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User interfaces and system architecture of a web-based decision support system for integrated pest management in cereals

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Abstract

A Danish decision support system (DSS) on integrated pest management (including pathogens and weeds) has been developed during the past 20 years. This DSS is distributed as an integrated part of the ‘Danish Integrated Farm Management System’, which is a PC program, of which the plant protection module presently has about 2500 subscribers in Denmark. This program has been designed to propose relevant options for treatment with plant protection products according to observations from a field inspection. The new object-oriented web-based system architecture of this DSS was developed in 2001. This allows local (national) adaptation of the DSS in terms of language, crops, pests, products and features. Model complexity and DSS algorithms can also be adjusted to local conditions. The system has been implemented in a relational database structure (Microsoft SQL Server) and a dynamic web application (Java and Jscript in Active Server Pages on an Internet Information Server). The system architecture has been designed with emphasis on a high level of flexibility for future adjustments due to agronomic and legal requirements. The DSS models have been linked to a pest identification module and to a comprehensive database on label information on plant protection products.

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... Il sistema di supporto alle decisioni può essere accessibile al decisore e agli utenti interessati tramite un'interfaccia web, in questo caso si parla di "web-based DSS". Questa soluzione semplifica l'utilizzo del DSS perché non rende necessaria l'installazione del sistema sul PC utilizzato, inoltre il fatto che modelli, dati e algoritmi risiedano su un server remoto permette di mantenere aggiornato e di configurare il sistema secondo le necessità, garantendo alla utenza di potere utilizzare in ogni momento una versione adatta alle proprie esigenze (Rydahl, 2003). I DSS possono essere classificati nelle seguenti categorie (Falcone, 2009): ...
... A titolo di esempio, la Regione Piemonte ha sviluppato nel 2003 il software D.E.M.O.N.E, che supporta un modello per lo studio di fattibilità e per la gestione di un distretto energetico basato sull'impiego di cippato. Esistono numerose altre testimonianze dello sviluppo di DSS in diverse settori ambientali, alcune delle quali sono riportate nella Tabella 12. Fiumi Schielen et al., 2003-Bunch et al., 2004-Morari et al., 2004-Salewicz et al., 2004Bacini Engel et al., 2003-Leal Neto et al., 2006Falde Ghayoumian et al., 2005Approvvigionamento idrico urbano Koutsoyannis et al., 2003-Yamout et al., 2005 Preparazione alle emergenze idrologiche Quinn et al., 2003-Levy, 2005-Recio et al., 2005 Piani idrici di tutela Reccaro et al., 2003Piani di risparmio idrico Di Benedetto et al., 2001 Trattazione di contesti con scarsa strutturazione Mysiak et al., 2005 Trattazione di contesti ad elevata incertezza Pallottino et al., 2005 Agricoltura Utilizzo delle risorse irrigue Lilburne et al., 1998-Nayak et al., 2001-Bazzani, 2005 Gestione dei fertilizzanti Horn et al., 2003 Gestione dei pesticidi Kristensen, 2002-Rydahl et al., 2003 Programmazione colturale Smith et al., 1997-Lentz, 1998-Shaffer et al., 1998-Welch et al., 2002-Keating et al., 2003-Castellini et al., 2004-Perini et al., 2004 Innovazione agricola Howells et al., 1998-Fleurat-Lessard, 2002-Loevinsohn et al, 2002-Walker, 2002 Rifiuti Localizzazione e dimensionamento degli Barlishen et al., 1996-Chang et al., 1996-Bhargava et al, 1997-Boyle et al., 1998impianti, scelta delle tecnologie più adatte, ottimizzazione di raccolta e riciclo dei materiali Spengler et al., 1998-Fiorucci et al., 2003-Costi et al., 2004 Inquinamento Valutazione dei carichi Elbir, 2004-Diodato et al., 2005 Sviluppo di strategie di mitigazione Maniezzo et al., 1998-Knezić et al., 2002-Adenso-Díaz et al., 2005-Mavrotas et al., 2006 Gestione delle emergenze Chang et al., 1997-Luria, 2003 Ecologia Studio degli habitat Garcia et al., 1997-West Jr., 1999-Franco et al., 2003-Uran, 2003-Wong et al., 2003 Conservazione e protezione degli areali Drechsler, 2004-Geneletti, 2004-Geneletti, 2005-Wood et al., 2007 Recupero degli areali Bettinetti et al., 1996 Controllo delle specie Power et al., 1995-Symeonakis et al., 2007 Foreste Conservazione Vacik et al., 2001-Webb, 2002-Reynolds, 2005 ...
