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ICT for education projects: A look from behind the scenes

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Abstract

Much of the ICT facilities in developing countries' educational institutions are not used and ICT for Development projects have high rates of failure. The reasons for this phenomenon are structural and embedded in the very fabric of the Cooperation & Development project management practices. Bureaucracies' requirements, transaction costs, sustainability concerns, mutual perception and identity negotiation between “developer” and “developee” and above all, a mechanistic mindset for both education and reality in general, are crucial factors in shaping the project implementation, often in contrast with the public rhetoric about it. The role of technology in this complex dynamic is addressed critically, pointing out some structural reasons for its failure to deliver the expected benefits in the mid-long run, namely: the industrialism burden, the daily digital divides and the omission of maintenance. A radical change of mindset is called for, one to be applied both to aid and education.

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... This article approaches CMCs through the sociopsychological paradigm of the social representations theory (Moscovici, 1961) and explores ways through which social actors co-construct, negotiate, and share representations of social and cultural phenomena. This theoretical framework was revealed to be particularly useful for incorporating sociocultural and contextual elements into the investigation, essential when dealing with ICT4D projects (Brunello, 2010;Tedre, Sutinen, Kähkönen, & Kommers, 2006;Unwin, 2009). ...
... Although prior investigations have extensively studied the SRs of ICTs (Contarello, Fortunati, & Sarrica, 2007;Sensales, 1990) and their reºections on identities, cultures, and social changes (Contarello, Nencini, & Sarrica, 2007;Durieux, 2003), to date, few studies have incorporated such a perspective into the speciªc research ªeld of ICT4D (Bailey & Ngwenyama, 2011). Yet, the authors view SRT as particularly relevant to ICT4D studies, as it permits addressing the recurrently reported design-reality gap (Brunello, 2010;Heeks, 2002;Unwin, 2009) between topdown conceived development projects and local contexts. SRT permits consideration of a more consensual vision among the involved stakeholders. ...
... Thus, respondents perceive mastering informatics as an added value in itself; informatics is not seen as a tool for performing tasks or reaching goals. This vision, known as technological imperative (Bates, 1997;Brunello, 2010), is typical of settings where technologies are in the process of being adopted and their symbolic meaning is stronger than their useful one (Fanni, Tardini, Rega, Cantoni, & van Zyl, 2010). ...
Article
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This article presents extensive research conducted in Mozambique that aims to deeply understand how different social groups understand community multimedia centers (CMCs), which are structures combining a community radio and a telecenter. The social representations theory was adopted to interpret narratives of 231 interviewees from 10 Mozambican provinces. Interviewees included representatives of initiating agencies, local staff members, CMC users (both the radio and telecenter components), users of only the community radio, and community members not using the CMCs. Following the analysis of transcribed interviews, six main clusters were identified, each of them shedding light on a specific understanding of a CMC. These are discussed according to a set of sociodemographic variables. This study suggests that the social representations theory is a valuable framework to provide an integrated view of ICT4D interventions by giving a voice to local perspectives without overlooking the initiating agencies’ expectations.
... The design concern of understanding the specific and contextual ways in which technologies have an impact in different economic and cultural contexts has proven relevant to guarantee the impact and sustainability of ICT-based interventions for development. The relevant literature has increasingly supported that bottom-up strategies and a deeper understanding of the social context and local socio-cultural dynamics lead to better outcomes than sheer technology transfer from North to South (Brunello, 2010; Kleine & Unwin, 2009; Tedre, Sutinen, Kähkönen, & Kommers, 2006). Following this stream, this paper intends to contribute to the understating of the local perceptions of the UNESCO model of Community Multimedia Centres (CMCs) in Mozambique, which may have an influence onto the appropriation and, consequently, onto the sustainability of the CMCs programme itself. ...
... Today, scholars extensively agree on the idea that effective appropriation of technologies and their impact on social development depend on a variety of factors go far beyond the mere achievement of access and connectivity (Gómez, 2010; Warschauer, 2004). Also, a consolidated corpus of experiences and results from ICT4D projects worldwide proved the complexity of extratechnological factors involved in their implementation (Brunello, 2010; Heeks, 2002; Kleine & Unwin, 2009; Tedre et al., 2006). Under this stream, the way in which local people make sense of technologies is recognized to be a fundamental factor for failure or success of such projects. ...
