Article

GlobIZ - Global Information System on Pyraloidea. www.pyraloidea.org

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  • Muséum d'histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève
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Abstract

The GlobIZ database is an online platform dedicated to compiling the global nomenclatural data published on Pyraloidea, or snout moths, one of the most species-rich groups of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Information edited in GlobIZ is freely provided at the website [www.pyraloidea.org] via the search options: "database" > "search". The abbreviation "GlobIZ" is based on the German title "Globales Informationssystem Zünslerfalter", which can be translated as Global Information System on Pyraloidea. The title goes back to the early phase of the project, which was initiated and funded in Germany. GlobIZ provides information on scientific names of Pyraloidea, and nomenclatural changes applied to these names. Data editing strictly follows the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), with the exception of gender agreement between genus and species group names. Species group names throughout the database are given in their original spellings in order to achive better nomenclatural stability. The provided information comprises the original description of a name, its current status and rank and the current generic combination of a species. The information is linked to the literature references in which the nomenclatural changes have been published. As of December 2019, 2,106 genera (plus 1,402 synonyms) and 15,955 species (plus 6,291 synonyms) are recorded in the GlobIZ database.

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... The subfamily Spilomelinae Guenée, 1854 is known to be the subfamily with the highest diversity of the Pyraloidea, comprising 4097 described species in 338 genera and accounting for 26% of the species of the Pyraloidea [1,2]. ...
... The species group B is widely distributed in the Palearctic, Afrotropical and the Indo-Australian zones [2,10]. On the contrary, the known species of group A are restricted in distribution to the Afrotropical zone, with records from islands of the Indian Ocean (La Reunion, the Comoros Islands, the Malagasy Region, the Seychelles Islands), from South Africa and from Namibia [7,9,11]. ...
... This genus encompasses 18 known species and is distributed in the Afrotropical and Indo-Australian zones [1,2,13]. The genus is still little explored in the Afrotropical zone, with seven species known up to now and numerous unknown species conjectured [11,13]. ...
Article
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The Spilomelinae Guinée, 1854 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is known as the largest subfamily of the Pyraloidea with a wide distribution in the tropical and temperate zones. In the present study, new taxonomic and faunistic results on this subfamily are presented on the basis of material sampled in the southwestern province Dhofar of Oman. In Dhofar three zoogeographical zones intersect, namely the Palearctic, Oriental and Afrotropical zones, with the Afrotropical fauna elements in the majority. The specimens of the sample are attributed to three species of three different genera, namely Herpetogramma, Lederer, 1883 (n=2), Notarcha, Meyrick, 1884 (n=2) and Glyphodes, Meyrick, 1884 (n=2) on the basis of external and genital-morphological characters. The specimens attributed to the genus Herpetogramma, Lederer, 1883 are assigned to a species group known as LBJ (Little Brown Jobs), the species of which are distinguishable by genital-morphological features exclusively. The specimens attributed to the genus Notarcha, Meyrick, 1884 revealed to be very close in wing pattern features to the Notarcha quaternalis Zeller, 1832 species complex. Comparison of the male genitalia of each of the sub-samples with the species of the respective subgroups revealed significant differences, which result in the descriptions of the new species Herpetogramma debilis Seizmair, sp. nov. and Notarcha viridalis Seizmair, sp. nov. The presence of the genus Notarcha, Meyrick, 1884 is reported as new to the entomofauna of the Arabian Peninsula. The specimens attributed to the genus Glyphodes, Meyrick, 1884 differ significantly in external characters from a sample of seven species with similar forewing longitudinal line patterns. Among the species of this cluster Glyphodes onychinalis Guenée, 1854 is genital-morphologically very close to the specimens of the sample collected. The latter species and the specimens of the sample share the shape of the uncus and the structure of the corpus bursae wall, yet differ significantly in the structure of the valva. These differences result in the description of the new species Glyphodes leucomesalis Seizmair, sp.nov.
... With about 15 500 species, Pyraloidea is one of the most diverse superfamilies of Lepidoptera. The Crambinae (2047 species) and the Scopariinae (577 species) together account for about 18% of described pyraloid species (Nuss et al., 2019). The Crambinae typically have elongated forewings that provide them with camouflage on grasses, while the Scopariinae generally exhibit a greyish wing pattern matching that of rocks and tree trunks where they rest during the day. ...
... Landry's work was mostly restricted to North American taxa and failed to recover the relationships among the tribes or to assign some genera to a given tribe. The Crambinae are currently classified into 176 genera (Nuss et al., 2019). The Scopariinae genera were reviewed by Nuss (1999), and possible relationships within the group were presented by the same author (Nuss, 2003), but the subfamily has never been analysed phylogenetically. ...
... The Scopariinae genera were reviewed by Nuss (1999), and possible relationships within the group were presented by the same author (Nuss, 2003), but the subfamily has never been analysed phylogenetically. The current classification divides the Scopariinae into 24 genera, with Eudonia Billberg (263 species) and Scoparia Haworth (242 species) making the bulk of their diversity (Nuss et al., 2019). Hoploscopa Meyrick was described in Scopariadae (now Scopariinae) and Heliothela Guenée in Hercynidae (now Odontiinae). ...
Article
Crambinae (2047 spp.) and Scopariinae (577 spp.) are two major groups of pyraloid moths with a worldwide distribution. Their larvae feed predominantly on Poales and Bryophyta, with many cereal crop pests. We present the first molecular phylogeny of the two groups based on five nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene (total = 4713 bp) sampled for 58 crambine species representing 56 genera and all tribes, 33 scopariine species representing 12 genera, and species in several other crambid lineages. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the molecular data resolve suprageneric relationships in Crambinae and Scopariinae, whereas relationships between these and other subfamilies remain ambiguous. Crambinae and Scopariinae are each recovered as monophyletic groups, and Erupini, formerly regarded as an ingroup of Midilinae, is recovered as a possible sister group of Crambinae. The tree topology suggests the following two major changes within Crambinae: Prionapterygini Landry syn.n. of Ancylolomiini Ragonot stat. rev. and Myelobiini Minet syn.n. of Chiloini Heinemann. Argyriini Munroe is monophyletic after the transfer of Pseudocatharylla Bleszynski and Vaxi Bleszynski to Calamotrophini. Crambini, Diptychophorini and Haimbachiini are monophyletic after the exclusion of Ancylolomia Hübner, Euchromius Guenée, Micrelephas Dognin and Miyakea Marumo from Crambini, as well as Microchilo Okano from Diptychophorini. Euchromiini tribe n. is described for Euchromius. Microcramboides Bleszynski syn.n. and Tortriculladia Bleszynski syn.n. are synonymized with Microcrambus Bleszynski. In Scopariinae, Caradjaina Leraut syn.n. and Cholius Guenée syn.n. are synonymized with Scoparia Haworth, and, in addition, Dasyscopa Meyrick syn.n., Dipleurinodes Leraut syn.n. and Eudipleurina Leraut syn.n. are synonymized with Eudonia Billberg. Micraglossa melanoxantha (Turner) (Scoparia) comb.n. is proposed as a new combination. We analysed 27 morphological characters of wing venation, tympanal organs, male and female genitalia, as well as host plant data and egg‐laying behaviour. The ancestral character‐state reconstructions confirmed previous apomorphies and highlighted new apomorphies for some of the newly recovered clades. The derived, nonadhesive egg‐dropping behaviour is found to have evolved at least twice in Crambinae and is associated with the use of Pooideae as host plants. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1A84282D‐930A‐4C32‐8340‐D681BFF27A12. The Crambinae + Scopariinae phylogeny is reconstructed with five nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene (total = 4713 bp) sampled for 91 taxa representing 68 genera. The tribal classification in Crambinae is revised and Euchromiini tribe n. is described, and in Scopariinae, five genera found nested within the species‐rich Eudonia and Scoparia are synonymized. The behaviour of dropping nonadhesive eggs is found to have evolved at least twice in Crambinae and is associated with the use of Pooideae as host plants.
... It is superficially distinct enough that it has long been placed in its own genus, Eurrhypara Hübner, 1825, which is now regarded as a subgenus of Anania Hübner, 1823 (Leraut 2005;Tränker et al. 2009). It is widespread from Europe to far-east Russia (Ganev 1996;Sinev 2008;Slamka 2013;Nuss et al. 2017). It has been introduced in North America where it occurs in the East (it was first discovered in Nova Scotia in 1907) and on the west coast (with a more recent introduction in British Columbia in 1977) (Gillespie and Gillespie 1982). ...
... Eurrhyparodes hortulata: Wang 1980, 21: 123;Inoue 1982: 359;Xu et al. 1999: 25. Anania (Eurrhypara) hortulata: Tränker et al. 2009;Slamka 2013: 69;Nuss et al. 2017. ...