... e role of the system in decision support is passive and cannot be based on the decision environment. Changes provide active support [8,9]. ...
Article
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The way by which artificial intelligence is implemented is similar to the thinking process of the human brain. People obtain information about external conditions through five senses, namely, vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch, and, through the further processing of the brain, it forms meaningful decision-making elements. Then, through the process of analysis and reasoning, further decisions are made. In the information age, the application of intelligent management information systems in various fields has promoted the modernization and intelligence of social development. From the perspective of intelligent decision-making, this paper analyzes the requirements of intelligent information systems and designs an intelligent information system based on mobile Internet management optimization, including system management optimization, and proposes an environment-based layer, network transport layer, and the three-tier system architecture of the smart service application layer. Finally, this paper considers the problem of data fusion after system expansion. According to the existing fuzzy fusion algorithm, a weight-based fuzzy fusion algorithm is proposed. The simulation analysis shows that the algorithm can be effectively applied in intelligent information systems.
... To achieve this goal, since the 1980s, scientists from Aarhus University began to develop what is now the most widely used DSS for IWM in Europe, the Crop Protection Online-Weeds (Rydahl 2003). It was initially designed only for spring cereals, such as spring barley (Rydahl and Pedersen 2003) and it was first released in 1989 and further commercialised since 1991 (Rydahl 2003;Kudsk 2008a, b). ...
Chapter
Integrated weed control is mandatory in the current legislative framework for sustainable plant protection programmes. The advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1950s allowed farmers to simplify cropping systems and forego more complicated crop protection strategies, especially in cereal production. Moreover, the awareness of the necessity to decrease pesticide use has been raised considerably since the mid-1980s in Europe. In this work, a Danish Decision Support System (DSS) for Field-Specific Crop Management is presented. This DSS, known as Crop Protection Online (CPO) and later IPMwise, optimizes herbicide weed control by providing recommendations of specific herbicide solutions to achieve a required control level. It has been developed since the 1980s, and the actual version (IPMwise) has recently been adapted to the edaphic and climatic conditions of Spain.
... To address these aspects, the contribution of environmental components should be considered, including the physical and hydrological characteristics of the soils (e.g., porosity, presence of water), the uptake from vegetation and the environmental drivers (e.g., temperature). For instance, relevant information on the composition of pesticides, their residues, and the formulation of mixtures are provided by the Danish Plantenet system [95]. Moreover, in UK a DT was developed in order to support government stakeholders in the optimization of agricultural pesticide-use policies [96], while in Germany, a DT was developed for assessing the risks to the environment caused by the use of plant protection products [97]. ...
Article
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The rational control of harmful organisms for plants (pests) forms the basis of the integrated pest management (IPM), and is fundamental for ensuring agricultural productivity while maintaining economic and environmental sustainability. The high level of complexity of the decision processes linked to IPM requires careful evaluations, both economic and environmental, considering benefits and costs associated with a management action. Plant protection models and other decision tools (DTs) have assumed a key role in supporting decision-making process in pest management. The advantages of using DTs in IPM are linked to their capacity to process and analyze complex information and to provide outputs supporting the decision-making process. Nowadays, several DTs have been developed, tackling different issues, and have been applied in different climatic conditions and agricultural contexts. However, their use in crop management is restricted to only certain areas and/or to a limited group of users. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art related to DTs for IPM, investigate the main modelling approaches used, and the different fields of application. We also identify key drivers influencing their adoption and provide a set of critical success factors to guide the development and facilitate the adoption of DTs in crop protection.
... Not only new data but also historical data have been valuable inputs developing threshold and forecasting models for diseases and pests. More details on the development of CPO can be found elsewhere (Rydahl 2003(Rydahl , 2004Rydahl et al. 2003;Hagelskjaer and Jørgensen 2003;Jørgensen et al. 2008). ...
