A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Exposure to ELF-EMFs and the Risk of Female Breast Cancer

ArticleinPLoS ONE 8(7):e69272 · July 2013with22 Reads
Impact Factor: 3.23 · DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069272 · Source: PubMed

To comprehensively analyze the relationship between exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) and the development of female breast cancer. Reports of case-control studies published from 1990 to 2010 were analyzed. The quality effect model was chosen to calculate total odds ratio (OR) depending on the data in studies and quality scores. Subgroup analyses were also performed by the situation of menopause, estrogenic receptor and exposure assessment respectively. For all 23 studies the OR was 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.13, for estrogen receptor positive subgroup,OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.20; for premenopausal subgroup, OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.00-1.23. The results of other subgroups showed no significant association between ELF-EMF and female breast cancer. ELF-EMFs might be related to an increased risk for female breast cancer, especially for premenopausal and ER+ females. However, it's necessary to undertake better epidemiologic researches to verify the association between ELF-EMF and female breast cancer due to the limits of current study, especially the one on exposure assessment.

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    • "Finally, self-reported use of indoor electrical appliances was assessed. Selection was based on being commonly used in the population , the potential contribution to total magnetic field exposure as documented in technical papers (Leitgeb et al., 2007; Mezei et al., 2001), literature reports on attribution of symptoms by potentially susceptible population subgroups (Baliatsas et al., 2012a; Hagström et al., 2013) and previous epidemiological studies investigating associated health effects (Chen et al., 2013; Kleinerman et al., 2005; Zheng et al., 2000). Questions on the following appliances were included in the survey questionnaire: Electric alarm clock, electric charger, electric oven, induction hob, electric/ceramic hob, personal computer (PC) or laptop, electric blanket and vacuum cleaner. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is continuing scientific debate and increasing public concern regarding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on general population‘s health. To date, no epidemiological study has investigated the possible association between actual and perceived EMF exposure and non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and sleep quality, using both self-reported and general practice (GP)-registered data. A health survey of adult (≥18) participants (n=5933) in the Netherlands was combined with the electronic medical records (EMRs) of NSPS as registered by general practitioners. Characterization of actual exposure was based on several proxies, such as prediction models of radiofrequency (RF)-EMF exposure, geo-coded distance to high-voltage overhead power lines and self-reported use/distance of/to indoor electrical appliances. Perceived exposure and the role of psychological variables were also examined. Perceived exposure had a poor correlation with the actual exposure estimates. No significant association was found between modeled RF-EMF exposure and the investigated outcomes. Associations with NSPS were observed for use of an electric blanket and close distance to an electric charger during sleep. Perceived exposure, perceived control and avoidance behavior were associated with the examined outcomes. The association between perceived exposure was stronger for self-reported than for GP-registered NSPS. There was some indication, but no consistent pattern for an interaction between idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI-EMF) and the association between actual exposure and NSPS. In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence for an association between everyday life RF-EMF exposure and NSPS and sleep quality in the population. Better exposure characterization, in particular with respect to sources of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is needed to draw more solid conclusions. We argue that perceived exposure is an independent determinant of NSPS.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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    • "However, their low frequency does enable them to penetrate deep into tissues. ELF- EMF reportedly have effects on a range of endpoints, including adverse effects on female breast cancer, fertility, and genotoxicity (Bernabo et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2013; Ivancsits et al., 2005) as well as beneficial effects on wound and bone fracture repair (Costin et al., 2012; Zhong et al., 2012). Effects of ELF-EMF have been investigated in different research areas, including immunology, endocrinology, and neurology (Feychting et al., 2005; World Health Organisation, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), generated by power lines and electric appliances, raises concern about potential adverse health effects of ELF-EMF. The central nervous system is expected to be particularly vulnerable to ELF-EMF as its function strongly depends on electrical excitability. We therefore investigated effects of acute (30 min) and sub-chronic (48 h) exposure to 50 Hz ELF-EMF on naïve and chemically stressed pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The latter have higher levels of iron and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and display increased vulnerability to environmental insults. Effects of ELF-EMF on Ca2+-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity were assessed using Fura-2 single cell fluorescence microscopy, H2-DCFDA and CFDA assays, respectively. Our data demonstrate that acute exposure of naïve PC12 cells to 50 Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000 μT fails to affect basal or depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i. Moreover, sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure up to 1000 μT has no consistent effects on Ca2+-homeostasis in naïve PC12 cells and does not affect ROS production and membrane integrity. Notably, in chemically stressed PC12 cells both acute and sub-chronic ELF-EMF exposure also failed to exert consistent effects on Ca2+-homeostasis, ROS production and membrane integrity. Our combined findings thus indicate that exposure to 50 Hz ELF-EMF up to 1000 μT, i.e. 10,000 times above background exposure, does not induce neurotoxic effects in vitro, neither in naïve nor in chemically stressed PC12 cells. Though our data require confirmation, e.g. in developing neuronal cells in vitro or (developing) animals, it appears that the neurotoxic risk of ELF-EMF exposure is limited.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · NeuroToxicology
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the progress of mobile phone technology accelerates throughout Europe, the regulatory framework necessary for its safe and extended use has been slow to develop. This article analyses the relationship between scientific knowledge and regulation concerning the heath effects of increasing emissions of electromagnetic fields (EMF). From a conservationist perspective, no other example of industrial impact on the natural environment has achieved such extended penetration so quickly. From a theoretical standpoint, stakeholders are faced with a difficult choice between comprehensive risk assessment versus immediate application of the precautionary principle. By exploring the interaction between citizens, governments, and international bodies, we first analyze the challenges faced by regulators in the presence of uncertain scientific knowledge and standards of measurement. We then highlight the inadequacy of current risk assessment parameters. Lastly, within the context of State and European regulation of EMF exposure, we expand scholarship on the human rights framework to protect vulnerable populations from environmental pollution. We conclude that, because scientific knowledge is incomplete, a precautionary approach is better suited to State obligations under international human rights law.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Environmental Science & Policy
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