... Anania is a large genus currently with 117 described species (Nuss et al. 2017). Several species groups present heterogeneous, strikingly different aspects, especially in colouration: wing patterns range from brown wavy lines and spots over an off-white ground colour (e.g., A. coronata (Hufnagel, 1767) species complex, A. murcialis (Ragonot, 1895)), to black with white spots (e.g., A. funebris (Ström, 1768)), to nearly uniformly rusty brown with faint markings (e.g., A. terrealis (Treitschke, 1829)), to white with radiating black markings (e.g., A. hortulata species complex) (Tränker et al. 2009;Slamka 2013). ...
Article
Anania hortulata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Pyraustinae) is a strikingly coloured, common, and widespread species that has long been recognised as a single species widely distributed in Asia, Europe, and North America. Using a combination of molecular and morphometric data, this study resolved that A. hortulata is actually a species complex of two superficially indistinguishable species. Phylogenetic and network analyses based on the mitochondrial COI gene discriminated lineages from all major geographical regions of China as distinct, A. sinensis Yang and Landry new species , whereas A. hortulata occurs in Central Asia, Europe, and North America. Nuclear gene (CAD) and morphological differences in the genital characters provided further evidence for the separation of A. hortulata and A. sinensis .
... The subfamily Scopariinae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is composed of 577 described species worldwide (Nuss et al., 2018). These micro-moths can be best defined by their unique and very uniform pattern elements of the forewings (Nuss, 1999). ...
... Eudonia, the most species-rich genus of Scopariinae, was established by Billberg in 1820 with Phalaena mercurella Linnaeus, 1758 as the monotypic species (Billberg, 1820). To date, the genus has 266 described species worldwide and includes representatives on all of the continents including the Sub-Antarctic Islands (Li, 2015;Nuss et al., 2018). In China, the first Eudonia species was recorded as early as 1919, and 29 species have been verified prior to this study (Li, 2015;Wileman & South, 1919). ...
... Prior to this study, the cosmopolitan genus Eudonia had been well known for its distribution on all of the continents, including the Sub-Antarctic Islands (Nuss et al., 2018). In China, all the occurrences of the Eudonia species have been recorded in mountain areas above 1000 m elevation, and nearly 50% of species amongst them are only known from the localities above 2000 m elevation (Caradja & Meyrick, 1937;Leraut, 1986;Li et al., 2012;Li, 2015;Sasaki, 1998Sasaki, , 1999Song & He, 1997). ...
Article
The genus Eudonia is rarely recorded in Tibet despite having a wide occurrence in the plateau. In the taxonomy of the genus, the morphological characters are insufficient to delimit the closely related congeners due to the subtly interspecific differences and conspicuously intraspecific variability. In this study, the Tibetan species are studied with an integrative approach using molecular data and morphological characters. It is found that the number of Eudonia species in Tibet accounts for about 20% of the total species previously catalogued for the genus in China. Five species are described as new to science: Eudonia galonglaensis Li, sp. nov., E. varians Li, sp. nov., E. triangulata Li, sp. nov., E. angusta Li, sp. nov., and E. bomiensis Li, sp. nov. The potential distribution of Chinese Eudonia is predicted and illustrated using MaxEnt and DIVA-GIS. The results reveal the exceptionally high species diversity of Eudonia in Tibet for the first time, demonstrate that the integrative morphological and molecular approach is highly effective for resolving the difficult-to-distinguish morphologies, and predict the region of China to the south of 35°N and to the east of 95°E as having potentially high Eudonia species diversity. http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EA3C5D21-9674-46E4-838D-48D5A098314B
... Widespread across all major zoogeographical regions Achyra includes 18 species (Nuss et al., 2014), 10 of which occur in the Neotropics (Munroe, 1995). The larvae feed on a variety of low plants, including some crops (alfalfa, beans, clover, cotton, strawberries, etc.) (Munroe, 1976). ...
... A New World genus containing eight species distributed from Maryland, USA, to Argentina (Munroe, 1976(Munroe, , 1995Nuss et al., 2014;Patterson et al., 2014). It is recognized in the male genitalia by the narrowly triangular uncus, the absence of an oblique ridge sporting a row of dorsally directed, often scale-like setae medially on the valva, and a single clasper (Munroe, 1976 In the Galápagos this species is most similar to Loxomorpha cambogialis (Guenée), which is also often yellow and roughly the same size, but differs externally by the conical frons and the hindwing pattern without the extra dot submedially. ...
... A widely distributed genus comprising 284 species (Nuss et al., 2014). The larvae web and often roll leaves, shoots, and fl owers head of a variety of herbaceous plants, but most of the species were reared from Lamiaceae (Munroe, 1976). ...
Article
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The Pyralidae Pyraustinae of the Galápagos Islands are diagnosed and illustrated and their biology and distribution are discussed. Of the fi ve species recorded, three are considered as new and described: Neohelvibotys hoecki sp. n., Pyrausta galapagensis sp. n., and Pyrausta insolata sp. n.
... The genus Pyrausta Schrank, 1802, the type genus of the subfamily Pyraustinae (Lepidoptera, Crambidae), comprises at present 341 described species and is thus the most diverse genus in the subfamily (Mally et al., 2019;Nuss et al., 2022) [1,2] . The genus has a world-wide distribution. ...
... Structural ratios in external characters, genitalia and tympanal organs were calculated on the images by means of the imaging software ToupView, Version 1.0 (ToupTek Inc., Zhejiang, China). The specimens of the sample were compared with the types of the Afrotropical, Oriental and Palearctic species of the genus as listed in Nuss et al. (2021) [2] , Slamka (2013) [3] and in De Prins and De Prins (2021) [12] on the basis of type images and original descriptions. ...
Article
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The species of the genus Pyrausta Schrank, 1802 reported till date from the Arabian Peninsula are listed and reviewed. Till date, two described species have been known from the Arabian Peninsula-Pyrausta arabica Butler, 1884 and Pyrausta phoenicealis (Hübner, 1818). The external diagnostic character states, the global distributions and the local distributions of these species on the Arabian Peninsula are commented on. On the basis of material collected by the author in Dhofar, the southwestern province of the Sultanate of Oman, a third species of the genus is added to the entomofauna of the Arabian Peninsula, which differs significantly in external character states from congeners with related wing patterns. These differences result in the description of a species new to science, Pyrausta postmediofusalis sp.nov. The closest related congeners are Pyrausta mahensis Fletcher, 1910, Pyrausta fulvilinealis, Hampson, 1913, Pyrausta amboinalis Pagenstecher, 1884, Pyrausta phragmatidalis Hampson, 1908 and Pyrausta subflavalis Warren, 1892. The new species is differentiated from these comparative species in the combination of the following external character states: forewing and hindwing grounds concolorous, width, shape and connectedness of the antemedial, postmedial and subterminal lines in the forewing and absence of lines in the hindwing. In internal character states the new species is unique in the projected basal costa of the valva, the sclerotizations in the basal and postbasal uncus, in the shape of the juxta and in the shape of the cornutus.
... The most species-rich genera are Udea Guenée, 1845, Palpita Hübner, 1808, Glyphodes Guenée, 1854 and the heterogeneous genera Syllepte Hübner, 1823 and Lamprosema Hübner, 1823. Pyraustinae comprises 1,239 described species in 174 genera, with 94 genera (52%) monotypic and only three genera with more than 50 species: Loxostege Hübner, 1825, Anania Hübner, 1823and Pyrausta Schrank, 1802(nuss et al. 2003-2019. Tribes within Spilomelinae and Py rau stinae have been proposed for recognition in the past, but they usually served to segregate single genera with aberrant morphology, e.g. the long-legged, narrowwinged Lineodini Amsel, 1956, Nomophilini Kuznetzov & Stekolnikov, 1979and Hydririni Minet, 1982. Therefore, a comprehensive tribal classification has not been thoroughly accepted. ...
... Eurrhyparodes bracteolalis (Zeller, 1852) is recorded from Solanum (Solanaceae) and Oryza (Poaceae) (robinson et al. 2010), Blepharomastix ranalis from Chenopodium (Amaranthaceae) (solis 2008). The species-rich genus Herpetogramma (100 spp.;nuss et al. 2003-2019 contains species with a variety of food plants ranging from ferns to angiosperms (solis 2008;Janzen & HallwacHs 2009). Remarks. ...
