Article

Foot-in-the-door technique and computer-mediated communication

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Abstract

The “Foot-in-the-door” is a compliance technique which consists in proposing a little first request to a subject then to submit him/her a second more expensive request. In this way, more compliance to the second request is obtained than in a control situation where this request was not preceding by the first solicitation. Many investigations on this paradigm generally used an interaction in face-to-face or by phone. So, a experiment was carried out by means of the electronic-mail. Fifty students in computer science received a e-mail containing a 40 question survey on their food habits which required 15–20 min of their time. This questionnaire came from a hypothetical student of the university in which the subjects were registered. Thirty minutes before, half of the subjects, had responded to a small solicitation (information about file's conversion) made by this same solicitor. Results show that the compliance to the first request increased the likelihood of later compliance to the second, more costly request.

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... These interactions involved phone contact, and the results showed that carrying out a small request increased the likelihood that the subjects would agree to a similar larger request. In another study, Gue'guen [63] carried out an experiment on fifty computer science students by sending an e-mail with a fortyquestion survey on their food habits, which required 15e20 min of their time. This questionnaire came from a hypothetical student at participants' own university. ...
... The results of similar studies showed that FITD technique increased compliance to the final request [64e66]. Studies also showed that FITD technique, which is a human e human communication technique, can be used in computer mediated communication settings [63,67]. ...
... Empirical research has shown that in order to remain consistent, the individuals who agreed to the small request are more likely to agree to a subsequent request even if it entails a higher cost [1]. The foot-in-the-door techniques have been shown to be effective even when the requests are made via computer-mediated communication such as emails [5]. ...
... The key difference is that the door-in-the-face technique usually requires an initial request that is costly and unreasonable [5]. This could be why the door-in-the-face technique has been shown to work regardless of the congruency between first and second tasks, but our moral cleansing effect only works when the tasks are incongruent. ...
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Conference Paper
In this paper we explore how the decision of partaking in low-cost, low-risk online activism - slacktivism - \'14may affect subsequent civic action. Based on moral balancing and consistency effects, we designed an online experiment to test if signing or not signing an online petition increased or decreased subsequent contribution to a charity. We found that participants who signed the online petition were significantly more likely to donate money to a related charity, demonstrating a consistency effect. We also found that participants who did not sign the petition donated significantly more money to an unrelated charity, demonstrating a moral balancing effect. The results suggest that exposure to an online activism influences individual decision on subsequent civic actions.
... A factor promoting interpersonal influence in CMC has been demonstrated by studies of the so-called 'foot-in-the-door' phenomenon: interpersonal relations. The number of people answering positively to an email request asking for participation in a long questionnaire was much higher when targets where first asked to complete a short questionnaire and the long questionnaire was presented in a second request, than when they were immediately requested to answer the long questionnaire (Guéguen andJacob 2001, 2002;Guéguen 2002). Hence, the relationship which was established by means of the short questionnaire helped to exert more interpersonal influence. ...
... A factor promoting interpersonal influence in CMC has been demonstrated by studies of the so-called 'foot-in-the-door' phenomenon: interpersonal relations. The number of people answering positively to an email request asking for participation in a long questionnaire was much higher when targets where first asked to complete a short questionnaire and the long questionnaire was presented in a second request, than when they were immediately requested to answer the long questionnaire (Guéguen andJacob 2001, 2002;Guéguen 2002). Hence, the relationship which was established by means of the short questionnaire helped to exert more interpersonal influence. ...
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Article
This article summarizes how social influence can be exerted in computer-mediated communication (CMC). It outlines research on short-term effects of CMC on attitudes and behaviour, rather than on long-term effects of social influence. The article first presents a model of three types of social influence that can be discerned in groups, representing the current state of research on social influence. Subsequently, the characteristics of CMC relevant to social influence are described and related to this model. Following this, classical and contemporary research is reviewed. The final section outlines a model summarizing the knowledge on social influence in CMC and identifies topics for further research.
... What would be happening if no information about the sender was contained in the mail ? Guéguen and Jacob (2002), by manipulating the status of the solicitor by the way of his/her electronic signature (a scientist for the high status or an undergraduate-student for the mid-status), have found that high status led to increase compliance to a request on help on the web. Furthermore, when the target of the solicitation was a student the rate of compliance was dramatically higher than when the target was someone the web (65 % in control condition with students-subjects versus 7 % in control condition with an other population). ...
... Zhang (2000) found that Internet users showed a certain saturation for these requests and that response rates was lower. In a previous study, we have found that an " electronic footin-the-door " was a good compliance technique on Internet (Guéguen, 2002). It seems than the technique of surname similarity is a new technique of compliance on the Web. ...
Article
Similarity between a solicitor and a subject traditionally enhances helping behavior. An experiment was carried out in a computer-mediated context. Fifty students received an e-mail containing a 40 questions survey on their food habits which required 15-20 minutes of their time to respond. This questionnaire came from a hypothetical student of the university in which the subjects were registered. In half of the cases, the surname of the solicitor, which appeared in his/her electronic address, was the same than the surname of the target. Results show that compliance to the request was significantly higher in the same surnames condition than in the different surnames condition. The response delay was significantly shorter in the same-surnames condition than in control condition.
... Several FITD experiments have been conducted in a survey setting (Reingen and Kernan 1977;Allen, Schewe, and Wijk 1980;Hansen and Robinson 1980;Furse, Stewart, and Rados 1981;Groves and Magilavy 1981;Kamins 1989;Poon, Albaum, and Evangelista 1999;Gu eguen 2002;Sperry, Siler, and Mull 2018, but we know of only one application that analyses multiple related requests and hence resembles our study. Acquisti, John, and Loewenstein (2012) varied the order of intrusiveness of sensitive questions to examine the effect on disclosure. ...
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Article
It is increasingly common for researchers to link survey data to administrative data. If several administrative data sources are of interest, respondents are required to give consent to each of them, meaning that multiple consent questions have to be included in one survey. Existing literature suggests that individual consent varies widely between data sources and over time, but little is known about how respondents process multiple consent requests in a single survey. Using an online access panel in Great Britain, we conducted a set of experiments in two surveys to explore multiple consent requests (covering five domains or data sources). In the first study we experimentally varied the format of the request, testing three versions: 1) a sequence of pages (with one response per domain), 2) all five requests on the same page (with one response per domain), and 3) a single request (with one joint request covering all five domains). We also varied the order of the domains. We find that average consent rates do not differ by format, but asking a less sensitive or easier-to-comply request first yields slightly higher average consent rates than asking a more sensitive request first. We repeated the order experiment in a second study, using an independent sample from the same panel, and adding two more order conditions. We find average consent rates are not affected much by order, but the consent to individual domains is affected by order. However, we fail to replicate the pattern of consents found in the first study. We conclude that the order in which multiple consent requests is asked does matter, but in complicated ways that depend on the particular outcomes in which one is interested. Objective knowledge and subjective comprehension of the consent process, and confidence in the decision are largely unaffected by format or order.
... And initial agreement matters the most in generating outcomes in prosocial behavior (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004;Fennis et al., 2009;Freedman & Fraser, 1966). Indeed, while granting an initial request has long been known to be effective when the request was made via an agent face-to-face, studies have shown that email requests toward donating to humanitarian organizations were similarly effective (Guéguen, 2002;Guéguen & Jacob, 2001). Moreover, even when assuming a virtual avatar in the story world, researchers have found that people were similarly affected by the psychological mechanism that guides FITD as in the real world (Eastwick & Gardner, 2009). ...
