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Pour un humanisme du divers

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Abstract

Il s’agit de comprendre pourquoi la composition plurielle de la societe est aujourd’hui posee comme un probleme. Il s’agit aussi de trouver les modes de traitement possibles sur les plans politique, social et educatif.

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... However, in schools, and in society in general, there are different conceptions of the meaning of interculturality, which is often used ambiguously and even inappropriately (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;Aguado & Malik, 2006). It is often mistaken for "multicultural" (Portera, 2008), thus proving the need for better understanding of this concept (Beacco, 2011). ...
... While the multicultural perspective "denotes the empirical fact that the different cultures exist and may interact within a given space and social organisation" (Council of Europe, 2008, p.11) and refers to the knowledge of other cultures (which then leads to stereotyping and emphasizes cultural differences), the intercultural perspective goes beyond that and relates to the dynamics between cultures, to cooperation and sharing, to the attempt to attain unity in diversity. The term intercultural, as the prefix inter suggests, refers to exchange, interaction and mutual development between groups or individuals, and to the need for reflection on these relations (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;Blaszynska, 2008;Byram, Gribkova & Starkey, 2002;Portera, 2008). ...
... In short, the data show that, despite there being awareness of interculturality and of practices which promote intercultural education, at the beginning of the school year the partners seem to have various representations of these concepts: the way it can be developed in the schools and its objectives Furthermore, the information provided by the data collected coincides with the literature, since ambiguity concerning interculturality has already been widely described (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;Aguado & Malik, 2006;Beacco, 2011;Portera, 2008). In this study, the term "interculturality" is linked to two different perspectives: on one hand, it highlights the differences between individuals, cultures and diversity under a static perspective; on the other hand, it emphasizes the dynamic relation of interaction and dialogue between individuals and cultures. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to give an insight into interculturality and practices of intercultur-al education by a group of partners before and after having participated in the development of a project on intercultural education. The group was formed of 12 people representing different institutions in the community, namely primary schools, associations and the local council. Data were collected via an initial and a final interview, carried out individually with each of the partners. The answers given by the partic-ipants in the initial interview showed that, although they believe in the importance of implementing intercultural education, there was some initial ambiguity and indefiniteness in the representations of what this concept really means and sometimes interculturality is merely and restrictively associated with multiculturality. In the final interview, the partners stated that their representations of these con-cepts changed after participating in the project, thus helping them to differentiate between both. They also mentioned that their participation was an opportunity for rethinking and improving their work practices concerning intercultural education. © 2012 International Association for the Improvement of Mother tongue Education.
... En termes lévinassiens, cette totalisation de l'Autre se produit par la réification de l'altérité culturelle en des catégories facilement manipulables par le chercheur ou le clinicien qui agit alors selon la manière du Même. Pourtant, les formes de diversité aujourd'hui font en sorte que les « marqueurs traditionnels d'identification [...] ont perdu de leur pertinence et ne permettent plus d'identifier autrui, encore moins de le catégoriser » (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2005, p. 37). Ne pas pouvoir aller au-delà de cette forme de pratique contribue à un rapport à l'Autre fondé sur l'ontologie (ce que Lévinas nomme aussi égologie ou philosophie de la puissance), puisqu'il utilise un système totalitaire (une théorie, par exemple) pour neutraliser l'Autre, le comprendre et le saisir. ...
... En ce sens, la rencontre, le face-à-face, peut être une occasion de faire vivre la culture dans et entre les protagonistes de l'interaction plutôt que de la figer dans une historicité couchée sur papier. Une occasion aussi de ne pas appréhender la culture avec des conceptions a priori totalisantes, mais plutôt « au niveau des pratiques, des usages, des actions, qui sont autant de formes discursives pour s'exprimer et communiquer » (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2005, p. 36). ...
