective, cognitive) are involved in different types of aesthetic judgments. Here we use fMRI to investigate the involvement of different neural networks during aesthetic judgments of visual artworks with implied motion cues. First, a behavioural experiment (N=45) confirmed a preference for paintings with implied motion over static cues. Subsequently, in a pre‐registered fMRI experiment (N=27), participants made aesthetic and motion judgments towards paintings representing human bodies in dynamic and static postures. Using functional region‐of‐interest and Bayesian multilevel modelling approaches, we provide no compelling evidence for unique sensitivity within or between neural systems associated with body perception, motion and affective processing during the aesthetic evaluation of paintings with implied motion. However, we show suggestive evidence that motion and body‐selective systems may integrate signals via functional connections with a separate neural network in dorsal parietal cortex, which may act as a relay or integration site. Our findings clarify the roles of basic visual and affective brain circuitry in evaluating a central aesthetic feature – implied motion – whilst also pointing towards promising future research directions, which involve modelling aesthetic preferences as hierarchical interplay between visual and affective circuits and integration processes in frontoparietal cortex.
... Hence, at early stages of processing there is a partial binding of consistency, which unfolds even in the face of perceptual uncertainty. Biederman and Vessel (2006) found such a piecemeal progression is linked to the increasing release of endomorphins and mu-opioid receptors associated with pleasure. This scenario is referred to as 'self-rewarded insight' (Muth and Carbon 2013;2016), which can occur in response to negative as well as positive stimuli. ...
Article
Perceptual psychology has provided a number of revealing insights into the phenomenon of palaeoart. The value of the discipline is underlined by the fact that it has provided new ways of exploring how Upper Palaeolithic cave art first arose, both on a theoretical and a practical level. Despite this, the approach has been accused of overstating the importance of perceptual factors to the detriment of cultural criteria. In this paper, I demonstrate how perceptual psychology can be exploited to provide useful hypotheses regarding the cultural issues associated with early parietal art.
... In support of this 1 hypothesis, Mayer and Landwehr (2018, Study 3) found that computationally derived simplicity 2 and self-similarity positively predicted the number of views on images of landscapes, suggesting 3 that people preferred to view scenes with low complexity. However, a positive linear relationship 4 between complexity and aesthetic pleasure ratings in natural scenes has also been found 5 (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Yue et al., 2007), suggesting that complexity in natural scenes may 6 actually be pleasurable in some cases. Thus, the link between pleasure and complexity in natural 7 scenes is still an open question. ...
... • The work of Biederman and Vessel on an increasing gradient of opioid receptors along the visual processing hierarchy suggests that we may derive greater pleasure from more novel and systematically meaningful stimuli [37]. This can help to resolve or at least skillfully navigate the explorationexploitation dilemma. ...
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Any scientific attempt to explain consciousness is tasked with reconciling the third person objective perspective of science with our first person subjective experience of the world. A good point of departure is to consider situations in which these two perspectives are correlated. We note that behaviors conducive to our well-being, i.e. conducive to maintaining homeostasis, tend to be associated with feelings of pleasure while actions that threaten our homeostasis tend to coincide with unpleasant feelings. We choose a materialist/physicalist approach and find the simplest explanation for this correlation arises from the assumption that we possess agency. If a system has the agency to choose an outcome then presumably it would choose a pleasant over an unpleasant one. Agency implementing preferences manifests itself as a force in a third person theory. If a preference is strong it gives rise to a force causing a deterministic evolution, while weak preferences give rise to non-deterministic evolutions. Quantum physics assigns a high degree of non-determinism to large systems of qubits, a Knightian uncertainty, in which one can not even assign probabilities to observed outcomes. This can give engineered systems the freedom to act on their preferences in ways not always predictable by an outside observer. Our considerations lead us to propose a three part design for an engineered animat for which one may provocatively argue that it is conscious and possesses agency and feelings.
... In addition, an increased sense of control can be afforded the patient when they can choose their room decor. While biophilic nature scenery has been shown to positively affect humans in general, ultimately, a person's experience of nature is subjective and develops over time as a function of their experiences with nature and learning (Biederman & Vessel, 2006). Wyles et al. (2019) found differences in gender and age regarding the restorative potential of nature. ...
Article
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Objective Exposure to nature has been shown to influence various dimensions of human experience in the healthcare environment. This mixed method study explores the effects of the presence of biophilic, nature-based imagery on patient perceptions of their hospital room and aspects of their experience in rehabilitation. Background In settings where patients have high degrees of medical acuity and infection control is a major concern, exposure to the benefits of real nature may be precluded. This is also true in many older healthcare facilities which were not designed with salutatory nature exposure in mind. In these settings, the presence of nature imagery may provide benefits which positively impact patient experience. Method Seventy-six physical rehabilitation patients on a medically complex/cardiopulmonary rehabilitation unit filled out questionnaires assessing their perceptions of their room and various indexes of patient satisfaction. Data were collected from 47 patients in enhanced room containing nature imagery and 29 patients in standard rooms which served as controls. Results Scores on the Environmental Assessment Scale (EAS) indicated a significant difference between experimental and control group in the rating of their rooms ( p = .0071). Ratings of quality of room, quality of stay, quality of sleep, and overall care trended in the direction of the hypothesis but were not significant. Data from qualitative questionnaires supported the results of the EAS. Conclusion We conclude that the presence of biophilic nature imagery in the hospital rooms had a significant effect on patients’ room ratings and positively influenced indexes of patient satisfaction.