Article
The current study assessed whether vicariously experiencing story characters granting a small favor can induce similar intentions from its audiences. Acting upon the perspectives of story characters, audiences may agree to a subsequent larger request to the same cause, as in the case of vicarious foot-in-the-door (VFITD). Study 1 found that a VFITD story was more effective in eliciting prosocial intentions than a non-VFITD story and a non-narrative message. That is, the VFITD condition generated greater intentions to volunteer in a series of activities, with attitudes mediating this process. Study 2 replicated this result. It also showed that when a VFITD story can generate sufficient levels of identification, it is more effective than a non-VFITD narrative in eliciting prosocial intentions. Implications of this study are also discussed.
... With the growing knowledge of neuroscience and the reducing cost of neuroimaging technologies, commercial interest in persuasion design has risen [2]. In information design literature, some reported examples of persuasive practices include creating the illusion of scarcity of a product to increase its demand, creating price anchors, inconveniencing users to increase the perceived value of an item, foot-in-the-door technique, and rhyming jingles in advertisements to increase believability [3][4][5][6]. These are general persuasion principles that can be used online or offline. ...
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Chapter
Ever since bounds on human rationality and cognitive biases in decision contexts have been reported, designers have exploited these weaknesses to yield conversion by creating persuasive HCI designs. Such design practices have been widely reported to be effective in influencing user decision making. However, the exploitation of a cognitive bias compromises the cognitive autonomy of an individual. This paper argues for the need of ethical assessment of persuasive design practices which undermine a user’s cognitive autonomy. The paper proposes a model for persuasive information design in human–computer interaction (HCI PID model) and derives from it a framework to assess the ethics of persuasive design practices. In this framework, five design parameters and their twelve subcomponents have been proposed as measures of an HCI system’s conduciveness to autonomous decision making without unduly influencing a user. The paper proposes a scoring methodology to assess design features of HCI systems on the proposed parameters. The proposed assessment framework was used by 20 participants to evaluate five mobile applications on features that are relevant to autonomous decision making. It was observed that the proposed framework has effectively helped the assessors to identify unethically persuasive design features.
... Although family health history can be an important indicator of cancer risk, this intervention is premised on emphasizing the importance of seeking prevention services. Similar to how edutainment communication strategies take advantage of engaging storyline opportunities to insert health messages (Guéguen, 2002), social media group chats are channels where families discuss day-to-day topics and offer comfortable environments as opportunities for talking about health (Coughlin et al., 2016;Zhang & Jung, 2018). The group chat intervention leverages existing family networks to influence Vietnamese family members' willingness to comply with recommended health screenings (Child et al., 2015;Schmid et al., 2008;Taipale & Farinosi, 2018). ...
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Article
Vietnamese Americans are disproportionately affected by preventable late-stage cancers. This study capitalizes on the protective role of family networks to develop an online social media family group chat intervention promoting cancer screening among Vietnamese American families. A feasibility study was conducted to assess implementing Let’s Chat, a 4-week intergenerational family group chat intervention to increase cancer screenings. Vietnamese American young adults were trained to act as family health advocates on their private family group chats and share cancer screening messages. The intervention covered material on recommended screenings for colonoscopy for those aged 45+ years, HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination for young adults, and Pap testing for women. Ten families ( n = 41) participated. Family group chat content analysis resulted in (a) sharing personal screening experiences, (b) family members being prompted to schedule cancer screening appointments after discussions in the chat, and (c) family members expressing a sense of urgency to follow up with cancer screening. Postintervention survey results revealed that 48% of participants received screening/vaccination, 77% reported intent to schedule an appointment to discuss recommended screenings, 61% reported discussing cancer screenings outside their group chat, 84% felt comfortable discussing screenings with family after the intervention, and 68% agreed that the group chat facilitated comfort around cancer screening discussions. Family members reported feeling closer to their family and greater comfort discussing cancer and cancer screening. Results from the Let’s Chat feasibility study indicate promise for implementing a randomized trial conditional on grouping family chats by age and gender to increase cancer screenings among Vietnamese American families.
... For the last two decades, social psychologists have investigated the mechanism of FITD in multiple computer-mediated contexts: email (Guéguen, 2002), website (Guéguen and Jacob, 2001) or chat (Markey et al., 2003), and virtual world (Eastwick and Gardner, 2009). In the virtual environment, the principle of FITD can be presented as follows: "first, an influence agent asks for something small, usually a minor commitment. ...
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Article
The main objective is a double one. First and foremost, it is a question of showing that foot-in-the-door as a proven behavioral influence technique in offline interactions maintains its efficiency in online interactions. It is then a question of exploring the impact of the anthropomorphism vs. the non-anthropomorphism of the requester avatar on the efficiency of this technique. Foot-in-the-door is based on a simple principle: you start by asking for a little in a first step to increase the probability of obtaining a lot in a second step. The research was conducted in the Second Life virtual world. In a control condition (n = 200), a requester avatar directly proposed the target request. In a foot-in-the-door condition (n = 200), the requester avatar started by presenting a preparatory request before proposing the target request. According to the conditions, the requester avatar was human-like (female or male), or non-human-like (flower, balloon, cube). As expected, our results show that overall the foot-in-the door-technique remains efficient in the virtual world; they also show that this efficiency depends on the human-like form of the requester avatar. This last result is interpreted as a reference to the theory of social presence. Non-human-like avatars could generate a weak social presence, to the point where the mechanisms of self-perception and commitment underlying the foot-in-the-door effect may not be automatically initiated. Player avatars would in this way be freed from the rules of social interaction occurring in offline interactions.
... The foot-in-the-door technique has been examined in the context of computer-mediated communication. Guéguen (2002;Guéguen & Jacob, 2001) showed that the foot-in-the-door technique works effectively for email solicitation, labeling it as the "electronic foot-in-the-door" effect. In those experiments, however, the persuasive message was sent by a person, not a computer. ...
Article
The current study investigates the effectiveness of sequential-request strategies that robots may employ to persuade humans. Specifically, this study focuses on the foot-in-the-door technique, whereby a small request is made first and is then followed up with a larger, actual target request. Participants played a trivia game with an ostensibly autonomous robot teammate. At the end of the game, the robot asked participants to complete a series of pattern recognition tasks, either by requesting directly or by starting with a small request, then following with a larger request. The results demonstrated a strong foot-in-the-door effect, suggesting a robot's potential to persuade humans using verbal message strategies. The robot's performance or perceived credibility did not influence compliance. This robotic foot-in-the-door effect provides some important practical implications for designers and developers who aim to enhance the persuasive outcomes of human-robot interaction.
... This primary "yes" increases the probability of receiving an affirmative response to subsequent, greater requests. Several investigators have found evidence that the FITD technique influences behavior (e.g., Freedman and Fraser, 1966;Guéguen and Fischer-Lokou, 1999;Guéguen et al., 2008), and it appears to be an effective strategy for real-world interventions (Guéguen, 2002;Cugelman et al., 2009;Grassini et al., 2013). As such, to increase adherence, very small exercises provided daily via SMS may be appropriate. ...
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Article
The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of an unguided, 2-week internet-based training program to overcome procrastination, called ON.TOP. Because adherence is a typical problem among individuals who tend to procrastinate, especially with internet-based interventions, the secondary purpose of the present study was to investigate whether adding SMS support increases subjects' frequency of engagement in training. In a three-armed RCT (N = 161), the effects of the intervention alone and intervention with daily SMS-support were compared to a waiting list control condition in a sample of students. The primary outcome of interest was procrastination. The secondary outcome of interest was the extent of training behavior. Baseline (T0), immediate post-treatment (T1) and 8-week post-treatment (T2) assessments were conducted. Results indicated that procrastination decreased significantly only with intervention group with daily SMS support, relative to control. Moreover, incorporating SMS support also may enhance extent of training behavior.