In 1986 Denmark adopted, as the first country in Europe, a pesticide action plan calling for 50% reduction in pesticide use. The first pesticide action plan was later followed by three other pesticide action plans and recently the Danish government announced the fifth pesticide action plan covering the period 2013 to 2015. As a result of the long-standing public pressure to reduce pesticide use numerous research and advisory activities have been initiated to provide farmers with the knowledge and tools required to meet the goals. This chapter: (1) provides an overview of the content of the pesticide action plans; (2) presents the research and advisory activities supported by the pesticide action plans; (3) gives examples of the IPM tools that are available to Danish farmers; and (4) describes the most recent political initiatives including the new Pesticide Load Indicator that will replace the Treatment Frequency Index. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
... Weather-based warnings for pests are also presented in maps marked by green, yellow, and red to visualize local risk levels, graphs of temperature data, together with graphs of data and risks from previous years. Plant Protection Online also has tools for seasonal planning; for identifying weeds, diseases, and pests; for problem solving; and for obtaining essential information concerning pesticides and the formulation of pesticide mixtures (Rydahl et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The European Community Directive 128/2009 on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides establishes a strat-egy for the use of plant protection products (PPPs) in the European Community so as to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a key component of this strategy, which will become mandatory in 2014. IPM is based on dynamic processes and requires decision-making at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. Relative to decision makers in conventional agricultural systems, decision makers in IPM systems require more knowledge and must deal with greater complexity. Different tools have been developed for supporting decision-making in plant disease control and include warning services, on-site devices, and decision support systems (DSSs). These decision-support tools operate at different spatial and time scales, are provided to users both by public and private sources, focus on different communication modes, and can support multiple op-tions for delivering information to farmers. Characteristics, weaknesses, and strengths of these tools are described in this review. Also described are recently developed DSSs, which are characterised by: i) holistic treatment of crop management problems (including pests, diseases, fertilisation, canopy management and irrigation); ii) conversion of complex decision processes into simple and easy-to-understand 'decision supports'; iii) easy and rapid access through the Internet; and iv) two-way communication between users and providers that make it possible to con-sider context-specific information. These DSSs are easy-to-use tools that perform complex tasks efficiently and effectively. The delivery of these DSSs via the Internet increases user accessibility, allows the DSSs to be updated easily and continuously (so that new knowledge can be rapidly and efficiently provided to farmers), and allows users to maintain close contact with providers.
... Another approach is based upon herbicide dose models, as in the Danish system, Crop protection Online (CPO). CPO focuses on optimizing the applied dose through detailed information on the expected herbicide efficacy for the individual weed species (Kudsk 2008;Rydahl 2003;Rydahl et al. 2003). CPO has been tested for practical purposes in a range of crops and has been found to provide robust advice and ensure yield. ...
Article
Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO for herbicide application in spring barley in Denmark were validated through field experiments targeting three levels of weed control requirement. Satisfactory weed control levels at harvest were achieved by a medium control level requirement generating substantial herbicide reductions (~ 60% measured as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited by the applied doses, but not necessarily killed, and that an adequate level of control was reached later in the season through crop competition.
... A lot of the DSS recently developed are WebDSS, for example, Wang & Cheng (2006), Lago (2007), Ceccaroni et al (2004), Sokolov (2002, Rydahl (2003). Jarupathirun & Zahedi (2007) explored factors that impact the perceived success of WebSDSS. ...
Article
Site investigation as the first stage of contaminated land remediation is an interdisciplinary, resource demanding operation that involves processes and activities from different fields, encompassing a wide range of professional expertise. Site investigation is a critically important stage as the findings provide the basis of any decision making, and as such any problems not dealt with at this stage affects the effectiveness of the whole remedial process. In this stage, Decision Support Systems as an emerging concept in geo-environmental projects provides a framework that helps deal with the uncertainties, complexities, non-linearities and potential risks, especially with their multiple and sometimes conflicting criteria. In this paper, a review of Decision Support Systems and the roles they have played in geo-environmental engineering will be explored.