... The design concern of understanding the specific and contextual ways in which technologies have an impact in different economic and cultural contexts has proven relevant to guarantee the impact and sustainability of ICT-based interventions for development. The relevant literature has increasingly supported that bottom-up strategies and a deeper understanding of the social context and local socio-cultural dynamics lead to better outcomes than sheer technology transfer from North to South ( Brunello, 2010;Kleine & Unwin, 2009;Tedre, Sutinen, Kähkönen, & Kommers, 2006). Following this stream, this paper intends to contribute to the understating of the local perceptions of the UNESCO model of Community Multimedia Centres (CMCs) in Mozambique, which may have an influence onto the appropriation and, consequently, onto the sustainability of the CMCs programme itself. ...
... The design concern of understanding the specific and contextual ways in which technologies have an impact in different economic and cultural contexts has proven relevant to guarantee the impact and sustainability of ICT-based interventions for development. The relevant literature has increasingly supported that bottom-up strategies and a deeper understanding of the social context and local socio-cultural dynamics lead to better outcomes than sheer technology transfer from North to South (Brunello, 2010;Kleine & Unwin, 2009;Tedre, Sutinen, Kähkönen, & Kommers, 2006). ...
... Today, scholars extensively agree on the idea that effective appropriation of technologies and their impact on social development depend on a variety of factors go far beyond the mere achievement of access and connectivity (Gómez, 2010;Warschauer, 2004). Also, a consolidated corpus of experiences and results from ICT4D projects worldwide proved the complexity of extratechnological factors involved in their implementation (Brunello, 2010;Heeks, 2002;Kleine & Unwin, 2009;Tedre et al., 2006). Under this stream, the way in which local people make sense of technologies is recognized to be a fundamental factor for failure or success of such projects. ...
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This paper investigates different stakeholders perceptions of the most widespread kind of venues to publicly access ICTs in Mozambique: Community Multimedia Centres. By rooting in the social psychology theory of Social Representations, this study analyzes autodriven photo-elicited interviews (n=103), to users (n=55) and staff members (n=48), across 10 locations within the country. Photo-elicited interviews are explored through photo-taxonomy and qualitative thematic analysis, aided by the Nvivo 9.2 content analysis software. The paper suggests how this data collection technique encouraged interviewees to reflect about what a CMC is and what it should be, while providing important insights about users' and staff members' ideas, values and practices about these venues.
... Similarly, Vernooy's (2010, p. 145) exploration of collaborative learning in Asia corroborates that "careful preparation, a strong team, clear and shared goals, good technical and financial support, ongoing and systematic monitoring, involving students as much as possible, and continuous focus on learning-by-doing have been important in keeping things going on track." Our project model was not a good fit for meeting the needs of an evolving collaboration network initiative, and this reflection is consistent with those listed above (see also Brunello, 2010). Our experience clearly demonstrates that without clear learning goals attached to collaboration objectives, technology training was virtually meaningless, but that defining these takes a great amount of relationship-building, negotiation, learning and reflection. ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores how the Web 2.0 principle of the Web as a platform was applied in the context of a development aid-funded project aimed to enhance online collaboration capacities of 17 Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in five West African Nations. The main issues confronted in the project related to the linear project design and a misconceptualisation of technology as an input, thus separating the design and implementation processes from the ultimate collaboration aims that are desired outcomes. It is therefore argued that technology-mediated collaboration initiatives within development cooperation contexts can draw from underlying Web 2.0 principles, but that these principles could more usefully be linked to development concepts in order to further enable critical reflection by primary stakeholders, so as to include them in all aspects of technology design. By focusing less on technology provision and more on the capacity of users to assess their own emergent needs has potentially more important longterm collaboration impacts.
... This article aims to inform academics, practitioners, and policy makers of local stakeholders' perceptions of CMCs in Mozambique and is grounded on the concern of understanding the contextual reality as an essential requisite to guarantee the impact and sustainability of ICT-based interventions for development (Brunello, 2010;Heeks, 2002;Irani et al., 2010;Kleine & Unwin, 2009;Tedre et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Ten Mozambican Community Multimedia Centers (CMCs) were investigated by analyzing Social Representations of users and staff members. Photo-elicitation, an underexplored methodological approach in the domain of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), was employed to conduct the study, and a three-step qualitative content analysis was performed on both visual and textual data. Results tend to confirm and build upon outcomes from the existing literature on Public Access Venues (PAVs). Local communities value these centers because they bring social recognition to people working or learning there. The venues are associated with a symbolism that extends from the social recognition of the individual to the development and social inclusion of the whole community, which, because of the presence of the venue, does not feel left behind. In this vein, the study also shows that the importance of CMCs is often not related to the newest technology available, but to the technology that reaches the most of the community. The study also highlights neglected dimensions of CMCs, such as the importance of the exterior appearance of the venue, and the perception of a switch in their nature from static centers funded by third parties towards more entrepreneurial-driven ones. The presented research also contributes to the ICT4D field by proposing a promising research protocol, which is able to elicit representations otherwise difficult to obtain.