Article
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La psychologie clinique ne pourrait se passer de la relation, car elle suppose minimalement la rencontre entre un psychologue et un patient. Cet article explore cette relation au moyen de la notion de rapport à l’Autre, plus particulièrement selon les perspectives des philosophes Emmanuel Lévinas et Martin Buber. La philosophie suscite des questionnements qui peuvent éclairer nos réalités contemporaines. Parmi ces réalités, l’intervention interculturelle en psychologie clinique est choisie comme objet de la réflexion étant donné son importance croissante dans nos sociétés mondialisées. La différence culturelle est ici révélatrice de processus difficilement visibles en contexte de similarité.
... My approach is situated within a hermeneutical/intersubjectivist conception of interculturality (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;Dahl, et al. 2006) and is in line with the concept of proteophilia (Dervin, 2006(Dervin, , 2007(Dervin, , 2008, which I have put forward in my research on intercultural competence in LLT and student mobility. The approach is strongly influenced by linguistic discourse analysis, theories of enunciation and dialogism (Dervin, 2008;Hermans, 1999;Markova, et al., 2007;Marnette, 2005) and ...
... This first approach to democracy, through reflecting on self, introduces the topic of the interdependence between self and other to be examined in the next section. As such, these ideas correspond precisely to a more postmodern, critically and reflexively informed type of interculturality, whereby the interoutweighs the cultural in intercultural encounters, by infusing reflections on ethics and care (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003). ...
... 340). In other words, what these scholars suggest, and what other scholars are supporting, is that intercultural competencies should allow criticality towards the concept of culture and the related power imbalance that it can produce (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;Holliday, 2010;Piller, 2011;Dervin, 2012). For example, when comparing cultures, one of the cultures is often presented implicitly as being better than the other one. ...
... Dans ce cadre, nous rejoignons les propos de Perregaux, pour qui : ce qui nous intéresse en fait, c'est le biographique comme processus d'actualisation de faits, d'évènements, de connaissances, de sentiments mis en mémoire ; de retour en arrière pour comprendre son présent langagier ; de construction de soi autour de la thématique des langues. (Perregaux, 2002 : 83) L'éducation interculturelle 7 Cette étude repose sur l'idée d'une interculturalité renouvelée (Abdallah-Pretceille, 1996, 2005Dervin, 2011Dervin, , 2016Dervin, , 2017 et critique (Ferrão, 2010 ;Walsh, 2010). Pour employer les mots de Dervin, l'interculturalité renouvelée devrait « s'orienter vers l'étude de la négociation et de co-construction des diverses diversités des individus en présence » (Dervin, 2011 : 112). ...
Article
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Cette contribution a pour objet l'analyse de l'impact d'une formation à l’éducation interculturelle, adressée aux formateurs de futurs enseignants de langues étrangères dans le milieu universitaire colombien, à l'Université d’Antioquia. Suite à une analyse de besoins dans le contexte étudié, nous formulons l'hypothèse que les diverses expériences personnelles et professionnelles des formateurs contribuent à leur appréhension de l’interculturalité. Ainsi, nous postulons que l’adoption d’une démarche biographique dans le cadre d’une communauté de pratique, dispositif de formation adopté, peut avoir des retombées sur les représentations des participants. Les données sont issues du travail de formation sur le terrain, auquel ont participé sept formateurs (trois d'anglais et quatre de français) et comprennent des biographies langagières et des entretiens individuels. L'analyse qualitative des données montre que la rédaction et le partage des biographies langagières a constitué un levier important permettant d'amorcer des échanges riches. Les données suggèrent que le travail biographique a encouragé le renforcement des liens entre les formateurs au sein de la communauté, ainsi qu'une réflexion approfondie sur leur rapport à la pluralité.
... In the intercultural approach, researchers try to find a balance between universalism and particularism (Abdallah-Pretceille 2005). Individuals are not mere representatives of 'a culture' but they diverge from the stereotypes they are assigned. ...
... 340). In other words, what these scholars suggest, and what other scholars are supporting, is that intercultural competencies should allow criticality towards the concept of culture and the related power imbalance that it can produce (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;Holliday, 2010;Piller, 2011;Dervin, 2012). For example, when comparing cultures, one of the cultures is often presented implicitly as being better than the other one. ...