... Several other systems have been developed since and new systems are still entering the field today (Röhrig 2006). Among the systems that have been on the market for the longest time are Pro_Plant and Crop Protection Online (CPO); both systems are today Internet-based (Rydahl et al. 2003; Volk et al. 2003). More specifically, the Danish DSS CPO is a threshold-based system that determines economically viable strategies for control of diseases, pests and weeds using low pesticide input (Secher et al. 1995; Rydahl 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant pathologists have traditionally worked in the area of clarifying and understanding the disease cycles of specific diseases, factors influencing epidemiology, yield loss potential and host-pathogen interactions in order to be able to minimise the disease risk, build warning systems or recommend specific control thresholds in relation to the application of fungicides. The decision support system Crop Protection Online (CPO) is an example of a threshold-based system that determines economically viable fungicide strategies. The system is based on using appropriate doses aimed at minimising the overall pesticide input. CPO is used widely by advisors and many of the thresholds are generally accepted and disseminated through newsletters. The national figures for the use of fungicides in cereals have shown a major reduction during the last 20years and their use today is much in line with the level that can be achieved from using CPO as indicated from validation trials. The number of end-users among farmers has been stable at around 3% during the last 10years (800–1,000 farmers). Major hurdles in increasing the number of users are believed to be: (1) the requirements for carrying out assessments in the field, (2) farm sizes getting larger, leaving less time for decision making for individual fields, (3) lack of economic incentives to change from standard treatments, (4) the failure of decision support systems to interact with other computer-based programmes on the farm, (5) the lack of compatibility of decision support systems with farmers’ ways of making decisions on crop protection in general, (6) the need for direct interactions with advisors. A sociological investigation into the farmers’ way of making decisions in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) systems-orientated farmers, (b) experienced-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required by these three groups is different and has to be looked at individually from the end-user’s perspective rather than from the scientist’s perspective. New ways of entering the decision support system where specific field inspections are omitted and where regional disease data are relied on, have been investigated and tested in field trials. The results show possibilities for further developments in that direction, which might be one way of gaining more end-users.
... Furthermore, sometimes the knowledge does not spread from research centres to growers due to difficulties in knowledge transfer. Decision support systems (DSS) are widely used for assisting with integrated pest management (IPM), crop nutrition, and other aspects of information transfer in several countries (Bange et al., 2004;Rydahl et al., 2003). Developing highly portable and especially webbased DSSs that can be easily adapted to a new environment is therefore desirable in view of agriculture globalization. ...
Conference Paper
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All around Europe, large investments have been done to project, develop and implement new information and communication technologies (ICT) in the justice sector. ICT has often been presented by policy makers to the public as a powerful tool to introduce and support changes, but also as an element of modernization per se, as the key for “bringing the justice administration into the modern age”. As recent studies seem to shows, this is not always the case. This paper study ICT innovation in the Italian public prosecutor offices (PPOs), illustrating how organizational constraints have affected the deployment of the systems. During the last 20 years, the Italian Ministry of Justice has launched a large number of projects that cover almost every task performed by PPOs. A description of the Italian judicial ICT history and of the most relevant and interesting experiences will be provided. The mix of failures and successful deployments will provide the occasion for a meaningful reflection on the innovation approaches adopted in this very complex and highly regulated environment. The work is based on data collected thorough a research project funded by the European Commission and through several case studies focused on specific applications and carried out through the years by the researchers of the Italian Research Institute on Judicial Systems (IRSIG-CNR). Such researches have been conducted with a qualitative interdisciplinary approach, based on direct observation of practices in action and informal interviews, coupled with an analysis of formal documentation.
... Plant Protection Online has facilities for seasonal planning, weed, disease and pest identification, problem solving, pesticide database look-up, and formulation of mixtures of pesticides. For further information about Plant Protection Online, see Rydahl (2003) and Rydahl et al. (2003). ...
