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Abstract

Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States (US) after water, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically-active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN), as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks for a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks for mortality-both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of about 2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based upon observational data, with very few randomized controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures.

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... We found coffee and starchy foods to be the most important sources of phenolic acids in our sample diets. Regular coffee drinkers have been shown to have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases compared with non-drinkers [28]. Although the benefits of coffee have been assumed to be a result of its caffeine content [28], decaffeinated coffee also appears to provide health benefits [29]. ...
... Regular coffee drinkers have been shown to have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases compared with non-drinkers [28]. Although the benefits of coffee have been assumed to be a result of its caffeine content [28], decaffeinated coffee also appears to provide health benefits [29]. This could be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids, which are not removed by decaffeination; these compounds are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of coffee [28]. ...
... Although the benefits of coffee have been assumed to be a result of its caffeine content [28], decaffeinated coffee also appears to provide health benefits [29]. This could be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids, which are not removed by decaffeination; these compounds are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of coffee [28]. Starchy foods also contain phenolic acids in significant amounts, with cereal bran being a particularly rich source of ferulic acid [30]. ...
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Phytochemicals contribute to the health benefits of plant-rich diets, notably through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, recommended daily amounts of the main dietary phytochemicals remain undetermined. We aimed to estimate the amounts of phytochemicals in a well-balanced diet. A modelled diet was created, containing dietary reference intakes for adults in France. Two one-week menus (summer and winter) were devised to reflect typical intakes of plant-based foods. Existing databases were used to estimate daily phytochemical content for seven phytochemical families: phenolic acids, flavonoids (except anthocyanins), anthocyanins, tannins, organosulfur compounds, carotenoids, and caffeine. The summer and winter menus provided 1607 and 1441 mg/day, respectively, of total polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins), the difference being driven by reduced anthocyanin intake in winter. Phenolic acids, flavonoids (including anthocyanins), and tannins accounted for approximately 50%, 25%, and 25% of total polyphenols, respectively. Dietary carotenoid and organosulfur compound content was estimated to be approximately 17 and 70 mg/day, respectively, in both seasons. Finally, both menus provided approximately 110 mg/day of caffeine, exclusively from tea and coffee. Our work supports ongoing efforts to define phytochemical insufficiency states that may occur in individuals with unbalanced diets and related disease risk factors.
... Generally, coffee, and its most important content caffeine, is the most used stimulant worldwide, owing to its safety and availability, as studies showed that coffee consumption was generally safe, often associated with more benefit than harm (19). Habitual consumption of coffee has several health benefits, which are shown by epidemiological data: it decreases the risk of neurological diseases (e.g., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease) and the development of certain cancers (e.g., hepatocellular, colorectal, and prostatic), as well as positively affecting liver functions and possibly playing a role in weight loss (its lipolytic effect increases metabolic rate and enhances energy expenditure) (14,20). Furthermore, in the meta-analysis by Poole et al. (19) analyzing 201 articles to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and health outcomes, they found that consuming three to four cups of coffee per day is beneficial. ...
... There is an ongoing controversy regarding the exact effect on the CVS; some suggest that coffee consumption has some adverse effects on serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and plasma homocysteine, whereas others suggest that the effect of caffeine within the coffee on epinephrine concentrations, hyperglycemia, and blood pressure seems to be weaker compared to caffeine taken in isolation (14,20). Acute effects of coffee on the CVS presented as tachycardia, increased blood pressure, and occasional arrhythmia could occur directly after coffee intake; however, these are more profound in susceptible individuals (14). ...
... This protective effect was estimated to be dose dependent, with a 7% reduction in risk for each additional cup of coffee (41). In contrast, some studies have shown that caffeine alone can lead to impaired glucose tolerance (14,20). However, this effect was also found in decaffeinated coffee, leading researchers to think that even if caffeinated coffee causes a hyperglycemic response (14,20). ...
... Individuals presenting with any liver, renal, cardiovascular, and hematological dysfunctions, as well as cancer, autoimmune disorders, or AIDS were not included because markers of oxidative and nitrative stress could be affected [30,31]. In addition, all participants were non-alcohol drinkers, non-smokers, and non-coffee drinkers [31][32][33][34]. Alcohol abuse was defined as drinking >210 g of alcohol per week. ...
... Smoking was defined as current smokers who consume cigarettes on a daily basis, or occasional smokers who consume cigarettes less than on a daily basis. Coffee drinking was defined as a person who intakes coffee drinks containing more than 300 mg of caffeine on a daily basis (e.g., more than 3 standard 8 oz cups of brewed coffee) [33]. ...
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Background. Salivary α-synuclein (aSyn) and its nitrated form, or 3-nitrotyrosine-α-synuclein (3-NT-αSyn), hold promise as biomarkers for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Nitrative stress that is characterized by an excess of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (3-NT-proteins) has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in IPD. The objective is to study the pathological role of native αSyn, 3-NT-αSyn, and 3-NT-proteins in the saliva and submandibulary glands of patients with IPD. Methods. The salivary and serum αSyn and 3-NT-proteins concentration is evaluated with ELISA in patients and controls. Correlations of αSyn and 3-NT-proteins content with clinical features of the disease are examined. Immunohistochemical 3-NT-αSyn expression in submandibulary gland sections is analyzed. Results. (a) Salivary concentration and saliva/serum ratios of native αSyn and 3-NT-proteins are similar in patients and controls; (b) salivary αSyn and 3-NT-proteins do not correlate with any clinical feature; and (c) three patterns of 3-NT-αSyn-positive inclusions are observed on histological sections: rounded “Lewy-type” aggregates of 10–25 µm in diameter, coarse deposits with varied morphology, and spheroid inclusions or bodies of 3–5 µm in diameter. “Lewy-type” and coarse inclusions are observed in the interlobular connective tissue of the gland, and small-sized bodies are located within the cytoplasm of duct cells. “Lewy-type” inclusions are only observed in patients, and the remaining patterns of inclusions are observed in both the patients and controls. Conclusions. The patients’ saliva presents a similar concentration of native αSyn and 3-nitrotyrosine-proteins than that of the controls, and no correlations with clinical features are found. These findings preclude the utility of native αSyn in the saliva as a biomarker, and they indicate the absence of nitrative stress in the saliva and serum of patients. As regards nitrated αSyn, “Lewy-type” inclusions expressing 3-NT-αSyn are observed in the patients, not the controls—a novel finding that suggests that a biopsy of the submandibulary gland, if proven safe, could be a useful technique for diagnosing IPD. Finally, to our knowledge, this is also the first description of 3-NT-αSyn-immunoreactive intracytoplasmic bodies in cells that are located outside the nervous system. These intracytoplasmic bodies are present in duct cells of submandibulary gland sections from all subjects regardless of their pathology, and they can represent an aging or involutional change. Further immunostaining studies with different antibodies and larger samples are needed to validate the data.
... However, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines [49] recommend the use of fish oil only in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia and not in fatty liver disease. Similar to routine exercise however, ensuring adherence to dietary interventions is often challenging despite the potential beneficial for NAFLD patients [50,51]. Trained dieticians can be employed to counsel patients and family members who are likely to share similar lifestyle related risk factors [52] with the goal in maintaining dietary adherence and weight loss. ...
... Diabetic patients are at an increased risk to post-surgical complications compared to non-diabetic patients [89]. Several studies have also reported the increased risk of unhealthy alcohol use [90], self-harm behaviors [51] and suicide [90] in patients who underwent bariatric surgery compared to those who did not. ...
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Purpose of Review The global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents an unmet need in treating these, often asymptomatic, individuals. In this review, we summarised NAFLD management and described recent developments in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) therapeutics that can shape the future of NAFLD. Recent Findings A multi-disciplinary effort in promoting sustainable lifestyle measures is paramount, with the goal of either limiting energy surplus alone or in combination with targeting downstream pathways of inflammation and fibrosis. Several antidiabetic medications like PPAR-γ agonist and glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists have beneficial effects on the metabolic profile as well as NASH histology. Vitamin E has shown promise in specific groups of patients with the haptoglobin2 allele protein. Newer drugs have demonstrated promising results in NASH resolution and fibrosis improvement such as obeticholic acid, resmetirom, aramchol, efruxifermin, aldafermin and lanifibranor. Apart from discussing the results of late stage clinical trials and the possible challenges in managing these patients with limited approved therapies, we also discussed the specific management of comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cardiovascular diseases) in NAFLD patients. Summary Treatment strategy needs to target improvements in liver-related outcomes and cardiometabolic profile.
... Caffeine is useful for metabolic syndrome [26]. The reason may be related to the fact that caffeine lowers triglyceride levels [27]. Studies on fasting glucose causing metabolic syndrome attract attention. ...
... In a study conducted with type 2 DM patients, the group consuming 4-6 cups of coffee per day and individuals drinking 6 cups of coffee per day were compared. Six cups of coffee consumers had the lowest risk for developing Tip2 DM [27]. It is stated that overdose caffeine intake causes diseases [30]. ...
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Aims: The aim of the study was to determinate the CYP1A2 gene rs762551 polymorphism responsible for caffeine in healthy individuals. Study Design: DNA was isolated from saliva samples taken from healthy individuals. Analysis of A and C allele distribution of CYP1A2 gene rs762551 polymorphism was performed by amplifying DNA regions from individuals. Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out between February 2019 and April 2020 in Üsküdar University Medical Genetics and Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory. Methodology: Thirty healthy individuals without age, gender, height and weight restrictions were included in our study. DNA analysis was performed on the Real-Time PCR device by taking saliva samples from individuals. Results: The genotype distribution of this study was 13 people (43.33%) had AA, 9 people had AC (30%) and 8 people have a CC genotype (26.67%) respectively. According to the results of the study, individuals with the AA genotype are in the majority, but since there are more individuals with the C allele, those who metabolize caffeine slowly are in the majority. In our study, statistical analysis was not performed because it was aimed only to determine the allele gene distribution. Conclusion: Studies show an association between caffeine and disease. However, the genetic reasons for this relationship have not been fully understood yet. Therefore, more studies are needed on larger samples of genes that metabolize caffeine. Caffeine-related diseases can be prevented by detecting variations on caffeine genes of healthy individuals with more studies in the future.
... Probably the most striking effect of coffee intake is the ability to increase lifespan and, most importantly, healthspan on ageing [106,[150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157], as concluded from the analysis of different cohorts in Europe [158][159][160][161][162][163][164], America [165][166][167], and Asia [168][169][170][171], with different ethnicities [170] and different types of coffee [167]; these effects were observed similarly in both men and women [152,161] with different polymorphisms [162,172], sharply contrasting with the positive association of life-long acrylamide exposure [173] and acrylamide-hemoglobin adducts [174] with mortality. ...