... Another innovation is; The whiteboard animation may have paid attention to the lessons because this format is fairly new. It is enjoyable to experience innovation [19] attracts attention [20] and arouses curiosity. Whiteboard animation videos based on local wisdom which relates to daily life will make it easier for students to understand problems, so they will interest in solving these problems. ...
... RNA: blood-oxygen-dependent level is reduced by repeating an image [409]. RNA: the gamma band exhibits greater activity in the inferior-temporal, superior-parietal, and frontal brain areas when viewing familiar than non-familiar objects [410]. ...
Article
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Humans respond cognitively and emotionally to the built environment. The modern possibility of recording the neural activity of subjects during exposure to environmental situations, using neuroscientific techniques and virtual reality, provides a promising framework for future design and studies of the built environment. The discipline derived is termed “neuroarchitecture”. Given neuroarchitecture’s transdisciplinary nature, it progresses needs to be reviewed in a contextualised way, together with its precursor approaches. The present article presents a scoping review, which maps out the broad areas on which the new discipline is based. The limitations, controversies, benefits, impact on the professional sectors involved, and potential of neuroarchitecture and its precursors’ approaches are critically addressed.
... RNA: blood-oxygen-dependent level is reduced by repeating an image [409]. RNA: the gamma band exhibits greater activity in the inferior-temporal, superior-parietal, and frontal brain areas when viewing familiar than non-familiar objects [410]. ...
Conference Paper
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Space influences our cognitive-emotional state. In teaching spaces, with a considerable effect on performance. Many design variables are involved. Among them, geometry has been traditionally less explored despite its usual prominence in design, due to the complexity of its modification in existing physical classrooms. However, today this can be addressed through the use of virtual reality. This was the objective of the present study: to contribute to the study of the cognitive effect of different geometry parameters applied in a university classroom. It was tackled through a laboratory field study carried out with 80 university students. The geometry variable was studied through two parameters: ceiling heigh (3 settings) and width (3 settings) of the university classroom. The 9 combinations were implemented in a virtual reality. The cognitive effect was explored through memory and attention performances. Both of them, quantified through auditory psychological tasks: the former, using a list of words to memorize; and the latter, using a computer program to measure reaction times and errors. Analyses indicate that memory and attention can be affected by some of the geometry parameters. This suggests that they may be especially relevant in the design of university classrooms, which is of interest to the different agents involved in the university classroom project and design.
... The enhanced sensory activations encoding perceptual learning (Biederman and Vessel, 2006a) might trigger activity in the cortical and sub-cortical hedonic hotspots (Lacey et al., 2011;Nadal, 2013), which in turn would generate perceptual pleasure (which is a necessary condition for the perception of beauty; Brielmann and Pelli, 2019) and might represent an hedonically marked feedback over successful perceptual-learning dynamics (Chetverikov and Kristjánsson, 2016;Winkielman et al., 2003;Winkielman and Cacioppo, 2001). ...
... Non-visual connection with nature (P2), and Presence of Water (P5) (Kellert & Calabrese, 2015). An environment contains water features bring positive influence to human psycho-physiology (Alvarsson, Wiens, & Nilsson, 2010;Biederman & Vessel, 2006;White et al., 2010) . In addition, the different height, type, and shape of plants give effects of shading, reduce the surrounding heat, and reduce wind speed almost by 50% compared to open space (Dussadee, Ramaraj, & Sutassanamarlee, 2018 The natural granite stone bridge, stone mortar and pestle can be found on the floor in kaki lima (Figure 4b and 4c). ...
... The apprentices are able to practice the arts, professions and employment independent of their training ages and levels, training in some cases also contain areas of general education implemented [3]. Vocational training is aimed at providing specialized skills, it can be described as a set of well laid out activities that guide the learning process of apprentices in gaining both theoretical knowledge as well as professional skills needed for the jobs [4]. Vocational education is also known as Career and Technical Education which prepares the student through manual as well as practical activities for the practice of arts and professions [5]. ...
Article
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As an interactive sustainable alternative to existing sustainable design practices, biophilic design struggles to promote the possibility of merging the built and natural environment. The study is aimed at assessing the extent to which biophilic design patterns influences skill development in order to suggest interactive sustainable alternatives. The study adopted a mixed method of research. Qualitative data were obtained via the review of relevant literature while quantitative data were obtained via the use of a structured questionnaire administered to 32 respondents in the study population. The respondents were selected from the users of purpose-built skill acquisition and development spaces in Minna, Niger state, to determine the level of satisfaction with the implementation of these patterns and considerations in skill acquisition and development space. The quantitative data was analysed with the use of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and the results presented descriptively with the use of tables. The findings suggest that most users were satisfied with patterns from nature in space patterns and natural analogue patterns relating to direct and indirect connection with natural systems.