... L'envoi d'une requête minimale par email prédispose son récepteur à accepter une demande ultérieure plus complexe. La présence physique n'est donc pas essentielle pour que la technique engageante réussisse (Guéguen, 2002). ...
Thesis
Les concepteurs d'interfaces ont un besoin sans cesse évoluant d'influencer les utilisateurs. Dans n'importe quel domaine, de la vente à l'écologie en passant par l'éducation, les interfaces se font de plus en plus intelligentes, adaptatives et interactives afin d'inciter les individus à modifier leur attitude, voire leur comportement. Si l'inspection ergonomique et l'utilisabilité sont depuis longtemps prises en compte durant les phases d'évaluation ou de conception d'un produit, il s'avère que la dimension persuasive des technologies n'est pas encore reconnue. Or, cet aspect d'influence dans les médias représente un champ émergent ayant déjà fait ses preuves au cours de nombreuses recherches dans des domaines variés. Il fait partie intégrante de l'expérience utilisateur. Face à l'absence d'outil validé dans ce domaine, une grille de critères a été créée pour répondre à ce besoin des concepteurs, des évaluateurs mais également des utilisateurs. Suite à la revue de cent soixante quatre articles portant sur le domaine de la captologie, une grille de huit critères a été élaborée comprenant : crédibilité, privacité, personnalisation, attractivité, sollicitation, accompagnement initial, engagement et emprise. Cette grille dégage également vingt-trois sous-critères. Elle distingue la dimension statique, soit l'ensemble des qualités qu'une interface devrait posséder pour être propice à la mise en place d'une boucle dite engageante, aussi appelée dimension dynamique. Cette grille a suivi une méthode inductive et est basée sur un processus de conception itératif prenant en compte l'avis d'experts en IHM et en ergonomie. Suite à différents pré-tests et à sa stabilisation, cet outil a été testé auprès de trente experts en ergonomie afin de procéder à sa validation. Une expérience basée sur une tâche d'identification d'éléments dits persuasifs dans quinze interfaces a été mise en place. L'utilisation de la grille a montré qu'elle aidait les experts à identifier 78,8% des éléments persuasifs présents. Avec un score de Kappa de 0.76, un accord inter-juge fort a été démontré. Suite à cette validation en laboratoire, une expérience réelle visant à montrer son opérationnalisation et à tester son efficacité sur le terrain a été menée. Après un premier usage comme outil d'évaluation, la grille a été utilisée comme aide à la conception d'interfaces plus influentes. Appliquée dans le cadre d'un sondage entreprise en ligne annuel, la grille de critères a permis de passer de 25% à 41% de répondants sur une population de 897 salariés. Enfin, l'application de cet outil dans le domaine de l'informatique décisionnelle et des progiciels de gestion intégrée présente des spécificités. Un travail d'aménagement de deux outils a permis d'élaborer une réflexion sur les éléments de la persuasion interactive propres à l'informatique décisionnelle.
... The foot-in-the-door effect, which was proposed by Freedman and Fraser (1966), means that when individuals initially accept a small request, they are more likely to accept larger and more undesirable requirements later to maintain the same image. In the circumstances of computer-mediated communication, compliance to the first request increases the likelihood of later compliance to the second (Guéguen, 2002). According to studies, the acceptance of information is similar to the approach of product acceptance. ...
Article
An increasing number of national scenic spots around the world use social media, such as micro-blogs and Twitter, to promote their popularity and improve their operational performance. National scenic spots may adopt different social media behaviors that lead to unbalanced operational performance. This study takes the perspective of social media adoption in national scenic spots by looking into the influence of social media adoption behaviors on operational performance based on the three-stage data envelopment analysis model. We found that most of the national scenic spots in China have low pure technical efficiency and that operational performance, including social media popularity and operational performance, is significantly determined by various social media adoption behaviors.
... Still, social psychologists studying social influence techniques rather seldom conduct their experiments in the Internet environment. To the rare exceptions belong the experiments by Gueguen, who demonstrated on the Internet the effectiveness of two classical techniques of social influence: he proved that if Internet surfers are first posed a request which is easy to fulfill, there is an increased chance to have them fulfill a subsequent request, more difficult to comply with (foot-in-thedoor technique - Gueguen, 2002); and, that a rejected first request which is very hard to fulfill actually increases the chance to have the surfers comply with a subsequent request (door-in-the-face technique -Gueguen, 2003). ...
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Article
The article describes two studies implementing the positive cognitive state (as it is described by Rind, 1997) in the Internet conditions. The results show that using the positive cognitive state in Internet conditions is not as easy as in nonvirtual life.
... L'envoi d'une requête minimale par email prédispose son récepteur à accepter une demande ultérieure plus complexe. La présence physique n'est donc pas essentielle pour que la technique engageante réussisse (Guéguen, 2002). ...
Article
Interface designer have a constant need to influence users. In any field, from sales to ecology through education, interfaces are more and more smart, adaptive and interactive in order to encourage people to change their attitude or behavior. If ergonomic inspection and usability has long been considered to be a part of the evaluation phase or product design process, persuasive technology has not yet been taken into account. However, it represents an emerging field and has already proven results in many research and applied to many substrates. It is part of the overall user experience. Faced with the lack of validated tool in this area, a set of criteria was elaborated. Following the review of 164 articles on the captology field, a grid of eight criteria was proposed and contains: credibility, privacy, personalization, attractiveness, solicitation, initiation, commitment and ascendency. This grid is also composed by 23 sub-criteria. It differs from the size of a static or all of the qualities that an interface should have in order to be conducive to the establishment of a loop engaging. This grid follows an inductive method and is based on an iterative design process taking into account the expert opinion in Human-Machine Interaction. Following various pre-test and its stabilization, this list of criteria was tested with 30 experts in ergonomics to proceed to its validation. Experience-based identification task called persuasive elements in interfaces; 15 have been chosen. The use of the grid showed that it helped the experts identify 78.8% of persuasive elements. With a Kappa score of 0.76, a strong inter-judges agreement has been demonstrated. Following this validation in the laboratory, a real experience test to prove its effectiveness in the field has also been conducted. After its first use as an assessment tool, the grid was used as an aid in the design of interfaces to be most influential. Applied in the context of an online survey company, annual use of the criteria increased the number of respondents from 25% to 41% in a population of 897 employees. Finally, intelligence has specific features to the world of professional software. Development work of two tools helped to advance reflection on the elements of persuasion to their own interactive business intelligence.
... Research on the foot in the door technique (Burger, 1999) further demonstrated that participants who agreed with a small request, such as telling the time, were more likely to comply later on with larger demands, such as giving money (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). This effect was supported in computer-mediated settings: Signing an online petition increased the willingness to make a subsequent donation (Guéguen, 2002;Guéguen & Jacob, 2002). ...
Article
Anecdotes of past social movements suggest that Internet-enabled technologies, especially social media platforms, can facilitate collective actions. Recently, however, it has been argued that the participatory Internet encourages low-cost and low-risk activism—slacktivism—which may have detrimental consequences for groups that aim to achieve a collective purpose. More precisely, low-threshold digital practices such as signing online petitions or “liking” the Facebook page of a group are thought to derail subsequent engagement offline. We assessed this postulation in three experiments (N = 76, N = 59, and N = 48) and showed that so-called slacktivist actions indeed reduce the willingness to join a panel discussion and demonstration as well as the likelihood to sign a petition. This demobilizing effect was mediated by the satisfaction of group-enhancing motives; members considered low-threshold online collective actions as a substantial contribution to the group’s success. The findings highlight that behavior that is belittled as slacktivism addresses needs that pertain to individuals’ sense of group membership. Rather than hedonistic motives or personal interests, concerns for the ingroup’s welfare and viability influenced the decision to join future collective actions offline.