Article
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Spilomelinae and Pyraustinae form a species-rich monophylum of Crambidae (snout moths). Morphological distinction of the two groups has been difficult in the past, and the morphologically heterogenous Spilomelinae has not been broadly accepted as a natural group due to the lack of convincing apomorphies. In order to investigate potential apomorphic characters for Spilomelinae and Pyraustinae and to examine alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, we conduct a phylogenetic analysis using 6 molecular markers and 114 morphological characters of the adults representing 77 genera of Spilomelinae and 18 genera of Pyraustinae. The results of the analysis of the combined data strongly suggest that Spilomelinae and Pyraustinae are each monophyletic and sister to each other. Wurthiinae is confirmed as ingroup of Spilomelinae, and Sufetula Walker, 1859 as a non-spilomeline. Within Spilomelinae, several well supported clades are obtained, for which we propose a first phylogeny-based tribal classification, using nine available and four new names: Hydririni Minet, 1982 stat.rev., Lineodini Amsel, 1956 stat.rev., Udeini trib.n., Wurthiini Roepke, 1916 stat.rev., Agroterini Acloque, 1897 stat.rev., Spilomelini Guenée, 1854 stat.rev. (= Siginae Hampson, 1918), Herpetogrammatini trib.n., Hymeniini Swinhoe, 1900 stat.rev., Asciodini trib.n., Trichaeini trib.n., Steniini Guenée, 1854 stat.rev., Nomophilini Kuznetzov & Stekolnikov, 1979 stat.rev. and Margaroniini Swinhoe & Cotes, 1889 stat.rev. (=Dichocrociinae Swinhoe, 1900; = Hapaliadae Swinhoe, 1890; = Margarodidae Guenée, 1854). The available name Syleptinae Swinhoe, 1900 could not be assigned to any of the recovered clades. Three tribes are recognized in Pyraustinae: Euclastini Popescu-Gorj & Constantinescu, 1977 stat.rev., Portentomorphini Amsel, 1956 stat.rev. and Pyraustini Meyrick, 1890 stat.rev. (= Botydes Blanchard, 1840; = Ennychites Duponchel, 1845). The taxonomic status of Tetridia Warren, 1890, found to be sister to all other investigated Pyraustinae, needs further investigation. The four Spilomelinae tribes that are sister to all other, ‘euspilomeline’ tribes share several plesiomorphies with Pyraustinae. We provide morphological synapomorphies and descriptions for Spilomelinae, Pyraustinae and the subgroups recognised therein. These characters allow the assignment of additional 125 genera to Spilomelinae tribes, and additional 56 genera to Pyraustinae tribes. New and revised combinations are proposed: Nonazochis Amsel, 1956 syn.n. of Conchylodes Guenée, 1854, with Conchylodes graph­ialis (Schaus, 1912) comb.n.; Conchylodes octonalis (Zeller, 1873) comb.n. (from Lygropia); Hyperectis Meyrick, 1904 syn.n. of Hydriris Meyrick, 1885, with Hydriris dioctias (Meyick, 1904) comb.n., and Hydriris apicalis (Hampson, 1912) comb.n.; Conogethes pandamalis (Walker, 1859) comb.n. (from Dichocrocis); Arthromastix pactolalis (Guenée,1854) comb.n. (from Syllepte); Prophantis coenostolalis (Hampson, 1899) comb.n. (from Thliptoceras); Prophantis xanthomeralis (Hampson, 1918) comb.n. (from Thliptoceras); Prophantis longicornalis (Mabille, 1900) comb.n. (from Syngamia); Charitoprepes apicipicta (Inoue, 1963) comb.n. (from Heterocnephes); Prenesta rubrocinctalis (Guenée, 1854) comb.n. (from Glyphodes); Alytana calligrammalis (Mabille, 1879) comb.n. (from Analyta). Epherema Snellen, 1892 stat.rev. with its type species E. abyssalis Snellen, 1892 comb.rev. is removed from synonymy with Syllepte Hübner, 1823. Ametrea Munroe, 1964 and Charitoprepes Warren, 1896 are transferred from Pyraustinae to Spilomelinae; Prooedema Hampson, 1891 from Spilomelinae to Pyraustinae; Aporocosmus Butler, 1886 from Spilomelinae to Odontiinae; Orthoraphis Hampson, 1896 from Spilomelinae to Lathrotelinae; Hydropionea Hampson, 1917, Plantegumia Amsel, 1956 and Munroe’s (1995) “undescribed genus ex Boeo­tarcha Meyrick” are transferred from Spilomelinae to Glaphyriinae.
... The most prominent herbivores associated with L. microphyllum are crambid moths from the subfamily Musotiminae (Goolsby et al., 2003), being present in well over 1000 collections (made across 21 years) from across the native distribution of the fern. This large crambid subfamily includes 193 described species whose larvae feed entirely on ferns and bryophytes (Nuss et al., 2003;Regier et al., 2012). Seven Musotiminae species (two yet to be described) have been found feeding on L. microphyllum (Table 1). ...
... The phylogenetic placement of the Lygodium moths within the subfamily Musotiminae could not be established in this study, as too few Musotiminae sequences are available for comparison. Musotiminae species have a range of feeding modes, including leaf mining, leaf feeding, and stem boring (Nuss et al., 2003), but the problems with the Musotiminae phylogeny mean it is uncertain which of these feeding modes is ancestral. If the Lygodium moths do form a monophyletic assemblage within Musotiminae it would indicate that there has been a single switch in feeding modes within this clade of Lygodium feeding specialists. ...
Article
Lygodium microphyllum is considered one of the most damaging environmental weeds in Florida. Despite substantial efforts to control this fern, it continues to spread rapidly through the Greater Everglades ecosystem and other regions of Florida. Biological control is considered a critical component of the management strategy to control this weed, and foreign exploration for natural enemies is ongoing. A number of crambid moths from the subfamily Musotiminae are considered the most promising of the potential biological control agents found to date, because they are relatively abundant on Lygodium and apparently host-specific. We amplified three genes (COI, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA) to assess the phylogenetic relationships among these moths in relation to geography. Limited genetic structuring was typical within each moth species, and no obvious signals of unrecognised host-specific cryptic species were detected, though further investigation is required, particularly for Eugauria albidentata. Our results emphasize the value of complementing initial field surveys with molecular screening, as such an approach provides valuable information on the biogeographic distribution, genetic structuring, and field host range of potential biological control agents.
... Our investigation for the presence or absence of phallus sclerotization and the inner antrum digitiform structure involved pyraustine genera Achyra Guenée, 1849, Anania sensu Leraut (2005), Callibotys, Carminibotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1971, Circobotys Butler, 1879, Crocidophora Lederer, 1863, Crypsiptya, Demobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1969, Ecpyrrhorrhoe Hübner, 1825, Euclasta Lederer, 1855, Eumorphobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1969, Gynenomis Munroe & Mutuura, 1968, Loxostege Hübner, 1825, Mimetebulea Munroe & Mutuura, 1968, Nascia Curtis, 1835, Nephelobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1970, Ostrinia Hübner, 1825, Paracorsia Marion, 1959, Paranomis Munroe & Mutuura, 1968, Paratalanta Meyrick, 1890, Parbattia Moore, 1888, Pronomis Munroe & Mutuura, 1968, Psammotis Hübner, 1825, Pseudebulea Butler, 1881, Pyrausta Schrank, 1802, Sclerocona Meyrick, 1890, Tenerobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1971, Thliptoceras Warren in Sw inhoe, 1890, Udonomeiga Mutuura, 1954, and Uresiphita Hübner, 1825. Nomenclatural data were edited using the online database of the Global Information System on Pyraloidea (Nuss et al. 2009). Genitalia were prepared and mounted according to the standards suggested by Robinson (1976). ...
... Also, it is our opinion that a large genus Anania, currently comprising 110 species, will provide more stability in the long term as the phylogenetic relationships between species still needs to be investigated. In our view, this procedure can help to revise the diversity of a species-rich group like Pyraustinae, containing approximately 1,400 species, currently still classifi ed into 239 genera (Nuss et al. 2009). Regarding the fact that there are pyraustine genera containing several species like Achyra Guenée, 1849, Hahncappsia Munroe, 1976, Loxostege Hübner, 1825 and Ostrinia Hübner, 1825, or the very species-rich genus Pyrausta Schrank, 1802, the majority of the genera contain less than four species only. ...