... A variety of evergreen and deciduous plants were provided. Views to nature have been found to reduce heart rate and blood pressure (Brown, Barton, & Gladwell, 2013;Tsunetsugu & Miyazaki, 2005;van den Berg, Hartig & Staats, 2007), and improve attentiveness (Biederman & Vessel, 2006) and overall happiness (Barton & Pretty, 2010). Plants that bloom and maintain their leaves in the winter were preferred. ...
Experiment Findings
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The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the design of the physical learning space, enhanced with biophilic design, contributes to student stress reduction and improved learning outcomes for a middle school Math class at a public charter school in West Baltimore. The study presents findings of data collected from a biophilic classroom and a control classroom, where the physical design of each space varies-one is a traditional classroom while the biophilic classroom is enriched with views to nature, dynamic and diffuse daylight and biomorphic patterns. Data was collected by monitoring students' HRV (heart rate variation) as a measure of stress, comparing academic performance, student surveys, and student and instructor interviews.
... This approach has been employed in one study focusing on the midbrain's contribution to reward computation associated to valuating face attractiveness (Chib et al. 2013; described in detail in a next section). Finally, it has been suggested that preference-driven activations in the visual cortex may also depend on the distribution of mu-opioid receptors in in this region (Biederman and Vessel 2006). Although this hypothesis deserves further investigation on its own, it is worth mentioning here that TMS and tDCS may activate the striatal dopamine and opioid systems (e.g., Chib et al. 2013;Lamusuo et al. 2017). ...
Article
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During the last decade, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have been increasingly employed in the field of neuroaesthetics research to shed light on the possible causal role of different brain regions contributing to aesthetic appreciation. Here, I review studies that have employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate neurocognitive mechanisms mediating visual aesthetic appreciation for different stimuli categories (faces, bodies, paintings). The review first considers studies that have assessed the possible causal contribution of cortical regions in mediating aesthetic appreciation along the visual ventral and dorsal pathways (i.e., the extrastriate body area, the motion-sensitive region V5/MT+ , the lateral occipital complex and the posterior parietal cortex). It then considers TMS and tDCS studies that have targeted premotor and motor regions, as well as other areas involved in body and facial expression processing (such as the superior temporal sulcus and the somatosensory cortex) to assess their role in aesthetic evaluation. Finally, it discusses studies that have targeted medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions leading to significant changes in aesthetic appreciation for both biological stimuli (faces and bodies) and artworks. Possible mechanisms mediating stimulation effects on aesthetic judgments are discussed. A final section considers both methodological limitations of the reviewed studies (including levels of statistical power and the need for further replication) and the future potential for non-invasive brain stimulation to significantly contribute to the understanding of the neural bases of visual aesthetic experiences.
... Some hypotheses, such as the mere exposure effect [20] or perceptual fluency [21,22], suggest that repeated exposure to a stimulus should result in increased liking. In contrast, other accounts suggest that repetition causes habituation or boredom, resulting in decreased liking [23,24]. A third possibility is that repeated exposure may have different effects for different stimulus types [25] or may lead to changing time courses as attention shifts to different aspects of a stimulus. ...
Article
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Visual aesthetic experiences unfold over time, yet most of our understanding of such experiences comes from experiments using static visual stimuli and measuring static responses. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of subjective aesthetic experience using temporally extended stimuli (movie clips) in combination with continuous behavioral ratings. Two groups of participants, a rate group (n = 25) and a view group (n = 25), watched 30-second video clips of landscapes and dance performances in test and retest blocks. The rate group reported continuous ratings while watching the videos, with an overall aesthetic judgment at the end of each video, in both test and retest blocks. The view group, however, passively watched the videos in the test block, reporting only an overall aesthetic judgment at the end of each clip. In the retest block, the view group reported both continuous and overall judgments. When comparing the two groups, we found that the task of making continuous ratings did not influence overall ratings or agreement across participants. In addition, the degree of temporal variation in continuous ratings over time differed substantially by observer (from slower “integrators” to “fast responders”), but less so by video. Reliability of continuous ratings across repeated exposures was in general high, but also showed notable variance across participants. Together, these results show that temporally extended stimuli produce aesthetic experiences that are not the same from person to person, and that continuous behavioral ratings provide a reliable window into the temporal dynamics of such aesthetic experiences while not materially altering the experiences themselves.
... animals, in cluttered environments (Mijović et al., 2014). In other words, it is fundamental to encoding good continuation and contour that leads to a sense of pleasure through self -induced reward as indicated by neural responses when an object is fully identified (Palumbo, Bertamini, & Makin, 2015), which may be elicited by mu-opioids released along the ventral visual pathway (Biederman & Vessel, 2006). As well as acting an important preconscious cue for encoding the world, symmetry, especially reflectional (Bertamini and Makin, 2014), has an aesthetic component that may derive from the successful, self-generated reward experienced when detecting objects (Makin, Bertamini, Jones, Holmes, & Zanker, 2016). ...