... Zhang (2000) found that Internet users showed a certain saturation for these requests and that response rates were lower. In a previous study, we have found that an "electronic foot-in-the-door" was a good compliance technique on the Internet (Gueguen, 2002). It seems that the technique of the "electronic name similarity" is a good technique to increase compliance to a request made on the Web. ...
Article
Similarity between a solicitor and a subject (same race, attitudes, apparel appearance) leads to enhanced helping behavior. An experiment manipulating similarity was carried out in a computer-mediated context. Fifty students received an e-mail containing a survey on their food habits. This questionnaire came from a hypothetical student of the university in which the subjects were registered. In half of the cases, the first name of the solicitor, which appeared in his or her electronic address, was the same as the first name of the receptor. Results have shown that compliance to the request was significantly higher in the same first-name condition. No difference between the two conditions was found according to the delay of response.
... A study by Guéguen (2002) examined whether the foot-in-the-door approach would be successful via email. An initial request for instructions on how to save a document as a rich text file was sent to half the participants from a (fictitious) university student. ...
... L'envoi d'une requête minimale par email prédispose son récepteur à accepter une demande ultérieure plus complexe. La présence physique n'est donc pas essentielle pour que la technique engageante réussisse (Guéguen, 2002). ...
... 67 (Gueguen,2002) (Gueguen, 2002) For the traditional energy awareness campaign we used conventional tools to increase the number of employees who satisfactorily completed the Energy Citizen Quiz. Some conventional techniques we used were promotional items such as emails and posters. ...
Article
Many companies have developed energy reduction programs for their manufacturing facilities to reduce their operational costs while also decreasing their greenhouse gas emissions. The majority of these manufacturing facilities have made progress in reducing their energy usage through technology changes, such as purchasing more efficient lighting or replacing old chillers, however, these improvements are often capital intensive. The goal of this thesis is to explore the use of low cost employee behavior changes to help a manufacturing facility reduce its energy usage. The author conducted a six month case study at Raytheon's Integrated Air Defense Center (IADC) in which a new approach for achieving energy related employee behavior changes was implemented. The framework is unique to the author but builds upon lean manufacturing principles, social psychology research, and energy management fundamentals. The approach first raises awareness and engages employees, second, helps employees develop energy saving improvements, and lastly, creates a mechanism to sustain improvements and behavior changes moving forward. The benefits of using such an approach are greater employee engagement (the percentage of employees who participated in a voluntary energy reduction program rose from 38% to 78%), more energy saving ideas being implemented (over 60 employee generated energy saving improvements were implemented on the manufacturing floor), and, ultimately, a reduction in wasted energy. Additionally, a real-time feedback system was designed and installed that provided manufacturing employees with information on their cell's energy usage. This real-time feedback system was developed to help sustain improvements and further enable energy reductions through employee behavior changes. While specific tactics and tools of the applied approach may be unique to Raytheon's IADC facility, the strategy and insights can be universally applied.
... In other words, the small request generates a "freezing effect" (Lewin, 1947): as soon as the small request is performed, participants are more willing to agree to subsequent demands. Nevertheless, the foot-in-the-door technique is renowned for its effectiveness (for a meta-analysis see Burger, 1999) even when the second requester is a different person, after a delay between the small request and the target request, and when the requester does not meet the participant face-to-face (Freedman & Fraser, 1966;Guéguen, 2002). Curiously, characteristics of the requester (credibility, skin tone, and so on) have been found to have little to do with the compliance induced by the foot-in-the-door technique (Eastwick & Gardner, 2009;Patch, 1986). ...
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Article
Several researchers have shown that odors affect human behavior. However, odors have not been studied in the context of specific compliance without pressure. Specifically, the impact of the odor worn by a requester during the foot-in-the-door procedure has not been documented. To address this issue, an experiment was carried out in an ecological setting. Using the foot-in-the-door procedure, a well-known technique for increasing the likelihood that a person will comply with one's request, the requester was perfumed with vanilla, camphor, or nothing. The results show a strong effect of the foot-in-the-door technique when the requester was perfumed with vanilla and no effect of the procedure when the requester was perfumed with camphor. These results are incompatible with the main theoretical interpretations of foot-in-the-door phenomena: self-perception and commitment theories.
... As further evidence, features of the requester (e.g., credibility, likeability) have very little to do with the compliance induced by FITD (Patch, 1986;Williams & Williams, 1989). In fact, FITD is renowned for its continued effectiveness even (a) when the second requester is a different person (Freedman & Fraser, 1966), (b) after a substantial delay (Freedman & Fraser, 1966), and (c) without the need to meet the requester face-to-face (Guéguen, 2002;Guéguen & Jacob, 2001). In addition, the compliance induced by FITD is moderated by the extent to which participants feel the need to behave consistently; individuals demonstrating a low preference for consistency have proven less likely to succumb to the FITD technique (Cialdini, Trost, & Newsom, 1995;Guadagno, Asher, Demaine, & Cialdini, 2001). ...
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Article
Online virtual worlds promise an escape from mundane everyday environments and exempt users from the normal laws of time, space, and gravity. However, the laws of social influence may not be as easily dodged. In the virtual world of There.com we tested two robust real‐world compliance tactics (foot‐in‐the‐door, door‐in‐the‐face) with avatar “race” as a moderator. Results revealed success for both techniques, suggesting that avatars are sensitive to influence tactics targeting both self‐perception and reciprocity norms. Additionally, the race of the avatar requesting help impacted the success of the door‐in‐the‐face compliance technique, raising the specter that real‐world racial biases may also emerge in virtual environments.We wish to thank There.com for graciously allowing us to perform these experiments. This research was facilitated in part by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship awarded to Paul Eastwick. We gratefully acknowledge Eli Finkel, Vincent Kudirka, members of the Northwestern social self lab, and Doug Medin's Psychology 423 class for their insightful comments on earlier drafts on this paper. We also thank the following individuals for their assistance in running the There.com trials: Erica Slotter, Maya Ragavan, Swathi Gandhavadi, Joan Hoedeman, Suji Jhaveri, Nikki Kabra, Allison Resnick, and Emily Yeagley.
... Researchers have successfully applied theories and models like the Collective Effort Model [23,25], goal-setting [25] and social comparison [20] to address the problem of under-contribution. Closer to this work, the FITD technique has been shown to be effective over email [16,17]. ...
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Social psychology offers several theories of potential use for designing techniques to increase user contributions to online communities. Some of these techniques follow the "compliance without pressure" approach, where users are led to comply with a request without being subjected to any obvious external pressure. We evaluated two such techniques -- foot-in-the-door and low-ball -- in the context of Cyclopath, a geographic wiki. We found that while both techniques succeeded, low-ball elicited more work than foot-in-the-door. We discuss design and research implications of applying these (and other such techniques) in online communities.
... After reviewing the literature, Guadagno and Cialdini (2005) concluded that the effectiveness of three of the six principles of influence— authority, commitment and consistency, and liking— on compliance had been examined solely in an online context (i.e., in the absence of a face-to-face condition). Specifically, research indicates that authority cues are largely ignored in online interactions, whereas commitment and consistency tactics such as the footin-the-door technique are effective online (Dubrovsky, Kiesler, & Sentha, 1991; Guéguen & Jacob, 2001; Markey, Wells, & Markey, 2001; Guégen, 2002; Petrova, Cialdini, & Sills, 2007). ...
