Article

Revision of the subfamily Sphaeridiinae of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)

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  • Ottawa Research and Development Center
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Abstract

Pelosoma pecki is described as new from specimens from the Florida Keys (Upper Matacumba Key) and from Mexico (Oaxaca). The genus Genyon Smetana 1978 (type-species Cercyon navicularis Zimmerman 1869, from eastern North America) is placed in synonymy with Tectosternum Balfour-Browne 1958 (type-species T. exstriatum Balfour-Browne 1958, from equatorial Africa). A lectotype is designated for Pelosoma prosternale Sharp 1882, and Pelosoma praecursor Smetana 1978 is placed in synonymy with P. prosternale Sharp 1882. Omicrus intermedius Smetana and the genus Cycrillum Knisch, with the species C. strigicolle (Sharp), are recorded for the first time from North America. Additional data on bionomics, geographical distribution, and synonymy of many species are presented.

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... It inhabits the feces of various herbivorous mammals as well as rotting plant debris, compost piles and carrion. It has also been found in the nests of birds and small rodents [1,[38][39][40]. In Poland, it is widespread throughout the country, frequent and in places quite abundant. ...
... It is polysaprophagous, inhabiting mainly the excrement of mammals (cows, horses, sheep and others). It is often found in compost, rotting fungi and plant waste [39,40,47,49,[51][52][53]. It has also been caught in the nest of a black stork, Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) [54]. ...
... In Asia, it is known in Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, northern parts of China and Northern Japan [34,50]. In the mid-nineteenth century, it was introduced to North America, where it also spread rapidly [39]. It inhabits various types of decaying plant remains, mammal excrement (especially that of cows, horses and sheep) and chicken manure. ...
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Article
Research on coprophagous beetles of the Hydrophilidae family in the Polish Carpathians was conducted from 2011 to 2013. The beetles were caught using baited traps. The research sites were selected to take into account both the horizontal diversity of habitat conditions and the vertical diversity associated with elevation above sea level. During the study, 9589 coprophagous hydrophilid individuals were collected, representing 17 species and five genera. Two species that were new to Poland were found: Cercyon tatricus and Pachysternum capense. The vertical ranges of the individual species of coprophagous hydrophilid beetles within the Polish Carpathians were determined as well as the elevations above sea level, with the highest and lowest species richness of this group of insects. The capture of Pachysternum capense in the Tatra Mountains may indicate the existence of an unrecognized path of migration of small insects from Southern to Northern Europe. The route and mechanisms of their migration are discussed.
... = Cercyon austriacus Vogt, 1974: 190 (synonymized by Hofmann & Flechtner, 2003 = Cercyon rhombicus Jia, 1995: 18 (synonymized by Ryndevich, 2004 For complete synonymy see Smetana (1979), and Ryndevich (2004). Discussion. ...
... The easiest way to identify the species is with the examination of the aedeagus. For more detailed information on the morphology and illustrations of the species see Smetana (1979). ...
... The examined specimen was collected in pig carcass in a controlled forensic experiment of entomological succession during the putrefaction stage (Mise et al., 2010). The species is known as terrestrial and are usually found inhabiting all kinds of decaying organic matter as rotting debris on sea beaches, debris at the edges of ponds, rotting leaf litter and decaying fruits, cave guano, etc. (Smetana, 1979;Ryndevich, 2007). Cercyon (Cercyon) nigriceps (Marsham, 1802) Dermestes nigriceps Marsham, 1802: 72. ...
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Article
The study of ca. 280 specimens of Cercyon Leach, 1817 (Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Megasternini) deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. J.S. Moure, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil, revealed a new species from Atlantic Rain Forest biome in Paraná State (Southern Brazil) and new records. Cercyon (Cercyon) curi sp. nov. is herein described and illustrated, belonging to the Neotropical C. variegatus species group. Cercyon (Cercyon) nigriceps (Marsham, 1802) is recorded for the first time in Paraná State, and Cercyon (Cercyon) inquinatus Wollaston, 1854 from Amazonas State (Northern Region); these records extend the distributional range of both species in Brazil. Cercyon (Cercyon) praetextatus (Say, 1825) is recorded for the first time from Brazil based on specimens collected in Paraná. Those three species were previously recorded as introduced in South America.
... Commonly inhabiting dung and decaying plant material, they include several halobiont species that specialize on seaweed wrack in beach habitats. Adults and larvae of these shore-dwelling species can be found from early spring through fall, often with two or more species living together in the same pile of wrack (Smetana 1978;Ôhara 2008;Inari et al. 2018). They are fully winged and known to colonize piles quite readily and often in large numbers (Olabarria et al. 2007;Chatzimanolis and Caterino 2008), but, unlike many sandy beach-dwelling tenebrionids and carabids, they seem to be largely concentrated to wrack piles and are not often found on or in open sand (Chang 1976). ...
... Remarks. Cercyon whuljensis is similar to C. luniger and often found living with it (Smetana 1978) but differs in the vastly different shape of the male parameres, absence of a small area of microsculpture on the apical angles of the pronotum, and darker, more mottled coloration. Due to close external similarities, several specimens of C. whuljensis were previously identified by M. H. Hatch (OSAC_00000186121-00000186126) as C. luniger, but examination of the lectotype (GAC. ...
... 28090) and one paralectotype (MCZ-ENT00007930) of C. luniger revealed that the specimens Hatch identified are in fact a previously undescribed species. The genitalia illustrated as belonging to C. luniger in Smetana (1988) corresponds to C. whuljensis, whereas the genitalia of C. spathifer in Smetana (1978) corresponds to the true C. luniger. ...
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Article
Littoral species of Cercyon Leach occurring on coastlines of theWest Coast of North America from Alaska to Mexico are reviewed based on material freshly collected in Washington State (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) and on museum specimens including primary types. Five species are recognized, including two that are distributed on both American and Eurasian sides of the Pacific Ocean and three that exist only on the American West Coast. The eastern Palearctic Cercyon dux Sharp is recorded in North America for the first time, with all known specimens collected after 2014. The synonymy of the western Nearctic Cercyon tolfino Hatch with the eastern Palearctic Cercyon setulosus Sharp is confirmed. The previous concept of Cercyon fimbriatus Mannerheim, the most common and widespread species, is confirmed. Cercyon spathifer Smetana is placed in junior synonymy with Cercyon luniger Mannerheim, and the species previously treated as C. luniger is an unnamed species, described herein as Cercyon whuljensis Suzumura, new species. Redescriptions of all five species are given along with SEM photographs, illustrations, and maps based on examined material and literature data, and a key to species is provided. Key Words: coastal beetles, littoral, North Pacific, Sphaeridiinae, shorelines, wrack
... Few sphaeridiine representatives have colonized arid zones and are associated to necrotic tissues of succulent plants. Among the New World hydrophilids associated to rotten cacti we can find representatives of 4 genera: Dactylosternum Wollaston, 1854, Cryptopleurum Mulsant, 1844, Pelosoma Mulsant, 1844and Agna Smetana, 1978 Agna stands as the only sphaeridiine genus presumably strictly associated to necrotic tissue of succulent plants, mainly Cactaceae (Smetana, 1978). Its 2 closely similar Nearctic species were classified as members of Pelosoma until Smetana (1978) revealed that they differ from the latter by few crucial characters, namely the elevated middle portion of the prosternum, absence of male maxillary suckers and the concave metaventrite in males. ...
