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Nutritional Quality of Dried Pig Placenta

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Nutrients and hormone levels of dried pig placenta were studied. Placentas were freeze-dried (FD), oven-dried at 60 (OD-60), and 90°C (OD-90) and then crushed by a blender into small pieces. FD and OD-60 pig placenta had a higher moisture content than did OD-90, with no difference between FD and OD-60. There were no large differences in compositions of crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash of dried placenta among the treatments and the contents of K, Fe, and a-tocopherol were highest in FD (p<0.05). Glutamine and glycine were the most abundant amino acids in all dried placenta and tyrosine was highly retained in FD placenta, compared with OD (p<0.05). Estradiol was the major sex hormone, followed by progesterone and testosterone in all dried placentas. Antibiotics including amoxicillin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and chlorotetracyclin were not detected from the pig placentas tested. These results demonstrate that placenta is a good biomaterial with high nutritional quality, and that freeze drying is superior to oven drying for processing pig placenta.
... All essential nutrients for fetus development are transported to fetus via placenta [31]. Protein was the most abundant proximate composition of freeze-dried porcine placenta (~77%), which was in agreement with Jang et al. [32] who reported 78% crude protein in porcine placenta. Collagenous proteins are presented in the animal placenta as indicated by the presence of hydroxyproline (Table 1). ...
... About 10% of ash was detected in porcine placenta which was possibly associated with the minerals required for fetus development [31]. This value was higher than the report of Jang [32] in freeze-dried porcine placenta, which accounted for 5.94%. Other components of freeze-dried placenta, such as fat, carbohydrate, and fiber, were detected in low levels. ...
... Herein, the main minerals found in porcine placenta were calcium and phosphorus. The findings contradicted those of Jang et al. [32], who found sodium and phosphorus to be the most abundant components in freeze-dried porcine placenta, followed by calcium and potassium. The iron concentration of the porcine placenta in this study (207.60 mg/kg) was lower than in a previous report (1238.12 ...
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The production of bioactive peptides from animal-based raw materials highly depends on enzymatic hydrolysis. Porcine placenta is an underutilized biomass in Thailand’s pig farms, yet it is still a source of proteins and beneficial compounds. Porcine placenta could be used as a protein substrate for the production of enzymatic hydrolysate, which could be employed as a functional food ingredient in the future. The goal of this study was to enzymatically produce porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) using three commercial enzymes (Alcalase, Flavouzyme, and papain) and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased as the enzyme load and hydrolysis time increased, but the DH was governed by the enzyme class. The maximum DH was found after using 10% enzyme for 20 min of hydrolysis (36.60%, 31.40%, and 29.81% for Alcalase, Flavouzyme, and papain). Depending on the enzyme type and DH, peptides of various sizes (0.40–323.56 kDa) were detected in all PPH. PPH created with Alcalase had an excellent reducing capacity and metal chelating ability ( p < 0.05), whereas PPH made with Flavourzyme and Papain had higher DPPH • and ABTS •+ inhibitory activities ( p < 0.05). Papain-derived PPH also had a strong antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , with clear zone values of 17.20 mm and 14.00 mm, respectively ( p < 0.05). When PPH was transported via a gastrointestinal tract model system, its antioxidative characteristics were altered. PPH’s properties and bioactivities were thus influenced by the enzyme type, enzyme concentration, and hydrolysis time used. Therefore, PPH produced from porcine placenta can be categorized as an antioxidant and antibacterial alternative.
... Porcine placentas from all sows were corrected for oven-drying at 100 °C. The study from [8] demonstrated that freeze drying porcine placenta for 20 h was superior to oven drying for processing that was a good biomaterial with high nutritional quality. However, freeze drying is very expensive for the producers and the period of drying in this process is higher than that needed for the oven-dried process. ...
... This may be due to the high quality of fish or contamination by other sources of protein such as urea, chicken feathers, etc. Ash of DPP and soybean meal were roughly 4 times lower than fish meal since it may contain high concentrations of minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sodium and zinc, along with trace amounts of many other substances. The same results were obtained by [8]. In depth study, the amino acid profile of DPP was analyzed and is shown in Table 4. Cystine and tryptophane were close to zero from this analysis. ...
... Glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, lysine and glycine were the most abundant amino acids in DPP. This same result was obtained by [8]. However, the quantity of amino acids in DPP for this study was dissimilar to that found in [8] because the method for porcine placental extraction was different. ...
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The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of substituting fish meal with dried porcine placenta (DPP) on the growth performance in post-weaning pigs. The experimental animals included 25 males and 25 females. The initial age was approximately 6 wk and the experiment lasted 21 days. Animals fed without DPP acted as the control group, treatment 1 (DPP1), treatment 2 (DPP2), treatment 3 (DPP3) involved substituting fish meal with 40, 60 and 80 % DPP, respectively, while treatment 4 (DPP4) involved entirely substituting fish meal with DPP. Animals in the DPP3 group had the highest final weight and average daily gain (31.15 ± 2.90 kg and 0.69 ± 0.14 kg/head/day). In addition, the feed conversion ratio of the animals in the DPP3 group was the lowest (1.45 ± 0.29). This result indicated that DPP is an effective alternative protein source for swine feed since it significantly improved growth performance. However, substituting fish meal with 100 % DPP would not be a good choice for increased growth performance. In future studies, more research should examine in depth other important traits such as immune traits or growth traits in other periods. Furthermore, processing cost and operating cost of DPP should be considered for sustainable economic efficiency.
... The pig placenta is very similar to the human placenta and is used as a source of biomedical materials. Freeze-dried pig placentas contain equal or, in certain conditions, higher nutritive properties than human placenta (Jang et al., 2007). ...
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation on reproductive performance, colostrum and plasma biochemical composition in pregnant sows. Eleven Landrace × Large white sows were fed with corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with or without 1% freeze dried placenta powder from 10 days before their expected farrowing dates until 10 days postpartum. The colostrum protein content was significantly higher(P=0.043) in the treatment group than in the control group. Compared to the control group, the immunoglobulin G(IgG) concentration in the colostrum was significantly higher(P=0.004) in the treatment. In day 25 piglets plasma, the IgG concentration was higher(P=0.184) in the treatment than the control. The mortality rate was lower(P=0.102), and the piglet weight gain was higher(P=0.35) in the treated group. Overall, the treatment group showed greater levels of protein and IgG concentration in the colostrum, when compared to control group. Therefore, the freeze dried placenta supplementation on pregnant sows can enhance its colostrum composition, hence decrease the mortality and increase the growth rate of piglets.
... Similar to human placenta, pig placenta has been used as a source of biomedical material. In fact, freeze-dried pig placenta contains equal or, in certain circumstances, higher nutritive properties than human placenta [10]. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) represent a long-lived cell population that provides blood cells through hematopoiesis throughout the human lifespan. ...
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Few rejuvenation and antiaging markers are used to evaluate food supplements. We measured three markers in peripheral blood to evaluate the antiaging effects of a food supplement containing placental extract. Samples were evaluated for CD34(+) cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and telomerase activity, which are all markers related to aging. To control the quality of this food supplement, five active components were monitored. In total, we examined 44 individuals who took the food supplement from 1.2 months to 23 months; the average number of CD34(+) cells was almost 6-fold higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. Food supplement intake did not change serum IGF1 levels significantly. Finally, the average telomerase activity was 30% higher in the subjects taking this food supplement. In summary, our results suggest that the placental extract in the food supplement might contribute to rejuvenation and antiaging.
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Chapter
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