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Text-based communication via the Internet has provided new opportunities to study social influence and persuasion. Specifically, Guadagno and Cialdini (2005) contend that the effectiveness of social influence attempts have yet to be thoroughly investigated online. To test Guadagno and Cialdini's contention, the present study examined whether the social influence principles of likability and social validation impacted individuals' willingness to comply with a request when the setting is online. Results revealed that social validation affected compliance, but communicator likability did not. Thus, our results indicate that contrary to previous work in offline contexts, not all social influence principles are effective online. Explanations for these differences are discussed.
... The importance of interpersonal relations for interpersonal influence in CMC is underlined by studies showing that the number of people conforming to the request to fill in a long questionnaire was higher among targets that were contacted by the researcher before and (Guéguen, 2002). Similarly, Postmes and Spears (2000) found more attitude change in newly formed common bond groups (i.e., groups sticking together because of interpersonal bonds) when anonymity was low compared with when anonymity was high. ...
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On an everyday basis, we communicate with one another using various technological media, such as text messaging, social networking tools, and electronic mail, in work, educational, and personal settings. As a consequence of the increasing frequency of use and importance of computer-supported interaction, social scientists in particular have heeded the call to understand the social processes involved in such interactions. In this volume, the editors explore how aspects of a situation interact with characteristics of a person to help explain our technologically supported social interactions. The person-by-situation interaction perspective recognizes the powerful role of the situation and social forces on behavior, thought, and emotion, but also acknowledges the importance of person variables in explaining social interaction, including power and gender, social influence, truth and deception, ostracism, and leadership. This important study is of great relevance to modern readers, who are more and more frequently using technology to communicate with one another.
... When compared to FTFC, CMC lessens the role of peer influences [24]; increases self-awareness, for example, personal feelings, beliefs, and values [25]; increases the influence of less dominant persons [26]; and reduces the perceived effectiveness of common persuasion strategies [27]. However, these differences do not necessarily affect the overall persuasiveness of messages [25], and persuasion techniques that are effective in FTF communication can also work well in CMC [28]. The overall findings suggest that CMC can be an effective medium for persuasion, but they do not provide insights into ways that CMC systems might be improved to support interpersonal persuasion. ...
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Computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems can be augmented beyond basic text messaging by a variety of features. However, research has not addressed the effects of these features in negotiation settings. In this article, I present an experimental study of effects of three CMC system features on interpersonal persuasion, an important part of negotiation. System features that augment messages with images and graphics and support conforming use of spelling and grammar were found to increase message persuasiveness. The results suggest a number of ways CMC can be enhanced to improve support for negotiation.
... Although about a third either did not provide an answer or were classified as "other", they found that almost one half of those who did not respond to the e-mail questionnaires said that they either did not receive the e-mail message, or lost/deleted it. Gueguen (2002) showed the effectiveness of the "foot-in-the-door" technique to online requests to fill out a survey. An interesting non-academic publication by a commercial company (Hamilton, 2005) reports the results of 199 online surveys covering more than 500,000 survey invitations. ...
... Therefore, the problem of IM interrupting employee work patterns should be investigated in more depth. From the message initiatorÕs point of view, IM may be seen as a useful ''electronic foot-in-the-door'' (Gueguen, 2002), whereas from the message recipientÕs point of view, IM may be seen as an annoyance . Thus, researchers as well as organizational trainers should be aware of the potential advantages and disadvantages of the interruptive nature of IM tools. ...
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With increased global connectivity, managers are faced with new technologies and rapid organizational changes. For instance, organizations may adopt emerging technologies such as Instant Messaging in order to increase collaboration at a distance and to decrease communications costs. However, the impact and implications of these technologies for managers and employees often go far beyond the original intent of the technology designers. Consequently, in this study, instant messaging (IM) and its use in organizations were investigated through interviews with employees. Results suggest that critical mass represents an important factor for IM success in the workplace that IM symbolizes informality, and that IM is perceived to be much less rich than face-to-face communication. Further, results demonstrate that employees use IM not only as a replacement for other communication media but as an additional method for reaching others. With IM, employees engage in polychronic communication, view IM as privacy enhancing, and see its interruptive nature as unfair. The paper concludes by discussing research and practice implications for organizational psychologists.
... FITD is a compliance technique in which a person is more 116 likely to accept a larger request if this request is preceded by a 117 smaller request. The technique is also found to be effective in com- 118 puter-mediated communication (CMC) in addition to face-to-face 119 or telephone communications (Guéguen, 2002). In a recommender 120 system of green products, items with higher degree of greenness 121 and with comparable or equal degrees of price and feature can 122 be first recommended to a user who is reluctant to buy green prod- 123 ucts. ...
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Green marketing has become an important method for companies to remain profitable and competitive as the public and governments are more concerned about environmental issues. However, most online shopping environments do not consider product greenness in their recommender systems or other shopping tools. This paper aims to propose the use of recommender systems to aid the green shopping process and to promote green consumerism basing upon the benefits of recommender systems and a compliance technique called foot-in-the-door (FITD). In this study, the architecture of a recommender system for green consumer electronics is proposed. Customers' decision making process is modeled with an adaptive fuzzy inference system in which the input variables are the degrees of price, feature, and greenness and output variables are the estimated rating data. The architecture has three types of recommendation: information filtering, candidate expansion, and crowd recommendation. Ad hoc customization can be applied to tune the recommendation results. The findings are reported in two parts. The first part describes the potentials of using recommender systems in green marketing and the promotion of green consumerism; the second part describes the proposed recommender system architecture using green consumer electronics as the context. Discussion of the proposed architecture and comparison with other systems are also included in this part. The proposed architecture provides a capable platform for personalized green marketing by offering customers shopping advices tailored to their preferences and for the promotion of green consumerism.
... Regarding e-mail, one experiment concluded that sequential e-mails can help people maintain exercise regimes [Franklin et al. 2006]. Two other experiments—on traditional behavioural change techniques frequently cited by social marketers—showed that the foot-in-the-door technique [Gueguen 2002] and obtaining a commitment [Artz and Cooke 2007] can operate through e-mail. ...
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This paper discusses two trends that threaten to undermine the effectiveness of online social marketing interventions: growing mistrust and competition. As a solution, this paper examines the relationships between Web site credibility, target audiences’ active trust and behaviour. Using structural equation modelling to evaluate two credibility models, this study concludes that Web site credibility is best considered a three-dimensional construct composed of expertise, trustworthiness and visual appeal, and that trust plays a partial mediating role between Web site credibility and behavioural impacts. The paper examines theoretical implications of conceptualizing Web sites according to a human credibility model, and factoring trust into Internet-based behavioural change interventions. Practical guidelines suggest ways to address these findings when planning online social marketing interventions.
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The central tenet of open innovation (OI) is that useful knowledge is widely distributed. By purposively engaging in knowledge sourcing and sharing (KSS) activities, organisations can create and capture value through collaborative exchange with others. Organising for OI relies on the assumption that individual managers tasked to bring it to fruition will enact behavioural responses conducive to external KSS. However, understanding what characterises and informs managers’ disengagement in OI remains an unresolved challenge. The interactions between managers’ in‐role demands in OI and their self‐concept, which guide behavioural responses, are under‐investigated. Drawing on cognitive dissonance theory (CDT), this article conceptualises the sources of managerial dissonance and situates discussions on underlying influencing mechanisms, culminating towards a cognitive model of disengagement in OI. Bridging OI, psychology and management literature, hypotheses are developed to stimulate investigations into what characterises and influences managers’ disengagement in OI. Managerial implications are discussed to curate approaches that can help manage managerial dissonance in order to attain the desired organisational OI goals.