... Among the New World hydrophilids associated to rotten cacti we can find representatives of 4 genera: Dactylosternum Wollaston, 1854, Cryptopleurum Mulsant, 1844, Pelosoma Mulsant, 1844and Agna Smetana, 1978 Agna stands as the only sphaeridiine genus presumably strictly associated to necrotic tissue of succulent plants, mainly Cactaceae (Smetana, 1978). Its 2 closely similar Nearctic species were classified as members of Pelosoma until Smetana (1978) revealed that they differ from the latter by few crucial characters, namely the elevated middle portion of the prosternum, absence of male maxillary suckers and the concave metaventrite in males. Based on these differences, Smetana (1978) transfered both species into a new genus, Agna Smetana, 1978. ...
... Its 2 closely similar Nearctic species were classified as members of Pelosoma until Smetana (1978) revealed that they differ from the latter by few crucial characters, namely the elevated middle portion of the prosternum, absence of male maxillary suckers and the concave metaventrite in males. Based on these differences, Smetana (1978) transfered both species into a new genus, Agna Smetana, 1978. In this paper we review the genus, redescribe its morphology and describe a new species collected in the semi-arid zones of Hidalgo, Oaxaca, and Puebla, Mexico. ...
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Article
The terrestrial hydrophilid genus Agna Smetana (tribe Megasternini), specialized in rotten cacti, is redescribed and illustrated. Known species are diagnosed and a new one, A. zaragozai sp. nov., is described from central Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla, and Oaxaca) and its molecular barcode is provided. Other species of Hydrophilidae known to have been collected in cacti are listed and commented. Dactylosternum cacti (LeConte) (Coelostomatini) is recorded for the first time from Mexico and Cryptopleurum impressum Sharp (Megasternini) is recorded for the first time from the Mexican states of Jalisco and San Luis Potosí.
... It inhabits mainly the excrements of mammals (cows, horses, sheep and others). It frequently occurs in compost, rotting plant debris, rotten mushrooms (SMETANA 1978(SMETANA , 1988NIKITSKY et al. 1996;RYNDEVICH 2004с, 2007. Some specimens were also collected in the nest of black stork Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) (LUNDYSHEV & RYNDEVICH 2010). ...
... Form and size of sutural spot are very variable (Fig. 11) and extremely pale specimens have only weakly visible sutural spot. The dark morph of C. unipunctatus was described by NYHOLM (1952) as C. janssoni Nyholm, 1952later recognized as belonging to C. unipunctatus (LINDBERG 1955, SMETANA 1978. This rare morph only occurs in southern Sweden, and hence is not treated here in detail. ...
... Biology. Polysaprophage; the species inhabits different organic rotting material (SMETANA 1978(SMETANA , 1988RYNDEVICH 2004с, 2007, mainly mammal excrements (especially cows, horses and sheep) and chicken manure. It frequently occurs in compost and rotting plant debris, and sometimes specimens can be found in decomposing remains near water. ...
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Article
Asian species of the Cercyon unipunctatus species group are reviewed. Nine species are recognized in Asia, three of which are described as new: C. flavi-marginatus sp. nov. and C. kubani sp. nov. from Yunnan province of China, and C. undulipennis sp. nov. from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in China. Besides these, the species group contains the following Asian species: C. divisus Hebauer, 2002 (newly recorded from northern India and China), C. quisquilius (Linnaeus, 1761) (newly recorded from Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Syria and Iran), C. unipunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758), C. unipustulatus Nakane, 1982 and C. verus Shatrovskiy, 1989. All species are (re)described, illustrated and a summary of the known distribution is provided. An identification key to the Asian species of C. unipunctatus group is provided, and the species are also briefly diagnosed from similar Palaearctic and Oriental Cercyon species.
... Islands of the Lesser Antilles were not considered as separate areas, as only the youngest and widespread P. exstriatum is known to occur in some of them; instead, the presence/absence of the Lesser Antilles was considered when setting dispersal multipliers for the time-stratified analysis (see below). The distribution of terminal taxa is based on examined specimens in all undescribed species; distribution of P. exstriatum and P. laevicolle complex on the continent follows Smetana (1978); Hansen (1999); Oliva, Fernández & Bachmann (2002) and Gonzáles-Rodríguez, García-Hernández & Clarkson (2017). ...
... Examined specimens are deposited in the following collections: Smetana (1978), Archangelsky (1989) and Hansen (1991). All Caribbean species were compared with type specimens of the Central and South American species deposited in the Natural History Museum, London (Sharp collection; see Deler-Hernández & Fikáček, 2016) and in the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Orchymont collection), and with unidentified material from Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Peru deposited in National Museum, Prague, in order to reveal whether or not they might be conspecific with continental species. ...
... Distribution: Phaenonotum exstriatum is widespread in the eastern USA and in Central America (Smetana, 1978;Deler-Hernández & Fikáček, 2016) as well as in Greater and Lesser Antilles (Fig. 4B). The only record from South America is from eastern Colombia Gonzáles-Rodríguez, García-Hernández & Clarkson (2017). ...
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Article
The systematics and the phylogenetic position of the Caribbean representatives of Phaenonotum Sharp (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) are investigated to understand the composition of the Caribbean fauna and its origin. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes has revealed the Caribbean species to be situated in three deeply nested clades, inferring multiple colonization of Caribbean islands from the continent. Time-tree analysis and BioGeoBEARS analyses of ancestral ranges estimated the oldest clade, consisting of wingless single-island endemics of Cuba (P. delgadoi), Jamaica (P. ondreji sp. nov.) and Hispaniola (P. laterale sp. nov.), to have diverged c. 46.6 Mya from the South American ancestor and subsequently colonizing the Caribbean most likely via the GAARlandia land bridge connecting South America with the Greater Antilles. The remaining three Caribbean species, including the Puerto Rican endemic, P. borinquenum sp. nov., are of more recent (Miocene to Pliocene) origin and colon
... Based on material from Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Panama available to him, Sharp (1882) recognized and described six species of that genus, and also recognized that the North American species Cyclonotum exstriatum (Say, 1835) is congeneric. A few other species originally described in other genera were later assigned to Phaenonotum by other authors (Knisch 1924;Orchymont 1937) and few additional species were described subsequently from Brazil (Orchymont 1937(Orchymont , 1943, Argentina (Bruch 1915), Venezuela (Archangelsky 1989), U.S.A (Smetana 1978) and Cuba (Deler-Hernández et al. 2013). In addition, the monotypic genus Hydroglobus Knisch, 1921 from Argentina was considered a part of Phaenonotum by Archangelsky (1991), but this was not followed by subsequent authors (see e.g. ...
... Despite being frequently collected, Phaenonotum species were never properly revised, and only the fauna of North America and Argentina (partly) were treated in details by modern authors (Smetana 1978;Archangelsky 1991). Hence, no information on morphology of the species or identity of their types was published for the majority of species after their original descriptions, which makes the identification of newly collected material almost impossible. ...
... Hence, no information on morphology of the species or identity of their types was published for the majority of species after their original descriptions, which makes the identification of newly collected material almost impossible. The only species for which types were reexamined and redescriptions and/or illustrations published are P. argentinense Bruch, 1915, P. regimbarti Bruch, 1915, and P. exstriatum (Say, 1835 and its synonyms (Smetana 1978;Archangelsky 1991). In addition, the lectotype of P. laevicolle Sharp, 1882 was designated by Smetana (1976), but without providing any information about the identity of that species. ...
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Article
In order to understand the identity of the Central American species of the genus Phaenonotum Sharp, 1882, the type specimens of the species described by Sharp (1882) deposited in the David Sharp collection in the Natural History Museum in London have been re-examined. The following species are redescribed: Phaenonotum apicale Sharp, 1882, P. collare Sharp, 1882, P. dubium Sharp, 1882 (confirmed as junior synonym of P. exstriatum (Say, 1835)), P. laevicolle Sharp, 1882, P. rotundulum Sharp, 1882 and P. tarsale Sharp, 1882. Lectotypes are designated for P. apicale, P. collare, P. rotundulum and P. tarsale. External diagnostic characters and morphology of male genitalia are illustrated. A table summarizing diagnostic characters allowing the identification of the species is provided.