... This positive association between the regular intake of moderate doses of coffee and the increased longevity and health quality with ageing is tightly related to the ability of coffee intake to decrease the risk of developing major age-releated chronic disorders, such as diabetes [175][176][177][178][179][180], cardiovascular diseases [150,[181][182][183][184][185][186][187][188], stroke [189][190][191][192], depression and suicide [193][194][195][196][197][198][199][200][201], cognitive decline [202][203][204][205][206][207], and neurodegenerativce diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease [208][209][210][211][212] and Parkinson's disease [213][214][215][216][217][218]. ...
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The health implications of acrylamide in food are a matter of concern based on toxicological studies in rodents, which showed that doses of acrylamide more than 100 times higher than those estimated to result from dietary exposure in humans are carcinogenic; however, the cancer types reported in rodents are species-specific, and whether these results can be extrapolated to humans is still in question. In fact, human epidemiological studies revealed a general lack of association between dietary acrylamide exposure and the incidence of different cancer types. Even occupational exposure to acrylamide, resulting in acrylamide exposure nearly 10 times higher than dietary exposure, did not increase tumor occurrence. Furthermore, the consumption of coffee, which is a main contributor of dietary acrylamide exposure, actually decreases the overall incidence of cancer in humans and afford global health benefits, increasing both lifespan and healthspan on ageing. This paradox clearly illustrates the risk of evaluating an individual molecule independently of its complete food matrix, which may have other components that completely override the effects of the considered molecule.
... On the other hand, Grosso et al. [13] encountered that individuals who drank ≥ 3 cups or 200 mL of coffee a day had significantly lower TG and higher HDL-c concentrations. Other studies demonstrated strong evidence of the impact of coffee consumption on lipid profile, significantly higher serum TC, and LDL-c concentrations [32,33]. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials concluded that participants who consumed ≥ 6 cups of coffee daily had a significant increase in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and TG levels [34]. ...
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Purpose This study evaluated the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods This is a cross-sectional study on baseline data from participants of the cohort ELSA-Brasil. Only participants of São Paulo Research Center who underwent a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy examination of lipid profile were included (N = 4736). Coffee intake was categorized into four categories (cups/day, in reference cup size of 50 mL, which is the household measure adopted in Brazil): never/almost never, ≤ 1, 1–3, and > 3. Serum lipid profile [i.e., Total Cholesterol (TC), Total Triglycerides (TG), Very Low-Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c), Low-Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), High-Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), Triglyceride-rich Lipoprotein Particles (TRLP) and subfractions particles] was analyzed. To estimate the effect of coffee consumption on serum lipid profile, multivariate Generalized Linear Models were performed. Results Compared to participants who never or almost never drink coffee, individuals who consumed more than 3 cups/day showed an increase in concentrations of TC (β: 4.13; 95% CI 0.81, 7.45), TG (β: 9.53; 95% CI 1.65, 17.42), VLDL-c (β: 1.90; 95% CI 0.38, 3.42), TRLP (β: 8.42; 95% CI 1.24, 15.60), and Very Small-TRLP and Medium-TRLP subfractions (β: 7.36; 95% CI 0.21, 14.51; β: 2.53; 95% CI 0.89, 4.16, respectively), but not with HDL-c and LDL-c. Among individuals with low (≤ 1 cup/day) and moderate (1–3 cups/day) coffee consumption, no significant associations with lipids was observed. Conclusion High coffee consumption (more than 3 cups per day) was associated with an increase in serum lipids, namely TC, TG, VLDL-c, and TRL particles, highlighting the importance of a moderate consumption of this beverage.
... Coffee is one of excellent sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity such as caff eic, chlorogenic, coumaric, ferrulic and sinapic acids (Farah et al., 2006;O'Keefe et al., 2013) and Melanoidins (brown pigments) which are synthesized during the roasting process of coffee. Additionally, because of its high content of chlorogenic acids, studies performed in Denmark, United States, Japan and Brazil have reported that coffee is the most important contributor to antioxidant intake in their diets (Torres and Farah, 2010). ...
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High consumption of coffee has been considered to have negative health consequences, often attributed to the stimulant effects of caffeine. However, coffee is also one of the largest sources of antioxidants in the diet and contains various compounds with potential beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, inflammation and blood vessel function. The present work was carried out to determine the total phenolic content and antioxi-dant activity of five different Ethiopian coffee varieties, namely Sidamo, Yirgacheffe, Harare, Wollega and Jimma coffee. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic acid equivalents whereas antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activity. The tested coffee beans contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (54.87-80.51 g GAE /g); DPPH Scav-enging capacity (73.33-84.16%), reducing power (0.634 ± 0.62-0.887 ± 0.14) and total antioxidant activity (0.198-0.346) at 0.2 mg/mL extract concentration. The study showed that total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the coffee extracts were capable of protecting against free radical mediated damage and may have applications in preventing and curing various diseases. ABSTRACT IJFNR: http://escipub.com/international-journal-of-food-nutrition-research/ 0001 Daniel and Workneh, IJFNR, 2017; 1:2 IJFNR: http://escipub.com/international-journal-of-food-nutrition-research/ 0002
... Healthy lifestyle habits, including moderate alcohol consumption accompanied by a Mediterranean-style diet, 20,21 moderate caffeine consumption 22 and regular exercise, 23,24 seems to provide the most beneficial cardiovascular effects and lower the risk of SCD. However, episodic alcohol intake occasionally may trigger acute myocardial infarction, 3,4 malignant ventricular arrhythmias and SCD 25 in predisposed individuals. ...
Article
Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be triggered by daily circumstances and activities such as stressful psycho-emotional events, physical exertion or substance misuse. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) to estimate the public health relevance of daily life triggers of SCD and to compare their population impacts. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus and the Web of Science citation databases to retrieve studies of triggers of SCD and cardiac arrest that would enable a computation of PAFs. When more studies investigated the same trigger, a meta-analytical pooled risk random-effect estimate was used. Results: Of the retrieved studies, eight provided data enabling computation of PAFs. The prevalence of exposure within population for SCD triggers in the control periods ranged from 1.06% for influenza infection to 8.73% for recent use of cannabis. Triggers ordered from the highest to the lowest risk increase were: physical exertion, recent cocaine use, episodic alcohol consumption, recent amphetamine use, episodic coffee consumption, psycho-emotional stress within the previous month, influenza infection, and recent cannabis use. The relative risk increase ranged from 1.10 to 4.98. By accounting for both the magnitude of the risk increase and the prevalence in the population, the present estimates of PAF assign 14.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-28.5) of all SCDs to episodic alcohol consumption, 9.4% (95%CI 1.2-29.3) to physical exertion, 6.9% (95%CI 0.3-25.0) to cocaine, 6% (95%CI 1.2-14.6) to episodic coffee consumption, 3% (95%CI 0.4-6.8) to psycho-emotional stress in the previous month, 1.7% (95%CI -0.9-12.9) to amphetamines, 0.9% (95%CI -4.9-12.5) to cannabis, and 0.3% (95%CI 0.2-0.4) to influenza infections. Conclusions: In addition to episodic alcohol consumption, a trigger with the greatest public health importance for SCD, episodic physical exertion, cocaine use and coffee consumption also show a considerable population impact.
... 1 Furthermore, a potentially favorable relationship emerged between moderate coffee consumption and cardiometabolic conditions, including lower rates of type 2 diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure (HF), gradually exonerating the beverage choice. [2][3][4][5] Given the estimated 960 000 new HF diagnoses annually in the United States and a lifetime HF risk beyond age 45 years of at least 20%, 6 8 There was no relationship observed between caffeinated coffee and the risk of subsequent coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease overall. Conversely, decaffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of incident HF, although this was only detected within the FHS cohort. ...
... The relationships between coffee intake and the risks of disease/mortality have been widely investigated in a number of epidemiological settings, most of which indicate a favorable role of regular coffee intake on a variety of health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality, and cancer (4,5). Regarding cardiovascular health, the currently available evidence on CVD effects related to habitual coffee consumption is largely reassuring, suggesting that coffee can be included as part of a healthy diet for the general public and also for those with an increased cardiovascular risk or CVD (6). ...
Article
Background An inverse relationship between coffee intake and mortality has been observed in several population cohorts, but rarely within Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the biological pathways mediating such an association remain unclear. Objectives We assessed the associations between coffee consumption and total and cause-specific mortality and examined the mediating roles of N-terminal pro B–type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), high-sensitivity Troponin I, blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and selected biomarkers of inflammation and renal function. Methods We longitudinally analyzed data on 20,487 men and women (35–94 years old at baseline) in the Moli-sani Study, a prospective cohort established in 2005–2010. Individuals were free from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer and were followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. Dietary data were collected by a 188-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Coffee intake was standardized to a 30-mL Italian espresso cup size. HRs with 95% CIs were calculated by multivariable Cox regression. Results In comparison with no/rare coffee consumption (up to 1 cup/d), HRs for all-cause mortality across categories of coffee consumption (>1 to ≤2, >2 to ≤3, >3 to ≤4 and >4 cups/d) were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65–0.95), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69–1.03), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57–0.92), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.62–1.12), respectively. For CVD mortality, a nonlinear (P for non-linearity = 0.021) J-shaped association was found (magnitude of the relative reduction = 37%; nadir at 3–4 cups/d). Circulating levels of NTproBNP explained up to 26.4% of the association between coffee and all-cause mortality, while systolic blood pressure was likely to be on the pathway between coffee and CVD mortality, although to a lesser extent. Conclusions In this large cohort of Italian adults, moderate consumption (3–4 cups/d) of Italian-style coffee was associated with lower risks of all-cause and, specifically, of CVD mortality. Among the known biomarkers investigated here, NTproBNP likely mediates the relationship between coffee intake and all-cause mortality.
... La evidencia sugiere diferentes mecanismos por los cuales el café podría tener un efecto cardioprotector ya que contiene sustancias antioxidantes, como el ácido clorogénico y la adiponectina, que mejoran la función endotelial y el tono muscular; además, dichas sustancias actúan como vasodilatadoras ya que promueven la producción de óxido nítrico 27,28 . Por otra parte, algunos estudios han encontrado que el café filtrado tiene un efecto en el metabolismo de los lípidos disminuyendo la oxidación de las LDL y del colesterol total e incrementando los niveles de HDL 14,29 . En cuanto a los efectos diferenciales de acuerdo con el sexo, el flujo de las hormonas sexuales ha sido la base que sustenta la protección cardiovascular en las mujeres. ...