Chapter
The concept of androgynous or gender-neutral fashion is known for its distinctive attribute that blends both conventional masculine and feminine design characteristics. In the history of fashion, the notion of androgynous fashion has been evolving since the 1920s, although it was irregular at times. In the postmodern Western cultures, androgynous aesthetic in fashion is increasingly accepted, encouraging the multiplicity of gender expressions. With significant influencers of the generation identifying themselves as gender-neutral and speaking out on the topic, the concept of being gender fluid is catching a lot of attention recently in the international fashion industry. Androgynous fashion is an emergent trend, which reflects in fashion ramps with models showcasing silhouettes and design elements that breakdown gender stereotypes. With this in mind, the current research aims to study androgynous fashion from both conceptual and user-centric perspectives in the Indian context. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources. Relevant secondary data were gathered from various books, research papers and fashion publications to set the conceptual context of the research. Additionally, to gather primary information about the Indian LGBTQ consumers’ perception of androgynous fashion, a questionnaire was circulated amongst young Indian fashion consumers using convenience and snowball sampling methods. The results and analysis of the study reveal the aspirations behind the gender-neutral design genre. This study also brings out the emotional needs of the Indian LGBTQ community members, who are the primary consumers of androgynous aesthetic.
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Commercial motorcycle drivers are recognised to take high risks while driving, but little is known about their perception of these risks. This paper presents the results of a survey of 400 commercial motorcyclists' perception of unsafe driving behaviours and then determine the association between the perception of unsafe driving behaviour and reported driving behaviour. The study was carried out in Dar es Salaam between December 8th 2018 and March 24th 2019. Drivers aged 18 years and above were selected from 90 parking stages within the city and completed a structured interview. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs). We found that close to 60% of drivers considered unsafe driving to be unsafe. However, reported unsafe driving behaviour was moderately common. Our results showed that reported unsafe driving behaviour (adjusted PR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.3–2.2) was associated with a low perception of the dangers of unsafe driving among motorcyclists. The higher the earnings a driver had (adjusted PR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2–2.0), the higher the likelihood of having a low perceived risk of unsafe behaviour. These findings suggest that commercial motorcyclists' unsafe behaviour are, for the most part, not the result of a poor perception of the involved risks.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel widmet sich den Mechanismen sozialen Einflusses, d. h., wie wir durch andere Menschen in unserem Denken und Handeln beeinflusst werden. Sozialer Einfluss liegt bereits vor, wenn sich allein durch die Anwesenheit anderer Personen unser Leistungsverhalten verändert, auch wenn jene uns gar nicht absichtlich beeinflussen wollen. Dies wird unter den Stichworten „soziale Erleichterung“ und „soziale Hemmung“ dargestellt. Ob andere Personen eine Mehr- oder Minderheitsmeinung uns gegenüber vertreten, wirkt ebenfalls als sozialer Einfluss (eine direkte Beeinflussungsabsicht kann, muss hier aber nicht vorliegen) und wird im Anschluss besprochen. Im letzten Teil des Kapitels geht es um den klassischen Fall sozialen Einflusses, den absichtlichen, taktisch klug eingefädelten Beeinflussungsversuch.
The development of place attachment is an important learning objective in geography education because it plays a significant role in people’s behaviors toward protecting and acting on behalf of places. This study demonstrates the effects of selecting and presenting favorite places (SPFP) strategy in enhancing students’ place attachment. The SPFP activity was expected to establish the participants’ positive stance toward their chosen places and promote the consistent maintenance of their initial attitude. It builds on the preference for consistency, or the desire and tendency to behave predictably by acting similarly across diverse situations. We asked the participants to select their favorite places in a city, to visualize them using Google Earth, and to present their activities. As a result, the participants increased their place attachment, which is composed of place identity and place dependence.
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Prowadzenie badań ankietowych i eksperymentalnych w Internecie jest coraz popularniejsze, ale ich autorzy muszą borykać się z problemami małej motywacji do udziału i niskiego stopnia realizacji próby (response rate). Przykłady różnych badań dowodzą, że można zaprojektować badanie tak, aby wpłynąć na chęć do udziału w nim i znacznie zwiększyć odsetek zwrotów. W artykule omówiono istotne dla realizacji próby elementy badań internetowych, takie jak wybór badanej populacji i sposobu organizacji badania, forma i treść zaproszenia do udziału, a także wykorzystanie gratyfikacji za udział. Autorzy, dokonując przeglądu wyników licznych eksperymentów metodologicznych, a także wyników własnych badań dotyczących organizacji badania i kontaktu z osobami badanymi, podają konkretne wskazówki służące skłonieniu do udziału i zwiększaniu stopnia realizacji próby.
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The paper reviews research on self-perception as a mechanism of the foot-in the-door technique. First I present the theory of self-perception and controversies around the issue of self-perception as a source of knowledge about self. I argue that self-image changes occurring as a result of performing the initial request may lead to higher compliance with the target request. Data suggesting existence of two separate foot-in-the-door strategies and mechanisms underlying their efficacy have been presented. Finally, on the base of the obtained results the advice has been given on how to increase the compliance rate.
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Successful online communities (e.g., Wikipedia, Yelp, and StackOverflow) can produce valuable content. However, many communities fail in their initial stages. Starting an online community is challenging because there is not enough content to attract a critical mass of active members. This paper examines methods for addressing this cold-start problem in datamining-bootstrappable communities by attracting non-members to contribute to the community. We make four contributions: 1) we characterize a set of communities that are “datamining-bootstrappable” and define the bootstrapping problem in terms of decision-theoretic optimization, 2) we estimate the model parameters in a case study involving the Open AI Resources website, 3) we demonstrate that non-members' predicted interest levels and request design are important features that can significantly affect the contribution rate, and 4) we ran a simulation experiment using data generated with the learned parameters and show that our decision-theoretic optimization algorithm can generate as much community utility when bootstrapping the community as our strongest baseline while issuing only 55% as many contribution requests.
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Description des 8 critères de persuasion interactive et des 23 sous-critères.
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Due to their sometimes excessive diffusion especially on web, population is familiar with survey. The lower response rate is an important concern for researcher. In this article we developed a criteria based approach model used to modify response behavior from user. This grid has been created as a guideline to design persuasive interface. User interface improvement combined with time aspects influenced response rate. The study has been conducted on a business survey launched in company on 897 employees. The answer rate has been improved from 25% to 41%. Practical suggestion on future research directions are discussed.
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The purpose of this research was to study the impact of committing procedures aiming at encouraging the involvement in an organisational continuous improvement project. With a research with two steps, some experimental groups of employees were integrated in a committing system. The number of committing procedures used was different between the groups. Attitudinal and behavioural measures showing the commitment in the project were used as dependent variables. The findings show that the involvement of employees in the project is influenced by the level of commitment used. It was noted that the level of commitment impacts the behaviours but no effect on attitudes was noticed. What is at stake in the applications of this psychosocial theory in organisational projects is questioned.
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L’objectif de cette recherche a été d’étudier l’impact de procédures engageantes destinées à favoriser l’adhésion à un projet d’entreprise d’amélioration continue. Pour une expérience en deux phases, des groupes expérimentaux de salariés ont été insérés dans un dispositif engageant. Selon les groupes, le nombre de procédures engageantes utilisées variait. Des mesures attitudinales et comportementales marquant l’engagement envers le projet ont servi de variables dépendantes. Les résultats montrent que l’implication des salariés dans le projet est influencée par le niveau d’engagement utilisé. On constate également que le niveau d’engagement affecte les comportements mais on n’observe pas d’effet sur les attitudes. L’enjeu des applications de cette théorie psychosociale dans les projets des organisations est discuté.