Article
Decision-support systems (DSSs) are interactive computer-based systems that help decision makers solve unstructured problems under complex, uncertain conditions. Experimental use of DSSs has resulted in improved disease suppression and lowered risks of crop damage. In many cases, it has also led to the use of smaller quantities of active substances, as compared with standard spraying practices. Hundreds of DSSs have been developed over the years and are readily available and affordable. However, most farm managers do not use them as part of their integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Since the mid-1980s, the author of this paper, together with numerous colleagues, has developed DSSs and decision rules for the management of diseases in a variety of crops, including extensive crops, such as wheat, sunflower, and pea; semi-intesive crops, such as pear, chickpea, cotton, and tarragon; and intensive crops, such as tomato, potato, cucumber, sweet pepper, carrot, and grapevine. Some of these systems were used widely, but others were not. This experience may allow us to draw general conclusions regarding the use of DSSs and decision rules. Possible explanations for the widely varying acceptance rates are presented, and the effects of anticipated changes in the agribusiness sector on the future use of DSSs are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology Volume 51 is August 04, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Winter wheat is one of the most commonly grown and important cereal crops in Europe. Fungicides are widely used in this crop to minimize yield losses from the attack of foliar diseases, primarily septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici), powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) and rust diseases (Puccinia striiformis and P. triticina). The average yield in Danish wheat production is around 7.5 tonnes per ha and responses from disease control are today approximately 10% with a major variation (5-25%) caused by year, disease pressure and susceptibility of cultivars. Danish farmers have had a long tradition for minimizing and optimizing fungicide input in wheat based on several IPM (Integrated Pest Management) principles. Promotion of cultivars with good resistance, monitoring of disease development during the growing season, use of control thresholds and use of experiences from historical trial data along with a fast dissemination are important components in the Danish IPM strategy. Analysing historical trial data has shown that the highest net yield gain has been obtained from fungicide inputs at a TFI (treatment frequency index) between 0.4 and 0.75. The yield increase from fungicide usage was on average 3.2 dt/ha higher in susceptible cultivars than in resistant cultivars. The Danish fungicide input today is approximately 0.75 TFI per season and scope for further reduction is limited. The optimum fungicide input depends, however, on the grain price. A recent doubling of the grain price from 10 to 20 per dt will increase the TFI optimum by 50%. The difference between optimal fungicide input in resistant and susceptible cultivars is relatively small. However, the risk of reduced yield is considerably lower in resistant cultivars, compared to susceptible cultivars.
Article
1 Cereals can be attacked severely by the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), and the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). The time of migration from winter hosts in spring is important regarding input to decision support systems concerning insecticide treatment of aphids. 2 The present study aimed to construct two separate migration models, which could be used immediately for advisors and farmers but also be part of a decision support system for the chemical control of aphids in winter wheat and spring barley. 3 Winter wheat (Triticum sativum Lam.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) fields were monitored from 1991–2005 for the occurrence of grain aphids and bird cherry-oat aphids, and the data were used to construct migration models. 4 The models were constructed based on all 9 years data and subsequently validated by using all 9 years data, excluding 1 year at a time. 5 The migration model for the grain aphid producing the best forecast was obtained with migration date M (number of days from 1 June), degree-days (DD) of April (Ta) and DD of May (Tm), with the model being M= 265.0 − 10.2 loge(Ta) − 35.1 loge(Tm). 6 The migration model for the bird cherry-oat aphid producing the best forecast was obtained with migration date M (number of days from 15 May), DD of April (Ta) and DD from 1–15 May (Tm1), with the model being M= 294.4 − 34.7 loge(Ta) − 22.5 loge(Tm1). 7 The models only worked well in areas where the grain aphid and the bird cherry-oat aphid are entirely holocyclic.
Article
A Danish decision support system (DSS) named Crop Protection Online (CPO) for integrated management of weeds in cereals and beet has been developed during the past 20 years. CPO is based on a model that runs in three main steps: model step 1 quantifies the level of weed control needed on a field level, model step 2 selects candidate herbicides and calculates dose rates to meet the need, and model step 3 calculates tank mixtures of herbicides with two to four mixing components, if advantageous. CPO has been developed in cereals and beet, and various prototype versions have been validated in 1679 field tests. CPO secured yield potentials, and the level of residual weeds was not increased when compared with reference treatments. The potential of CPO to reduce herbicide use has been observed in all model crops, but the potential was greatest in cereals. In spring cereal field trials highly infested with weeds, the present version of CPO suggested 35% of one full herbicide dose on average and in winter cereals CPO suggested 44% on average of one full dose. The results from validation trials demonstrate that CPO is capable of suggesting robust treatment options with a low input of herbicides. The system architecture of CPO has been exported to Poland and the Baltic countries, and the system is expected to be suitable for export to other countries too.