... Dactylosternum abdominale (Fabricius) has been found in decaying organic debris (Smetana 1978). The species has been reported from Alabama, California, Florida, North Carolina, and Texas (Smetana 1978). ...
... Dactylosternum abdominale (Fabricius) has been found in decaying organic debris (Smetana 1978). The species has been reported from Alabama, California, Florida, North Carolina, and Texas (Smetana 1978). A single specimen was taken in bear dung in May at Tremont (Tennessee). ...
... To aid in this work, webpages with habitus photographs, descriptions, and habitat preferences have been developed and posted for 114 of the species found in this survey (http://www.dlia.org). Smetana [1978] (Sm), and Wolfe [1979] (W). ? ...
Article
Aquatic and semiaquatic beetles in the families Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae, and Noteridae of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) were sampled from 2003 to 2006. Current and historic literature as well as the insect collections at GSMNP, Illinois Natural History Survey, Smithsonian Institution, and University of Tennessee were examined for GSMNP records. This is the first comprehensive effort at surveying the aquatic and semiaquatic beetles of GSMNP. A total of 115 species were recorded: 46 Dytiscidae, 7 Gyrinidae, 5 Haliplidae, 2 Helophoridae, 2 Hydraenidae, 2 Hydrochidae, 49 Hydrophilidae, and 2 Noteridae. Eighty species are reported from GSMNP for the first time. Hydaticus aruspex Clark, Hydrocolus deflatus, H. paugus, Liodessus affinis (Dytiscidae), and Dactylosternum abdominale (Hydrophilidae) are reported from Tennessee for the first time.
... Examination of the published literature suggests that at least 300 species are members of the dung arthropod community in Canada, representing close to 50 taxonomic families (Table 1). By comparison, Skidmore (1991) reports about 275 species of insects in dung of cattle in Britain. ...
... Dung beetles are of interest primarily for their role in dung degradation, but they have additional roles in ecosystem function (see review by Nichols et al. 2008). For more comprehensive coverage of arthropod assemblages in dung, readers are directed to Hammer (1941), Mohr (1943), Laurence (1954), Skidmore (1991), and Hanski and Cambefort (1991). ...
... Insects that colonize dung have been classified by Skidmore (1991) into one of seven main guilds ( Fig. 1, Table 1). Three guilds contain species of flies (Diptera) that are distinguished by differences in larval diet. ...
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Article
Fresh cattle dung is a nutrient-rich habitat that is quickly colonized by a speciose and abundant assemblage of organisms. The ease with which this habitat is manipulated by using artificially formed pats (size, shape, site, and time of deposition), the speed of community succession, and the complex interactions among its diverse inhabitants combine to make the dung pat a model ecosystem for scientific study. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the arthropod species found in cattle dung on pastures of the Canadian prairies. It introduces the features of cattle dung that affect the activity of these arthropods and the key arthropod groups. It summarizes patterns of arthropod succession and discusses some of the more intriguing aspects of the cow pat community. Success will have been achieved if at least a few readers develop a desire to delve into dung. Résumé. Le fumier frais de bétail est un habitat riche en éléments nutritifs qui est rapidement colonisé par des organismes nombreux et diversifiés. La facilité avec laquelle elle se prête à diverses manipulations (taille, forme, site et moment du dépôt), la vitesse de succession des communautés d'organismes qu'elle abrite et les interactions complexes qui s'observent entre les divers types d'organismes qu'elle contient font de la bouse un écosystème modèle pour l'étude scientifique. Le présent chapitre vise à fournir un aperçu des espèces d'arthropodes que l'on trouve dans les bouses du bétail, dans les pâturages des prairies canadiennes. Il décrit les caractéristiques des bouses qui influent sur les activités des arthropodes, et présente les principaux groupes auxquels appartiennent ces arthropodes. Il résume les schémas de succession des espèces, et traite de certains des aspects particuliers des communautés d'arthropodes des bouses. L'objectif consiste à convaincre au moins quelques lecteurs de se pencher de près sur ce sujet.
... DELER-HERNÁNDEZ et al. 2014). These beetles live in a variety of habitats such as leaf-litter, dung and rotting animal carcasses with adults collected via Berlese funnels, fl ight intercept traps, and also with dung traps mixed with fermenting malt (SMETANA 1978;ARCHANGELSKY 1997;DELER-HERNÁNDEZ et al. 2014). Developmental information for Oosternum costatum (LeConte, 1855) was published by ARCHANGELSKY (1997). ...
... The material studied is held in the larval collection of the author. Identifi cation of adults was done using the revision of Sphaeridiinae by SMETANA (1978). Morphometry. ...
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Article
The primary and secondary chaetotaxy of the head capsule and head appendages of the fi rst and third larval instars of Oosternum costatum (LeConte, 1855) (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae, Megasternini) are described for the first time. Morphometric characters derived from the head capsule and mouthparts are included, together with detailed illustrations of all characters. The morphology and chaetotaxy of these larvae is compared to that of other larvae of the tribe Megasternini, confirming that chaetotaxy is a useful source of characters for phylogenetic analyses. Comparative notes with Sphaeridium Fabricius, 1775 (Sphaeridiini) are also included.
... Distribution. Widespread in Palaearctic Region except north Africa, introduced to the Ne- arctic (SMETANA 1978, HANSEN 1999). In China only known from nothern parts (Gansu, Nei Mongol, Qinghai). ...
... Distribution. Widespread in Eastern Palearctic and China, in early 20th century introduced to North America, and in 1960ʼs to Europe (SMETANA 1978, HANSEN 1999 Redescription. Length 1.9-2.0 ...
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Article
Species of the genus Cryptopleurum Mulsant, 1844 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Megasternini) occurring in China are revised. Five species are reported, three of which are reported from China for the first time: C. coomani d’Orchymont, 1926 from Guangdong, C. sulcatum Motschulsky, 1863 from Hainan and Yunnan, and C. ferrugineum Motschulsky, 1863 from Guangdong. Cryptopleurum minutum (Fabricius, 1775) is reported for the first time from Qinghai and Gansu, C. subtile Sharp, 1884 from Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanghai, Shanxi and Yunnan. Diagnosis of each species and a key to all Chinese species of Cryptopleurum are provided.
... Elle renferme une faune riche et originale dont nous avons entrepris d'étudier les Coléoptères terricoles. L'excellente monographie de Smetana (1978) permet l'étude des Sphaeridiinae d'Amérique du nord. Nous donnons dans cette note un complément à l'in¬ ventaire des Coléoptères coprophages (Dajoz, 1994) -274 -Description. ...
... Métasternum sans lignes fémorales. Edéage avec les paramères courts seule¬ ment 0,8 fois longs que le tegmen et de forme caractéristique ( fig. 1) L'examen des cartes de répartition données par Smetana (1978) montre que le sud de l'Arizona est une région encore peu prospectée. Pour compléter la connaissance de ces insectes nous donnons la liste des onze espèces (autres que Cercyon arizonicus ) appartenant à cette sous-famille que nous avons trouveés dans Guadalupe Canyon. ...
Article
Cercyon arizonicus n. sp. est decrit d'une localite du sud-est de l'Arizona et compare aux especes voisines. Les douze especes de Sphaeridiinae (Coleoptera : Hydrophilidae) presentes dans la localite sont enumerees avec des indications sur leur biologie et leur repartition geographique.