... Local stakeholders have also been involved in a series of collaborative design sessions, aiming to define, plan, and implement improvement actions. The validation for these sessions is underpinned by participatory theory: context-based, collaborative design guarantees better outcomes than sheer technology transfer from North to South (Brunello 2010;Kleine & Unwin 2009;Sassen 2012;Tedre, Sutinen, Kähkönen & Kommers 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the possibility for a design-based research (DBR) methodology in the broader ICT-for-development (ICT4D) domain. Specifically, the authors reflect on the application of DBR within a local development project, active in Mozambique, titled RE-ACT. Leveraging on DBR, said project studies the social conceptualisations of Community Multimedia Centres by stakeholders and funding agencies. These experiences are subsequently utilised as a basis for specific improvement actions. DBR is an adaptable and flexible methodology, capable of meeting the diverse needs of multimedia centres in various conditions. However, DBR is an emerging perspective and has not found its distinct position within the communication and social sciences, much less in ICT4D. It does yet offer important advantages, mostly in stimulating processes of public access, participant engagement, self-directed learning, and iterative design. This paper will reflect on a design-based research strategy in terms of RE-ACT, and will explore its opportunities, both for the respective research outcomes and for the discipline of ICT4D. The authors note the distinctive advantages of DBR, but conclude that the social impacts of the methodology are elusive.
... Contextual dynamics are often slippery 17 to grab, arduous to express, or even unconscious to the subjects involved (Sclavi, 2003). Dynamics of 18 perceived or real power, such as the relationship between foreign researchers and local communities, or 19 between donors and beneficiaries, make it even harder to access the existent universes of meaning and 20 cultural practices existing at the grassroots where research is conducted (Brunello, 2010;Dodman, 2003). 21 ...
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Argumentation is essentially dialogical, hence based on verbal disputation. Nonetheless, other semiotic resources than language may play a substantial role in argumentative circumstances. In this article, different argumentative functions played by photographs are explored, based on an unusual corpus for the field. People working in Mozambican Community Multimedia Centers (CMCs) were interviewed, in order to reconstruct the social meaning they confer to such places. To facilitate the exchange of meanings between interviewees and interviewers, who had different cultural and experiential backgrounds, interviewees were requested to take pictures of something they liked, something they didn’t like, and something they perceived as particularly representative of their CMC. Pictures were then presented and commented by participants during their interview. By means of analytical reconstructions, the major argumentative roles played by photographs in the interviews were identified, as well as their semiotic function in respect to interviewees’ words. Argumentative analysis also broadened and enriched the method of photo-driven interviews, and added a further interpretative access to analysis of social representations.
... Brunello [11] mentions the role of the administrator balancing both his/her own livelihood (sustainability) on the job while at the same time caring for the beneficiaries (those who had received help from the technology). Much of the focus may be on the administrators themselves as their main concern is to "stay in the games and keep playing" pointing to the problem that that sustainability here is not the beneficiaries. ...
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The effectiveness of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in its contribution towards the mass education of people in developing countries is questionable. We begin with a model that defines the desirable outcomes in society with ICT being effective in its contribution. Our literature review will show that the common understanding of the value-added services of ICT in education is somewhat questionable as we consider the 3 key areas in ICT's contribution to mass education. Empirical data is collected to find out if ICT can really effectively contribute to the delivery of mass education in developing countries. The results conclude that there is indeed a lack of focus and system in place on measuring the effectiveness of ICT in educational content delivery for students in developing countries.