Chapter
The symmetry of Acheulean bifaces has been the focus of much controversy. This controversy has intensified with the discovery of increasing numbers of symmetrical handaxes from various archaeological horizons. Whether such discoveries can inform us about the cognitive profile of their makers is still a provocative question. Nevertheless, some progress has been achieved thanks to developments in neuroscience and associated disciplines. In this chapter, I present evidence that reinforces the importance of symmetry for understanding cognitive evolution but, more than this, I show how the ability to comprehend geometry is not just crucial for making handaxes but also led to the ability to produce the first non-functional marks. I contend that, in both scenarios, an aesthetic propensity was an essential prerequisite.
... The novelty effect is based on a fundamental human desire to seek out new and differently-presented information to avoid boredom and is seen on the road in forms such as electronic billboards and advertisements. Though such visual deployments may seem attractive to utilize in enhancing VRU safety, we predict this strategy is not sustainable, as the lack of relevancy in such messages will rapidly diminish its ability to draw subsequent attention beyond the initial encounter [26]. This would also explain the diminishing compliance effects that empty police cars and cardboard policemen have over time [27]. ...
Article
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This paper presents findings from a research study into the role that communication plays in the safety of vulnerable road users (VRUs), including a literature review, a hypothesis, and a case study testing our hypothesis. Many governments and road authorities lack capital or have not made it a priority to implement full VRU safety measures, with many gaps in VRU infrastructure and networks. These gaps leave VRUs to take safety into their own hands, including use of conspicuity aids such as high-visibility wear, helmets, bells, and lights with differing levels of effectiveness. The knowledge gap regarding the conventional wisdom, “be safe, be seen,” is the absence of communication and comprehension between road users (VRUs and vehicles). We hypothesize that communication aids are equally, if not more important than visibility aids for VRU safety. A case study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of several Hi-Viz safety vest designs including online surveys and separate in-field experiments using Instrumented Probe Bicycles. The results suggest that Hi-Viz safety vests using arrow designs (ArroWhere’s proprietary products and designs) similar to those found in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) can increase VRU safety until road authorities can fully fund and complete proper and sustainable VRU networks.
... komfort dalekiego patrzenia) minimalizuje poczucie irytacji, zmęczenia i znudzenia (Clearwater, Coss 1991), zaś obecność wody obniża ciśnienie krwi oraz tętno, minimalizuje odczuwanie stresu, zwiększa poczucie spokoju i wyciszenia (Alvarsson, Wiens, Nilsson 2010). Wizualne powiązania z naturą zwiększają koncentrację i uwagę (Biederman, Vessel 2006), wykorzystanie materiałów naturalnych podwyższa odczucie komfortu (Tsunetsugu, Miyazaki, Sato 2007), a pozawizualne doznania zmysłowe wyciszają i poprawiają zdrowie psychiczne (Stigsdotter, Grahn 2003). Rozległa i bogata literatura tematu wskazuje także, że poprzez pielęgnowanie związków między ludźmi a środowiskiem biofilia przyjmuje funkcje narzędzi edukacyjnych pomagających budować przyjazne środowisko, a biofilny projekt może wzbogacić przyrodę i kulturę (Browning i in. ...
... The importance of this problem is explained by previous investigations indicating that aesthetics can positively affect apparent and actual usability (Kurosu & Kashimura, 1995;Norman, 2002;Tractinsky, Katz, & Ikar, 2000) and is, more generally, related to positive mental states, promoting problemsolving abilities (Fredrickson, 1998;Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987). Aesthetics plays a significant role in a system's overall attractiveness Tractinsky, Cokhavi, & Kirschenbaum, 2004) as a significant incentive for initial use and beyond-it gives pleasure to the user (Biederman & Vessel, 2006)! In the field of Graph Drawing, the term ''aesthetics'' has been heavily used; however, ''aesthetics'' refers there to metrics on node-link diagrams that intuitively determine their usability and readability (Kaufmann & Wagner, 2001), rather than to the aesthetic quality of their appearance. ...
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Positive effects of aesthetically appreciated designs have long been studied and confirmed since the 19th century: such designs are more enjoyable, they are more forgivable for glitches and can increase users’ performance. In the field of information visualization, studies of aesthetics are still a niche approach. In the current study, we aim to specifically understand which parameters in a visualization of node-link diagrams make them aesthetically pleasing-an important extension to already existing research on usability and readability aspects. We investigated how the shape of the outline of such diagrams influences the aesthetic judgments on two of the most important dimensions of aesthetic appeal: beauty and interest. We employed different outlines to node-link diagrams and compared them with uniformly filled shapes, varying two important variables typically impacting aesthetics: complexity and curvature. This was done for a short (100 ms) and ad libitum presentation time. Diagrams with curvier outlines were perceived as more beautiful, while diagrams with more complex outlines were considered to be more interesting. These dependencies already exist for presaccadic perception (100 ms) and are slightly stronger for unlimited presentation time. We also found that curvature is a predictor for beauty only for unlimited presentation time. Aesthetic appeal was very similar for diagrams and pure shapes, so many results from fundamental research on aesthetics can potentially be transferred to the community of network visualization, assisting to improve visualizations also in aesthetic regards.