... Synonymized by Jia (2002 Taxonomic notes. The type specimens of C. heilongjiangensis correspond well with the European specimens of C. marinus in all diagnostic characters as well as in the morphology of the male genitalia (see Vogt 1971, Smetana 1978and Hansen 1987. For that reason, we confirm here the synonymy of C. heilongjiangensis with C. marinus proposed by Jia (2002). ...
... Taxonomic notes. The type specimens of C. guangxiensis correspond well with the European as well as Japanese specimens of C. quisquilius in all diagnostic characters as well as in the morphology of the male genitalia (see Vogt 1971, Smetana 1978and Hansen 1987. For that reason, we consider C. guangxiensis as a junior subjective synonym of C. quisquilius. ...
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Article
A new species, Cercyon (Clinocercyon) hanseni sp. nov., is described from Jiangxi and Guizhou Provinces, China. Based on a study of type material, the following synonymies are proposed for the species occurring in China: Cercyon signifer Hebauer, 2002 is synonymized with C. (s. str.) berlovi Shatrovskiy, 1999, Cercyon guangxiensis Wu et Pu, 1995 with Cercyon (s. str.) quisquilius (Linnaeus, 1761), Cercyon nigrostriatus Wu et Pu, 1995 with Cercyon (Clinocercyon) lineolatus (Motschulsky, 1863), Cercyon vicinaloides d?Orchymont, 1925, and Cercyon tropisternus Wu et Pu, 1995 with Cercyon (Paracycreon) laminatus Sharp, 1873, and Cercyon linearis Wu et Pu, 1995 with Cercyon (Paracycreon) subsolanus Balfour- Browne, 1939. A lectotype is designated for Cercyon vicinalis var. vicinaloides d?Orchymont, 1925. Three Palaearctic species are recorded from China for the first time: Cercyon (s. str.) ovillus Motschulsky, 1860, Cercyon (s. str.) olibrus Sharp, 1874 and Cercyon (s. str.) unipunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758). Additional faunistic data from China are provided for Cercyon berlovi and Cercyon nigriceps (Marsham, 1802). Cercyon amplelevatus Jia, 1995 is transferred to the genus Armostus Sharp, 1890. A checklist of all Cercyon species recorded from China is presented, along with a tentative identification key.
... It differs from Sacosternum by small to moderately large eyes and a simply elevated median portion of prosternum (Hansen 1991). In North America, the species can be identified according to Smetana (1978) (within this book, the genera Oosternum, Pemelus, and Cercyon pubescens species group refer to genus Oosternum as it is understood here). Old World representatives of Oosternum externally resemble the genus Paroosternum Scott, 1913 which differs by the absence of anterolateral ridges on the metaventrite and deeply excised lateral margins of elevated middle portion of prosternum. ...
... Groups including only undescribed species are tentatively named using letters. States of differential characters in defined groups are mapped in Table 1 Fig. 13 in Smetana 1978) to very high longitudinal costae . Frons between eyes elevated above remaining surface (Fig. 27). ...
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Article
The genus Oosternum Sharp, 1882 is divided into ten species groups based on external adult characters. An identification key to the species groups and a table of diagnostic characters as well as many charater state illustrations for each group are provided. Representatives of the newly defined O. aequinoctiale species group are revised. Six species of this group are recognized, all occurring in the Neotropical region: Oosternum acutheca sp.n. (Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua), O. aequinoctiale (Motschulsky, 1855) (Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela), O. attenuatum sp. n. (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador), O. gibbicolle sp. n. (Ecuador, Panama), O. holosericeum sp. n. (Argentina), and O. latum sp. n. (Lesser Antilles: St. Vincent Island). A key to the species and drawings or SEM photographs of diagnostic characters are provided.
... (3) Crescent-like sternite 9 (as in Figs. 52-53): shared with Oosternum, Sacosternum, Agna Smetana, 1978, Cetiocyon Hansen, 1990, Ercycodes Hansen, 1990, Cercyodes Broun, 1886, Australocyon Hansen, 1990, Chledocyon Hansen, 1990, Pseudoosternum Hansen, 1990, Ceronocyton Hansen, 1990, Cenebriophilus Hansen, 1990, Notocercyon Blackburn, 1898, Platycyon Hansen, 1999, Kanala Balfour-Browne, 1939 (4) Differential movement of the median lobe restricted to a great extent: seems to be shared with most genera listed under previous character (see Hansen 1990Hansen , 1999Smetana 1978); only genitalia of Oosternum, Sacosternum and Kanala were examined by us for the purpose of this study. ...
... (3) Crescent-like sternite 9 (as in Figs. 52-53): shared with Oosternum, Sacosternum, Agna Smetana, 1978, Cetiocyon Hansen, 1990, Ercycodes Hansen, 1990, Cercyodes Broun, 1886, Australocyon Hansen, 1990, Chledocyon Hansen, 1990, Pseudoosternum Hansen, 1990, Ceronocyton Hansen, 1990, Cenebriophilus Hansen, 1990, Notocercyon Blackburn, 1898, Platycyon Hansen, 1999, Kanala Balfour-Browne, 1939 (4) Differential movement of the median lobe restricted to a great extent: seems to be shared with most genera listed under previous character (see Hansen 1990Hansen , 1999Smetana 1978); only genitalia of Oosternum, Sacosternum and Kanala were examined by us for the purpose of this study. ...
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The previously monotypic genus Motonerus Hansen, 1989 is revised and redefined. Seven new species are described: Motonerus andersoni Fikáček & Short, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), M. apterus Fikáček & Short, sp. n., (Venezuela, Colombia), M. depressus Fikáček & Short, sp. n. (Colombia), M. hanseni Fikáček & Short, sp. n. (Costa Rica), M. nublado Fikáček & Short, sp. n. (Venezuela), M. oosternoides Fikáček & Short, sp. n. (Panama), and M. problematicus Fikáček & Short, sp. n. (Costa Rica). Two additional new species from Bolivia are left undescribed pending the collection of males. New records are given for the previously described species, M. obscurus Hansen, which had been composite with respect to M. hanseni sp. n. Almost all collections of the genus are associated with cloud and montane forest litter. A key to the species of the genus is provided along with comments on the relationship of the genus with others in the tribe Megasternini. The unusual flightless condition found in M. apterus and M. oosternoides is discussed. The male genitalia and other key characters are illustrated.
... Dung is one of the fundamental returns of animal matter and energy into the nutrient and energy cycles of the planet and supports a biodiverse community, especially arthropods that contribute to decomposition (Bornemissza 1960;Waterhouse 1974;Fincher 1981;Slade et al. 2007;Nichols et al. 2008;O'Hea et al. 2010;Wu et al. 2010;Beynon et al. 2012;Kudavidanage et al. 2012). Coprophilous beetles are mainly comprised of larvae and adult beetles from the families Scarabaeidae (subfamilies Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) and Geotrupidae (Pakaluk et al. 1995;Ratcliffe and Jameson 2005) and adult Hydrophilidae (subfamily Sphaeridiinae) (Smetana 1978) whose larvae are predacious. Coprophilous adult and larval beetles compete with dunginhabiting Diptera larvae for food, whereas the larvae of hydrophilid beetles are important predators on dipteran larvae. ...
... Scarabaeidae were identified using the keys in Howden and Cartwright (1963), Freude et al. (1969), Wegner and Niemczyk (1979), Ratcliffe (1991), Lohse and Lucht (1992), Stebnicka and Lago (2005), Gordon and Skelley (2007), and Skelley (2007a-c). Hydrophilidae were determined with the help of Freude et al. (1971), Smetana (1978), and Lohse and Lucht (1989). ...