Article
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Currently, Pyraustinae (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) are split into many genera that often contain a small number of species only. This classifi cation is largely infl uenced by traditional and typological concepts and do not necessarily refl ect natural relationships. Thus, we encourage the idea to fuse taxa based on synapomorphies, as suggested by Leraut (2005), who argued, that an elongated, serrated sclerite of the phallus in males and a digitiform structure freely extending into the antrum in females is apomorphic for members of Anania Hübner, 1823. Screening the literature, we found four further species belonging to this monophylum: Anania hasanensis (Kirpichnikova, 1998) (Opsibotys) comb. n., Anania luteorubralis (Caradja, 1916) (Pyrausta) comb. n., Anania obtusalis (Yamanaka, 1987) (Perinephela) comb. n., and Anania shafferi (Speidel & Hanigk, 1990) (Algedonia) comb. n. Investigating Chinese Pyraustinae, we also found these characters in taxa which so far were not assigned to Anania. As a result, Pronomis Munroe & Mutuura, 1968 syn. n., Tenerobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1971 syn. n., and Udonomeiga Mutuura, 1954 syn. n. are synonymized with Anania. The species formerly tretaed in Pronomis are transferred to Anania: Anania delicatalis (South, 1901) (Pyrausta) comb. n., Anania flavicolor Munroe & Mutuura, 1968 (Pronomis) comb. n., Anania profusalis (Warren, 1896) (Opsibotys) comb. n. The species and subspecies formerly treated in Tenerobotys are transferred to Anania: Anania subfumalis Munroe & Mutuura, 1971 (Tenerobotys) comb. n., Anania subfumalis continentalis (Munroe & Mutuura, 1971) (Tenerobotys) comb. n., Anania teneralis (Caradja, 1939) (Hapalia) comb. n., and Anania teneralis tsinlingalis (Munroe & Mutuura, 1971) (Tenerobotys) comb. n. Anania vicinalis (South, 1901) comb. n. (Pyrausta) is transferred from Udonomeiga to Anania. The apomorphic characters of Anania are also shared by the afrotropic Ethiobotys Maes, 1997, syn. n., and the species formerly treated therein are transferred to Anania: Anania amaniensis (Maes, 1997) comb. n., Anania ankolae (Maes, 1997) comb. n., Anania bryalis (Hampson, 1918) (Lamprosema) comb. n., Anania camerounensis (Maes, 1997) comb. n., Anania elutalis (Kenrick, 1917) (Pyrausta) comb. n., Anania epipaschialis (Hampson, 1912) (Nacoleia) comb. n., Anania lippensi (Maes, 1997) comb. n., and Anania ruwenzoriensis (Maes, 1997) comb. n. In contrast, Crypsiptya Meyrick, 1894 stat. rev. is reinstated as a valid taxon, based on our investigation of Crypsiptya coclesalis (Walker, 1859: 701) (Botys) comb. rev.
... (clover), Cytisus scoparius (broom) and Ulex europaeus (gorse) (Spiller & Wise 1982). Uresiphita maorialis was previously known as Uresiphita polygonalis maorialis (Felder), but it is now regarded as an endemic New Zealand species (Nuss et al. 2003Nuss et al. – 2013). In many cases, the host plants of the Sophora species become completely defoliated, though this generally does not result in the death of the host plant. ...
... (clover), Cytisus scoparius (broom) and Ulex europaeus (gorse) (Spiller & Wise 1982). Uresiphita maorialis was previously known as Uresiphita polygonalis maorialis (Felder), but it is now regarded as an endemic New Zealand species (Nuss et al. 2003Nuss et al. – 2013). In many cases, the host plants of the Sophora species become completely defoliated, though this generally does not result in the death of the host plant. ...
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In a three-hour bioassay, we tested the palatability and feeding preferences of Uresiphita maorialis (kōwhai moth) for Sophora tetraptera, Sophora microphylla and Sophora prostrata. Palatability tests showed no differences among the Sophora species. Feeding preferences, on the other hand, showed that S. tetraptera and S. microphylla leaves are preferred over S. prostrata leaves. Our results support our field observations in Wellington city parks and gardens showing that S. tetraptera and S. microphylla plants frequently have higher densities of larvae than S. prostrata
... The Glyphodes genus group belongs to the tribe Margaroniini (Mally et al. 2019) and subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The Crambidae consists of 4,090 species worldwide in 339 genera (Nuss et al. 2003e2020). The Glyphodes genus group includes Glyphodes, Agrioglypta, Talanga, and Dysallacta (Hampson 1896;Mally et al. 2019;Sutrisno 2002). ...
Article
Agrioglypta fulguralis Rosfiansyah, Yagi & Hirowatari sp. nov. (Crambidae) is described from the Ryukyus, Japan, based on morphological characteristics and DNA barcoding. Although this new species is similar to A. itysalis, it can be distinguished by the following characters: its smaller size, a lightning marking on the discoidal part of the hindwing, lack of a pair of scale tufts on male seventh abdominal segment, shorter uncus, wider tegumen, wider valva in the male genitalia, and fewer spines in the signum in the female genitalia. DNA barcoding also supports the distinction of this new species from A. itysalis found in China, Java, Papua New Guinea, and Australia. Images of the adults and male and female genitalia are provided herein.
... In Turkey were recorded 14 species of this genus (some of which are new species); the names respectively are Pyrausta aurata (Scopoli, 1763), P. despicata (Scopoli, 1763), P. sanguinalis (Linnaeus, 1767), P. castalis (Treitschke, 1829), P. virginalis (Duponchel,1832), P. limbopunctalis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1849), P. falcatalis (Guenée, 1854), P. pauperalis (Staudinger, 1879), P. ferrealis (Hampson, 1900), P. mauretanica (Rebel, 1907), P. delicatalis (Caradja, 1916), P. pavidalis (Zerny in Osthelder, 1935), P. gulpembe , and P. tatarica (Kemal, Kızıldağ & Koçak, 2020). But there isn't any molecular data that still belongs to them (except P.tatarica) Kemal et al., 2020;Anonymous, 2020b). ...
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Erynnis tages and Erynnis marloyi were known as European species until recent years. Due to their narrow distribution areas, the morphological similarities of the two species were very high, and their status was controversial. However, as the records of these species came from the new regions, their distribution areas turned out to be wide, contrary to what is known. With the mtCOI gene barcode, there was a chance to identify genetic variations hidden between inter-species and intra-species. The present study was the first time the barcode characterization of populations in Turkey and other registered population of barcodes with the genetic variation were assessed. Phylogenetic trees based on mt COI gene sequences were created using Neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference, and maximum-likelihood algorithms. Genetic divergence was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Analysis using the Kimura 2 parameter. It is genetically confirmed that E.tages and E.marloyi are two distinct species independent from each other. E.tages population of Turkey was found genetically similar to that of the population belonging to southern Italy. Southern Russia was also genetically similar. However, E. marloyi Turkey's population was genetically similar to the population of Iran.
... In Turkey were recorded 14 species of this genus (some of which are new species); the names respectively are Pyrausta aurata (Scopoli, 1763), P. despicata (Scopoli, 1763), P. sanguinalis (Linnaeus, 1767), P. castalis (Treitschke, 1829), P. virginalis (Duponchel,1832), P. limbopunctalis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1849), P. falcatalis (Guenée, 1854), P. pauperalis (Staudinger, 1879), P. ferrealis (Hampson, 1900), P. mauretanica (Rebel, 1907), P. delicatalis (Caradja, 1916), P. pavidalis (Zerny in Osthelder, 1935), P. gulpembe , and P. tatarica (Kemal, Kızıldağ & Koçak, 2020). But there isn't any molecular data that still belongs to them (except P.tatarica) Kemal et al., 2020;Anonymous, 2020b). ...
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ABSTRACT: Pyrausta aurata (Scopoli, 1763), P. despicata (Scopoli, 1763), P. sanguinalis (Linnaeus, 1767), P. castalis (Treitschke, 1829), P. pavidalis (Zerny in Osthelder, 1935) and P. gulpembe (Kemal & Koçak, 2018) from Turkey were first time barcoded in the present study. Turkish populations and new species P. tatarica (Kemal, Kızıldağ & Koçak, 2020) were evaluated the phylogenetic positions with other Pyrausta species and populations. In the phylogenetic tree based on the mtCOI gene region delimitation of species and populations constructed with Neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference, and maximum-likelihood algorithms. For understanding the importance of the phylogenetic species concept in species delimitation, was reviewed cladistic topology and genetic distances of Pyrausta species with new data.
... The Scopariinae Guinée, 1854 are among the major sub-families of the Crambidae Latreille, 1810 with a world-wide distribution. The subfamily comprises 586 known species [1][2][3]. The Scopariinae Guinée, 1854 were found to form a sister group complex with the Crambinae Latreille, 1810 [4]. ...
... The genus Cathayia was based on the type species Cathayia obliquella Hampson (Ragonot and Hampson 1901) and includes a total of five species worldwide. The genus is known to be distributed in Australia, Borneo, China, Japan, and Spain (Nuss et al 2003e2019). In Asia, only one species C. obliquella has been reported from China and Japan to date (Shibuya 1929). ...
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Cathayia obliquella Hampson was first reported by Hampson in 1901 as a brief description of the wing pattern, without any morphological study, including male and female genitalia, which has a very unique life style during its larval and pupal stage and phylogenetic status. In this study, we describe C. obliquella Hampson in the family Pyralidae for the first time and report it as new for Korea. Adults, genitalia, and the unique microhabitat of larvae of the species are redescribed, and DNA bar codes are also provided. In addition, we sequenced and annotated the mitogenome of C. obliquella and inferred the phylogenetic positions of the Galleriinae within the Pyralidae based on the available mitogenomes. The mitogenome size of C. obliquella is 15,408 bp, which is larger than that of any other Galleriinae, which ranges from 15,320 bp of Galleria mellonella (NC_028532) to 15,273 bp of Corcyra cephalonica (NC_016866). The 12 protein-coding genes are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is seemingly initiated by the CGA codon, as documented in other insect mitogenomes. The AT skew and GC skew of the selected complete Galleriinae mitogenomes were also calculated. The AT skew and GC skew of Galleriinae are negative, indicating that Ts and Cs are more abundant than As and Gs. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships, which suggested that C. obliquella belongs to the subfamily Galleriinae.