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Resumen Objetivo Analizar y sintetizar la evidencia sobre el efecto del consumo habitual de café en la aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular. Métodos Se realizó una evaluación crítica de la literatura basada en metaanálisis y revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y LILACS (enero 1966 a junio 2018). La búsqueda, selección y extracción de información fue llevada a cabo por una pareja de investigadores. La calidad de los manuscritos fue evaluada con AMSTAR. Resultados Se analizaron cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que consideraron como desenlaces enfermedad coronaria, riesgo cardiovascular e infarto del miocardio; para el primer y segundo desenlace se encontró una reducción del riesgo con consumo de 3-4 tazas/día (RR = 0,90; IC95% 0,84-0,9; p de heterogeneidad = 0,02 y RR = 0,85; IC95% 0,80-0,90; p de heterogeneidad = 0,09); para 1-2 tazas/día (RR = 0,89; IC95% 0,85-0,94; p de heterogeneidad = 0,83 y RR = 0,89; IC95% 0,84-0,94; p de heterogeneidad = 0,09) respectivamente. Para infarto agudo de miocardio se reportó un aumento del riesgo en hombres con consumo de 3-4 tazas/día (OR = 1,75; IC95% 1,44-2,14; p de heterogeneidad = 0,005) y de ≥ 4 tazas/día (OR = 2,01; IC95% 1,7-2,36; p de heterogeneidad < 0,001). Conclusiones Los consumos leves y moderados de café tienen un efecto neutro o de reducción del riesgo cardiovascular y de enfermedad coronaria; en contraste, el riesgo de infarto agudo de miocardio se incrementa con consumos mayores o iguales a 3 tazas/día en hombres. Se recomienda el consumo de hasta 3 tazas de café día y se desaconsejan consumos mayores, especialmente en hombres.
... Coffee is a popular beverage consumed globally. In recent years, epidemiological studies have suggested a lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with moderate coffee consumption (3-5 cups/d) (1)(2)(3). Most of the studies reported a J-shaped relation between coffee consumption and the risk of developing CVD, stroke, heart disease, or acute coronary syndromes (myocardial infarction or unstable angina). ...
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Background Epidemiological studies have reported lower risk of cardiovascular disease with moderate coffee consumption. In addition, emerging evidence indicates that consumption of coffee beverages enriched in chlorogenic acids (CGAs) may influence blood pressure and endothelial function, suggesting that the beneficial cardiovascular effect of coffee may relate to its CGA content. Objectives We conducted a double-blind randomized crossover trial to test the effect of acute consumption of a decaffeinated green coffee extract (DGCE), rich in CGAs, on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Methods We compared 3 different doses of DGCE (302, 604, and 906 mg, respectively) with a placebo. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage change in the internal diameter of the brachial artery in response to flow-mediated dilation (%FMD). In addition, we followed the plasma concentration-time profiles of 25 systemic CGA metabolites over 24 h after DGCE consumption and we explored the relation between systemic concentrations of CGAs and the effect on %FMD. Results The DGCE formulations containing different amounts of CGAs resulted in dose-proportional increases in overall total polyphenol concentrations. The systemic appearance of total CGAs was biphasic, in agreement with previous results suggesting 2 sites of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Compared with the placebo group, a significant FMD increase (>1%) was observed 8.5, 10, and 24 h after consumption of 302 mg DGCE (∼156.4 mg CGAs). The differences with placebo observed in the other 2 groups were not statistically significant. Evaluation of the relation between phenolic exposure and %FMD showed a positive tendency toward a larger effect at higher concentrations and different behavior of CGA metabolites depending on the conjugated chemical position. Conclusions We demonstrated an acute improvement in %FMD over time after ingestion of a DGCE, explained at least partly by the presence in the blood circulation of CGAs and their metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03520452.
... Caffeine enhances cholesterol clearance by blocking SREBP2-induced PCSK9 expression in the liver [2]. Regular coffee consumption is also beneficial to cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular health [3]. Thus, caffeine is a compound deserving of additional exploration in health care. ...
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Caffeine is well-known as a psychostimulant, and it can also be beneficial in numerous diseases such as diabetes and different types of cancer. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can have a protective role in bacterial infection-induced inflammation and hyperoxia-mediated pulmonary inflammation. Hepcidin, which is regulated by the IL-6/STAT3 inflammation pathway, is a peptide hormone that maintains systemic iron homeostasis. We hypothesized that caffeine’s effects on inflammation may also influence hepcidin production and therefore systemic iron metabolism. To this end, we treated 2-month-old mice with caffeine by daily intragastric administration for 7 days, administering intraperitoneal LPS after the final caffeine treatment. Twelve hours after LPS treatment the mice were euthanized, and tissues were collected. We found that caffeine decreased hepatic hepcidin expression and attenuated LPS-induced hepatic hepcidin overexpression. IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation were also reduced upon caffeine administration. Additionally, hepatic and splenic FPN1 levels increased after caffeine treatment, leading to lower iron levels in liver and spleen tissues and higher iron levels in serum. Caffeine also prevented the increase in spleen weight and decrease in body weight after LPS treatment. Together, our findings suggest that caffeine decreases hepcidin expression via inhibiting inflammation and the activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway, thus presenting an attractive, potential therapeutic for the treatment of anemia of inflammation.
... Coffee beans have many bioactive components that are widely used as antioxidants [52]. Many scientific studies pointed out the health benefits of consuming coffee such as reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and even depression [81]. In recent years, around 300 million ...
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offee is one of the massive tropical crops in developing countries and historically understudied in subjects of crop nutrition and administration. Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica) plant belongs to the genus Coffea in the Rubiaceae family. It is known as the most widely recognized Coffea species created comprehensively summing up to over 75% of the all-out Coffea creation. Its compounds are a complex mixture of different chemicals that have many health benefits. The usage of various parts of a coffee plant, along with its oil is verified for the manufacturing of ancient medicines that helped in curing a number of ailments. These traditional uses were scientifically proven by many studies including psychoactive responses, neurological and metabolic disorders. Coffee oil consists mainly of triglycerol and fatty acids along with antioxidants. It also possesses some biologically active fatty acids that are anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic in nature. This paper provides the medicinal properties and scientific review of Arabica coffee oil. C Abstract www.als-journal.com
... Coffee consumption is known to lower the risks of metabolic and cardiovascular conditions [4,5,18]. However, studies regarding the relationship between daily consumption of this beverage and VAT remain scarce, as VAT measurement requires diagnostic imaging. ...
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Background: The study aimed to investigate the association between daily consumption of coffee or green tea, with and without habitual bread consumption for breakfast, and components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese populations. Methods: The study population consisted of 3539 participants (1239 males and 2300 females). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression analyses to evaluate the associations of daily coffee and green tea consumption with the prevalence of obesity, visceral obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Results: Coffee consumption was associated with significantly lower proportions of visceral obesity (OR: 0.746, CI: 0.588-0.947) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.706, CI: 0.565-0.882). On the other hand, green tea was not associated with visceral obesity (OR: 1.105, CI: 0.885-1.380) or metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.980, CI: 0.796-1.206). The combination of daily drinking coffee and eating bread at breakfast time was associated with significantly lower proportions of obesity (OR: 0.613, CI: 0.500-0.751) (p = 0.911 for interaction), visceral obesity (OR: 0.549, CI: 0.425-0.710) (p = 0.991 for interaction), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.586, CI: 0.464-0.741) (p = 0.792 for interaction). Conclusion: Coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower visceral adipose tissue and lower proportions of visceral obesity, but the same was not true for green tea consumption. Furthermore, in combination with coffee consumption, the addition of eating bread at breakfast time significantly lowered proportions of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome, although there was no interaction between coffee and bread.
... Proveniente de plantas, como grãos de café, folhas de chá verde e frutos de cacau, onde se encontra em maior quantidade. No café, encontramos alguns compostos bioativos como os flavonoides, bem como as catequinas e antocianinas, tocoferóis, metilxantinas, ácidos clorogênicos e ácidos hidroxicinâmicos, como o ácido ferúlico e caféico [5]. Dados epidemiológicos, ressaltam que o consumo regular de café pode diminuir o risco de desenvolver certos tipos de câncer, diminuição de diabetes tipo 2 e possível efeito benéfico no aumento metabólico do organismo e oxidação lipídica, resultando em perda de peso [6]. ...
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Introduction: Coffee consumption offers several beneficial actions on the human body, when consumed in adequate doses, among them the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, stimulating action of the central nervous system. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of coffee consumption on the prevention of melanoma. Material and Method: A bibliographic review was carried out in the health databases Medline, Lilacs and SciELO, using the descriptors in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): nutrition; polyphenols; coffee; melanoma, in Portuguese and English, considering the period from June 2013 to June 2020. Results: 283 studies were found, 111 were included and 172 were excluded because they did not meet the eligibility criteria. According to the literature, caffeine’s ability to induce reduced thiol depletion and selectively pro-apoptotic effect in melanoma cells was observed, where coffee with caffeine was constantly associated with a protective and chemopreventive effect, but in high doses associated with the development of other diseases. Conclusion: In this review study, coffe proved to be a possible promising agent in melanoma skin cancer, helping to improve the disease’s prognosis
... Coffee as the most popular beverage in the world, including Ethiopia, is one of the dietary factors with controversial findings on its effect on health and disease. Coffee has different bioactive compounds that have long term effects on the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases including CVDs (O'Keefe et al., 2013). These compounds include caffeine, cafestol, kahweol phenolic acids, and diterpene alcohols that could have a positive and/or negative impact on health (Ludwig et al., 2014). ...
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Background: Globally, coffee is one of the most consumed beverages and recently, it has been a target of researchers to understand its effect on human health whether good or bad. Even though there is controversy on coffee consumption effect in cardiovascular diseases, several reports pointed out that coffee has a positive effect on the occurrence and progression of chronic non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of Ethiopian coffee Arabica consumption on cardiovascular diseases has not been well investigated thoroughly. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of habitual consumption of Ethiopian Arabica coffee on the risk of cardiovascular diseases among non-diabetic individuals in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 70 healthy individuals in Addis Ababa. The participants were 35 coffee drinkers (16 males; 19 females) and 35 non-drinkers (15 males; 20 females). Coffee consumption and demographic data were obtained by using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were measured according to World Health Organization standards. Blood samples were collected by trained laboratory technicians through aseptic and sterile techniques for the analysis of biochemical parameters. Serum was separated via centrifugation and transported to Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Biochemistry laboratory with an ice pack for analysis or stored at -80 °C. Results were compared between coffee consumers and non -consumers using appropriate statistical parameter. Result: The main finding of this study was that consumption of Ethiopian origin Arabica coffee leads to a significant increase in serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as a significant decrease in triacylglycerides (TAGs) but has no significant effect in both total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). The magnitude of the effect is similar in both sexes. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that Ethiopian coffee Arabica consumption significantly affected most serum lipid levels and so it may be possible to say it has a protective effect against risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the correlations between coffee consumption habits and serum lipid levels require further investigation through experimental and epidemiological studies with larger sample size, including different age groups and nutritional habits.