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A total of 17 species of Scarabaeidae (1,288 individuals) and nine species of Hydrophilidae (482 individuals) were sampled from a cattle and sheep farm in southeastern Michigan between March 2012 and May 2013. Seven of these species are native, while 19 species are of European origin. Despite the closeness of the farms (730 m), Otophorus haemorrhoidalis (L.), Sphaeridium lunatum F., and Sphaeridium scarabaeoides (L.) were found significantly more frequently on the cattle farm, whereas Labarrus pseudolividus (Balthasar), Oscarinus rusicola (Melsheimer), and Blackburneus stercorosus (Melsheimer) were found significantly more frequently on the sheep farm. The highest abundances of beetles were encountered between May and November and correlated with temperatures above 10°C. Eleven species occurred only from spring to summer, eight species occurred from summer until autumn, and six species showed a split pattern of spring to early summer, absence during summer, and a second occurrence in autumn. No beetles were found between 4 January and 16 April 2013. To further understand the invasive potential of adventive dung beetle species, seasonal patterns of species within the three groups were compared to seasonal patterns of the same species at more northern, more southern, and European locations and to predictions arising from climatic differences between these latitudes.
... vskiy, 1989b, 1992Prokin, 2009;Fikáček et al., 2015;Sazhnev, 2018]. [Shatrovskiy, 1989b;Fikáček et al., 2015], introduced to North America [Smetana, 1978[Smetana, , 1988. ...
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Twenty-seven species of six families are recorded from the Sikhote-Alin Nature Reserve: Gyrinidae (1 species), Haliplidae (2), Noteridae (1), Dytiscidae (13), Hydrophilidae (9), and Hydraenidae (1). Additional records are provided for 29 species from Primorsky Krai: Dytiscidae (8), Hydrophilidae (20), and Elmidae (1). Three species (Oreodytes mongolicus, Sphaeridium bipustulatum, and S. marginatum) are recorded for the first time from the Russian Far East. One species of Gyrinidae (Gyrinus sachalinensis), one species of Dytiscidae (Oreodytes mongolicus), and two species of Hydrophilidae (Sphaeridium bipustulatum and S. marginatum) are recorded from Primorsky Krai for the first time. A new synonymy is established: Cercyon terminatus (Marsham, 1802) = Cercyon emarginatus Baranowski, 1985 syn.n.
... Animal macrofossils include insect larvae midge head capsules and the highest number of Daphnia ephippia (Hickin, 2013), indicating a pond episodically stressed by drying. This sample also contains the water scavenger beetle, Cercyon sp. which occurs in decomposing organic matter, often in wet to very wet habitats near water (Smetana, 1978). Plant macrofossils are predominately aquatic. ...
Article
The Late Wisconsinan deglaciation period was a time of rapid climate adjustment that resulted in the widespread transition from proglacial/paraglacial conditions to non-glacial settings favourable for plant and animal colonization. Establishing the timing of this transitional period in northeastern British Columbia provides constraints on the rate in which the biomes adapted during this interval of rapid climate change. Preserved aeolian landforms (geomorphic) and macrofossil assemblages (biological) are comple- mentary proxies for interpreting climate amelioration. Paraglacial aeolian dunes in the Kiskatinaw dune field developed following the retreat of glacial Lake Peace which formed after the separation of the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. These parabolic sand dunes are vegetation-anchored landforms that indicate plant colonization bio-morphologically influenced aeolian activity during stabilization. Optical dating established that stabilization occurred about 10.8 ± 0.3 ka ago (weighted mean of six ages), around the same time interval in which vegetation transitioned from herb and shrub tundra to forest tundra, then to a boreal parkland. Radiocarbon ages from macrofossil assemblages at the Flatbed River section infer paraglacial conditions likely persisted to around 12 000 cal yrs BP and the site had characteristics of a forest tundra. At that time, the Flatbed River was a dry floodplain that transitioned to a pond setting in a boreal parkland after 12 447–11 941 cal yrs BP and before 11 690–11 279 cal yrs BP. The site transitioned from pond to bog after 10 149–9771 cal yrs BP, coincident with the onset of boreal forest conditions that were established by 9901–9607 cal yrs BP. Biome succession recorded at the Flatbed River section and the stabilization of sand dunes indicates that the site transitioned from a paraglacial setting associated with tundra to a non-glacial setting characterized by a boreal forest environment over approximately 2 ka (ca. 12.0–9.7 ka ago). However, the change from tundra to parkland forest conditions took <500 years (ca. 12.0–11.5 ka ago). This suggests that climate warming enabled a rapid transition from cold dry tundra to parkland forests in as little time as few centuries.
... Some species show a modified medial portion of the prosternum, with median carina or anterior half strongly raised (Fig. 5E). This feature was the reason for Smetana (1978) establishing the subgenus Prostercyon for the Nearctic Cercyon roseni Knisch. Nevertheless, this character is also present in species of the European C. convexiusculus Stephens to which C. roseni is the sister clade. ...
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Megasternini is the largest group of terrestrial water scavenger beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) represented by ca. 600 described species distributed worldwide. The highest species diversity is known from tropical areas of all continents. In this study, we used sequences of eight gene regions (five nuclear and three mitochondrial) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of this group, implementing maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian topology inference, Bayesian divergence dating, ML-based ancestral area estimation and Bayesian diversification analyses. Topology analyses reveal two main lineages of Megasternini characterized by the morphology of male genitalia and surrounding sclerites; these lineages are defined here as subtribes Megasternina Mulsant and Oosternina new subtribe. We identify 12 principal clades of Megasternini, three in Oosternina and nine in Megasternina. These clades group the taxa largely by their geographic distribution rather than morphology, indicating a parallel evolution of morphological characters. Genera Cercyon Leach, Oosternum Sharp, Cetiocyon Hansen, Australocyon Hansen and Pelosoma Mulsant were not recovered as monophyletic. Species of Cercyon, the most diverse genus in the tribe, are found in all principal clades in both subtribes. These results suggest a need for the reorganization of generic concepts in the tribe. The historical biogeography analysis reveals a series of parallel intercontinental dispersal events, including the colonization of South America by Australian members of Oosternina ca. 90 million years ago (mya) and at least five dispersal events between Asia and America ca. 63-55 mya via the Beringia land bridge. The timing of the Asia-America faunal interchange corresponds to the hyperthermal climate of the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene that allowed the expansion of tropical and subtropical biomes towards polar regions. Diversification analyses revealed no effect of intercontinental dispersals on speciation or extinction rates and suggested a possible effect of declining global temperatures in the last 20 million years.
... competition (Fig. 8), or by the abiotic separation of species along gradients of environmental conditions. Coprophilous adult and larval beetles compete with dung inhabiting dipteran larvae for food, whereas the larvae of hydrophilid beetles are important predators on dipteran larvae [18,19,20,21] . Both competition and predation by coprophilous beetles reduce the fitness of many pest species that develop within dung [22,23,24] . ...
... Cercyon pygaemus (Illiger) is often found in wet habitats among debris and dung (especially horse and cow), fungi, carrion, decaying organic matter, and compost piles; adults are attracted to lights (Smetana 1978). Schulte (1985) found that, after hatching, the larvae disperse into the substrate and wander for several days before feeding. ...
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A total of 47 species of aquatic beetles were found in a two-year inventory of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center: Dytiscidae-15 species; Gyrinidae-1 species; Noteridae-1 species; Haliplidae-2 species; Hydrophilidae-13 species; Hydrochidae-4 species; Elmidae-1 species; Heteroceridae-2 species; Ptilodactylidae-2 species; and Scirtidae-6 species.