... Members of the genus can be further recognized in the male genitalia by a long and thin valva with a distinctively apical spine, and a well-developed saccus in the male genitalia, both of which are potential synapomorphies. To date, the genus has fifteen species predominantly known from tropical Asia and New Guinea, except for two species, M. inexpectellus Bleszynski, 1965and M. inouei Okano, 1962, which occur in Honshu, Japan and another, M. gelastis (Meyrick, 1887, which occurs in Australia, respectively (Bleszynski, 1965(Bleszynski, , 1966Inoue, 1989;Nuss et al., 2018). In China, only two Microchilo species have been described from the southern region (Okano, 1962;Inoue, 1989). ...
Article
The genus Microchilo of the subfamily Crambinae is reviewed from China. Two species are described as new to science: Microchilo landryi sp. nov. and M. nussi sp. nov. Images of adults and genitalia of the new species are illustrated, and a key of the species known in China is provided. LSID urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:74B34A6E-87C3-487B-AD94-1167F1283E74.
... Pyraloidea (15,576 species, with many more undescribed) (96,127) are typically small-to mediumsized moths. Most feed as larvae on living plants, as concealed external folivores, or as stem borers. ...
Article
Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology Volume 62 is January 07, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... The Pyraustinae is the third largest subfamily (after Spilomelinae and Crambinae) in the Crambidae with about 190 genera that include over 1400 described species, approximately 14.6% of all crambid species [11,12]. Their larvae feed mainly on the stems and fruits of herbaceous plants and include many serious pest species, such as the European and Asian corn borers, Ostrinia spp. ...
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Although members of the crambid subfamily Pyraustinae are frequently important crop pests, their identification is often difficult because many species lack conspicuous diagnostic morphological characters. DNA barcoding employs sequence diversity in a short standardized gene region to facilitate specimen identifications and species discovery. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for North American pyraustines based upon the analysis of 1589 sequences recovered from 137 nominal species, 87% of the fauna. Data from 125 species were barcode compliant (>500bp, <1% n), and 99 of these taxa formed a distinct cluster that was assigned to a single BIN. The other 26 species were assigned to 56 BINs, reflecting frequent cases of deep intraspecific sequence divergence and a few instances of barcode sharing, creating a total of 155 BINs. Two systems for OTU designation, ABGD and BIN, were examined to check the correspondence between current taxonomy and sequence clusters. The BIN system performed better than ABGD in delimiting closely related species, while OTU counts with ABGD were influenced by the value employed for relative gap width. Different species with low or no interspecific divergence may represent cases of unrecognized synonymy, whereas those with high intraspecific divergence require further taxonomic scrutiny as they may involve cryptic diversity. The barcode library developed in this study will also help to advance understanding of relationships among species of Pyraustinae.
... Identifications were made by comparison with available literature Inoue 1996Inoue , 1997Robinson et al 1994;. The list order and taxonomic nomenclature are based upon Solis (2007) and Nuss et al (2016). ...
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The result of an investigation of the lepidopteran fauna of Central and Southern Bhutan (Bumthang, Dagana, Trongsa, Tsirang and Sarpang district) is presented in this study. The investigation was the part of the Invertebrate documentation project of Bhutan initiated by the National Biodiversity Centre, Thimphu funded by the Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Thimphu. The checklist was based on the systematic collections by light trapping at 9 locations and the occasional collections from native forest and gardens within the five districts of Central and Southern Bhutan. The specimens were photographed and collected as specimens for future identification and reference. A list of 182 species belongs to family Crambidae and Pyralidae is presented, including 92 species as new records for the country. All the studied specimens are deposited at “Invertebrate Referral Collection Centre” at National Biodiversity Centre, Thimphu.
... Only one node was weakly supported in the phylogenetic tree inferred from the dataset of 13 PCGs using ML method, two nodes were weakly supported in the phylogenetic tree inferred from the dataset of 13 PCGs+2 rRNAs using BI method and ML method, respectively (Fig 7B, 7C, 7D and 7E). In our analysis, the subfamilies relationships within the Pyraloidea are consistent with previous studies based on molecular and morphological characteristics [42,77,78]. ...
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The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the beet webworm, Spoladea recurvalis has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15,273 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes and containing a control region with gene order and orientation identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the mitogenome shows a high A+T content of 80.9%, and the AT skewness is slightly negative (-0.023). All PCGs start with the typical ATN codons, except for COX1, which may start with the CGA codon. Nine of 13 PCGs have the common stop codon TAA; however, COX1, COX2 and ND5 utilize the T nucleotide and ND4 utilizes TA nucleotides as incomplete termination codons. All tRNAs genes are folded into the typical cloverleaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for the tRNASer(AGY) gene, in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. A total of 157 bp intergenic spacers are scattered in 17 regions. The overlapping sequences are 42 bp in total and found in eight different locations. The 329 bp AT-rich region is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, including the motif ATAG, which is followed by a 14 bp poly-T stretch, a (AT11 microsatellite-like repeat, which is adjacent to the motif ATTTA, and a 9 bp poly-A, which is immediately upstream from the tRNAMet gene. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs and 13 PCGs+2 rRNAs using Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood methods, show that the classification position of Pyraloidea is inconsistent with the traditional classification. Hesperioidea is placed within the Papilionoidea rather than as a sister group to it. The Pyraloidea is placed within the Macrolepidoptera with other superfamilies instead of the Papilionoidea.
... ) (Nuss et al. 2003–2014). Besides Leucinodes, there is the similar genus Sceliodes Guenée, 1854, of which Sceliodes cordalis (Doubleday , 1843) and S. laisalis (Walker, 1859) are also pests on solanaceous crops in Australia (Davis 1964), New Zealand (Martin 2010) and Africa (CABI 2012b). ...
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The larvae of the Old World genera Leucinodes Guenée, 1854 and Sceliodes Guenée, 1854 are internal feeders in the fruits of Solanaceae, causing economic damage to cultivated plants like Solanum melongena and S. aethiopicum. In sub-Saharan Africa five nominal species of Leucinodes and one of Sceliodes occur. One of these species, the eggplant fruit and shoot borer L. orbonalis Guenée, 1854, is regarded as regularly intercepted from Africa and Asia in Europe, North and South America and is therefore a quarantine pest on these continents. We investigate the taxonomy of African Leucinodes and Sceliodes based on morpho-logical characters in wing pattern, genitalia and larvae, as well as mitochondrial DNA, providing these data for identification of all life stages. The results suggest that both genera are congeneric, with Sceliodes syn. n. established as junior subjective synonym of Leucinodes. L. orbonalis is described from Asia and none of the samples investigated from Africa belong to this species. Instead, sub-Saharan Africa harbours a complex of eight endemic Leucinodes species. Among the former nominal species of Leucinodes (and Sceliodes) from Africa, only L. laisalis (Walker, 1859), comb. n. (Sceliodes) is confirmed, with Leucinodes translucidalis Gaede, 1917, syn. n. as a junior subjective synonym. The other African Leucinodes species were unknown to science and are described as new: L. africensis sp. n., L. ethiopica sp. n., L. kenyensis sp. n., L. malawiensis sp. n., L. pseudorbonalis sp. n., L. rimavallis sp. n. and L. ugandensis sp. n. An identification key based on male genitalia is provided for the African Leucinodes species. Most imports of Leucinodes specimens from Africa into Europe refer to Leucinodes africensis, which has been frequently imported with fruits during the last 50 years. In contrast, L. laisalis has been much less frequently recorded, and L. pseudorbonalis as well as L. rimavallis only very recently in fruit imports from Uganda. Accordingly, interceptions of Leucinodes from Africa into other continents will need to be re-investigated for their species identity and will likely require, at least in parts, revisions of the quarantine regulations. The following African taxa are excluded from Leucinodes: Hyperanalyta Strand, 1918, syn. rev. as revised synonym of Analyta Lederer, 1863; Analyta apicalis (Hampson, 1896), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Lygropia aureomarginalis (Gaede, 1916), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Syllepte hemichionalis Mabille, 1900, comb. rev., S. hemichionalis idalis Viette, 1958, comb. rev. and S. vagans (Tutt, 1890), comb. n. (Aphytoceros). Deanolis iriocapna (Meyrick, 1938), comb. n. from Indonesia is originally described and misplaced in Sceliodes, and L. cordalis (Doubleday, 1843), comb. n. (Margaritia) from New Zealand, L. raondry (Viette, 1981) comb. n. (Daraba) from Madagascar as well as L. grisealis (Kenrick, 1912), comb. n. (Sceliodes) from New Guinea are transferred from Sceliodes to Leucinodes. While Leucinodes is now revised from Africa, it still needs further revision in Asia.