... Similarly, aesthetic preferences for natural landscapes are also likely learned over the course of life experience, but may come to at least partially reflect features that signal resource availability, habitability and safety, or engage foraging behaviors. Average adult preferences for natural scenes are predicted by the presence of natural as opposed to urban features, openness of the view, the presence of water, signs of care and disturbance, and cues for exploration (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Kaplan, 1992;Sevenant & Antrop, 2010;Tinio & Leder, 2009). Yet scene preferences for five-month old infants are different from those of adults (Vessel, Burakowski, Slone, Shuwairi, & Johnson, unpublished results), reflecting the influence of lower-level visual features more so than semantic content, and the heritability of personal tastes divergent from average preferences is again very low (Germine et al., 2015). ...
... One interesting explanation for the higher ratings for simple stimuli by the Egyptians is that over familiarisation with one group of stimuli may not only subsequently affect preference ratings for those stimuli, but also later result in higher ratings for stimuli that are the structural opposite (Tinio & Leder, 2009). The Egyptian group may be very familiar with everyday objects and images that are decorated with complex, geometric art, and therefore over familiarisation with this type of art could result in a preference for novelty (Biederman & Vessel, 2006). The more complex rotational patterns used in the study may have elicited the opposing preferential responses in the Egyptians, and indeed, those of the British. ...
Article
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The aesthetic appeal of symmetry has been noted and discussed by artists, historians and scientists. To what extent this appeal is universal is a difficult question to answer. From a theoretical perspective, cross-cultural comparisons are important, because similarities would support the universality of the response to symmetry. Some pioneering work has focussed on comparisons between Britain and Egypt (Soueif & Eysenck, 1971, 1972), including both experts and naive subjects. These studies confirmed some degree of universal agreement in preferences for simple abstract symmetry. We revisited this comparison after almost half a century. We compared preferences of naïve students in Egypt (n = 200) and Britain (n= 200) for 6 different classes of symmetry in novel, abstract stimuli. We used three different measurements of complexity: Gif ratio, Edge length and the average cell size (average blob size, ABS). The results support Soueif & Eysenck’s findings regarding preferences for reflectional and rotational symmetry, however they also throw new light on a greater preference for simplicity in Egyptian participants already noted by Soueif & Eysenck (1971).
... The memory boost due to the preference task could not be explained by fixation counts or the spatial manifestation of visual attention (the preference task effect panel in Figure 1c), suggesting that memoryfacilitating processes operated at an implicit level during preference evaluation. Based on previous research, we speculate three possible implicit mechanisms: (a) Evaluating scene preference may have involved more scene semantic processing, which can facilitate incidental scene encoding by improving the consolidation of bottom-up visual information (Draschkow et al., 2014;Josephs et al., 2016;Võ & Wolfe, 2015); (b) evaluating preference may have increased self-related processing, resulting in more semantic elaboration of the scenes and helping to organize of the information being processed (Rogers et al., 1977;Symons & Johnson, 1997); and lastly, (c) preference judgments may have activated the brain's reward circuitry and thus enhanced memory (Biederman & Vessel, 2006;Yue, Vessel, & Biederman, 2007), but this explanation is complicated given that scene preference ratings could not explain the memory boost from the preference task. However, the very act of making a preference rating, independent of the actual preference rating generated, could boost memory. ...
Article
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We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces. By analyzing fixation maps, we found that although fixation map similarity could explain how eye movements during visual search impairs incidental scene memory, it could not explain the incidental memory boost from aesthetic preference evaluation, implying that implicit mechanisms were at play. We conclude that not all incidental encoding tasks should be taken to be similar, as different mechanisms (e.g., explicit or implicit) lead to memory enhancements or decrements for different incidental encoding tasks.
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I CAN'T HELP READING!" is the common comment uttered by Detective Fiction readers who lose control over themselves as they begin reading a crime novel. The genre is a crystal clear formulaic structure which abounds with repetition: following a crime, an investigation is initiated by a detective to capture the criminal. Still, its clichéd nature does not lessen the universality of Detective Fiction. How could a story replete with puzzles and vague incidents be enticing? More importantly, why would the reader avoid discarding a book which sketches horrible deeds and inhuman interests of the criminal? What is the powerful element of Detective Fiction which places it among popular literature? This paper intends to answer these crucial questions by focusing on "conjecture," a term introduced by Umberto Eco as the key feature of Detective Fiction's appeal. To this end, an article by William F. Brewer and Edward H. Lichtenstein entitled, "Stories Are to Entertain: A Structural-Affect Theory of Stories" (1982) is targeted to shed light on the claim of conjecture as a way to knowledge by elaborating on three analytical components-surprise, suspense, and curiosity-of a story which make it strikingly attractive.