... What is essentially taught as a resolution to these cultural interactions are the skills of successful mediation, where the host of communicative skills participants utilize to understand one another and create meaning together despite their differences lead to better negotiation and more satisfying outcomes for both parties. We will suggest here that mediation training may use this teaching resource, critical incidents, as a model for contextualizing mediation, following in particular the framework of Brunello (2010;, as adapted by Vannini, et al, 2017), which is based on intercultural communication studies and views the cultural component of critical incidents as fluid and contextually dependent (Vannini et al., 2017, 17). ...
... In fact, research clearly demonstrates that the effective use of ICTs in education is more difficult to achieve than expected -in fact, this is one of the reasons why experiments in investing in computers, educational software, and Internet access in school systems in the developing world has not automatically led to transformations in learning outcomes (Brunello 2010). There are many reasons for this, including the fact that successful outcomes in 'ICTs in school' programmes depend on system change issues, including teachers' professional development, as 'Connect to Learn' 11 , a partnership founded by the Earth Institute, Ericsson and Millennium Promise in late 2010 has found (Broadband Commission Working Group on Education 2013: 47). ...
... Assim, muito tem de ser feito no sistema de ensino e de aprendizagem da matemática, uma das áreas fundamentais para o desenvolvimento da humanidade, mas, paradoxalmente, uma das mais votadas ao insucesso educativo e escolar (Brunello, 2010), diretamente relacionado com uma visão negativa em torno dessa área. A este facto não são alheias, nomeadamente, as dificuldades dos professores em praticarem um ensino motivador e consequente, também causadas pelas sucessivas reformas que se têm introduzido nos últimos anos no sistema educativo. ...
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O presente artigo propõe-se divulgar parte de uma investigação que perseguiu como uma das principais finalidades analisar o potencial da exploração do GeoGebra, complementada com ferramentas tradicionais, no desenvolvimento de competências geométricas, relacionadas com as isometrias e os frisos, em alunos do 1.º ciclo do ensino básico. No âmbito do trabalho empírico, desenvolveu-se um estudo de caso múltiplo centrado em dois pares de alunos do 4.º ano de escolaridade que resolveram autonomamente, por recurso àquelas tecnologias, uma bateria de tarefas de natureza essencialmente exploratória. Os dados foram recolhidos através das técnicas de inquirição, observação direta e participante e análise documental. A análise de conteúdo a que foram submetidos permitiu concluir que uma abordagem didática centrada em sequências de tarefas a resolver com recurso a tecnologias tradicionais conjugadas com o GeoGebra potencia uma apropriação mais sólida dos conceitos geométricos em causa e sua aplicação. Além disso, contribuiu ainda para o desenvolvimento de atitudes favoráveis em relação à matemática e à geometria, em particular.
... Brunello [11] mentions the role of the administrator balancing both his/her own livelihood (sustainability) on the job while at the same time caring for the beneficiaries (those who had received help from the technology). Much of the focus may be on the administrators themselves as their main concern is to "stay in the games and keep playing" pointing to the problem that that sustainability here is not the beneficiaries. ...
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This paper is addressed to an audience of managers and senior analysts involved with planning and controlling the knowledge engineering life cycle. A general framework for understanding the sociotechnical implications of expert systems is provided. It is argued that expert systems comprise two distinct but entwined subsystems. There is a technical component that concerns the task domain and the knowledge engineering process. There is a social dimension of how users and managers relate to the system and how the system fits with the organization. The authors believe that understanding the associations between these factors is essential in evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of expert systems
... The positioning of this study contributes to the bulk of literature on the relevance of information technology for inclusive development, notably: socio-economic development in rural areas (Baro & Endouware, 2013); poverty concerns in urban areas (Omole, 2013) as well as community development issues in rural areas (Breytenbacha et al., 2013); education, social and human development (Shraima & Khlaifb, 2010;Gudmundsdottir, 2010;Nkansah & Urwin, 2010;Negash, 2010;Brunello, 2010;Krauss, 2013); social change and development outcomes (Brouwer & Brito, 2012;Mira & Dangersfield, 2012;Islama & Meadeb, 2012); enhancement of institutions (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2016a) and inclusive human development (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2016b). Hence, this inquiry complements that growing body of literature on distributional externalities (Cozzens, 2011). ...