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The present study is carried out between 2017-2019, to determine Pyraloidea and Geometridae fauna of Mount Ararat and its surroundings. The studies are conducted at night with light traps and insect nets during the day. Samples are firstly identified by using their external morphological characteristics and genital structures of taxa are examined when necessary. As a result of the researches, 135 species from Pyraloidea superfamily and 70 species from Geometridae family are determined. Among these taxa, 65 species of Pyraloidea and 41 species of Geometridae are newly discovered in Lepidoptera fauna of Iğdır province. The number of pyraloid species in Iğdır province increased to 217 and the number of geometrid species increased to 118. Information on the new location records and distributions of Ancylodes pallens Ragonot, 1887, Aphyletes nigrisparsella (Ragonot, 1887), Calamotropha paludella (Hübner, [1824]), Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859), Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, 1879, Gymnancyla nomiella (Ragonot, 1887) G. hornigii (Lederer, 1852), Myrlaea mimicralis (Amsel, 1950) and Tephris verruculella (Ragonot, 1887), whose distribution areas are limited in Turkey, are presented.
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Two of the largest subfamilies of Crambidae, Pyraustinae and Spilomelinae, have 341 species recorded in Japan, but their natural relationships are poorly understood. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny based on one mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear genes (CAD, EF1-α, RpS5) for 129 species in 69 genera of Spilomelinae and 62 species in 27 genera of Pyraustinae from Japan. The concatenated data was analyzed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Our results recovered most tribes recognized in a previous study, but Pyraustini is paraphyletic as it includes Portentomorphini, and the paraphyletic Nomophilini comprise Trichaeini. The species-rich Spilomelinae genera Patania, Nacoleia, Glyphodes , and Syllepte are polyphyletic and need thorough revision. In Pyraustinae, a “Monocotyledon-clade” and Anania sensu lato were recognized for the first time. Based on phylogenetic results and morphological investigations, we propose six taxonomic changes, including the transfer of Acropentias from Spilomelinae to Lathrotelinae and Mabra from Spilomelinae to Pyraustinae. Fourteen unplaced genera of Spilomelinae and two of Pyraustinae are newly assigned to tribes.
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Aim: Lepidoptera is a highly diverse, predominantly herbivorous insect order, with species transported to outside their native range largely facilitated by the global trade of plants and plant-based goods. Analogous to island disharmony, we examine invasion disharmony, where species filtering during invasions increases systematic compositional differences between native and non-native species assemblages, and test whether some families are more successful at establishing in non-native regions than others. Location: Hawaii, North America, Galapagos, Europe, South Africa, South Korea, Japan, Nansei Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Australia, New Zealand. Taxon: Lepidoptera. Methods: We compared numbers of non-native, unintentionally introduced Lepidoptera species with the land area of 11 regions worldwide. Differences among native and non-native assemblages in the distribution of species among families were investigated using ordination analysis. We tested whether invasion disharmony is explained by propagule pressure (proxied by species richness in border interceptions) and if families were associated with specific trade commodities. Results: In total, 741 non-native Lepidoptera species, accounting for 0.47% of the global diversity of lepidopterans, are established in at least one of the 11 regions. Crambidae, Pyralidae, Tineidae and Gracillariidae were particularly successful invaders, whereas the two most species-rich families, Erebidae and Geometridae, were under-represented among non-native Lepidoptera. Much of the variation in species numbers in the native, and less so in the non-native assemblages could be attributed to land area. Although native assemblages were similar among nearby regions, non-native assemblages were not, suggesting geography had little effect on invasion disharmony. Comparison of established with intercepted species revealed that macromoth families were generally under-represented in establishments, whereas several micromoth families were under-represented in interceptions. This discrepancy may relate to greater detectability of larger species or high propagule pressure via associations with specific invasion pathways. Main conclusions: Invasion disharmony in Lepidoptera appears to be driven by processes unrelated to the success of native assemblages. While native assemblages developed through long-term evolutionary radiation, the composition of non-native assemblages is driven by differential invasion pathways and traits affecting the establishment of founder populations that vary among families.
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The Murcia Region (south-eastern Iberian Peninsula) has a great diversity of Lepidopteran fauna, as a zoogeographical crossroads and biodiversity hotspot with more than 850 butterflies and moth species recorded. In the present paper, based on an examination of museum specimens, published records and new samples, a comprehensive and critical species list of Pyralidae moths (Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea) is synthesised. In total, three subfamilies, 67 genera and 142 species have been recorded and these are listed, along with their collection, literature references and biological data, including chorotype, voltinism and the flight period in the study area. The subfamilies are Galleriinae, Phycitinae and Pyralinae. Seventy-three species are newly recorded, sixty-two species are confirmed from literature and only seven species have not been observed for the Murcia Region.
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Epipaschiinae, a subfamily of Pyralidae, has characteristic features distinct from other groups of Pyralidae, such as the thick scales and labial palpi usually upturned. This subfamily is a relative smaller group in Pyralidae, and currently reports over 700 species worldwide (Solis, 1992, 1994; Nuss et al., 2021). Solis (1992) listed 287 known epipaschiine species all over the world, including 273 species from Old World. In China, the first checklist of Epipaschiinae was systematically summarized by Lu and Guan (1953), including 8 genera and 53 species. Recently, the subfamily of China was revised, and tens of species from several genera were reported, such as Lista, Coenodomus, Epilepia, Teliphasa, Termioptycha (Liu et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017a, b; Rong et al., 2017a, b). These studies contributed about 30 additional species from China besides Lu and Guan (1953). Here, we present a list of all descripted species of Epipaschiinae in China, including 17 genera and 85 species, with their geographical distribution. Among them, Orthaga aenescens is firstly recorded in China. The genera and species are alphabetically listed here.
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The second part of the genus Palpita from Laos is reviewed, with eight newly recorded species: P. aureolina Inoue, 1997, P. sejunctalis Inoue, 1997, P. pajnii Kirti & Rose, 1992, P. perunionalis Inoue, 1994, P. simplicissima Inoue, 1997, P. griseofascialis Inoue, 1997, P. nigricollis (Snellen, 1895), and P. picticostalis (Hampson, 1896). A key to the species of this group, and the illustrations of adults and genitalia are presented.
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Additional notes on the nomenclature of Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera). Misc. Pap. 218: 4-7. In this paper, scientific names of seven species are discussed nomenclaturally. Four new names are proposed validly. Synonymic names of three species are also discussed.
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This first part of the genus Palpita from Laos is reviewed, with seven newly recorded species: P. annulifer Inoue, 1996, P. kiminensis Kirti & Rose, 1992, P. munroei Inoue, 1996, P. hypohomalia Inoue, 1996, P. pandurata Inoue, 1996, P. indannulata Inoue, 1996, and P. parvifraterna Inoue, 1999. A key to the species group of the genus Palpita is provided, with illustrations of adults and genitalia.
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A new crambid moth, Haimbachia spartina Solis and Canepuccia, new species is described from Argentina and images of the adults and their genitalia are provided. The larvae were discovered feeding on species of saltmarsh cordgrass or Spartina Schreb. (Spartinaceae). This is the first description and illustration of a Haimbachia Dyar larva. Twelve species have been described in the Western Hemisphere, but only Haimbachia maroniella Dyar and Heinrich, has been previously described from South America. The new species is compared to H. maroniella and images are provided of its type specimen, labels, and male genitalia.
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Crambidae is a group of moths with more than 10,000 species occurring worldwide that evolved diverse morphological and ecological habits. They can be best recognized by morphological characters of the adult tympanal organ and larval chaetotaxy. We present the first molecular phylogeny of Crambidae including all subfamilies and most tribes. We use available molecular data from two previous studies, and published transcriptomes and genomes, compiling ten genes totalling 11,247 bp. Up to eight genes are sequenced for thirty-nine additional taxa, with Cathariinae, Cybalomiinae and Linostinae sampled for the first time. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses recover topologies mostly agreeing with those of previous studies, with several groupings showing better support. Cathariinae syn. n. and Cybalomiinae syn. n. are recovered as ingroup of Glaphyriinae and are consequently synonymized with the latter. Linostinae are either sister to Glaphyriinae or sister to the ‘CAMMSS clade’. Lathrotelinae are recovered monophyletic and as sister to Musotiminae in the Bayesian analysis. Hoploscopinae stat. n. are recovered as sister to ((Crambinae + Erupinae stat. n.) + (Scopariinae + Heliothelinae s. str.)). Evolution of host-plant preferences is discussed.
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Nomenclatural notes on the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera). Misc. Pap. 215: 1-3. In this paper, six replacement names at the species level in various genera of Pyraloidea are proposed.