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Many influence techniques increase response rates to a survey, but these techniques have been tested with face-to-face or telephone surveys. Few studies have tested the effect of compliance techniques in a Computer-Mediated Communication. The personalization of the relationship between the subject solicited and the solicitor as well as the physical attractiveness of the solicitor are factors which have been found to favor compliance to a request in face-to-face situation. Two experiments were carried out in two different situations in which a survey solicitation was sent by e-mail. The presence versus absence of the solicitor's picture in the e-mail and the physical attractiveness of the solicitor were used as independent variables. The results showed that the response rate increased when the solicitor's picure was presented but decreased when the solicitor had a low level of attractiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article investigates the effects of self-concept clarity (the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable) and psychological reactance (the adoption of or strengthening a view or attitude that is contrary to what was intended) on compliance with product and service recommendations. Our empirical study of choice tasks on digital cameras and computer security software reveals that individuals’ compliance to product and service recommendations is negatively related to their strength of self-concept clarity. Perceived threats to freedom are also negatively associated with compliance to recommendations when individuals are faced with choices of products, however it has no significant effect with software services such as computer security software. The implications of these findings on product and service recommendations are discussed.
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The success of many online services today depends on the company’s ability to persuade users to take specific actions, such as registering or inviting friends. We examined over 50 popular Web services of this kind to understand the influence processes and strategies used. We found that successful online services share a pattern of target behaviors that can be viewed as part of an overall framework. We call this framework the “Behavior Chain for Online Participation.” This paper briefly presents the general idea of a behavior chain and applies it to understanding persuasion patterns found online. We then illustrate the Behavior Chain for Online Participation by applying it to the Web service LinkedIn and other popular services. Future research may identify behavior chains in other domains and develop new research methods for validating behavior chains.
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Embodied virtual agents (called hereafter EVAs) are animated, virtual objects, which move, talk, and look like human beings. We propose a possible route which may help better understand how observed effects of an agent on an interface user occur. We relate the concept of embodied agent to literatures in marketing and psychology, which justify the introduction of the concept of attitude. A route of influence and a model are elaborated, proposing effects of agents presence and congruency, on attitudes, and behavioural and intentional dimension of the website power of retention, or “stickiness”. The model is tested, results are discussed, research contributions and limits are commented.
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This paper evaluates data from an international anti-poverty campaign to assess if common principles from e-marketing and persuasive technology apply to online social marketing. It focuses on the relationships between website credibility, users’ active trust attitudes and behavioural intent. Using structural equation modelling, the evaluation found a significant relationship between these variables and suggests strategies for online behavioural change interventions.
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This paper describes a social marketing campaign that encouraged individuals to adopt environmentally sustainable behaviors such as purchasing green power, installing energy-efficient lights, and checking tire pressure and refrigerator efficiency. An e-mail campaign was developed using the social marketing tools of commitment, prompting, and social norms. The results suggest that electronic listservs, which leverage social networks, can be a viable vehicle for social marketing. The paper extends the literature by introducing e-mail as a vehicle for obtaining individual commitment to change behavior. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Marketing Communications is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. A few scholars have argued that the Internet is a valuable channel for social marketing, and that practitioners need to rethink how they engage with target audiences online. However, there is little evidence that online social marketing interventions can significantly influence behaviours, while there are few evidence-based guidelines to aid online intervention design. This thesis assesses the efficacy of online interventions suitable for social marketing applications, presents a model to integrate behavioural change research, and examines psychological principles that may aid the design of online behavioural change interventions.The primary research project used meta-analytical techniques to assess the impact of interventions targeting voluntary behaviours, and examined psychological design and adherence correlations. The study found that many online interventions demonstrated the capacity to help people achieve voluntary lifestyle changes. Compared to waitlist control conditions, the interventions demonstrated advantages, while compared to print materials they offered similar impacts, but with the advantages of lower costs and broader reach. A secondary research project surveyed users across an international public mobilization campaign and used structural equation modelling to assess the relationships between website credibility, active trust, and behavioural impacts. This study found that website credibility and active trust were factors in behavioural influence, while active trust mediated the effects of website credibility on behaviour. The two research projects demonstrated that online interventions can influence an individual’s offline behaviours. Effective interventions were primarily goal-orientated: they informed people about the consequences of their behaviour, encouraged them to set goals, offered skills-building support, and tracked their progress. People who received more exposure to interventions generally achieved greater behavioural outcomes. Many of these interventions could be incorporated into social marketing campaigns, and offer individually tailored support capable of scaling to massive public audiences. Communication theory was used to harmonize influence taxonomies and techniques; this proved to be an effective way to organize a diversity of persuasion, therapy, and behavioural change research. Additionally, website credibility and users’ active trust could offer a way to mitigate the negative impacts of online risks and competition.
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Meta-analysis of the foot-in-the-door (FITD) and door-in-the-face (DITF) literatures showed both effects to be small (r = .17, .15 respectively), even under optimal conditions. Both require aprosocial topic in order to work. The amount of time between the first and second requests plays a different role in the operation of each of the two strategies. DITF was effective only when the delay between requests was brief. Effectiveness of FITD was unrelated to delay, but did depend on whether or not an incentive was provided with the first request. The positive relationship between effort and FITD predicted by self-perception theory was not found. Self-perception theory and reciprocal concessions theory, the theoretical perspectives usually applied to FITD and DITF respectively are examined in light of the findings and it is concluded that both are flawed seriously. Directions for future research are suggested.
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Meta-analyses were performed on research investigating the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. A total of 120 experimental groups were examined, as well as a subset of the research considered to be pure tests of the foot-in-the-door hypothesis. The statistical combinations were consistent in indicating that the phenomenon, although replicable, is weak and not nearly as robust as assumed. Nearly half of the studies either produced no effects or effects in the wrong direction. The common self-perception explanation was found to be imprecise in leading to clear predictions; nevertheless, data were presented that have implications for the theory. A number of potentially mediating variables were examined. New theorctical development and clarification of underlying proceses are needed.
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The extent to which the size of an initial request related to organ donation could be reduced when using the foot-in-the-door technique was investigated. After being asked to comply with an initial request to complete a questionnaire related to organ donation having either 5, 10, 15, or 20 items or not being asked to complete the questionnaire, subjects indicated their willingness to become an organ donor. In addition to replicating earlier research, the results indicated that the original 20-item questionnaire could be reduced to five items without losing its effectiveness to increase willingness to become an organ donor when compared to the no-request condition. The implications of the foot-in-the-door technique for medical volunteering in general and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
Article
Foot in the door and door in the face have been cited frequently as effective strategies for gaining compliance with behavioral requests. However, research efforts to confirm these two phenomena have produced mixed results. After deriving predictions about how the favorability of available information influences compliance, the authors report a synthesis of research results for both paradigms. Combined effect sizes across research results for several moderating variables are compiled. Implications for theoretical, empirical, and practical application of the syntheses are discussed.