Article
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Information technology is increasingly facilitating mechanisms by which information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers in the financial sector can be reduced in order to enhance financial access for human and economic development in developing countries. We examine conditional financial development from ICT-driven information sharing in 53 African countries for the period 2004-2011, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. ICT is measured with mobile phone penetration and internet penetration whereas information sharing offices are public credit registries and private credit bureaus. The following findings are established. First, there are positive effects with positive thresholds from ICT-driven information sharing on financial depth (money supply and liquid liabilities) and financial activity (at banking and financial system levels). Second, for financial intermediation efficiency, the positive effects from mobile-driven information sharing are apparent exclusively in certain levels of financial efficiency. Third, with regard to financial size, mobile-driven information sharing is positive with a negative threshold, whereas, internet-driven information sharing is positive exclusively among countries in the bottom half of financial size. Positive thresholds are defined as decreasing negative or increasing positive estimated effects from information sharing offices and vice-versa for negative thresholds. Policy implications are discussed.
... The positioning of this study contributes to the bulk of literature on the relevance of information technology for inclusive development, notably: socio-economic development in rural areas (Baro & Endouware, 2013); poverty concerns in urban areas (Omole, 2013) as well as community development issues in rural areas (Breytenbacha et al., 2013); education, social and human development (Shraima & Khlaifb, 2010;Gudmundsdottir, 2010;Nkansah & Urwin, 2010;Negash, 2010;Brunello, 2010;Krauss, 2013); social change and development outcomes (Brouwer & Brito, 2012;Mira & Dangersfield, 2012;Islama & Meadeb, 2012); enhancement of institutions (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2016a) and inclusive human development (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2016b). Hence, this inquiry complements that growing body of literature on distributional externalities (Cozzens, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Information technology is increasingly facilitating mechanisms by which information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers in the financial sector can be reduced in order to enhance financial access for human and economic development in developing countries. We examine conditional financial development from ICT-driven information sharing in 53 African countries for the period 2004–2011, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. ICT is measured with mobile phone penetration and internet penetration, whereas information-sharing offices are public credit registries and private credit bureaus. The following findings are established. First, there are positive effects with positive thresholds from ICT-driven information sharing on financial depth (money supply and liquid liabilities) and financial activity (at banking and financial system levels). Second, for financial intermediation efficiency, the positive effects from mobile-driven information sharing are apparent exclusively in certain levels of financial efficiency. Third, with regard to financial size, mobile-driven information sharing is positive with a negative threshold, whereas internet-driven information sharing is positive exclusively among countries in the bottom half of financial size. Positive thresholds are defined as decreasing negative or increasing positive estimated effects from information-sharing offices and vice versa for negative thresholds. Policy implications are discussed.
... In this context, ICTs have been considered unquestionably appropriate tools to solve problems that are systemic in given contexts. This principle, which has recently started to be questioned (Brunello, 2010;Nemer, 2016), generated a paradox, where development has been de-humanized and has hindered projects "sustainability" -defined in Brunello's work using the words of Unwin "as the continuation of the flow of benefits after the exogenous input of resources has ceased" (Unwin, 2009, p. 365). The paradox holds, on the one hand, technologicalidolatry -the trust that technology is able and has agency to solve issues it has not caused (Best, 2010;Brunello, 2015;Latour, 2010) -and, on the other, technological determinism (Chandler, 1995) -the effort "to handle development issues by means of technical solutions" (Brunello, 2015, p. 60). ...
Article
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Conflicts among stakeholders are common in Community Informatics (CI) research. They often derive from mismatches of expectations and are exacerbated by communication and intercultural issues. Such mismatches are breaking points that might compromise the relationship of trust among stakeholders and, ultimately, project outcomes. In CI, reflecting on moments of conflict and mismatch might help researchers attend to assumptions and interpret aspects of communities' cultural context, as well as their own. This reflection should contribute to a closer connection among stakeholders and sustainable project outcomes. In this paper, we present the Critical Incidents Analysis (CIA) Framework (Brunello, 2015), a tool that was conceived within the Community and Development Informatics field with the aim to reflect upon incidents and misunderstandings among 13 stakeholders, their different cultural perspectives, and – eventually – deal with project breakdowns. We apply the framework to our own research, a posteriori, where we analyze conflicts and mismatches of expectations arisen during our fieldwork. We conclude that the CIA framework, applied "a posteriori" to our cases, was a useful tool to better analyze and report on our research, and to recast incidents as opportunities to enable a deeper understanding and build trust among stakeholders.