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Archernis humilis (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has previously been recorded only from India, and nothing has been reported about its biology or immatures. It was recently discovered during surveys for biological control agents against Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) or skunk vine, and this represents the first report of the food plant. Archernis humilis was not sufficiently host specific to be considered as a biological control agent of P. foetida because it showed strong preference for other Paederia species and oviposited on P. ciliata, a Mexican en-demic. With considerable new material available from a laboratory colony, we de-scribe the adult morphology in greater detail, including internal genitalic structures of both sexes for the first time. We also provide an image of the egg and describe the larvae and pupae. We discuss the currently known distribution and expansion to China and Thailand. We designate as a lectotype a specimen from Khasia Hills, India. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Archernis is closely related to Trichaea Herrich-Scha¨ffer and Prophantis Warren (Crambidae).
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Four species of the genus Catoptria Hübner are recognized from Korea: Catoptria furciferalis (Hampson), Catoptria permiacus (Petersen), Catoptria pinella (Linnaeus), and Catoptria verellus (Zincken); of which, C. furciferalis (Hampson), C. pinella (Linnaeus), and C. verellus (Zincken) are reported for the first time from Korea. A key to the Korean species of genus Catoptria is presented, with the description and photographs of adults, male, and female genitalia provided.
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The New Zealand fauna of snout moths (Pyraloidea) predominantly consists of endemic species. During 2017 and 2018, 56 species of Pyraloidea in 1,749 individuals were collected at 14 localities. All species were screened for Wolbachia -infection, with specimens of eight species (14%) being positive, of which six species belong to Scopariinae. This is the first record of Wolbachia -infection amongst New Zealand Lepidoptera. The most common pyraloid species, Eudonia submarginalis and Orocrambus flexuosellus , were analysed for a larger set of individuals looking for sex ratio and Wolbachia -infection. There is a sex ratio bias towards females in both species, but it varies in space and time. Wolbachia is found in all populations of E. submarginalis with 10–80% of the tested individuals being positive, depending on locality. No Wolbachia -infection has been found in O. flexuosellus . Thus, sex ratio bias might be linked to Wolbachia -infection in E. submarginalis , but not in O. flexuosellus .
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A new crambid, Eoreuma insuastii Solis and Osorio-Mejia, new species, is described from Colombia. The larvae were discovered feeding on young stalks of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) grown for brown sugar loaf, or “panela.” We provide images of larvae and pupae, as well as damage to sugarcane young stalks for field identification, and describe and illustrate the adults and their genitalia. Only three species of Eoreuma have been previously described from South America; we provide images of the type specimens, their labels, and geni-talia. The new species described herein is most like E. donzella Schaus, which was described from Brazil. The other two species are E. paranella Schaus and E. morbidellus Dyar; we designate the male syntype of E. morbidellus as the lecto-type. The new species is compared to Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a common pest species of graminaceous crops such as sugarcane and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Mexico and the United States.
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Genus Cirrhochrista Lederer, 1863 from Cambodia is reviewed, with six newly recorded species: C. brizoalis (Walker, 1859), C. spinuella Chen, Song & Wu, 2006, C. kosemponialis Strand, 1918, C. semibrunnea Hampson, 1895, C. fumipalpis Felder, Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875 and C. fuscusa Chen, Song & Wu, 2006. Moreover, male of C. fuscusa is newly described and illustrated herein. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided, with redescriptions, collecting data, distribution and host plants of each species. Keywords: Distribution, New record, Oriental region, Pyraloidea
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Abstract.—A new crambid, Sufetula anania, sp. n., is described from Costa Rica. We describe and illustrate the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults. This is the first report of Bromeliaceae as a host for Crambidae, specifically in the roots of pineapple (Ananas comosus (Linnaeus)), although the larvae also were found on surrounding weeds. The general morphology and biology of the new species are compared to those of Sufetula sacchari (Seı´n), the sugarcane root caterpillar, a pest of sugarcane in Puerto Rico and surrounding islands. Resumen.—Se reporta una especie nueva de Crambidae, Sufetula anania, sp. n., en Costa Rica. Se hace una descripcio´n e ilustramos los huevos, larvas, pupas y adultos. Este es el primer informe de Bromeliaceae como hospedero de Crambidae, especı´ficamente en las raı´ces de la pin˜a(Ananas comosus (Linnaeus)), aunque tambie´n se encontraron larvas alimenta´ndose de las arvenses circundantes. La morfologı´a general y la biologı´a de la nueva especie se compara con las de Sufetula sacchari (Seı´n), la oruga de la raı´z de la can˜a de azu´car, una plaga de la can˜ade azu´car en Puerto Rico y las islas vecinas.
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Replacement name for Anania sinensis Yang and Landry, 2019 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Pyraustinae) - Volume 151 Issue 5 - Zhaofu Yang, Jean-François Landry
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The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Ostrinia palustralis memnialis Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was determined to be 15,246 bp with a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one non-coding region, with an arrangement identical to that observed in most lepidopteran genomes. Twelve PCGs have the typical ATN start codon, whereas COI has an atypical CGA codon frequently found in the start region of the lepidopteran COI. At 330 bp, the A + T-rich region is well within the range found in other Pyraloidea. The A + T content of the whole genome, PCGs, srRNA, lrRNA, tRNAs, and the A + T-rich region all are well within the range found in other Pyraloidea. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) methods placed O. palustralis as a sister group to Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia nubilalis, with the highest nodal support. The subfamilies within Crambidae, such as Nymphulinae, Spilomelinae, and Pyraustinae, all formed monophyletic groups with the highest nodal support.
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The genus Botyodes Guenée, 1854 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) is reviewed from Laos, with three newly recorded species: Botyodes asialis Guenée, 1854, B. diniasalis (Walker, 1859), and B. principalis Leech, 1899. A key to the Laotian species of the genus Botyodes is presented. Illustrations of adults and genitalia are provided, with species redescriptions, host plants, and distribution record. © 2018 National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA)
Chapter
An attempt has been made in this chapter to determine status of Conogethes moths in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Island countries. The landscape of these countries includes species from the Oriental and Palearctic regions. This region is rich in moth including Conogethes diversity as revealed by entomological experditions. This region serves as an important natural reservoir for not only host plants of Conogethes moths but their species itself. Further, the status of species under Conogethes and related genera in this region has remained largely uncertain. The chain of Islands that constitute Andaman and Nicobar, Maldives, and Lakshadweep may be a pathway for Conogethes species distribution both inside and outside the region. This region needs expeditions for gathering information on crambids including Conogethes and native parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Growers in this region need to adopt newer and environmental friendly methods against Conogethes spp.
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The arthropod and fungal natural enemies of privets (Ligustrum spp., Oleaceae) are listed, based on the data from taxonomic and nomenclatural websites, printed and electronic literature searches, including CAB Abstracts. Initially, the lists were compiled to identify and assess those natural enemies occurring on Ligustrum robustum in its indigenous Asian range as part of a classical biological control programme for the island of La Réunion, where this privet species has become a problematic invasive alien weed. However, because other species of Ligustrum are also posing invasive problems in other parts of the world, wherever they have been introduced, the lists have been expanded to cover all species in the genus. These records of natural enemies of Ligustrum, together with the distribution data, should enable those involved with the issues of invasive privets to assess the potential of classical biological control as an option for their management. As a further aid, an overview of those natural enemies considered to have the highest potential as classical biological control agents for L. robustum is included.