... At present the subgenus contains only one species. (Preyssler, 1790) (Preyssler): Ganglbauer, 1904;Zaitsev, 1908;Knisch, 1924;Winkler, 1926;Ladeiro, 1949;Chiesa, 1959;Endrödy-Younga, 1967;Myadzvedzeu & Chykileuskaya, 1968;Vogt, 1968;Gueorguiev, 1971;Smetana, 1978Smetana, , 1984Smetana, , 1988Huijbregts, 1982;Lucht, 1987;Bellstedt & Merkl, 1987;Kodada & Majzlan, 1986; Krause & Zinke, 1989;Silfverberg, 1992;Ryndevich, 1994Ryndevich, , 2001bRyndevich, , 2004bRyndevich, , 2004cRyndevich, , 2007aRyndevich, , 2007dRyndevich & Shatrovskiy, 1995 Description. Body broadly oval (index length/ width 1.5-1.6), ...
Article
Morphological diagnoses, distribution and environmental preferences of species of the subgenera Paracycreon Orchymont, 1942 and Dicyrtocercyon Ganglbauer, 1904 from Russia and adjacent regions are presented. Cercyon (Paracycreon) noctuabundus Shatrovskiy is recorded from the Oriental Region for the fi rst time.
... With dry preparations of male genitalia of this species the structure of the paramere apex is difficult to observe due to its malformation upon drying. These facts can explain the differences in the figures of C. nigriceps parameres apices by different authors (Vogt, 1968(Vogt, , 1971Smetana, 1978Smetana, , 1988Hebauer, 1995b (as Cercyon sp. 2); Ryndevich, 2004b;Ryndevich & Tsinkevich, 2004). ...
Article
Morphological diagnoses, distribution and environmental preferences of species of the Cercyon nigriceps-group (subgenus Cercyon Leach, 1817) from Russia and adjacent regions are presented. Cercyon paranigriceps sp. nov. from the Russian Far East and Myanmar is described. Cercyon nigriceps (Marsham, 1802) is recorded from Malta, Ukraine, Gambia and Nepal for the first time; C. setiger Wu & Pu, 1995 is for the first time recorded from Guizhou (China).
... I preserved the samples in Scheerpeltz solution (70% ethanol, 5-10% acetic acid, 15-20% distilled water) and identified Scarabaeoidea using the keys in Freude et al. (1969), Lohse and Lucht (1992), Gordon and Skelley (2007), Skelley (2007a, b, c), Howden and Cartwright (1963), Ratcliffe (1991), Stebnicka andLago (2005), andWegner andNiemczyk (1979). For Hydrophilidae determination, I used Freude et al. (1971), Smetana (1978), Hansen (1987), Smetana (1988), and Lohse and Lucht (1989). Voucher specimens were placed in the insect collection of Siena Heights University, Department of Biology, Adrian, MI. ...
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Only a few mostly older studies analyzed the heterotrophic succession of dung beetles in the Midwestern United States. Such studies are needed to track the impacts of the climate crisis on heterotrophic succession and the associated decomposition processes that are central to soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The current study closes this knowledge gap and provides an easy and efficient method to estimate the relative attractiveness of individual dung pads during heterotrophic succession. The dung beetle community of Carpenter Farm in Adrian, Southeast Michigan was sampled for an entire year, including the winter months, using 15 pitfall traps baited with fresh cow manure. Samples were collected after 48 h and again after 72 h exposure time from the bucket content while leaving the bait unhampered. Eighty-four percent of all beetles were caught in the early sample, but only 6 species were missing in the later sample. A cluster analysis based on Pianka's niche overlap identified a statistically higher mean overlap than expected by chance in a null model (model RA3) and divided the species community clearly into three clusters separating most relocators from most dwellers. Despite using a different method, my results confirmed the successional position of most previously described species and added data for several species with poor or unknown successional state. The successional segregation between dwellers and relocators discovered by the cluster analysis was paralleled by a significantly larger body size of relocators across taxonomic groups as compared to dwellers.
... Mannerheim * Alaska (18) (113), California (113) (97)*, Idaho (113), Nevada (113), New Mexico (113), Oregon (113), Texas (113), Washington (113), Wyoming (113), Alberta (18) (113), British Columbia (18) (113), Northwest Territories (18) (113) (7), Maine (7), Minnesota (48), Nevada (48), North Dakota (53)*, Oregon (7) Diplotaxis harperi Blanchard * Iowa ( Continued on next page APPENDIX 1. Continued. ...
Article
Most distributional lists are limited to geographical areas such as states or provinces and often include information regarding smaller subsets of coprophagous insects. This checklist of Coleoptera (Geotrupidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae, and Trogidae) associated with livestock dung on pastures in Canada and the USA builds on the data previously compiled by R. R. Blume in 1985 and adds several improvements to make it more robust and applicable to a modern audience. These improvements include information regarding only coprophagous species, their current distributional records in North America, different types of primarily livestock dung they are attracted to, and taxonomic changes. For added convenience, a Microsoft Excel® file has been created to permit the reader to generate a specific checklist of coprophilous beetles for any state or province in America north of Mexico or dung type of interest.
... The North American megasternine species Tectosternum naviculare (Zimmerman, 1869) is the only case which has been reviewed in detail. Smetana (1978Smetana ( , 1984 confirmed its assignment to the genus Tectosternum Balfour-Browne, 1958, previously considered being an African endemic. ...
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The southern hemisphere water scavenger beetle genus Cylorygmus Orchymont, 1933 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Cylominae) is revised. Three species are recognized, one in Chile and two in South Africa. The morphological differences indicate that the African species are not congeneric with the Chilean one. Relictorygmus gen. nov. is established for the African R. trevornoahi sp. nov. (type species) and R. repentinus (Hebauer, 2002), both known from few localities in the Western Cape province of the Republic of South Africa. The genus Cylorygmus with the only species C. lineatopunctatus Orchymont, 1933 is endemic to a small region in central Chile. Its larva is described in detail based on specimens collected in association with adults. Both genera and all species are diagnosed, described and illustrated, and an identification key for adults is provided. Our study demonstrates that the trans-Atlantic disjunct distribution of Cylorygmus was based on inaccurate taxonomic treatment and did not reflect the real evolutionary history of these beetles.
... Specimens were examined, identified, measured and illustrated using a Stemi 2000-C ZEIZZ microscope with attached AxiomCam ERc 5s camera. Taxonomic identification of the specimens was done with the support of the keys and information by Leech (1943), Mouchamps (1963), Young (1967), Bachmann (1969), Gundersen (1977), Smetana (1978), Oliva (1981Oliva ( , 1987Oliva ( , 1989Oliva ( , 1994, Fernández (1988Fernández ( , 1989Fernández ( , 1994Fernández ( , 1997, Oliva et al. (2002), Short (2004), Komarek and Beutel (2007), Clarkson and Ferreira-Jr (2009), Arce-Pérez and Morón (2013). Morphological terminology follows mainly Hansen (1991), with some terminology adapted from Komarek (2004). ...
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A list of species of Hydrophilidae from Quindío Department, Colombia is presented. This list is based on recently collected specimens, a survey of data from the literature, and specimens deposited in the Colección de Insectos de la Universidad del Quindío (CIUQ). Twenty-three species, including 16 new records from Colombia, are listed. Information about biology of each species and a checklist of the overall Colombian species are given.
... Phaenonotum is a New World genus. About twenty species have been described, two from America North of Mexico, and the remaining ones from Central and South America (Smetana, 1978). Two subgenera are recognized (Archangelsky, in review):Ph. ...