... The design concern of understanding the specific and contextual ways in which technologies have an impact in different economic and cultural contexts has proven relevant to guarantee the impact and sustainability of ICT-based interventions for development. The relevant literature has increasingly supported that bottom-up strategies and a deeper understanding of the social context and local socio-cultural dynamics leads to better outcomes than sheer technology transfer from North to South (Antin, 2006;Brunello, 2010;Galperín, 2010;Heeks, 2002;Kleine & Unwin, 2009;Tedre, Sutinen, Kähkönen, & Kommers, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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As part of the RE-ACT (social REpresentations of community multimedia centres in Mozambique and ACTions for improvement) research and development project, this study investigates a method to inform and communicate local perceptions on Community Multimedia Centres in Mozambique to different stakeholders. People who converge at the CMC venue, namely users (n=55) and staff members (n=48), were interviewed across 10 CMC locations in the country. The paper at hand focuses on photo-elicited interviews (n=103), explored through photo-taxonomy and qualitative thematic analysis aided by the Nvivo 9.2 software. User and staff typologies were identified accordingly. The outcome format of “point of view personas” is proposed as a design-oriented tool for research communication.
... The role of information technology is critical in education, social and human development [54,92,122,145,146,174]. The knowledge economy (KE) has been documented to be vital for inclusive development [18,129]. ...
Article
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The overarching question tackled in this paper is: to what degree has financial development contributed to providing opportunities of human development for those on low-incomes and by what information technology mechanisms? We systematically review about 180 recently published papers to provide recent information technology advances in finance for inclusive development. Retained financial innovations are structured along three themes. They are: (i) the rural-urban divide, (ii) women empowerment and (iii) human capital in terms of skills and training. The financial instruments are articulated with case studies, innovations and investment strategies with particular emphasis, inter alia on: informal finance, microfinance, mobile banking, crowdfunding, microinsurance, Islamic finance, remittances, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) and the Diaspora Investment in Agriculture (DIA) initiative.
... 7); 'Bangladesh: Early warning systems' (p.9); 'Swaziland: Women, unity and water' (p.13); 'China: Access to clean energy' (p. 17) and 'India: Women's self-help groups heard at climate policy forum' (p.15).We now briefly describe some of the important actions and policies so far implemented in three main strands: (1) establishment of a supportive environment to enable female entrepreneurs to have access to financial services; (2) encouragement of efforts which identify, support and evaluate replication of referenced models aimed at consolidating financial services to female entrepreneurs and (3) tailoring of efforts towards gathering SME finance gender-disaggregated data (GPFI, 2011, p.[48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The overarching question tackled in this paper is: to what degree has financial development contributed to providing opportunities of human development for those on low-incomes and by what information technology mechanisms? We systematically review about 180 recently published papers to provide recent information technology advances in finance for inclusive development. Retained financial innovations are structured along three themes. They are: (i) the rural-urban divide, (ii) women empowerment and (iii) human capital in terms of skills and training. The financial instruments are articulated with case studies, innovations and investment strategies with particular emphasis, inter alia on: informal finance, microfinance, mobile banking, crowdfunding, microinsurance, Islamic finance, remittances, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) and the Diaspora Investment in Agriculture (DIA) initiative.
... In fact, one can argue that the ICT creation process is a constant re-negotiation of which stakeholder logics will be reflected in the resultant artifact. When technology logics divert from subaltern logics, subalterns become dependent on the mainstream for sustainability of the project (Brunello, 2010;Leye, 2009). Indeed, by embedding such contradictory logics within ICT artifacts, mainstream groups assert their dominance across both space and time, thus dooming the projects to failure, because development is less likely to occur without their subsequent involvement. ...
Article
ICT projects are considered an important means of achieving development goals in developing countries. Although voluminous, the research to date is inconsistent in theorizing how, or why, development outcomes do or do not occur following the introduction of ICT4D. To better understand how and why ICT projects succeed, and even what success means in the ICT4D context, we conducted a literature review of ICT4D studies published during the period 2000–2016. We find that the very meaning of development varies, with four meanings of development emerging from the literature: (1) development as increased freedom, (2) development as expanded inclusion, (3) development as increased economic productivity, and (4) development as improved well-being. An ICT might succeed according to one meaning of development while simultaneously hindering achievement according to another meaning. As revealed by our analysis of the literature, these four perspectives suffer from some limitations, not least among them being the imposition of colonialist views of development on the recipients of the ICT4D. To address the limitations, we employ postcolonial theory to derive a new theory of ICT4D in which development is defined as an increase in power parity between dominant stakeholders and intended beneficiaries.