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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 264 pages (£20.00 hardcover) ISBN: 0521632943 This book is a timely examination of web users' behaviour and the ways in which it affects others participating among the different electronic environments available. The Internet is a technology that has expanded rapidly over relatively few years and millions of users are interacting with each other using the new medium without having considered how this communication differs in quantity and quality from more established information channels. Using examples from previously established research in the field of social psychology and more recent studies on various aspects of the Internet phenomenon, the author considers how human behaviour is influenced by the peculiar characteristics of the new 'Web-World'. After a brief introductory chapter where some of the Internet jargon is usefully demystified, there follow two related chapters on how people 'invent' themselves on the Web, discussing role-playing, impression formation and management, and identity experiments. They examine how users attempt to overcome the lack of the usual non-verbal cues in face-to-face communication and add socioemotional expressiveness to their online personas. The author also discusses how this process of online self-projection can become altogether delusional, deceptive and dangerous as participants morph between generational, gender and personality profiles. The following two chapters examine the dynamics of group behaviour online. They illustrate the psychological phenomena of conformity, polarization, conflict and co-operation occurring in mailing lists, e-mail traffic, news and discussion groups and chat rooms. Surprisingly, much of group behaviour online has similar social regulation as their real life counterparts.
Article
Adult women (N = 67) were assigned to a foot-in-the-door (FITD) treatment or control condition during a health fair at a shopping mall in order to increase compliance with a request to schedule a gynecological examination. All women also completed a 15-item health attitudes survey after the critical request. Results indicated a small, significant effect for FITD as treatment women showed 16% greater compliance with the critical request. Attitude results indi- cated that control women had more favorable attitudes about gynecological issues. Results demonstrate the practical application of FITD under naturalistic conditions on this important preventative health behavior.
Article
Just as with most other communication breakthroughs before it, the initial media and popular reaction to the Internet has been largely negative, if not apocalyptic. For example, it has been described as “awash in pornography”, and more recently as making people “sad and lonely.” Yet, counter to the initial and widely publi cized claim that Internet use causes depression and social isolation, the body of ev idence (even in the initial study on which the claim was based) is mainly to the con trary. More than this, however, it is argued that like the telephone and television before it, the Internet by itself is not a main effect cause of anything, and that psy chology must move beyond this notion to an informed analysis of how social iden tity, social interaction, and relationship formation may be different on the Internet than in real life. Four major differences and their implications for self and identity, social interaction, and relationships are identified: one's greater anonymity, the greatly reduced importance of physical appearance and physical distance as “gating features” to relationship development, and one's greater control over the time and pace of interactions. Existing research is reviewed along these lines and some promising directions for future research are described.
Article
Studied the relative effects of self-perception and perceptual contrast on rate of compliance with a counternormative request in a 5 × 2 × 2 design that combined 5 sizes of the initial request, 2 levels of authority, and sex. 200 undergraduates served as Ss. Increased compliance was obtained only when the initial requests were either moderately small or excessively large, but not when they were either very small or moderately large. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The first half of this book criticizes the motivational assumptions of classical economics, emphasizes the parallel disregard in practical life of social skills as compared with technical skills, and points up the disastrous social consequences of these errors. The second half reviews several studies by the Department of Industrial Research (Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration) and shows what light they throw on how these errors may be corrected. An appendix lists and describes briefly all the major studies conducted by the Department of Industrial Research (1926-1945) and includes a bibliography of publications by its members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Internet is increasingly being used as a medium for psychological research. To assess the validity of such efforts, an electronic version of Gangestad & Snyder's (1985) revised self-monitoring questionnaire was placed at a site on the World Wide Web. In all, 963 responses were obtained through the Internet and these were compared with those from a group of 224 undergraduates who completed a paper-and-pencil version. Comparison of model fit indices obtained through confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the Internet-mediated version had similar psychometric properties to its conventional equivalent and compared favourably as a measure of self-monitoring. Reasons for possible superiority of Internet data are discussed. Results support the notion that Web-based personality assessment is possible, but stringent validation of test instruments is urged.
Article
The present study involves the development of a new self-report scale for the use of Internet services, and examines its relationship to extraversion and neuroticism. Forty-five males and 27 females, differing in extraversion and neuroticism, rated the frequency with which they use each of 12 main Internet services. An exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors of Internet services: social services; information services; and leisure services. Extraversion and neuroticism showed different patterns of relationships with the factors of the Internet-Services Scale, with different patterns of association for men and women. For men, extraversion was positively related to the use of leisure services and neuroticism was negatively related to information services, whereas for women, extraversion was negatively related and neuroticism positively related to the use of social services. Implications for the study of the psychological influences of the Internet are discussed.
Article
Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring all represent “epistemic freezing” in which the lay-knower becomes less aware of plausible alternative hypotheses and/or inconsistent bits of evidence competing with a given judgment. It was hypothesized that epistemic freezing would increase with an increase in time pressure on the lay-knower to make a judgment and decrease with the layknower's fear that his/her judgment will be evaluated and possibly be in error. Accordingly, it was predicted that primacy effects, ethnic stereotyping, and anchoring phenomena would increase in magnitude with an increase in time pressure and decrease in magnitude with an increase in evaluation apprehension. Finally, the time-pressure variations were expected to have greater impact upon “freezing” when the evaluation apprehension is high as opposed to low. All hypotheses were supported in each of the presently executed studies.
Article
The Internet provides opportunities to conduct surveys more efficiently and effectively than traditional means. This article reviews previous studies that use the Internet for survey research. It discusses the methodological issues and problems associated with this new approach. By presenting a case study, it seeks possible solutions to some of the problems, and explores the potential the Internet can offer to survey researchers.
Article
Comparisons were made of the personality and social orientations of antisocial risk takers, defined as residents in a long-term drug-treatment facility (N = 24); adventurous risk takers, defined as rock climbers (N = 18); and prosocial risk takers, or heroes, defined as policemen and firemen decorated for bravery (N = 21). Measures included substance abuse proclivity, emotional arousability, conformity, moral reasoning, empathy, psychopathy, and sensation seeking. Discriminant analysis identified two functions that correctly classified 98.18% of the sample. Drug-unit residents had high scores on an Antisocial function, characterized by emotionality, depression, psychopathy, substance abuse proclivity, and lower scores on moral reasoning. Rock climbers had high scores on an Antistructural function, characterized by sensation seeking and moral reasoning, the latter reflecting the higher education level of the rock climbers. Neither discriminant function characterized the heroes. Thus, drug-unit residents, rock climbers, and heroes appear to represent both different psychological types and different forms of risk taking.
Article
This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
Article
The effects of reward or reinforcement on preceding behavior depend in part on whether the person perceives the reward as contingent on his own behavior or independent of it. Acquisition and performance differ in situations perceived as determined by skill versus chance. Persons may also differ in generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. This report summarizes several experiments which define group differences in behavior when Ss perceive reinforcement as contingent on their behavior versus chance or experimenter control. The report also describes the development of tests of individual differences in a generalized belief in internal-external control and provides reliability, discriminant validity and normative data for 1 test, along with a description of the results of several studies of construct validity.
Article
2 experiments were conducted to test the proposition that once someone has agreed to a small request he is more likely to comply with a larger request. Exp. I demonstrated this effect when the same person made both requests; Exp. II extended this to the situation in which different people made the 2 requests. Several experimental groups were run in an effort to explain these results, and possible explanations are discussed.
Article
While the addictive potential of Internet usage is a topic that has attracted a great deal of attention, as yet little research has addressed this topic. Preliminary data from the Internet Usage Survey shows that most of the 563 users reported instances of Internet use interfering with other aspects of their lives, most commonly problems with managing time. A subgroup of users endorsed multiple usage-related problems, including several similar to those found in addictions. Younger users tended to have experienced more problems.
Group processes in computer-mediated communication. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes
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Sequential-request persuasive strategies: meta-analysis of foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face
  • Dillard