Article
Phaenonotum caribense sp. n. from Venezuela is described, and illustrated by a line drawing of the aedoeagus and scanning photomicrographs of prosternai and meso-metasternal keels.
... The material studied is held in the larval collection of the author. Identification of adults was done using the revision of Sphaeridiinae by Smetana (1978); argentine adults of C. quisquilius were also compared with adults of C. quisquilius from USA. ...
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The primary and secondary chaetotaxy of the head capsule and head appendages of the three larval instars of Cercyon praetextatus (Say, 1825) and Cercyon quisquilius (Linnaeus, 1761) are described for the first time. Morphometric characters derived from the head capsule and mouthparts are also included, together with detailed illustrations of all characters. Morphology and chaetotaxy of these larvae is compared to that of Cercyon convexiusculus Stephens, 1829. Comparison of character states with other larvae of the tribes Megasternini, Coelostomatini, Protosternini and Shaeridiini confirms a well supported Megasternini, and a close relationship between Megasternini and Sphaeridiini.
... The material studied is held in the larval collection of one of the authors (M.A.). Identifi cation of adults was done using the revision of the subfamily Sphaeridiinae by SMETANA (1978). Since D. cacti had not been previously recorded from Guatemala, the aedeagus of those specimens was dissected and their morphology completely agrees with that illustrated in Smetana's revision; also, considering that the specimens from Guatemala and Arizona were collected in rotting cacti, there is no doubt that the identifi cation is correct. ...
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The primary and secondary chaetotaxy of the head capsule and head appendages of the three larval instars of Dactylosternum cacti (LeConte, 1855) and Phaenonotum exstriatum (Say, 1835) (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae) are described for the fi rst time. Morphometric characters derived from the head capsule, mouthparts and legs are also included, together with detailed illustrations of all characters. Morphology and chaetotaxy of these larvae are compared to that of other described Coelostomatini larvae.
... Until recently the study of preimaginal stages of Sphaeridiinae was really limited, only those of the Old World and the Nearctic region were in a better state of knowledge. In the last few years some advance in the study of their biology, morphology and classification has been achieved (Spangler 1974;Smetana 1975Smetana , 1978Hansen 1990Hansen , 1991Hansen , 1995Hansen , 1997Hansen and Richardson 1998;Bameul 1991Bameul , 1997Archangelsky and Durand 1992a;Newton and Thayer 1992;Archangelsky 1994Archangelsky , 1997Archangelsky , 1998Archangelsky and Fernindez 1994;Beutel 1994;Lawrence and Newton 1995;Schodl 1995). The relationships among the tribes within Sphaeridiinae have been established by Hansen (1991) but the knowledge of their irnmatures, although better, is still far from being complete at a tribal and generic level (Tables 1, 2) but it is good enough to point out several evolutionary trends. ...
Article
Several evolutionary trends of sphaeridiine beetles are discussed: terrestial habits, larval developmental time, number of eggs/egg case, shape of the egg cases, prey consumption, construction of pupal chambers, reduction of the legs, development of hypopharyngeal lobes, symmetry of mandibles and labroclypeus, reduction of the ligula and fusion of stemmata. A discussion on the state of knowledge of the immature stages of Hydrophilidae at a generic level is presented; of the four most diverse zoogeographic areas, the Oriental, Australian and Ethiopian are the less known and the Neotropical is relatively well known; the Palaearctic and Nearctic are the least diverse but the best known.
... Many species are widely distributed. Few western Palearctic species have been introduced to North America where they are now established (SMETANA 1978), and are also occasionally introduced to Afrotropical Region (BERGE HENEGOUWEN 1987). Most species of Sphaeridium are coprophagous (e.g., HOLTER 2004), typically inhabiting dung of large herbivorous mammals (e.g., cow, horse, elephant, buffalo). ...
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A new Oriental species of the genus Sphaeridium Fabricius, 1775, S. daemonicum sp. nov., is described based on specimens recently collected in the Brahmaputra valley (lowland part of Arunachal Pradesh, India) and historical specimens from southern Myanmar. The new species differs from all other described Oriental species by its wide parameres partly enveloping the median lobe, small body size, and coloration of the body. It is unique among Oriental species by the presence of a series of small spines along the lateral margin of pronotum and elytra. In the latter character, it resembles the members of the Afrotropical S. simplicipes group.
... Previously recorded from Socotra Island by GAHAN (1903) Distribution. Dactylosternum abdominale is widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics all over the world and rarely also reaches the adjacent temperate areas (SMETANA 1978, HANSEN 1999. Previously recorded from Socotra Island by WRANIK (2003). ...
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The hydrophiloid beetles (Georissidae, Hydrophilidae) of Socotra Island (Yemen) are reviewed based mainly on the material collected during the Czech expeditions undertaken between 2000 and 2012. A total of 16 species are recorded, three of which are newly described herein: Georissus (Neogeorissus) maritimus sp. nov., G. (N.) nemo sp. nov. (Georissidae) and Hemisphaera socotrana sp. nov. (Hydrophilidae). Seven species are recorded from Socotra Island for the first time: Georissus (Neogeorissus) sp., Berosus corrugatus Régimbart, 1906, Laccobius eximius Kuwert, 1890, L. minor (Wollaston, 1867), L. praecipuus Kuwert, 1890, Enochrus nitidulus (Kuwert, 1888), and Sternolophus unicolor Laporte de Castelnau, 1840. The previously published Socotran record of Sternolophus decens Zaitzev, 1909 is considered as misidentification. The Socotran hydrophiloid fauna is found to consist mostly of widely distributed African, Arabian/Near Eastern, Oriental and cosmopolitan species. The three newly described species may be considered as endemic to Socotra, but two of them seem to have close relatives in Africa and southern India. Notes on the remaining described species of the genus Hemisphaera Pandellé, 1876 are also included.
... However, lack of expertise and identification keys often restricted identifications to genus or family. Keys used to identify taxonomic groups included: Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae [29], Scarabaeidae [30], Staphylinidae [31], and Diptera [32]. ...
Article
Registration of veterinary medical products (VMPs) includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential non-target effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (Phase II, Tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on the format of these tests. Here, we report development of a standardized field test method designed to serve as a Tier B test. Dung was collected from cattle before and up to two months after treatment with a topical application of a test compound (ivermectin). Pats formed of dung of the different treatments were placed concurrently in the field to be colonized by insects. The abundance, richness, and diversity of insects developing from egg-to-adult in these pats were compared across treatments using Analysis of Variance tests. Regression analyses were used to regress abundance, richness, and diversity against residue concentrations in each treatment. Results of the regression were used to estimate mean lethal concentration (LC50) values. The robustness of the method and repeatability of its findings were assessed concurrently in four countries (Canada, France, Switzerland, and The Netherlands) in climatically diverse ecoregions. Results were generally consistent across countries, and support the method's formal adoption by the European Union to assess the effects of VMP residues on the composition and diversity of insects in dung of treated livestock. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... SHARP 1882 SHARP , 1887 SCOTT 1912; ORCHYMONT 1937 ORCHYMONT , 1943). The only recent additions are the descriptions of two new Phaenonotum from USA (Florida, Alabama; SMETANA 1978) and Venezuela (ARCHANGELSKY 1989) and the revision of the genus Phaenostoma Orchymont, 1937 (GUSTAFSON & SHORT 2010). The recently described genus Badioglobus Short, 2004 from Costa Rica was also originally assigned to the Coelostomatini (SHORT 2004), but new data suggest it not a member of that clade (SHORT & FIKÁEK 2013). ...