... Coffee as the most popular beverage in the world, including Ethiopia, is one of the dietary factors with controversial findings on its effect on health and disease. Coffee has different bioactive compounds that have long term effects on the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases including CVDs (O'Keefe et al., 2013). These compounds include caffeine, cafestol, kahweol phenolic acids, and diterpene alcohols that could have a positive and/or negative impact on health (Ludwig et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Background Globally, coffee is one of the most consumed beverages and recently, it has been a target of researchers to understand its effect on human health whether good or bad. Even though there is controversy on coffee consumption effect in cardiovascular diseases, several reports pointed out that coffee has a positive effect on the occurrence and progression of chronic non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of Ethiopian coffee Arabica consumption on cardiovascular diseases has not been well investigated thoroughly. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of habitual consumption of Ethiopian Arabica coffee on the risk of cardiovascular diseases among non-diabetic individuals in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 70 healthy individuals in Addis Ababa. The participants were 35 coffee drinkers (16 males; 19 females) and 35 non-drinkers (15 males; 20 females). Coffee consumption and demographic data were obtained by using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were measured according to World Health Organization standards. Blood samples were collected by trained laboratory technicians through aseptic and sterile techniques for the analysis of biochemical parameters. Serum was separated via centrifugation and transported to Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Biochemistry laboratory with an ice pack for analysis or stored at -80 °C. Results were compared between coffee consumers and non -consumers using appropriate statistical parameter. Result The main finding of this study was that consumption of Ethiopian origin Arabica coffee leads to a significant increase in serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as a significant decrease in triacylglycerides (TAGs) but has no significant effect in both total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). The magnitude of the effect is similar in both sexes. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that Ethiopian coffee Arabica consumption significantly affected most serum lipid levels and so it may be possible to say it has a protective effect against risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the correlations between coffee consumption habits and serum lipid levels require further investigation through experimental and epidemiological studies with larger sample size, including different age groups and nutritional habits.
... Durante los últimos 50 años el consumo de café se ha relacionado con diversos ámbitos de la salud debido a la popularidad y a los beneficios de su consumo, los efectos que puede generar en las personas que lo consumen constantemente se han asociado con la prevención de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) 14,15 y el riesgo cardiovascular 16,17 . Sin embargo, el consumo de café moderado o alto se ha relacionado con un mayor riesgo de padecer carcinoma renal 18,19 . ...
Article
Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer el efecto de la borra de café sobre la movilidad y los parámetros funcionales de los espermatozoides humanos in vitro. Materiales y métodos: La borra de café, un subproducto obtenido en establecimientos especializados en la preparación de café soluble a base de grano, se diluyo en tampón fosfato salino y se mezcló en proporciones iguales con las muestras de semen de 16 voluntarios aparentemente sanos. A cada muestra se le determinó el efecto sobre la movilidad espermática en función del tiempo (30, 60, 90 y 120 minutos, n=16) y sobre los parámetros funcionales (n=6) por medio de citometría de flujo: potencial de membrana mitocondrial, producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno y lipoperoxidación de la membrana espermática. Resultados: La incubación de los espermatozoides con la borra de café evidencio un cambio positivo en la movilidad espermática. Adicionalmente, la incubación con la borra de café incremento significativamente el potencial de membrana mitocondrial en los espermatozoides. Conclusión: La borra de café, seguramente debido a los compuestos antioxidantes, afecta positivamente la movilidad espermática aumentando el potencial de membrana mitocondrial. Por lo tanto, esto es un paso inicial en la búsqueda de un suplemento de origen natural que aumente la calidad seminal.
... Caffeine has a known central nervous system stimulatory effect, as well as an impact on cardiovascular health due to possible acute increase in heart rate and blood pressure [34]. Habitual coffee drinkers will experience less of this blood pressure rising effect due to increased tolerance of caffeine [37]. A recent meta-analysis that looked at both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and all-cause mortality found no difference in the risk reduction (per 1 cup/day increments) from all-cause mortality between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee [20]. ...
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Coffee consumption has previously been reported to reduce overall and cause-specific mortality. We aimed to further investigate this association by coffee brewing methods and in a population with heavy coffee consumers. The information on total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee consumption from self-administered questionnaires was available from 117,228 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. We used flexible parametric survival models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality by total coffee consumption and brewing methods, and adjusted for smoking status, number of pack-years, age at smoking initiation, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, and duration of education. During 3.2 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 16,106 deaths occurred. Compared to light coffee consumers (≤ 1 cup/day), we found a statistically significant inverse association with high-moderate total coffee consumption (more than 4 and up to 6 cups/day, HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.83–0.94) and all-cause mortality. The adverse association between heavy filtered coffee consumption (> 6 cups/day) and all-cause mortality observed in the entire sample (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01–1.17) was not found in never smokers (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.70–1.05). During the follow-up, both high-moderate total and filtered coffee consumption were inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67–0.94; HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67–0.94, respectively). The association was stronger in the analyses of never smokers (> 6 cups of filtered coffee/day HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08–0.56). The consumption of more than 6 cups/day of filtered, instant, and coffee overall was found to increase the risk of cancer deaths during the follow-up. However, these associations were not statistically significant in the subgroup analyses of never smokers. The data from the NOWAC study indicate that the consumption of filtered coffee reduces the risk of cardiovascular deaths. The observed adverse association between coffee consumption and cancer mortality is most likely due to residual confounding by smoking.
... Previous studies have suggested that coffee partially provides health benefits to treat certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus [3], besides having antioxidant [4], antiinflammatory [5], and antibacterial activities [6]. In particular, Van Dam (2005) reported that regular consumption of coffee can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus [7], whilst O' Keefe et al. (2013) suggested that it may reduce the risk of death caused by cardiovascular diseases [8]. ...
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Coffee has been studied for its health benefits, including prevention of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, Parkinson’s, and liver diseases. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important component in coffee beans, was shown to possess antiviral activity against viruses. However, the presence of caffeine in coffee beans may also cause insomnia and stomach irritation, and increase heart rate and respiration rate. These unwanted effects may be reduced by decaffeination of green bean Arabica coffee (GBAC) by treatment with dichloromethane, followed by solid-phase extraction using methanol. In this study, the caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA) level in the coffee bean from three different areas in West Java, before and after decaffeination, was determined and validated using HPLC. The results showed that the levels of caffeine were reduced significantly, with an order as follows: Tasikmalaya (2.28% to 0.097% (97 ppm), Pangalengan (1.57% to 0.049% (495 ppm), and Garut (1.45% to 0.00002% (0.2 ppm). The CGA levels in the GBAC were also reduced as follows: Tasikmalaya (0.54% to 0.001% (118 ppm), Pangalengan (0.97% to 0.0047% (388 ppm)), and Garut (0.81% to 0.029% (282 ppm). The decaffeinated samples were then subjected to the H5N1 neuraminidase (NA) binding assay to determine its bioactivity as an anti-influenza agent. The results show that samples from Tasikmalaya, Pangalengan, and Garut possess NA inhibitory activity with IC50 of 69.70, 75.23, and 55.74 μg/mL, respectively. The low level of caffeine with a higher level of CGA correlates with their higher levels of NA inhibitory, as shown in the Garut samples. Therefore, the level of caffeine and CGA influenced the level of NA inhibitory activity. This is supported by the validation of CGA-NA binding interaction via molecular docking and pharmacophore modeling; hence, CGA could potentially serve as a bioactive compound for neuraminidase activity in GBAC.
... Guidelines in the United States define moderate alcohol intakes as consuming 5-15 g of alcohol per day for women and 5-30 g per day for men (25). Moderate alcohol intakes scored 1 point, whereas intakes outside of this range scored 0. Coffee consumption was defined as drinking ≥ 2 servings per day and scored 1 point, while drinking < 2 servings per day scored 0. According to previous reports, general and diabetic individuals with a regular intake of ≥ two cups per day has a lower risk of CV and all-cause mortality (26,27). In Visit 1, 3, and 5, participants answered questions about participation in up to four exercise activities, and how often they participated, by the Baecke Questionnaire (28). ...
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Objective: The relationship between combined healthy lifestyle and cardiovascular (CV) events in diabetes is unclear. We aim to investigate the association between a healthy lifestyle score (HLS) and the risk of mortality and CV events in diabetes. Methods: We examined the associations of six lifestyle factors scores (including healthy diet, moderate alcohol and regular coffee intakes, never smoking, physical activity, and normal weight) with diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study of 3,804 participants with diabetes from the United States at baseline. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, CV mortality, and composite CV events (heart failure hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, and stroke). Results: Among these diabetic participants, 1,881 (49.4%), 683 (18.0%), and 1,600 (42.0%) cases of all-cause mortality, CV mortality, and CV events were documented, respectively, during the 26 years of follow-up. Further, the prevalence of these adverse events became lower with the increase of HLS (all P < 0.001). In the risk-factors adjusted Cox regression model, compared to participants with HLS of 0, participants with HLS of 2 had significant lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.811, 95% CI: 0.687–0.957, P = 0.013), CV mortality (HR = 0.744, 95% CI: 0.576–0.962, P = 0.024), and CV events (HR = 0.789, 95% CI: 0.661–0.943, P = 0.009). The association of HLS with CV events was stronger for women than men ( P for interaction <0.05). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of CV events and mortality in diabetics. Our findings suggest that the promotion of a healthy lifestyle would help reduce the increasing healthcare burden of diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov , Identifier: NCT00005131.
... Bunlar arasında klorojenik ve kafeik asit dahil fenoller, laktonlar, kafestol ve kahveol dahil diterpenler, niasin ve B3 vitamini öncüsü trigonellin bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca kahve, B3 vitamini, magnezyum ve potasyum açısından zengindir [61,62]. Bunların yanında kahve, karbonhidratlar, lipitler, melanoidinler, azotlu bileşikler, uçucu aroma bileşikleri, vitaminler, mineraller, alkoidler, fenolik bileşikler ve bir dizi pozitif, negatif ve nötr sağlık etkisine sahip diğer nitrojen bileşikler dahil olmak üzere binlerce farklı kimyasal maddeler de içermektedir [3,63]. ...