Article
The models in the Danish decision support system (DSS) PC-Plant Protection (PC-P) have been developed during the past 15 years of research on cereal pests in Denmark. Recently, the system was reintroduced as a web-based DSS and is now called Crop Protection Online (CPO). CPO includes models for powdery mildew, rusts, septoria, rhynchosporium, net blotch, eyespot, aphids and leaf beetle larvae and is based on empirical data on: (i) the specific effect of each plant protection product; (ii) control thresholds; (iii) importance of pests according to growth stage; (iv) variation in susceptibility to pathogens among cultivars; and (v) influence of weather on the development of pests. The system has been validated in numerous trials and has proved to give good control of pathogens at low product inputs. The margin of product use has been similar or better compared with standard treatments included in the field trials. In trials where CPO was compared with other DSS, CPO resulted in the lowest input of fungicides, measured as TFI (TFI expresses the ratio applied doses/standard doses throughout a growing season) and the highest margin over product use. Differences in the prices of fungicides and in the grain price may change that. The system is under development in Poland and the Baltic countries, and is also ready for export to other countries.
Article
A Danish decision support system (DSS) named Crop Protection Online (CPO) for integrated management of weeds in cereals and beet has been developed during the past 20 years. CPO is based on a model that runs in three main steps: model step 1 quantifies the level of weed control needed on a field level, model step 2 selects candidate herbicides and calculates dose rates to meet the need, and model step 3 calculates tank mixtures of herbicides with two to four mixing components, if advantageous. CPO has been developed in cereals and beet, and various prototype versions have been validated in 1679 field tests. CPO secured yield potentials, and the level of residual weeds was not increased when compared with reference treatments. The potential of CPO to reduce herbicide use has been observed in all model crops, but the potential was greatest in cereals. In spring cereal field trials highly infested with weeds, the present version of CPO suggested 35% of one full herbicide dose on average and in winter cereals CPO suggested 44% on average of one full dose. The results from validation trials demonstrate that CPO is capable of suggesting robust treatment options with a low input of herbicides. The system architecture of CPO has been exported to Poland and the Baltic countries, and the system is expected to be suitable for export to other countries too.
Article
The models in the Danish decision support system (DSS) PC-Plant Protection (PC-P) have been developed during the past 15 years of research on cereal pests in Denmark. Recently, the system was reintroduced as a web-based DSS and is now called Crop Protection Online (CPO). CPO includes models for powdery mildew, rusts, septoria, rhynchosporium, net blotch, eyespot, aphids and leaf beetle larvae and is based on empirical data on: (i) the specific effect of each plant protection product; (ii) control thresholds; (iii) importance of pests according to growth stage; (iv) variation in susceptibility to pathogens among cultivars; and (v) influence of weather on the development of pests. The system has been validated in numerous trials and has proved to give good control of pathogens at low product inputs. The margin of product use has been similar or better compared with standard treatments included in the field trials. In trials where CPO was compared with other DSS, CPO resulted in the lowest input of fungicides, measured as TFI (TFI expresses the ratio applied doses/standard doses throughout a growing season) and the highest margin over product use. Differences in the prices of fungicides and in the grain price may change that. The system is under development in Poland and the Baltic countries, and is also ready for export to other countries.
Article
With 2051 licences sold to farmers, ‘PC-Plant Protection’ is the most widely used PC-based farm level decision support system for control of weeds, pests and diseases in Denmark and in Europe. The system is distributed by the Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre and marketed by the local advisory centres. In order to help the local advisors promote sales at farmers meetings or agricultural exhibitions, they are provided with a video film of the field assessment methods, overhead transparencies outlining the structure of recommendation models, and sales brochures. More than 30 non-technical articles have been published in the national agricultural newspapers and magazines. National and regional TV stations have broadcast interviews with farmers on their experience with the system. A farm survey of 488 farmers who used the system in 1995 shows that the system has been well accepted by the farmers not only because of the reliable recommendations but also because of increased profits. A similar survey among crop production advisors also showed that the system has been very useful both for the direct and indirect advisory services.
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