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A new species of the genus Phaenonotum Sharp, 1882, P. delgadoi sp. nov., is described from the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain range in eastern Cuba. The new species is diagnosed from other species of the genus, and compared in detail with P. exstriatum (Say, 1835) and P. minor Smetana, 1978. All specimens of the new species were collected by sifting forest leaf litter far from any known water source and the species is therefore likely terrestrial.
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The seasonal occurrence of species and timing of key events in their life (phenology) affects the ecology and evolution of every species, population, and species community (SC) on Earth. Shifting phenologies and mismatches between species may affect range limits and lead to extinctions and biodiversity loss, which are especially concerning in ecologically and economically important SCs like coprophilous beetles. This study provides phenological data for many species of coprophilous beetles from the Midwestern region of the United States, includes the often-missing winter months, and compares the seasonal and successional differences between the “relocator” and “dweller” guilds. Beetles were sampled biweekly throughout the year from a 3.8 ha Farm in Adrian, SE-Michigan using 15 pitfall traps baited with cow manure. Samples were collected after 48 h and again after 72 h exposure time. Over the entire year, I caught 6,069 specimens from 24 species of Scarabaeoidea and 13 species of Hydrophilidae. The ROSARIO null model for continuous temporal data suggested a significant seasonal overlap of the SC (p < 0.0001) and a cluster analysis based on Pianka’s niche overlap index identified five clusters at a minimum overlap of 55% falling into three major phenological guilds. “Relocators” (6 Scarabaeinae, 2 Aphodiinae species) overlapped on average by 48.4%, whereas “dwellers” (9 Aphodiinae, 10 Hydrophilidae species) overlapped by 36.0% (Mann–Whitney test, p = 0.055). Small Hydrophilidae dwellers overlapped by 30.9% whereas large hydrophilid dwellers overlapped by 96.9%. Individual phenological patterns were compared to other sites in North America and Europe and predictions about geographical and phenological changes due to the man-made climate crisis and habitat loss and fragmentation are discussed. Differences between the seasonal overlaps of “relocators” and “dwellers” as well as small and large Onthophagus relocators and Hydrophilidae dwellers are suggesting profound ecological differences between the guilds and sub-guilds.
Article
Cercyon castaneipennis sp. n. is recognised as a species distinct from C. obsoletus (Gyllenhal). Apart from small differences in the morphology of the aedeagus, both species can be separated by the structure of the mentum, the shape of the antennal club and the structure and colouration of the elytra. Cercyon castaneipennis is currently known from Central Europe and the southern part of North Europe. In the Netherlands, at the western border of its range, it is considered a recent immigrant, as records before the year 2000 are lacking. A lectotype for C. obsoletus is designated.
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A broad survey of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) from literature and personal observations was conducted, and extensive references were included to serve as a single resource on the topic. Results are summarized in a table featuring all beetle families and subfamilies with saproxylicity indicated for both adults and larvae (where known), along with information on diversity, distribution, habits, habitat, and other relevant notes. A discussion about the prevalence of and evolutionary origins of beetles in relation to the saproxylic habitat, as well as the variety of saproxylic beetle habits by microhabitat, is provided. This initial attempt at an overview of the entire order shows that 122 (about 65%) of the 187 presently recognized beetle families have at least one saproxylic member. However, the state of knowledge of most saproxylic beetle groups is extremely fragmentary, particularly in regard to larval stages and their feeding habits.
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Taxonomie, ecological and distributional information regarding Mexican Hydrophiloidea is summarized. A key to genera is added and a checklist of the genera and species as well as geographic records for each state are presented. Hydrophiloidea are represented in Mexico by 6 families, 9 tribes, 36 genera, 181 species and 6 subspecies, corresponding to 20% and 6% of world genera and species respectively. In total, 95% and 67% of the recorded Mesoamerican genera and species are currently known from Mexico. Oosternum attacomis Spangler, 1962 and Sphaeridium scarabaeoides Linneo, 1758 are recorded for the first time from Veracruz. The states with the highest number of recorded species are Veracruz (72), Oaxaca (50), Sinaloa (44), and Sonora (43).
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The Guadeloupe Archipelago, the French overseas Département de Guadeloupe, is a geographically associated group of islands and a natural biogeographic unit. The islands have been available for terrestrial colonization since the late Tertiary. From the viewpoint of beetle systematics and biodiversity, this is the most important set of islands of the Lesser Antilles because more species have been described or recorded from Guadeloupe than any other island or group in the Lesser Antilles. We present a summary of the 1338 beetle species recorded in the literature from the archipelago, in 60 families, and 719 genera. The families with the largest numbers of species are Curculionidae (420), Staphylinidae (153), Chrysomelidae (75), Cerambycidae (69), Scarabaeidae (64), and Tenebrionidae (59). Four hundred eighty two species are known only from one or more islands of the Guadeloupe group and likely speciated there. Guadeloupe is the type locality for an additional 59 species. At least 61 species have been accidentally introduced by human activities. A total of 261 species are known only from the Lesser Antilles including Guadeloupe. The remaining species are naturally more widespread in the Lesser Antilles, or the West Indies, and elsewhere in the New World. The actual number of species on the Guadeloupe Archipelago is estimated to be around 1850 or more species.
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The 342-page book presents the history of the Washington Biologists' Field Club, which was established in 1900. The book includes biographies of 267 members between 1900 and 2006. The members represent all branches of science with emphasis on biology as the club name indicates. In addition to scientists there have been famous naturalists (e.g., John Burroughs), high-level administrators (e.g., Ira Gabrielson), and well-known artists (e.g., Roger Tory Peterson), who have been members of the club. Numerous photographs of the members and their activities at their cabin on Plummers Island are included in the book.
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The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of a black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] – tamarack [Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch] – Sphagnum bog in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, was sampled from early June to mid-August with yellow pan traps and emergence traps. The yield was 5734 beetles, in 30 families. Ptiliidae was the most numerically abundant and Staphylinidae was the most taxonomically diverse. Carabidae was second in diversity and third in numerical abundance. The abundance and ecological implications of some individual species are discussed. Few of the species are bog-specific. The faunal composition suggests that the bog is in a late-succession phase and that most of the beetle species are derived from adjacent habitats.
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A list of identification guides is presented, including keys, descriptions, and other information, many with attached annotations. We have found these manuscripts useful in the determination of the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Florida. /// Es presentada una lista de guías de identificación que incluye claves, descripciones y otras informaciones, muchas con anotaciones adjuntas, que son útiles para la determinación de macroinvertebrados de agua dulce de la Florida.
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Biodiversity and Biogeography of the KurU Islands and Sakhalin (2006) 2, 129-150. Abstract Terrestrial hydrophilid beetles species (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) occurring in the Kuril Archipelago in the northwestern Pacific are reviewed. Based on literature records, museum collections and material from recent expeditions, 17 species (including 2 unidentified) are known from this archipelago. A detail report on 5 species is given on the basis of about 1,260 adult specimens collected in the Kuril Islands by International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). IKIP was a joint Japanese-Russian-American expedition conducted between 1994-2000.
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Swammerdami beirnei n. sp. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is described from Vancouver district, British Columbia, and distinguished from the European species, S. pyrella (De Villers) and the North American species S. heroldella Hübner = syn. S. castaneae Busck, also = syn. S. cuprescens Braun by Duckworth (1965). Some biological aspects of the species are discussed.
Synonymical notes on Coleoptera of the United States, with descriptions of new species, from the MSS. of the late Dr. C. Zimmerman. Edited by John L. LeConte, M.D.
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Die exotischen Hydrophiliden des Deutschen Entomologischen Museums (Col.)
  • Knisch