... However, it is reasonable to believe that increased body weight is a prevalent trait of people with NAFLD (38), may help to prevent bone loss by increasing mechanical loads and improving cortical bone growth. Observations in people with obesity or type 2 diabetes are similar (39). Long-term fracture risk in patients with NAFLD may be underestimated by BMD values alone. ...
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Background The liver and bones are both active endocrine organs that carry out several metabolic functions. However, the link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. The goal of this study was to discover if there was a link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and bone mineral density in US persons aged 20 to 59 years of different genders and races. Methods Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017–2018, multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to investigate the association between NAFLD and lumbar BMD. Fitted smoothing curves and generalized additive models were also used. Results The analysis included a total of 1980 adults. After controlling for various variables, we discovered that NAFLD was negatively linked with lumbar BMD. The favorable connection of NAFLD with lumbar BMD was maintained in subgroup analyses stratified by sex, race and age in men, other race and aged 20-29 years. The relationship between NAFLD and lumbar BMD in blacks and people aged 40-49 years was a U-shaped curve with the inflection point: at 236dB/m and 262dB/m. Furthermore, we discovered that liver advanced fibrosis and liver cirrhosis were independently connected with higher BMD, while no significant differences were detected in severe liver steatosis and BMD. Conclusions Our study found an independently unfavorable relationship between NAFLD and BMD in persons aged 20 to 59. We also discovered a positive link between BMD and advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. More research is needed to back up the findings of this study and to look into the underlying issues.
... A meta-analysis revealed that light to moderate coffee intake (1 to 3 cups/day) increased the risk of hypertension [13]. On the other hand, another meta-analysis showed that regular coffee intake has no effects on blood pressure level and risk of hypertension [14]. A previous study showed that high coffee intake (≥4 cups/day) increases the risk of stroke [15]. ...
Article
We evaluated the relationship of daily coffee intake with endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle function assessed by nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation in patients with hypertension. A total of 462 patients with hypertension were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. First, we divided the subjects into two groups based on information on daily coffee intake: no coffee group and coffee group. The median coffee intake was two cups per day in the coffee group. There were significant differences in both flow-mediated vasodilation (2.6 ± 2.8% in the no coffee group vs. 3.3 ± 2.9% in the coffee group, p = 0.04) and nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (9.6 ± 5.5% in the no coffee group vs. 11.3 ± 5.4% in the coffee group, p = 0.02) between the two groups. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratio for endothelial dysfunction (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.95) and the odds ratio for vascular smooth muscle dysfunction (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.89) were significantly lower in the coffee group than in the no coffee group. Next, we assessed the relationship of the amount of daily coffee intake with vascular function. Cubic spline curves revealed that patients with hypertension who drank half a cup to 2.5 cups of coffee per day had lower odds ratios for endothelial dysfunction assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction assessed by nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation. Appropriate daily coffee intake might have beneficial effects on endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle function in patients with hypertension.
... Subsequent coffee intake was queried every four years through 2010 (the latest available time point). These follow-up assessments were used in secondary analyses, in which we evaluated the association of baseline psychological well-being with the likelihood of maintaining moderate levels of coffee consumption (i.e., 1-3 cups/day), which is suggested to be optimal for health [23]. We defined sustained moderate coffee consumption (yes/no) as moderate intake reported in at least two assessments over the study period (not necessarily consecutive), including the baseline assessment. ...
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Objective Prior work indicates a robust relationship between coffee consumption and lower depression risk, yet no research has examined links with psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, optimism). This study tested whether coffee intake is prospectively associated with greater psychological well-being over time. Secondarily, associations in the reverse direction were also examined to determine whether initial levels of psychological well-being were related to subsequent coffee consumption.Methods Among women in the Nurses' Health Study, coffee consumption was examined in 1990 and 2002 in relation to sustained levels of happiness reported across multiple assessments from 1992-2000 (N = 44,449) and sustained levels of optimism assessed from 2004-2012 (N = 36,729). Associations were tested using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson distribution adjusted for various relevant covariates. Bidirectional relationships were evaluated in secondary analyses of baseline happiness (1992) and optimism (2004) with sustained moderate coffee consumption across multiple assessments through 2010.ResultsCompared to minimal coffee consumption levels (
... Morbid obesity was diagnosed when BMI was higher than 35 kg/m 2 . All participants were non-smokers, non-alcohol drinkers, and non-coffee drinkers, according to established criteria [50][51][52][53]. ...
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Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and advanced oxidation protein products, or AOPP (a type of MPO-derived chlorinated adducts), have been implicated in Parkinson´s disease (PD). Human MPO also show sex-based differences in PD. The objective was to study the relationship of MPO and AOPP in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with motor features of idiopathic PD in male and female patients. Methods: MPO concentration and activity and AOPP content were measured in the CSF and serum in 34 patients and 30 controls. CSF leukocytes and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier were evaluated. Correlations of MPO and AOPP with clinical variables were examined. Results: The blood-brain barrier was intact and CSF leukocyte count was normal in all patients. CSF MPO concentration and activity were similar in the cohort of patients and controls, but CSF MPO content was significantly higher in male patients than in PD women (p = 0.0084). CSF MPO concentration correlated with disease duration in male and female patients (p < 0.01). CSF MPO concentration was significantly higher in men with disease duration ≥12 years versus the remainder of the male subjects (p < 0.01). Changes in CSF MPO in women were not significant. Serum MPO concentration and activity were significantly higher in all PD patients relative to controls (p < 0.0001). CSF MPO was not correlated with serum MPO. Serum AOPP were detected in all patients, but CSF AOPP was undetectable in 53% of patients. AOPP were not quantifiable in controls. Conclusions: CSF MPO is not a good biomarker for PD because mean CSF MPO concentration and activity are not different between the cohort of patients and controls. CSF MPO concentration positively correlated with disease duration in men and women, but CSF MPO is significantly enhanced only in male patients with disease duration longer than 12 years. It can be hypothesized that the MPO-related immune response in early-stage PD might be weak in all patients, but then the MPO-related immune response is progressively enhanced in men, not women. Since the blood-brain barrier is intact, and CSF MPO is not correlated with serum MPO, CSF myeloperoxidase would reflect MPO content in brain cells, not blood-derived cells. Finally, serum AOPP was detected in all patients, but not controls, which is consistent with the occurrence of chlorinative stress in blood serum in PD. The study of CSF AOPP as biomarker could not be assessed because the ELISA assay was hampered by its detection limit in the CSF.
... Thus, it is of high interest to investigate both the beneficial and potential adverse effects of caffeine intake. Previous analyses showed that light-to-moderate coffee consumption seemed to be associated with favorable cardiovascular outcomes [3,4]. This is further underlined by a large prospective study which found an inverse association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality as well as cause-specific mortality [5]. ...
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Caffeinated beverages are popular throughout the world, especially due to their stimulating effects on body physiology. However, short- and long-term outcome studies have shown variable results on general health. In this pilot study, we exposed a cohort of 23 healthy individuals to 240 mg of caffeine either in the form of coffee or energy drinks and performed repetitive pulse wave analyses. This experimental approach was chosen to investigate the acute effects of caffeine consumption on vascular tone depending on the form of caffeine intake. Our data indicate that energy drinks, in contrast to coffee, might negatively impact systolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. This issue needs special attention in the light of cardiovascular health as the observed effects have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events upon persistent exposure.
... Coffee beans have many bioactive components that are widely used as antioxidants [52]. Many scientific studies pointed out the health benefits of consuming coffee such as reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and even depression [81]. In recent years, around 300 million ...
... In contrast, some other studies indicated that coffee consumption was either positively correlated with SUA levels (16,17), or had no significant relationship with SUA (18). Coffee is a beverage containing more than 1,000 components (19). Whereas caffeine is one of the main components in coffee, it is challenging to identify caffeine's role on SUA. ...
Article
Background and aims: Caffeine is a worldwide popularly consumed constituent in foods that can exert physiological effects. However, previous researches about the relationship between caffeine intake and serum uric acid (SUA) were limited and controversial. Therefore, we sought to investigate that relationship in U.S. adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the total sample of 7888 selected participants (3838 males and 4050 females) were identified from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2015-2018. All subjects were tested for serum uric acid levels (μmmol/L), and their daily caffeine intakes (mg/d) were obtained by an average of two 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between two variables in total subjects and subgroup analyses. Generalized additive models with smooth curve fittings were also performed. Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed caffeine intake was negatively correlated with SUA after adjustment of other confounders. The subgroup analyses stratified by gender showed the negative correlation of caffeine intake with SUA was statistically significant in males but not in females. Furthermore, we observed a nonlinear inverse association of caffeine intake with SUA (P nonlinear <0.001) in the generalized additive model, followed by an inverted U-shaped curve (inflection point: 60.5mg/d) for all participants. This inverted U-shaped relationship between them could also be found in both genders, individuals aged below 60 years old, overweight (BMI of 25 to 30), and Non-Hispanic White individuals. Conclusions: This study indicated that caffeine intake exhibited an inverse correlation with SUA, especially in males. In addition, this inverse relationship was nonlinear, which followed an inverted U-shaped curve.
...  Coffee lower Risk of type 2 diabetes: Coffee helps prevent type 2 diabetes and some other conditions [11]. According to Salazer-martinez et al. [12] people who drank four to six cups either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee each day appeared to have a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes. ...
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The study outlined the effect of health on Coffee farmers and consumers. Numerous health benefits of Coffee consumption were identified despite several side effects when consumed in large quantity overtime. It was observed that benefits of coffee consumption outweigh the negative implication. Therefore, Coffee consumption should be encouraged as it is useful in treating some illnesses that would otherwise cost fortune when treated with conventional drugs. Also, with the reported occurrence of caffeine a safe, clean processing and preservative method should be encouraged. Government should also motivate more research on coffee utilization in drug industries because of presence of caffeine, in order to stimulate production as this would also help boost the gross domestic production (GDP). Health and safety training should also be encouraged through extension agents to lecture farmers on personal protective techniques (PPT), as this will improve the health of Coffee farmers for efficient production.
... Internationally, as reported from the USA, coffee is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults [6]. In this study, coffee was more popular among students, the younger age group. ...
... reduced pain, lowered risk of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and reduced depression. [12][13][14][15] Recently, a study investigated that in elderly people, coffee consumption might be useful in those with hypertension, obesity, or diabetes. 16 One of the famous and top priority human's health hazard is mycotoxins that are produced by specific strains of fungi. ...