Article
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This paper reviews discourses on multicultural education and the concept of intercultural competencies in the European and Nordic country of Finland. We focus on their present uses and perceptions by decision-makers, researchers, and also student teachers. Some prognosis for the future is made based on a short case study from art teacher education in this context. The case study represents an approach that replaces an understanding of intercultural competencies only grounded in knowledge with an approach grounded in criticality. In this way, the article represents an attempt to evaluate how intercultural competencies can and should be reconceptualised in global scholarship today.
... It advances the assumption that 'the concepts of culture and identity should be considered as multidimensional and unfixed' (Dervin 2006, 3). Intercultural communication researchers are expected to strike an equilibrium between universalism and particularism in their works (Abdallah-Pretceille 2005). Liquid approach to interculturality knowledge production confirms the exigency of shunning methodological nationalisms (nation, society or state is natural and static) and transnational paradigms (mere extension of methodological nationalism). ...
Article
Accounting for the complexity of intercultural interactions in highly multicultural-fluid times requires re-imagining of (a) the fundamental constructs that have shaped our perceptions of interculturality and (b) the factors that contribute to smooth functioning in intercultural situations. Researchers’ epistemological and methodological positioning can strongly influence the range of findings and interpretations; thus, examining the theoretical stances embraced in papers in a specific geographical context can propel the rigorousness of its scientific research. Many perspectives and theories in intercultural communication scholarship have signalled a shift from national-wide and generalisable perceptions of cultural-communication dyadic relationship towards a consideration of sense-making processes and intersubjectivity. However, some treatments of interculturality still often reproduce, consciously or not, the same preponderant epistemologies that benchmark intercultural interactions as static and essentialist, especially at the inter-individual level. Liquid interculturality, as a postmodernist alternative responsive to the construction of cultures and identities, responds to the non-linearity of intercultural encounters and considers the fluidity of individuals’ representations of themselves and other interlocutors. This paper, by highlighting the shift from solid to liquid paradigms in intercultural communication theory and research, seeks to (a) situate and critically reflect on Moroccan intercultural communication scholarship with regards to today’s relevant research and (b) clarify how researchers tend to conceptualise intercultural encounters in reference to the theoretical underpinnings of liquid interculturality. Findings revealed that most research methods have been based on solid representations of interculturality with few signs of liquid interculturality.
... As suggested by the participants themselves, one is often quick to put a label on a parent, a practice, a child, based on one's own norms, thus ignoring other important aspects of a case (Audet, 2008;Audet, 2011). Taking the time to go beyond that first impression is not only a matter of professional ethics, but also a human ethics requirement (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2003;2005). To this end, involving if not partnering with parents and children in assessments, through participative approaches for example, could contribute to fill in the gaps and to better understand the dynamic of a situation (Audet, McAndrew & Vatz Laaroussi, 2016;Bartelink, Van Yperen & Ten Berge, 2015;Lafantaisie, Milot & Lacharité, 2018). ...
Article
This paper addresses how personal and professional values and experiences of professionals working with children and families from diverse cultural backgrounds interweave in their understanding of (in)adequate child supervision and how this influences their decision-making around supervisory neglect. Eleven focus group discussions involving 67 service providers were held in two of the largest cities in the province of Quebec, Canada. Participants were recruited through public school boards, municipal police agencies, child protection agencies, and health and social services. Service providers who were recruited to offer their professional perspective on children’s supervision, responded with examples from both their professional and personal contexts. Whereas personal examples, including those related to culture, were used to qualify, contextualize, deepen analysis, and better assess the boundaries of a supervisory situation, professional examples were used to refer to the legal sphere. Besides using professional decision-making tools, service providers could benefit from incorporating their personal experiences to advance reflection about supervisory neglect and from reconciling their professional and personal dimensions for more ethical decision-making in this field. The latter would require clinical (not just administrative) support, a good network of colleagues, and training. Seeking depth and sensitivity beyond what structured decision grids allow is particularly needed in ethnoculturally diverse contexts.