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A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose the following 37 new synonymies for species (35 in Nepticulidae, 2 in Opostegidae): Stigmellaacerifoliella Dovnar-Zapolski, 1969 (unavailable, = Stigmellaacerna Puplesis, 1988), Stigmellanakamurai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmellapalionisi Puplesis, 1984), Nepticulaamseli Skala, 1941 (unavailable = Stigmellabirgittae Gustafsson, 1985), Stigmellacathepostis Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmellamicrotheriella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmellapopulnea Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmellanivenburgensis (Preissecker, 1942)), Nepticulaobscurella Braun, 1912 (revised synonymy, = Stigmellamyricafoliella (Busck, 1900)), Nepticulamandingella Gustafsson, 1972 (= Stigmellawollofella (Gustafsson, 1972)), Stigmellarosaefoliellapectocatena Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= Stigmellacentifoliella (Zeller, 1848)), Micropteryxpomivorella Packard, 1870 (= Stigmellaoxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmellacrataegivora Puplesis, 1985 (= Stigmellamicromelis Puplesis, 1985), Stigmellascinanella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= Stigmellapurpuratella (Braun, 1917)), Stigmellapalmatae Puplesis, 1984 (= Stigmellafilipendulae (Wocke, 1871)), Stigmellasesplicata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmellalediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmellarhododendrifolia Dovnar-Zapolski & Tomilova, 1978 (unavailable, = Stigmellalediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmellaoa Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmellaspiculifera Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985), Stigmellagracilipae Hirano, 2014 (= Stigmellamonticulella Puplesis, 1984), Nepticulachaoniella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863 (= Stigmellasamiatella (Zeller, 1839)), Bohemanniapiotra Puplesis, 1984 (= Bohemanniapulverosella (Stainton, 1849)), Bohemannianipponicella Hirano, 2010 (= Bohemanniamanschurella Puplesis, 1984), Sinopticulasinica Yang, 1989 (= Glaucolepisoishiella (Matsumura, 1931)), Trifurculacollinella Nel, 2012 (= Glaucolepismagna (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997)), Obrussatigrinella Puplesis, 1985 (= Etainiatrifasciata (Matsumura, 1931)), Microcalyptrisvittatus Puplesis, 1984 and Microcalyptrisarenosus Falkovitsh, 1986 (both = Acalyptrisfalkovitshi (Puplesis, 1984)), Ectoedemiacastaneae Busck, 1913, Ectoedemiaheinrichi Busck, 1914 and Ectoedemiahelenella Wilkinson, 1981 (all three = Zimmermanniabosquella (Chambers, 1878)), Ectoedemiachloranthis Meyrick, 1928 and Ectoedemiaacanthella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 (both = Zimmermanniagrandisella (Chambers, 1880)), Ectoedemiacoruscella Wilkinson, 1981 (= Zimmermanniamesoloba (Davis, 1978)), Ectoedemiapiperella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 and Ectoedemiareneella Wilkinson, 1981 (both = Zimmermanniaobrutella (Zeller, 1873)), Ectoedemiasimiligena Puplesis, 1994 (= Ectoedemiaturbidella (Zeller, 1848)), Ectoedemiaandrella Wilkinson, 1981 (= Ectoedemiaulmella (Braun, 1912)), Nepticulacanadensis Braun, 1917 (= Ectoedemiaminimella (Zetterstedt, 1839)), Opostegarezniki Kozlov, 1985 (= Opostegacretatella Chrétien, 1915), Pseudopostegacyrneochalcopepla Nel & Varenne, 2012 (= Pseudopostegachalcopepla (Walsingham, 1908)). Stigmellacaryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) and Zimmermanniabosquella (Chambers, 1878) are taken out of synonymy and re-instated as full species. Lectotypes are designated for Trifurculaobrutella Zeller, 1873 and Nepticulagrandisella Chambers, 1880.
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Four species from Galongla Snow Mountain, southeastern Tibet of China are revealed as members of the genus Scoparia by combining DNA barcoding (658 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI) and morphological characters. Three species are described as new to science: S. varians Li, sp. nov., S. nussi Li, sp. nov. and S. lii Li, sp. nov. The female of S. simplicissima Li is described for the first time. All species are described and illustrated, including the habitat, characters of intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism. A map showing the localities on the Tibetan Plateau, where more than 40% of Chinese Scoparia species are endemic, is also provided. The results suggest the genus Scoparia has high species diversity on the Tibetan Plateau and may exhibit potential for specific adaptation to high plateau environments.
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The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San José and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and morphology of final-instar larvae were described. Using head capsule width measurements, we determined five larval instars in S. lotanalis. The insect was easily reared in the laboratory on M. calvescens seedlings and the life cycle of the insect was completed in 71.3 and 66.4 d for females and males, respectively. Dissection of ovarioles indicated that females could lay>400 eggs. Larvae are initially gregarious, but become solitary as third instars. First- to fourth-instar larvae prefer to use leaf rolls already formed by other larvae, but fifth-instar larvae prefer to make a new leaf roll rather than using leaf rolls already made and occupied by other larvae. Pupation occurs in leaves, where prepupae build a pupation chamber. Host-specificity tests, including larval feeding tests and two-choice and no-choice oviposition experiments in the laboratory, indicate that S. lotanalis has a narrow host range restricted to Miconia spp. and other Melastomaceae. Levels of parasitism in the native habitat of S. lotanalis in Costa Rica were low. In locations like Hawaii, where there are no native Melastomataceae, S. lotanalis has the potential of being an effective biological control agent against M. calvescens, but interference from resident natural enemies of Lepidoptera could be high.
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The subfamily Glaphyriinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) is recorded from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, for the first time on the basis of two species of Hellula Guenée, 1854: Hellula phidilealis (Walker, 1859) and H. galapagensis Landry sp. n. The new species is described and both species are illustrated. Two illustrated keys based on external characters and genitalia to the Neotropical species of Hellula are provided. Hellula phidilealis was reared on Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidaceae) in the Galapagos. Hellula kempae Munroe is reported from Cuba for the first time. Resumen: La subfamilia Glaphyriinae (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) es registrada por primera vez para las Islas Galapagos, Ecuador basada en dos especies de Hellula Guenée, 1854: Hellula phidilealis (Walker, 1859) y H. galapagensis Landry sp. n. La nueva especie es descrita y ambas especies son ilustradas. Dos claves ilustradas, basadas en los caracteres externos y en la genitalia, son proveidas para la identificación de las especies Neotropicales de Hellula. Hellula phidilealis fue criada en Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidaceae) en las Galapagos. Hellula kempae Munroe es registrada por primera vez para Cuba.
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The genus Scoparia from the Hailuogou Glacier area in the south-eastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau of south-western China is studied, nine species are revealed by combining DNA barcoding (658 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI) and morphology. Studies show that Scoparia species from the Hailuogou Glacier area are 37.5% as many as all the previously known congeners in China. Six species are described as new to science: Scoparia simplicissima Li sp. nov., Scoparia tribulosa Li sp. nov., Scoparia longispina Li sp. nov., Scoparia gibbosa Li sp. nov., Scoparia globosa Li sp. nov., and Scoparia annulata Li sp. nov. The female of Scoparia metaleucalis is described for the first time herein. All species are either diagnosed or described and illustrated, and a map of China showing the topography and localities where Scoparia species are recorded is also provided, including the species number of all the recorded localities. The results reveal the exceptional species diversity of Scoparia from the Hailuogou Glacier area, as well as demonstrate that the integration of DNA barcoding and morphological approaches is highly effective for indentifying scopariine moths in the Hailougou glacier area. All the studied specimens are deposited in the Insect Museum, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London
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Pyraloidea, one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera, comprise more than 15 684 described species worldwide, including important pests, biological control agents and experimental models. Understanding of pyraloid phylogeny, the basis for a predictive classification, is currently provisional. We present the most detailed molecular estimate of relationships to date across the subfamilies of Pyraloidea, and assess its concordance with previous morphology‐based hypotheses. We sequenced up to five nuclear genes, totalling 6633 bp, in each of 42 pyraloids spanning both families and 18 of the 21 subfamilies, plus up to 14 additional genes, for a total of 14 826 bp, in 21 of those pyraloids plus all 24 outgroups. Maximum likelihood analyses yield trees that, within Pyraloidea, differ little among datasets and character treatments and are strongly supported at all levels of divergence (83% of nodes with bootstrap ≥80%). Subfamily relationships within Pyralidae, all very strongly supported (>90% bootstrap), differ only slightly from a previous morphological analysis, and can be summarized as Galleriinae + Chrysauginae (Phycitinae (Pyralinae + Epipaschiinae)). The main remaining uncertainty involves Chrysauginae, of which the poorly studied Australian genera may constitute the basal elements of Galleriinae + Chrysauginae or even of Pyralidae. In Crambidae the molecular phylogeny is also strongly supported, but conflicts with most previous hypotheses. Among the newly proposed groupings are a ‘wet‐habitat clade’ comprising Acentropinae + Schoenobiinae + Midilinae, and a provisional ‘mustard oil clade’ containing Glaphyriinae, Evergestinae and Noordinae, in which the majority of described larvae feed on Brassicales. Within this clade a previous synonymy of Dichogaminae with the Glaphyriinae is supported. Evergestinae syn. n. and Noordinae syn. n. are here newly synonymized with Glaphyriinae, which appear to be paraphyletic with respect to both. Pyraustinae and Spilomelinae as sampled here are each monophyletic but form a sister group pair. Wurthiinae n. syn., comprising the single genus Niphopyralis Hampson, which lives in ant nests, are closely related to, apparently subordinate within, and here newly synonymized with, Spilomelinae syn. n.
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Anania coronata (Hufnagel), a Holarctic species of pyraustine crambid moth, has long been treated as having two geographically separated subspecies – the nominotypical Anania coronata in the Palaearctic Region and Anania coronata tertialis (Guenée) in the Nearctic Region. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis of mitochondrial DNA barcodes both recover four well-supported, reciprocally monophyletic groups within Anania coronata. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of genital structures reveal diagnostic differences that correspond to the four barcode lineages. On the basis of both molecular and morphological evidence, we conclude that Anania coronata is actually a complex of four species. Anania coronata (Hufnagel) is restricted to Europe, whereas three species occur in North America: Anania tertialis (Guenée), Anania plectilis (Grote & Robinson) and Anania tennesseensissp.n. Yang.
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