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‘Healthy cities’ and ‘well-being’ are currently the most topical and misused words in our global society. We see them being used in discourses about new strategies and policies to create urban environments often masking a failing ‘healthy economy’. This discourse is the result of our human-made environments as a consequence of our Western quest for ‘development’, having ‘economic renewal’ as part of our global urbanisation. This quest appears to be casting aside our primal knowledge of living structures and systems, our important spiritual and innate affiliations to the natural world that we are part of, and thereby loss of biophilia. Drawing from the authors’ previous work and extensive research in biophilia, Indigenous knowledge systems, and design and art practice, and guided by a recent applied research project, this paper investigates Biophilia Pattern # 6 ‘Dynamic and Diffuse Light’ in relation to the 15 Biophilic Patterns now internationally advocated. The paper’s narrative concludes with recent findings as to the potential of the biophilic effect to improving human well being in our urbanised world.
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The philosophy of building ‘lean’ workplaces, to maximise occupant performance, has seen a stripping away of nature within built environments. However, the biophilia hypothesis indicates that a severance in human connection with nature can lead to significant reductions in health, well-being and performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether introducing and removing living plants within an office environment can affect occupants’ perceived health, well-being and performance metrics. 40 occupants took part within a modern office building with 2 potted plants per person introduced into individual offices, and 8 in break-out spaces. Changes in occupants’ perception were tested using questionnaires. Whether the location of planting impacted measured parameters and occupants’ workplace satisfaction was also investigated. Introducing plants into offices had significantly positive effects on occupants’ perceived attention, creativity and productivity; plants’ removal elicited significantly negative effects in perceived attention, productivity, stress and efficiency. Planting had no significant effect on perceived health, tiredness, motivation or well-being. Furthermore, interactions with plants during break times had no significant effect on perceived performance metrics. This study showed occupants to have improved satisfaction with their overall workplace environment when they have physical and visual access to plants within their offices and break-out spaces.
Article
In etlichen Studien zur Ästhetik von Benutzerinterfaces wurden Aspekte identifiziert, die das ästhetische Erleben definieren, wie Einfachheit, Vielfalt, Farbigkeit oder Können. Als Instruktionen für eine ästhetische Umsetzung von Interfaces reichen die identifizierten Begriffe aber nicht aus, da sie breite Interpretations- spielräume offen lassen. Aus diesem Anlass wurden zwei Studien durchgeführt, um die designspezi- fischen Elemente sowie deren Qualitäten zu bestimmen, die das ästhetische Urteil von Web-Interfaces determinieren. Die ästhetische Bewertung von Homepages kann innerhalb von Millisekunden vollzogen werden: Eine darum sinnlich (vs. auf Vorwissen basiert) erlebte Ästhetik verweist auf den substanziellen Einfluss visuell auffälliger Aspekte. Zur Bestimmung dieser Elemente wurden in der ersten Studie 20 reale Homepages tachistoskopisch präsentiert. Zudem hatten die Probanden (Webdesigner (Experten) und Laien, Frauen und Männer) in einem Fragebogen 75 Items zu verschiedenen Gestaltungsaspekten einer Homepage bezüglich der ästhetischen Präferenz und Wichtigkeit einzuschätzen. Aus den Resultaten kann gefolgert werden, dass die Aspekte Ordnung, Farbe, Bild und Typografie die zentralen gestaltkonstituierenden sowie ästhetisierenden Elemente von Homepages ausmachen. Bezüglich der ästhetischen Bewertungen zwischen Experten und Laien sowie Frauen und Männern konnten in keinerlei Hinsicht Unter-schiede festgestellt werden. Es macht keinen Sinn isolierte Qualitäten (z.B. rund, rot) als ästhetisch zu bezeichnen. Deshalb muss die ästhetische Bewertung vorrangig auf der Ordnung der Elemente und der Beziehung derer Qualitäten (gleich, ähnlich oder verschieden) basieren. Ausserdem lässt sich ein Grossteil des gebräuchlichen ästhetischen Vokabulars dem Prinzip der «Einheit in der Vielfalt» zuordnen. Das Prinzip geht mit der Aktivierungstheorie von Berlyne einher, die besagt, dass Reize von mittlerer Intensität am angenehmsten empfunden werden – also weder Einheit noch Vielfalt im Höchstmass – was einer Ähnlichkeitsbeziehung entsprechen würde. Um die gefälligsten Qualitäten zu bestimmten, wurden in der zweiten Studie 22 Hypothesen zu Ordnung, Farbe, Bild sowie Typografie formuliert, die primär das Mittelmass beziehungs- weise eine Ähnlichkeitsbeziehung als optimale ästhetische Qualität postulieren. Zur Überprüfung der Hypothesen wurden 45 prototypische Homepages entwickelt, die in einem Online-Paarvergleichsexpe- riment von rund 1000 Probanden beurteilt wurden. Die Resultate zeigen, dass eine mittlere bis hohe Ordnung den gewichtigsten ästhetischen Aspekt einer Homepage ausmacht. Zudem konnte die visuelle Attraktivität des Mittelmasses beziehungsweise der Ähnlichkeitsbeziehung bei Farbe und Bildern nach- gewiesen werden. Hinsichtlich der Typographie werden eine mittlere Textmenge sowie grosse, einheit- liche und gut lesbare Überschriften am attraktivsten beurteilt. Die Ergebnisse stehen als Referenzsystem für das Design von ästhetischen Web-Interfaces zur Verfügung. Many of the studies on the aesthetics of user interfaces have identified aspects such as simplicity, variety, colorfulness or craftsmanship that define the aesthetic experience. These selected terms are nevertheless insufficient as instructions for aesthetic interface implementation