... Chapter 9: Foreign language teaching as political action. ■ L'autobiographie des rencontres interculturelles (Byram et al., 2009) Vision renouvelée de l'éducation interculturelle ■ Pour un humanisme du divers (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2005). ■ Interculturality in education. ...
Thesis
L’enseignement de langues étrangères représente l’opportunité de mettre en œuvre des actions contribuant à la réflexion sur l’altérité, au développement des compétences d’ouverture à la diversité linguistique et culturelle et au vivre-ensemble. Ces objectifs, visés par l’éducation interculturelle, occupent une place importante en didactique des langues et des cultures. La présente recherche explore l’éducation interculturelle, dans une perspective renouvelée et critique, dans la formation des formateurs d’enseignants de langues. Cette recherche a eu lieu dans une licence en didactique de langues étrangères (anglais et français), dans une université colombienne qui a opté pour des perspectives interculturelles et critiques comme piliers théoriques. L’éducation interculturelle est perçue dans ce contexte comme une des possibilités de contribuer à la transformation sociale, dans un pays qui cherche à surmonter la situation de conflit interne vécue depuis plus d’un demi-siècle. Ce programme de licence fait face à la problématique de l’appropriation de ces théories de la part des formateurs d’enseignants afin de pouvoir amener des changements dans leurs pratiques d’enseignement. À travers une recherche-action, nous avons tout d’abord identifié les besoins et ensuite les modalités de formation à l’éducation interculturelle qui seraient appropriées pour ce milieu. Cette première étape a compris l’analyse des documents officiels, des voix des administrateurs du programme en question et les voix des formateurs. Cette analyse nous a amené à proposer un dispositif de formation à l’éducation interculturelle sous forme de communauté de pratique, dont la durée a été de huit mois sur le terrain. L’analyse des données, issues d’outils divers (biographies langagières, entretiens individuels, un « focus group », journal de bord du chercheur et d’autres outils construits pendant la formation) montre que la communauté de pratique a contribué à l’évolution des représentations des participants ainsi qu’à la construction de leur profil interculturel. La rédaction et le partage des biographies langagières des participants ont constitué un levier important permettant une réflexion approfondie sur leur rapport à la pluralité, et d’amorcer des échanges riches au sein de la communauté. Ces échanges ont permis une meilleure compréhension des enjeux liés à l’éducation interculturelle et des réflexions sur l’action professionnelle pour son intégration dans les pratiques d’enseignement. Cette étude met en lumière le potentiel transformateur des communautés de pratique dans la formation des formateurs d’enseignants dans ce contexte.
... Individuals are no longer representative of a culture or a nation or a national language, but they ''diverge from the stereotypes they are assigned'' (Machart 2013, 2). Through a subjective personal experience (Abdallah-Pretceille 2005) and in interaction with the social, cultural and political environment, individuals reconstitute and create new identities. These experiences legitimise children's choices as they interact in the hybrid space, and empower their voice. ...
Article
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Where adults go, children follow. The reality of a globalized, interconnected world, characterised by the mobility of people, goods and knowledge, across physical and virtual spaces and time, has had a significant impact on children's early experiences of language, literacy and identity. Children are not peripheral to, but constitute an integral part of these transnational, translocal experiences. Consequently, they learn to function in diverse language contact situations from birth or from a very young age. This paper explores how these early multiple language and literacy experiences lay the foundations for the construction of a multilingual identity. The study investigates how children, aged 5 to 12, construct their identity across languages, literacies and educational spaces: their mainstream French classroom; an out-of-school English literacy course; an after-school heritage language programme. Based on a child-centred methodology, including interviews with children and their parents, children's drawings and writings, and chosen symbolic objects, this study gives children a voice in exploring their sense of place in the world. The children's multimodal narratives suggest they negotiate identity positions within fixed (national) and hybrid (transnational) spaces, in interaction with real people, in tangible places, and via lived experiences, which have value for the children.
... To avoid any ambiguity regarding the term intercultural, Abdallah-Pretceille (2005 suggests talking about "un humanisme du divers," a "humanism of the diverse" (which, she claims, is convenient because it enables the researcher to move away from the concept of culture). This leads to an "intercultural without culture" (Dervin, 2011b) and "multiculturalism without culture" (Phillips, 2007). ...