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Background Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that are produced by some toxigenic fungi on foodstuffs which are poisoning and potentiate for human's health hazards. In coffee samples, ochratoxin A and fungal contamination were examined. Methods Immunoaffinity columns were used for treating of all 50 samples from four types of coffee, after that high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determining the amount of ochratoxin. For the identification of fungi, all coffee samples were cultured in appropriated media. Results The results showed that all samples were contaminated by ochratoxin A but only up to 50% of them had toxins higher than acceptable level as detected in black beans (47%), green beans (33.3%), torch (33.3%), and espresso (25%). Black coffee had a higher mean concentration of ochratoxin A than green coffee. Conclusion Predominant fungi isolated from coffee samples were Aspergillus species. Finally, careful monitoring of mycotoxins in coffee samples is essential to improve the quality of this favorable beverage in future.
... Habitual coffee consumption may contribute favorably or harmfully to general health, systemic metabolism, and prevention or development of critical diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancers. [10,11] Such effects would be of great scientific interest and it is important to address the potential public health implications. Although the association between coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension remains inconclusive, coffee consumption has been found to be inversely associated with dementia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, and increased risk of osteoporosis. ...
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Background: Recent studies have suggested a renal protective effect of coffee consumption against development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), although the results remain inconclusive. We performed a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively investigate this association by summarizing all available data. Methods: An all-round retrieval will be performed in 5 electronic journal databases from their inception to June 2021, which comprise Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Library. The following key words were used on combination with Boolean operators AND or OR: "coffee," "caffeine," "renal insufficiency," "chronic kidney diseases," "chronic renal diseases." Two authors completed the quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration (London, UK). Results: The findings of this study will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. Conclusion: Coffee consumption may be associated with a lower risk of incident CKD.
... Many countries grow coffee as a primary crop as well as a valuable commodity [3][4][5]. Even though studies have reported inconsistent results in connection with coffee consumption, the general consensus is that regular, moderate coffee consumption by healthy individuals is either benign or slightly beneficial [6][7][8][9][10]. Coffee health benefits include reduction in the risk of metabolic syndrome, and protection against noncommunicable diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease [11][12][13]. ...
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Coffee is an intricate mixture of thousands of chemical compounds that are accountable for its flavor and aroma. Roasting is a key step in the processing of coffee beans. This study assessed the effect of microwave roasting (MW) and extraction solvents (ES) on the total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of coffee beans. The untreated and microwave-roasted (MR) coffee beans showed a total polyphenol content of 40.40 and 35.15 mg GAE/gm DW, respectively, when methanol was used as the solvent for extraction. Similarly, for the untreated coffee beans, the methanol extracted coffee had a significantly (p
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From its legendary discovery in Abyssinia (today Ethiopia) to becoming one of the most consumed beverages in the world, coffee has captivated the enthusiasts for centuries due to its unique aroma and taste, as well as its effects as a stimulant in enhancing mental performance (e.g., alertness, concentration, attention). This article provides a brief overview on the production and processing of coffee, focusing on the Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. Robusta, also known as Arabica and Robusta, respectively. Differences in chemical compositions (e.g., lipid, sucrose, trigonelline, diterpenes, caffeine, chlorogenic acids) of bean variety contribute to desirable/undesirable sensory attributes, as well as the health implications of the final brew products. Roasting of green beans, which is typically carried out at 170–230 °C for 10–15 min, causes the degradations of polysaccharides, sugars, amino acids, chlorogenic acids, and so on. Concomitantly, a myriad of aroma volatiles and complex condensed products are formed, mainly due to Maillard reaction, Strecker degradation and pyrolytic reactions. The effects of roast time–temperature profiles on a number of key physicochemical phenomena are discussed, including changes in microstructural, formation of aroma species, development of color, and generation of CO2 during roasting. Optimal storage conditions and packaging are important in delaying product staling and to mitigate CO2 degassing issues. These aspects, along with other factors that affect the shelf-life of coffee, are discussed. Finally, a brief literature review on the health implications of coffee consumption is presented, highlighting the importance of several bioactive components (e.g., caffeine, chlorogenic acids, melanoidins, trigonelline, acrylamide, and diterpenes).
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bjective The primary objective was to assess beverage consumption pattern and calorie intake among undergraduate students on weekly and daily basis. Secondary objectives were to determine relationships between demographic variables and beverage intake, assess mean differences in calorie intake between students’ groups and report the predictors of beverage consumption. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months (January – March 2019) among currently enrolled undergraduate students studying in 8 colleges of a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study used the Arabic version of Beverage Frequency Questionnaire (BFQ) and collected data through purposive stratified sampling. Total intake in ml and calories in kcals were calculated. Data was analyzed through SPSS version 23 and the study was approved from ethics committee of the university (IRB‐2019‐05‐021). Results A total of 507 students responded to the survey. The average volume of SSBs, caffeinated and carbonated beverages consumed was 4.2 L, 4 L and 1.5 L per week, respectively. Average daily calorie intake from sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), caffeine containing beverages (CCBs) and carbonated beverages (CarBs) was 187.6 kcals, 87.5 kcals and 52.5 kcals, respectively. BMI was significantly related to CCB (p = 0.130) and CarBs (p = 0.100) intake (mL) (p<0.05). Mean difference in calorie intake was significant (p<0.05) when accounted for students’ demographics in case of SSBs, CCBs, CarBs and all beverages. Age and BMI were predictors of SSBs consumption while BMI, residence and study period were predictors of CCBs consumption. Gender, BMI, and study period were predictors of CarBs intake. Conclusion There was a high consumption of beverages in students that was related to their demographic characteristics. There is a need to create awareness among the students regarding the detrimental effects of chronic consumption of these beverages.
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Background: The studies that assessed proanthocyanidins (PCs) supplementation on lipid profile revealed contradictory results. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the influence of PCs supplementation on lipid profile. Methods: Six databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar) were searched to identify for published relevant studies up to June 9, 2021. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and the corresponding standard deviations (SD) of the total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were calculated to estimate the pooled effect. Results: A total of 1411 articles were identified through database searching, of which, seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis suggested that PCs supplementation effectively affected the level of HDL-C (WMD: 2.716, 95% CI: 0.269, 5.163, p = 0.030), but had no significant effect on TC (WMD: -0.201, 95% CI: -6.443, 6.041, p=0.950), LDL-C (WMD: -3.000, 95% CI: -8.254, 2.254, p = 0.263), and TG (WMD: -8.874, 95% CI: -21.009, 3.260, p =0.152). In the subgroup analyses, a significant enhance in HDL-C in people with a shorter intervention duration (duration < 12 weeks) or people with a higher BMI (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m²). Conclusion: The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that PCs supplementation had no effects on TC, LDL-C or TG, whereas it may contribute to a change on HDL-C. Additional high-quality studies are needed to confirm this result.
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Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This enzyme has been reported to be enhanced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in parkinsonian patients. The objective was to look at the relationship of LPO in the CSF and serum with clinical features of idiopathic PD. LPO concentration was analyzed through ELISA techniques. Correlation of CSF or serum LPO and MDS-UPDRS, dopaminergic medication, and other clinical parameters was examined. The findings revealed that LPO concentration in the CSF, not serum, was found to be elevated in patients with PD relative to controls (p<0.001). CSF LPO concentration negatively correlated with MDS-UPDRS part-IV score (p<.0001), a rating scale that allows evaluating motor complications. CSF LPO level inversely correlated with the dose intensity of the dopaminergic medication regimen, as evaluated with levodopa equivalent dose or LED (mg/day; p<.0001). LED value positively correlated with MDS-UPDRS part-IV score (p<.0001). To sum up, the findings indicate that CSF LPO is found to be elevated in the CSF of PD patients, and this enzyme holds promise as potential biomarker for diagnosis of PD. Increasing the dose intensity of dopaminergic medication regimen attenuates the elevation in LPO levels in the CSF, and it facilitates the development of motor complications in patients. The pathophysiological mechanisms that seem to be responsible for LPO increase would include dopamine deficiency, oxidative stress, and less likely, microbial infection.
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Coffee beverage is one of the most popular beverages worldwide and because of its proved health benefits, it may be regarded as functional food. The potential functional properties of coffee beverage have been associated with its bioactive compounds including caffeine, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins which are Maillard reaction products. The extraction of coffee soluble from the roasted and ground coffee seed is a complex operation and brewing/cooking method plays an important role on the extraction and amount of the key compounds in the coffee beverage. This review provides how the roasting level and brewing techniques affect the key compounds, physicochemical attributes, and health of coffee beverage. The role of compounds caffeine, chlorogenic acids, melanoidins and the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in the body are reviewed along with their impact on health by examining the results of the studies involving the coffee consumption. According to the reviewed studies daily intake of 2 to 3 cups of coffee beverage is safe and may support metabolic health, mental health, enhance mood, increase alertness, be effective against hypertension, help us to fight depression, prevent several chronical disease risks including type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and degenerative diseases, such as cancer like liver cancer, cardiovascular disorders. However, some data implies the negative effects on health that it may be cautious for pregnant women and need to limit coffee consumption no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine.
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This study examined the association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality in patients with a prior acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Data were from the prospective study ERICO, totalising 928 patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). During 4 years’ follow-up, a total of 111 deaths occurred. Moderate coffee consumption (1–2 and 2–3 cups/day) was inversely associated with total mortality (HR 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06–0.29 and 0.22, 95% CI: 0.13–0.39, respectively). For patients with higher coffee consumption (>3 cups/day), there was a positive association with mortality (HR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.06–4.24). After stratification by smoking status, the analysis revealed lower risk of mortality in never and former smokers, drinking 1–2 and 2–3 cups/day. Among current smokers there was a positive association between >3 cups/day and mortality. The moderate consumption of coffee was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in patients with a prior ACS, particularly in non-smokers.
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Placebo effects are defined as the beneficial subjective or behavioral outcomes of an intervention that are not attributable to its inherent properties; Placebo effects thus follow from individuals’ expectations about the effects of the intervention. The present study aimed at examining how expectations influence neurocognitive processes. We addressed this question by contrasting three double-blinded within-subjects experimental conditions in which participants were given decaffeinated coffee, while being told they had received caffeinated (condition i) or decaffeinated coffee (ii), and given caffeinated coffee while being told they had received decaffeinated coffee (iii). After each of these three interventions, performance and electroencephalogram was recorded at rest as well as during sustained attention Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) and a Go/NoGo motor inhibitory control task. We first aimed to confirm previous findings for caffeine-induced enhancement on these executive components and on their associated electrophysiological indexes (The Attention-P3 component, response conflict NoGo-N2 and inhibition NoGo-P3 components (ii vs iii contrast); and then to test the hypotheses that expectations also induce these effects (i vs ii), although with a weaker amplitude (i vs iii). We did not confirm any of our hypotheses for caffeine-induced behavioral improvements and thus did not test the effect of caffeine-related expectations. At the electrophysiological level, however, we confirmed that caffeine increased the Attention-P3 and NoGo-P3 components amplitude but did not confirm an effect on the response-conflict N2 component. We did not confirm that expectations influence any of the investigated electrophysiological indices, but we confirmed that the Attention-P3 Global Field Power values were larger for the caffeine compared to the expectations conditions. We conclude that previously identified behavioral effect size of caffeine and of the related expectations for sustained attention and inhibitory control may have been overestimated, and that caffeine primarily influences the cognitive processes and brain areas supporting attention allocation. Finally, we confirm that caffeine-related expectations induce smaller effects than the substance itself.