as they leave too great a spectrum for interpretation. Against this background, two studies have been conducted to identify the specific design elements – and their qualities – that determine the aesthetic judgment of web interfaces. The aesthetic evaluation of homepages can be undertaken in milliseconds: this sensual-based (as opposed to knowledge-based) experience of aesthetics indicates the substantial impact of eye-catching factors. A first study was carried out in order to identify these aspects, involving the tachistoscopical presentation of 20 real homepages. In addition, the participants (web designers, i.e. experts, and lay people – both men and women) were asked in a questionnaire to evaluate 75 items on various design aspects of a website in terms of aesthetic preference and importance. From the results it can be concluded that order, color, image and typography constitute the central design and aestheticizing elements of homepages. Regarding the aesthetic rating between experts and laypeople and between women and men, no differences could be detected in any respect whatsoever. It makes no sense to designate isolated qualities (e.g. round, red) as aesthetically pleasing. Therefore, the aesthetic evaluation must be based, first-and-foremost, on the order of the elements and the relationship (sameness, similarity or difference) of their qualities. In addition, a large part of the common aesthetic vocabulary can be assigned to the principle of «unity in variety». The principle matches Berlyne's activation theory, which states that the stimuli that are most pleasingly perceived are those of moderate intensity (neither a maximum of unity or variety), which in turn corresponds to a similarity relationship. In order to identify the most pleasing qualities, in a second study 22 hypotheses were formulated concerning order, color, image and typography. These hypotheses primarily postulate mediocrity or a relation of similarity as the optimal aesthetic quality. To test the hypotheses, 45 prototypical homepages were developed and evaluated in an online paired-comparisons experiment with circa 1,000 participants. The results show that a medium to high order constitutes the most important aesthetic aspect of a website. Moreover, the results establish the visual appeal of mediocrity or the similarity relationship of colors and images. In terms of typography, an average amount of text and large, consistent and easy-to- read headlines are judged to be most attractive. The results have been provided as a reference system for the design of aesthetic web interfaces.
Thesis
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Night-urban Light Spaces. Potential in Lighting Design and Urban Development. If we pursue a model and a comprehension horizon in which we can design urban night scenes and urban light spaces The Preference Model proves its points. In most single cases we can utilize Kaplan and Kaplan's concepts Coherence, Complexity, Legibility and Mystery as tools of communication between professional groups and user groups. The Information Variables should be regarded as representatives of a perspective and a basis for discussions, deeply rooted in theories on Perception and Environmental Psychology. The terms also lead to new implementation principles for future research on Preference. The model will not represent a major paradigm shift in lighting design, too many factors affect our perception of urban light spaces and too many factors are in play designing such public spaces. It can however represent a professional shift in lighting design with a continued focus on Person Orientation and human perception, and put emphasis on the perceptual prerequisites for involvement in and making sense of our urban surroundings. Even the nocturnal ones. Keywords: Information Processing Theory, Preference model, Preference matrix, Coherence, Complexity, Legibility, Mystery, Night-architecture , Night-urban, Light space
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We study in this thesis a particular dimension of the packaging: the texture. In the first study (A), composed of three experiments, we present the influence of the texture, in the absence of tactile contact, on attitudes towards a product and consumer choices. We manipulate the texture of the packaging as well as a tactile stimulation previously taking into account the level of the need for touch. We first show that the positive tactile stimulation induces a more positive assessment of the product when it is not textured, regardless of the need for touch. When the product is textured, individuals with a low need for touch have a devaluation of the product. Then we present the influence of negative tactile stimulation on the choice between a product whose packaging is smooth and the other textured. In the absence of tactile stimulation, the product inside the textured packaging is the preferred. Prior negative tactile stimulation leads mainly individuals with a low need for touch to favor the product inside the smooth packaging. In the second study (B), we present the influence of tactile contact with the texture of packaging on the perceived taste of the product. In the first experiment we show that when the texture does not provide information about the product contained, it does not have influence on the perceived taste. When the texture of the packaging induced expectations about the product, the assessment depends on the situation of sensory congruency. If there is a sensory incongruency between the texture of the packaging and the texture of the product during consumption, the taste of the product will be less appreciated. In the second experiment, by using a EEG, we study the effects of sensory congruency between the texture of the packaging and the texture of the product on the emotions of the consumer. We show that sensory incongruency induces a higher level of arousal, but also induces to more negative emotions comparatively to a situation of sensory congruency.