... (Heeks, 2008, p. 33) to this, wagner (2018, p. 66) added that increased distribution and use of iCts has not translated into better learning or school success for the poor. Research in iCt4d, despite considerable funding, has failed to influence on-the-ground practice, which is still largely driven by the Global north (Harris, 2016); foreign aid technocrats and non-state actors define the nature of participation, ownership, processes, and resources in the deployment of iCt4d (Brunello, 2010;singh & flyverbom, 2016) in what thompson (2004) referred to as a developmental land grab. these issues can surface in particularly problematic ways in higher education, considering disparities in access and outcomes in Africa. ...
Chapter
Higher education institutions around the world have increasingly come to see information and communication technology (ICT) as vital to the business of teaching and learning. Institutions invest a considerable amount of time and resources to erecting the appropriate institutional infrastructure, creating policy and practice, instituting strategy, training faculty, and building the capacity of technology staff. However, in under-resourced regions of the world, such as Africa, ICT, the availability and use of, has several challenges to overcome: a lack of institutional infrastructure, sufficient bandwidth, and limited capacity to employ ICT in the research process or the classroom. Universities report inadequate funding, poor management and infrastructure, resistance to change, inadequate training, and high costs associated with effective ICT use. Moreover, critiques of Western technopositivism surface misgivings related to the performance outcomes and appropriateness of ICT adoption in Africa. In this chapter, the author will explore the work of international organizations and regional and national research and education networks in the diffusion of ICT discourse, consider on-the-ground adoptions and innovation at universities in Nigeria, and reflect on the suitability and sustainability of technology adoption, all within an ICT for development (ICT4D) framework that lenses the evolution of technological applications in higher education. This chapter is significant in that it connects African higher education to ICT4D and frames the various discourses, policy landscapes and practice arenas, as they relate to international actors, continental initiatives, networks, universities, and faculty.
... Σ' αυτά τα μαθήματα, οι φοιτητές/τριες αποκτούν γνώσεις για το πώς πρέπει να χρησιμοποιούν το «εργαλείο»-το μέσον και τις διάφορες εφαρμογές του (π.χ. πώς μορφοποιώ ένα κείμενο στον Επεξεργαστή Κειμένου) (Brunello, 2010). Προσφέρονται, δηλαδή, στους φοιτητές και στις φοιτήτριες μαθήματα είτε υποχρεωτικού χαρακτήρα είτε μαθήματα επιλογής, τα οποία επικεντρώνονται στην εξοικείωση των φοιτητών/τριών με τον Η/Υ και τα προγράμματά του. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper are grouped together and discussed critically the compulsory and optional ICT courses, which are offered by the Curricula of the Universities, which prepares teachers for Primary Education in Greece. The Study Guides analysis shows that a small number of compulsory ICT courses are offered, both theoretical and laboratory. The connection of digital tools with education is noted. Quite high is the number of optional courses, which are mainly of a laboratory character and focus on applications for Elementary School. The bet seems to be placed in the involvement of pre-service teachers with several digital applications, which can be used in school in a pedagogical way.
... The role of information technology is critical in education, social and human development (Shraima & Khlaifb, 2010; Gudmundsdottir, 2010; Nkansah & Urwin, 2010; Negash, 2010; Brunello, 2010; Krauss, 2013). The knowledge economy (KE) has been documented to be vital for inclusive development (Lustig, 2011; Asian Development Bank, 2014). ...
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RSA edge lecture with Sir Ken Robinson – changing paradigms – full audio, Q&A included RSA edge lecture with Sir Ken Robinson – changing paradigms – video
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Harmonisation, alignment, results: progress report on aid effectiveness. OECD Journal on Development, 6(4) [online]. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/document/26/0,3343,en_2649_ 3236398_36141402_1_1_1_1,00.html Robinson, K. (2009a). RSA edge lecture with Sir Ken Robinson – changing paradigms – full audio, Q&A included. Retrieved from http://www.thersa.org/__data/assets/file/0014/55400/lecture160608.mp3 Robinson, K. (2009b). RSA edge lecture with Sir Ken Robinson – changing paradigms – video. Retrieved from http://www.thersa.org/events/vision/vision-videos/sir-ken-robinson 238 P. Brunello
Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline Participation: the new tyranny? London: Zed Books G8 Africa Action Plan The presentation of self in everyday life
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