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PurposeHigh coffee consumption is associated with low risk of mortality and morbidity, but the causality remains unclear. This review aims to discuss findings from observational studies on coffee consumption in context of Mendelian randomization studies.Methods The PubMed database was searched for all Mendelian randomization studies on coffee consumption and corresponding observational studies.ResultsHigh coffee consumption is associated with low risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in observational studies (HRs of 0.85–0.90 vs. no/low consumers), with no support of causality in Mendelian randomization studies. Moderate/high consumption is associated with low risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including ischemic heart disease (HRs of 0.85–0.90 vs. no/low consumption), stroke (HRs of approximately 0.80 vs. no/low consumption), type 2 diabetes (HRs of approximately 0.70 vs. no/low consumption) and obesity in observational studies, but not in Mendelian randomization studies. High consumption is associated with low risk of endometrial cancer and melanoma and high risk of lung cancer in observational studies, but with high risk of colorectal cancer in Mendelian randomization studies. In observational and Mendelian randomization studies, high coffee consumption is associated with low risk of gallstones (HRs of 0.55–0.70 for high vs. no/low self-reported and 0.81 (0.69–0.96) for highest vs. lowest genetic consumption).Conclusion High coffee consumption is associated with low risk of mortality, cardiometabolic diseases, some cancers and gallstones in observational studies, with no evidence to support causality from Mendelian randomization studies for most diseases except gallstones.
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Globally, coffee is consumed as a functional beverage due to its nutraceutical value and positive physiological effects. Coffee is an important source of several nutritious and therapeutic phytoconstituents including lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and nitrogenous compounds, along with bioactive compounds like cafestol and kahweol diterpenes, caffeine, and chlorogenic acid (CGA), which all possess great therapeutic potential. Coffee is claimed to be an ancient wonder drug that is endowed with a variety of phytobiomolecules of therapeutic potential. The bioavailability of green coffee beans (GCB) and their active principles need to be ameliorated by modern nanoencapsulation and coffee capsule techniques. The role of CGA, caffeine, and other components in a variety of ailments such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, hepatitis, obesity, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases has been well documented and supported using a mechanistic rationale. Furthermore, the risk–benefit ratio and health assessment need to be speculated on in the light of toxicological interventions and fortification of GCB with different permutations and combinations that could be obtained in the future.
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Coffee contains many bioactive chemicals, including various antioxidants. The beverage appears to have a variety of health-protective benefits. People who drink moderate amounts of coffee are at lower risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and of all-cause mortality. Coffee is linked to a reduced risk of liver and endometrial cancer, though not against other types of cancer. Evidence suggests that coffee may also lower the risk of Parkinson’s disease but, apparently, is not protective against dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This evidence strongly suggests that drinking up to 5 cups of coffee per day appears to have some favorable effects on health. However, coffee may pose a modestly elevated risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
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Background and aims (Poly)phenols might contribute to prevent cardiovascular disease, but limited prospective studies exist among adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate within-subject longitudinal changes in (poly)phenols intakes and food group contributors while also exploring the association with metabolic syndrome risk (MetS) during 10 years of follow up in European adolescents becoming young adults. Methods and Results In 164 participants (58% girls, 13-18y at baseline) from Ghent, Zaragoza and Lille, longitudinal data (2006-2016) on (poly)phenol intake was retrieved via 2 or 3 24h recalls. Linear and logistic longitudinal regression tested the association of (poly)phenols intake (total and classes) with Mets risk or its components (waist-height-ratio, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and insulin resistance index), adjusted for age, sex, country and other nutrient intakes. The total (poly)phenols intake was 421±107 mg/day (192 mg/1000kcal/day) at baseline, while 610±101 mg/day (311 mg/1000kcal/day) at follow-up. The three major food sources for (poly)phenols were ‘chocolate’, ‘fruit and vegetable juices’, ‘cakes and biscuits’ during adolescence and ‘coffee’, ‘tea’ and ‘chocolate’ during adulthood. Phenolic acid intake was associated with less LDL increase over time, while stilbene intake with a steeper increase in triglycerides over time. Conclusions Differences in major (poly)phenols contributors over time were partially explained by age-specific dietary changes like increased coffee and tea during adulthood. Some significant (poly)phenols-MetS associations might argue for nutrition-based disease prevention during adolescence, especially since adolescents had low (poly)phenols intake.
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Background: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. Methods: We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229 119 men and 173 141 women in the National Institutes of Health - AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50-71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. Results: During 5 148 760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33 731 men and 18 784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tcbacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P < 0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (p < 0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data.
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Recent studies have indicated higher risk of fractures among coffee drinkers. To quantitatively assess the association between coffee consumption and the risk of fractures, we conducted this meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for prospective studies reporting the risk of fractures with coffee consumption. Quality of included studies was assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa scale. We conducted a meta-analysis and a cumulative meta-analysis of relative risk (RR) for an increment of one cup of coffee per day, and explored the potential dose-response relationship. Sensitivity analysis was performed where statistical heterogeneity existed. We included 10 prospective studies covering 214,059 participants and 9,597 cases. There was overall 3.5% higher fracture risk for an increment of one cup of coffee per day (RR = 1.035, 95% CI: 1.019-1.052). Pooled RRs were 1.049 (95% CI: 1.022-1.077) for women and 0.910 (95% CI: 0.873-0.949) for men. Among women, RR was 1.055 (95% CI: 0.999-1.114) for younger participants, and 1.047 (95% CI: 1.016-1.080) for older ones. Cumulative meta-analysis indicated that risk estimates reached a stabilization level (RR = 1.035, 95% CI: 1.019-1.052), and it revealed a positive dose-response relationship between coffee consumption and risk of fractures either for men and women combined or women specifically. This meta-analysis suggests an overall harm of coffee intake in increasing the risk of fractures, especially for women. But current data are insufficient to reach a convincing conclusion and further research needs to be conducted.
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Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline. In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.).
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Context: Population study data about relations of coffee drinking to arrhythmia are sparse. Objective: To study relations of coffee drinking to risk of cardiac arrhythmia in 130,054 persons with previous data about coffee habits.Design and Outcome Measure: We used Cox proportional hazards models with 8 covariates to study coffee-related risk in 3137 persons hospitalized for cardiac arrhythmia. We conducted a similar analysis of total caffeine-related risk in a subgroup with data about other caffeine intake (11,679 study participants; 198 hospitalized). Results: With non-coffee-drinkers as the referent, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for any arrhythmia at the level of <1 cup of coffee per day was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9-1.1; p = 0.7); for 1-3 cups/day, it was 0.9 (CI, 0.8-1.0; p = 0.2), and for ≥4 cups/day, it was 0.8 (CI, 0.7-0.9; p = 0.002). With coffee intake as a continuous variable, the HR per cup per day was 0.97 (CI, 0.95-0.99; p = 0.001). RESULTS were similar for several strata, including persons with history or symptoms of possible cardiore-spiratory disease and those without such history or symptoms. Coffee had similar relations to atrial fibrillation (48% of participants with arrhythmia) and most other specific arrhythmia diagnoses. Controlled for number of cups of coffee per day, total caffeine intake was inversely related to risk (HR highest quartile vs lowest = 0.6; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The inverse relations of coffee and caffeine intake to hospitalization for arrhythmias make it unlikely that moderate caffeine intake increases arrhythmia risk.
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Caffeine is the world's most widely used central nervous system stimulant, with approximately 80% consumed in the form of coffee. However, studies that analyze prospectively the relationship between coffee or caffeine consumption and depression risk are scarce. A total of 50,739 US women (mean age, 63 years) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (in 1996) were prospectively followed up through June 1, 2006. Consumption of caffeine was measured from validated questionnaires completed from May 1, 1980, through April 1, 2004, and computed as cumulative mean consumption with a 2-year latency period applied. Clinical depression was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use. Relative risks of clinical depression were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 10 years of follow-up (1996-2006), 2607 incident cases of depression were identified. Compared with women consuming 1 or less cup of caffeinated coffee per week, the multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.95) for those consuming 2 to 3 cups per day and 0.80 (0.64-0.99; P for trend<.001) for those consuming 4 cups per day or more. Multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P for trend=.02) for women in the highest (≥550 mg/d) vs lowest (<100 mg/d) of the 5 caffeine consumption categories. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with depression risk. In this large longitudinal study, we found that depression risk decreases with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether usual caffeinated coffee consumption can contribute to depression prevention.
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Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Randomized parallel-arm intervention conducted in 45 healthy overweight volunteers who were nonsmokers and regular coffee consumers. Participants were assigned to consumption of 5 cups (177 mL each) per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or no coffee (i.e., water) for 8 weeks. Average age was 40 years and body mass index was 29.5 kg/m2. Compared with consuming no coffee, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased adiponectin (difference in change from baseline 1.4 μg/mL; 95% CI: 0.2, 2.7) and interleukin-6 (difference: 60%; 95% CI: 8, 138) concentrations and consumption of decaffeinated coffee decreased fetuin-A concentrations (difference: -20%; 95% CI: -35, -1). For measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, no significant differences were found between treatment groups. Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097.
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The effect of coffee and caffeine on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hypertensive persons is uncertain. The objective was to summarize the evidence on the acute and longer-term effects of caffeine and coffee intake on BP and on the association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of CVD in hypertensive individuals. A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications identified in a PubMed and EMBASE search up to 30 April 2011 was undertaken. Data were extracted from controlled trials on the effect of caffeine or coffee intake on BP change and from cohort studies on the association between habitual coffee consumption and CVD. In 5 trials, the administration of 200-300 mg caffeine produced a mean increase of 8.1 mm Hg (95% CI: 5.7, 10.6 mm Hg) in systolic BP and of 5.7 mm Hg (95% CI: 4.1, 7.4 mm Hg) in diastolic BP. The increase in BP was observed in the first hour after caffeine intake and lasted ≥3 h. In 3 studies of the longer-term effect (2 wk) of coffee, no increase in BP was observed after coffee was compared with a caffeine-free diet or was compared with decaffeinated coffee. Last, 7 cohort studies found no evidence of an association between habitual coffee consumption and a higher risk of CVD. In hypertensive individuals, caffeine intake produces an acute increase in BP for ≥3 h. However, current evidence does not support an association between longer-term coffee consumption and increased BP or between habitual coffee consumption and an increased risk of CVD in hypertensive subjects.