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Sustainable development efforts frequently focus on understanding and promoting the factors that influence health and wellbeing. Urban environments have received attention in recent years as spaces which can increase psychological distress. Despite hypothesized reports of urban environments being less conducive to good mental health then natural environments, few studies have investigated the effects of urban form characteristics (size, density, nuisances, transportation, and housing characteristics) and mental health measures at the city level. Using 2014 data from the 500 largest cities in the United States, this thesis evaluates the relationship between urban form and aggregate self-report scores of poor mental health. Results suggest that elements of the built environment have a direct influence on mental health status. The aim of this study is to test the association of urban form characteristics and psychological distress using a cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Mental health data were collected for a study of Center for Disease Control health characteristics in the 500 largest cities in the United States. Urban form data was collected from both United States Census and GIS datasets such as the Center for Neighborhood Technology’s Housing and Transportation Affordability Index (H+T Index). Linear regression analysis and factor analyses were used to estimate the relationship between psychological distress and urban form characteristics. Results suggest that urban density is negatively associated with mental health status at city level. This finding is logical and confirms earlier research. While measures of housing cost and diversity were slightly negatively associated with mental health, measures of transportation cost and employment access were slightly positively associated.
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Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties. These processes, and the benefits humans gain from natural stimuli, seem to be largely innate. They thus have strong implications for other species (including laboratory, farm and zoo animals living in environments devoid of natural stimuli), suggesting that they too may have nature-related "sensory needs". By promoting positive affect and stress resilience, preferred natural stimuli (including views, sounds and odours) could potentially provide effective and efficient ways to improve captive animal well-being.
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The role of enkephalin and the opioid receptors in modulating GABA release within the rat globus pallidus (GP) was investigated using whole-cell patch recordings made from visually identified neurons. Two major GP neuronal subtypes were classified on the basis of intrinsic membrane properties, action potential characteristics, the presence of the anomalous inward rectifier (Ih), and anode break depolarizations. The mu opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Glycol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (1 microM) reduced GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs evoked by stimulation within the striatum. DAMGO also increased paired-pulse facilitation, indicative of presynaptic mu opioid receptor modulation of striatopallidal input. In contrast, the delta opioid agonist D-Pen-[D-Pen2, 5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) (1 microM) was without effect. IPSCs evoked by stimulation within the GP were depressed by application of [methionine 5']-enkephalin (met-enkephalin) (30 microM). Met-enkephalin also reduced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) and increased paired-pulse facilitation of evoked IPSCs, indicative of a presynaptic action. Both DAMGO and DPDPE reduced evoked IPSCs and the frequency, but not amplitude, of mIPSCs. However, spontaneous action potential-driven IPSCs were reduced in frequency by met-enkephalin and DAMGO, whereas DPDPE was without effect. Overall, these results indicate that presynaptic mu opioid receptors are located on striatopallidal terminals and pallidopallidal terminals of spontaneously firing GP neurons, whereas presynaptic delta opioid receptors are preferentially located on terminals of quiescent GP cells. Enkephalin, acting at both of these receptor subtypes, serves to reduce GABA release in the GP and may therefore act as an adaptive mechanism, maintaining the inhibitory function of the GP in basal ganglia circuitry.
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Purpose. We have previously demonstrated localized regions in human cortex associated with stereo depth and illusory contours. In this study we aimed to use a high-resolution MRI method for direct visualization of the Stria of Gennari 2 to determine the relationship of these areas to primary visual cortex. Methods. Images were acquired on a GE Signa 1.5T scanner equipped for echoplanar imaging and a resolution of 1.5x1.5mm2. Multiple axial slices were acquired during baseline, visual stimulation, and post stimulation periods. Signal intensities were compared during baseline and stimulation periods to identify "active" voxels. Stimulation conditions included: 1) red-green random spot anaglyphs that produced a stereo-defined square; 2) a random spot pattern with no stereo, 3) four pacman at the corners of a Kanizsa square (illusory contours) and 4) four non-aligned pacmen. Results. The activity elicited by stereo-contours and illusory contours was observed predominately in right occipital cortex. These areas were outside the areas of visual cortex in which the Stria of Gennari was visualized. Conclusion. Extra-striate cortical areas in human brain are active during the perception of stereo depth and illusory contours.
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HYPOTHESIZES THAT MERE REPEATED EXPOSURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO A STIMULUS OBJECT ENHANCES HIS ATTITUDE TOWARD IT. BY "MERE" EXPOSURE IS MEANT A CONDITION MAKING THE STIMULUS ACCESSIBLE TO PERCEPTION. SUPPORT FOR THE HYPOTHESIS CONSISTS OF 4 TYPES OF EVIDENCE, PRESENTED AND REVIEWED: (1) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF WORDS AND WORD FREQUENCY, (2) THE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTALLY MANIPULATED FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE UPON THE AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF NONSENSE WORDS AND SYMBOLS, (3) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN WORD FREQUENCY AND THE ATTITUDE TO THEIR REFERENTS, AND (4) THE EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTALLY MANIPULATED FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE ON ATTITUDE. THE RELEVANCE FOR THE EXPOSURE-ATTITUDE HYPOTHESIS OF THE EXPLORATION THEORY AND OF THE SEMANTIC SATIATION FINDINGS WERE EXAMINED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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