Article
Abstract Using a liquid approach, the authors analyze the intercultural discourse of Taiwanese students who had taken part in a short term exchange program with a Malaysian university. The four participants were graduating in Mandarin Chinese in their home institution and were following a Chinese program in multilingual Malaysia. Data were collected through focus groups held in Mandarin Chinese and focused on their experience in the host country. The authors analyze how participants talk about themselves, Malaysians, and their adaptation to the host country. The processes of essentialization and othering that occur and put in contrast the host and the home contexts are similar to those held in Asia-to-Europe mobility and very far from an “interculturality without culture” (Dervin, 2010). If we focus on the construction of discourses, this Asia-to-Asia mobility forces us to relativize the opposition of cultures as an explanation for difficulties encountered by mobile students.
Chapter
At the end of December 2014 quite a surprising piece of news hit the Internet: Merriam-Webster, the reference book and online dictionary, announced that Culture had been selected as the 2014 word of the year. The list was compiled by analysing the lookups in the online dictionary. According to the Editor at Large for Merriam-Webster: “Culture is a word that we seem to be relying on more and more. It allows us to identify and isolate an idea, issue, or group with seriousness” (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Chapter
The chapter argues that inclusive education, whose aim is to bring marginalized children, back to the center of school systems, needs to consider discrimination, as experienced by Turkish and Arabic migrants. Inclusive education promotes assimiliation and integration of migrants and their children because inclusion involves the whole society and not just migrants. Discrimination can occur involuntarily but is influenced by social representations and prejudices concerning specific groups in society. France has difficulties transcending its tradition of assimilation. The state is very prescriptive and does not allow dialogue between pupils with different values who speak different languages, in order to find common values in the French intercultural society. Turkish and Arabic languages need to be accepeted and recognized as international languages, in order to bring excluded children, on the margins of the schools system back to the center.
Chapter
This chapter considers interculturality in language education using the example of online intercultural exchanges between Danish and francophone university students. The focus is on an intercultural approach in foreign language education that stands apart from the perspective that emphasizes “facts” about a “target culture.” The approach consists of the co-construction of intercultural competences by students in online interactions. The methodology of tracing evidence of intercultural competences in online interactions is questioned, in the sense that the author seeks the complementarity of different processes to trace manifestations of intercultural competences in online pedagogical interactions. This contributes to the description and evaluation of intercultural competences as a complex construct in the field of intercultural education.
Thesis
This action-research questions the didactics of interculturality and plurilingualism through an innovative intervention at school : philosophy workshops with allophone teenagers newly arrived in France. The existential experience of philosophical practice and its collaborative organization foster intercultural dynamics that transcend preconceived cultural models. This pedagogical approach considers young people as (thinking, acting, critical) subjects and contributes to their linguistic, educational, and social inclusion. Multimodal language mediations give symbolic access to the variability of world representations and emphasize the fundamental intraductibility of language. This observation implies considering the performative function of language, from a didactic point of view, while exploring the relations of meanings, through languages. The paradigm of intersectionality structures this research since we focus on what emerges at the crossroads of languages, thoughts et imaginaries. Philosophizing in languages, from an intercultural perspective, renders possible the collaborative invention of universal-singular thoughts and languages. The thesis proposes a humanistic and complex approach to the linguistic and socio-cultural creolization in educational settings and thus questions the ethical and socio-political dimension of the didactics of languages and cultures.
Chapter
This chapter considers interculturality in language education using the example of online intercultural exchanges between Danish and francophone university students. The focus is on an intercultural approach in foreign language education that stands apart from the perspective that emphasizes “facts” about a “target culture.” The approach consists of the co-construction of intercultural competences by students in online interactions. The methodology of tracing evidence of intercultural competences in online interactions is questioned, in the sense that the author seeks the complementarity of different processes to trace manifestations of intercultural competences in online pedagogical interactions. This contributes to the description and evaluation of intercultural competences as a complex construct in the field of intercultural education.
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