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Hot tea and coffee have been found to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the consumption of tea, coffee, or both is associated with less frequent nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate the relationship between the consumption of coffee, hot tea, cold tea, and soft drinks, and MRSA nasal carriage among the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. An estimated 2.5 million persons (1.4% of the population) were MRSA nasal carriers. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis controlling for age, race, sex, poverty-income ratio, current health status, hospitalization in the past 12 months, and use of antibiotics in the past month, individuals who reported consuming hot tea were one-half as likely to have MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no hot tea (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.71). Similarly, individuals who reported consuming coffee had about a one-half reduction in the risk of MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no coffee (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.93). Consumption of hot tea or coffee is associated with a lower likelihood of MRSA nasal carriage. Our findings raise the possibility of a promising new method to decrease MRSA nasal carriage that is safe, inexpensive, and easily accessible.
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Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similar associations have also been reported for decaffeinated coffee and tea. We report herein the findings of meta-analyses for the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of diabetes. Relevant studies were identified through search engines using a combined text word and MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) search strategy. Prospective studies that reported an estimate of the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea with incident diabetes between 1966 and July 2009. Data from 18 studies with information on 457 922 participants reported on the association between coffee consumption and diabetes. Six (N = 225 516) and 7 studies (N = 286 701) also reported estimates of the association between decaffeinated coffee and tea with diabetes, respectively. We found an inverse log-linear relationship between coffee consumption and subsequent risk of diabetes such that every additional cup of coffee consumed in a day was associated with a 7% reduction in the excess risk of diabetes relative risk, 0.93 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.95]) after adjustment for potential confounders. Owing to the presence of small-study bias, our results may represent an overestimate of the true magnitude of the association. Similar significant and inverse associations were observed with decaffeinated coffee and tea and risk of incident diabetes. High intakes of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea are associated with reduced risk of diabetes. The putative protective effects of these beverages warrant further investigation in randomized trials.
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Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant drug in the world. With intermittent exposures, caffeine may act as a mild analgesic for headache or as an adjuvant for the actions of other analgesics. Chronic repetitive exposures to caffeine increase the risks for development of analgesic-overuse headache, chronic daily headache, and physical dependency. Cessation of caffeine use after chronic exposures leads to a withdrawal syndrome with headache as a dominant symptom. At dosages achieved by common dietary intake, caffeine acts as a potent antagonist of central and peripheral nervous system adenosine receptors. The complex effects of caffeine on headache disorders suggest important roles for adenosine in these disorders and in the induction of caffeine dependency.
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Coffee drinking has been associated with increased serum cholesterol levels in some, but not all, studies. A Medline search of the English-language literature published prior to December 1998, a bibliography review, and consultations with experts were performed to identify 14 published trials of coffee consumption. Information was ed independently by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. With a random-effects model, treatment effects were estimated by pooling results from individual trials after weighting the results by the inverse of total variance. A dose-response relation between coffee consumption and both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was identified (p < 0.01). Increases in serum lipids were greater in studies of patients with hyperlipidemia and in trials of caffeinated or boiled coffee. Trials using filtered coffee demonstrated very little increase in serum cholesterol. Consumption of unfiltered, but not filtered, coffee increases serum levels of total and LDL cholesterol.
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Although caffeine is a universal drug and has multiple pharmacologic and physiologic actions in man, there are surprisingly few objective data about its effect on pulmonary function. We conducted a short-term, double-blind, randomized crossover study in nine asthmatic adults who ingested decaffeinated coffee containing varying amounts of added caffeine (mean of 0.2,2.5,5.6, and 7.2 mg/kg of body weight) on different days. The subjects also ingested decaffeinated coffee and aminophylline (200 mg) on a separate day of study. Baseline and post-drug determinations of serum levels of caffeine and theophylline, forced expired volume and flow, specific airway conductance (Gaw/VL), vital signs, and reported symptoms were obtained. Peak increases in serum caffeine concentrations (mean, 12.4 micrograms/ml +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml) occurred 45 minutes following the highest dose of caffeine (7.2 mg/kg), whereas the peak theophylline level (mean 3.8 micrograms/ml +/- 0.4 micrograms/ml) occurred 90 minutes following oral administration of aminophylline (mean theophylline, 2.6 mg/kg). Comparable peak increases in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the forced vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and Gaw/VL occurred at 120 minutes following aminophylline and the highest dose of caffeine, indicating that caffeine is an effective bronchodilator but is only 40 percent as active as an equivalent molar dose of theophylline. Regression analysis revealed statistically significant dose-response relationships between peak increases in serum caffeine concentrations and increases in FEV1, FEF25-75%, and Gaw/VL from baseline values. These findings have diagnostic and therapeutic implications regarding the use of caffeine prior to tests of pulmonary function and as a dietary agent, alone or in combination with theophylline.
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Background— Coffee is the most abundantly consumed stimulant worldwide. However, its cardiovascular safety remains controversial. Possible health hazards have been related to its main ingredient, caffeine. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system by coffee may enhance cardiovascular risk; however, it is unclear whether this effect of coffee is related to caffeine or other substance(s) also contained in decaffeinated coffee. Methods and Results— In 15 healthy volunteers (6 habitual and 9 nonhabitual coffee drinkers) arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSA) were continuously recorded before and after drinking a triple espresso or a decaffeinated triple espresso or after intravenous administration of caffeine (250 mg) or placebo (saline) in the same subjects. There was a significant time × condition interaction for the intravenous caffeine and placebo conditions for MSA, with caffeine showing a significant increase in MSA at 60 minutes (53.2±14.1% total activity) and the placebo group showing no effect. A similar significant time effect was found for coffee drinking (54.1±22.5% total activity). Habitual and nonhabitual coffee drinkers demonstrated similar changes in MSA and BP after intravenous caffeine, whereas coffee drinking increased BP in nonhabitual drinkers only, despite comparable increases of MSA and plasma caffeine levels. Nonhabitual coffee drinkers showed similar activation of MSA and BP after caffeine infusion, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee. Conclusions— Acutely, coffee and caffeine induced comparable increases in MSA and BP in nonhabitual coffee drinkers, whereas habitual coffee drinkers exhibited lack of BP increase despite MSA activation to coffee. Because decaffeinated coffee also increases BP and MSA in nonhabitual drinkers, ingredients other than caffeine must be responsible for cardiovascular activation.
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Objective. —To describe the association of lifetime intake of caffeinated coffee, in cup-years, to bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine in postmenopausal women; and to determine the effect of regular milk intake on this association.Design. —Women from an established epidemiologic cohort had measures of BMD and gave a medical and behavioral history that included caffeinated coffee and daily milk intake between the ages of 12 and 18 years, 20 and 50 years, and 50 years of age and older.Setting. —A community-based population of older women, Rancho Bernardo, Calif.Participants. —All 980 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 98 years (mean age, 72.7 years) who participated between 1988 and 1991.Main Outcome Measures. —Bone density at the hip and lumbar spine measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.Main Results. —There was a statistically significant graded association between increasing lifetime intake of caffeinated coffee and decreasing BMD at both the hip and spine, independent of age, obesity, parity, years since menopause, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, estrogen, thiazides, and calcium supplements. Bone density did not vary by lifetime coffee intake in women who reported drinking at least one glass of milk per day during most of their adult lives.Conclusions. —Lifetime caffeinated coffee intake equivalent to two cups per day is associated with decreased bone density in older women who do not drink milk on a daily basis.(JAMA. 1994;271:280-283)
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Little information is known regarding caffeine's effect on the substrate supporting sustained ventricular arrhythmias. This prospective study evaluated the effect of coffee (275 mg of caffeine) on this substrate with programmed ventricular stimulation in 22 patients with a history of symptomatic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, or ventricular fibrillation. Patients under-went electrophysiological testing before and 1 hour after coffee ingestion. Mean ( ± SEM) plasma caffeine level achieved after coffee consumption was 6.2 ± 0.5 mg/L. Mean plasma catecholamine and potassium values were not altered significantly 1 hour following caffeine ingestion. The number of extrastimuli required to induce an arrhythmia was unchanged in 10 patients (46%), increased in six (27%), and decreased in six (27%). Rhythm severity was unchanged in 17 patients (77%), more severe in two (9%), and less severe in three (14%). In those patients with clinical ventricular arrhythmias, caffeine did not significantly alter inducibility or severity of arrhythmias, suggesting little effect on the substrate supporting ventricular arrhythmias.(JAMA. 1990;264:2236-2240)
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In 1911, under authority granted by the recently enacted Food and Drug Act, US agents seized 40 kegs and 20 barrels of Coca-Cola syrup in Chattanooga, Tennessee.1,2 The group, led by chief chemist Harvey Wiley, considered the caffeine in Coca-Cola to be a significant public health hazard (both cocaine and alcohol had been removed from the recipe in the previous decade). The case continued for years. Eventually Coca-Cola decreased the caffeine content in this product and legal action was dropped.3
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CONTEXT:: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide and is known to acutely raise blood pressure (BP), but the effects of chronic consumption on BP is unclear. OBJECTIVES:: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies to assess the effect of chronic coffee consumption on BP and the development of hypertension. DATA SOURCES:: Ovid, MEDLINE (from 1948), EMBASE (from 1988), and all of Web of Science and Scopus. STUDY SELECTION:: RCTs and cohort studies of at least 1-week duration that assessed BP and/or the incidence of hypertension in coffee consumers compared with a control group that consumed less or no coffee. DATA EXTRACTION:: Two authors independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles for inclusion. Data were abstracted using standardized forms. Risk of bias in the RCTs was examined using the method described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Quality of the cohort studies were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for cohort studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:: Six hundred and ten articles were retrieved and a total of 15 (10 RCTs and five cohort studies) met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs demonstrated a pooled weighted difference in mean change in SBP of -0.55 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.46 to 1.36) and DBP -0.45 mmHg (95% CI -1.52 to 0.61). Meta-analysis of the cohort studies demonstrated a pooled risk ratio for developing hypertension of 1.03 (95% CI 0.98-1.08). CONCLUSION:: Low-quality evidence did not show any statistically significant effect of coffee consumption on BP or the risk of hypertension. Given the quality of the currently available evidence, no recommendation can be made for or against coffee consumption as it relates to BP and hypertension.