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Nutritional Quality of Dried Pig Placenta



Nutrients and hormone levels of dried pig placenta were studied. Placentas were freeze-dried (FD), oven-dried at 60 (OD-60), and 90°C (OD-90) and then crushed by a blender into small pieces. FD and OD-60 pig placenta had a higher moisture content than did OD-90, with no difference between FD and OD-60. There were no large differences in compositions of crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash of dried placenta among the treatments and the contents of K, Fe, and a-tocopherol were highest in FD (p<0.05). Glutamine and glycine were the most abundant amino acids in all dried placenta and tyrosine was highly retained in FD placenta, compared with OD (p<0.05). Estradiol was the major sex hormone, followed by progesterone and testosterone in all dried placentas. Antibiotics including amoxicillin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and chlorotetracyclin were not detected from the pig placentas tested. These results demonstrate that placenta is a good biomaterial with high nutritional quality, and that freeze drying is superior to oven drying for processing pig placenta.
... All essential nutrients for fetus development are transported to fetus via placenta [31]. Protein was the most abundant proximate composition of freeze-dried porcine placenta (~77%), which was in agreement with Jang et al. [32] who reported 78% crude protein in porcine placenta. Collagenous proteins are presented in the animal placenta as indicated by the presence of hydroxyproline (Table 1). ...
... About 10% of ash was detected in porcine placenta which was possibly associated with the minerals required for fetus development [31]. This value was higher than the report of Jang [32] in freeze-dried porcine placenta, which accounted for 5.94%. Other components of freeze-dried placenta, such as fat, carbohydrate, and fiber, were detected in low levels. ...
... Herein, the main minerals found in porcine placenta were calcium and phosphorus. The findings contradicted those of Jang et al. [32], who found sodium and phosphorus to be the most abundant components in freeze-dried porcine placenta, followed by calcium and potassium. The iron concentration of the porcine placenta in this study (207.60 mg/kg) was lower than in a previous report (1238.12 ...
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The production of bioactive peptides from animal-based raw materials highly depends on enzymatic hydrolysis. Porcine placenta is an underutilized biomass in Thailand’s pig farms, yet it is still a source of proteins and beneficial compounds. Porcine placenta could be used as a protein substrate for the production of enzymatic hydrolysate, which could be employed as a functional food ingredient in the future. The goal of this study was to enzymatically produce porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) using three commercial enzymes (Alcalase, Flavouzyme, and papain) and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased as the enzyme load and hydrolysis time increased, but the DH was governed by the enzyme class. The maximum DH was found after using 10% enzyme for 20 min of hydrolysis (36.60%, 31.40%, and 29.81% for Alcalase, Flavouzyme, and papain). Depending on the enzyme type and DH, peptides of various sizes (0.40–323.56 kDa) were detected in all PPH. PPH created with Alcalase had an excellent reducing capacity and metal chelating ability ( p < 0.05), whereas PPH made with Flavourzyme and Papain had higher DPPH • and ABTS •+ inhibitory activities ( p < 0.05). Papain-derived PPH also had a strong antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , with clear zone values of 17.20 mm and 14.00 mm, respectively ( p < 0.05). When PPH was transported via a gastrointestinal tract model system, its antioxidative characteristics were altered. PPH’s properties and bioactivities were thus influenced by the enzyme type, enzyme concentration, and hydrolysis time used. Therefore, PPH produced from porcine placenta can be categorized as an antioxidant and antibacterial alternative.
... Porcine placentas from all sows were corrected for oven-drying at 100 °C. The study from [8] demonstrated that freeze drying porcine placenta for 20 h was superior to oven drying for processing that was a good biomaterial with high nutritional quality. However, freeze drying is very expensive for the producers and the period of drying in this process is higher than that needed for the oven-dried process. ...
... This may be due to the high quality of fish or contamination by other sources of protein such as urea, chicken feathers, etc. Ash of DPP and soybean meal were roughly 4 times lower than fish meal since it may contain high concentrations of minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sodium and zinc, along with trace amounts of many other substances. The same results were obtained by [8]. In depth study, the amino acid profile of DPP was analyzed and is shown in Table 4. Cystine and tryptophane were close to zero from this analysis. ...
... Glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, lysine and glycine were the most abundant amino acids in DPP. This same result was obtained by [8]. However, the quantity of amino acids in DPP for this study was dissimilar to that found in [8] because the method for porcine placental extraction was different. ...
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The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of substituting fish meal with dried porcine placenta (DPP) on the growth performance in post-weaning pigs. The experimental animals included 25 males and 25 females. The initial age was approximately 6 wk and the experiment lasted 21 days. Animals fed without DPP acted as the control group, treatment 1 (DPP1), treatment 2 (DPP2), treatment 3 (DPP3) involved substituting fish meal with 40, 60 and 80 % DPP, respectively, while treatment 4 (DPP4) involved entirely substituting fish meal with DPP. Animals in the DPP3 group had the highest final weight and average daily gain (31.15 ± 2.90 kg and 0.69 ± 0.14 kg/head/day). In addition, the feed conversion ratio of the animals in the DPP3 group was the lowest (1.45 ± 0.29). This result indicated that DPP is an effective alternative protein source for swine feed since it significantly improved growth performance. However, substituting fish meal with 100 % DPP would not be a good choice for increased growth performance. In future studies, more research should examine in depth other important traits such as immune traits or growth traits in other periods. Furthermore, processing cost and operating cost of DPP should be considered for sustainable economic efficiency.
... The pig placenta is very similar to the human placenta and is used as a source of biomedical materials. Freeze-dried pig placentas contain equal or, in certain conditions, higher nutritive properties than human placenta (Jang et al., 2007). ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation on reproductive performance, colostrum and plasma biochemical composition in pregnant sows. Eleven Landrace × Large white sows were fed with corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with or without 1% freeze dried placenta powder from 10 days before their expected farrowing dates until 10 days postpartum. The colostrum protein content was significantly higher(P=0.043) in the treatment group than in the control group. Compared to the control group, the immunoglobulin G(IgG) concentration in the colostrum was significantly higher(P=0.004) in the treatment. In day 25 piglets plasma, the IgG concentration was higher(P=0.184) in the treatment than the control. The mortality rate was lower(P=0.102), and the piglet weight gain was higher(P=0.35) in the treated group. Overall, the treatment group showed greater levels of protein and IgG concentration in the colostrum, when compared to control group. Therefore, the freeze dried placenta supplementation on pregnant sows can enhance its colostrum composition, hence decrease the mortality and increase the growth rate of piglets.
... Similar to human placenta, pig placenta has been used as a source of biomedical material. In fact, freeze-dried pig placenta contains equal or, in certain circumstances, higher nutritive properties than human placenta [10]. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) represent a long-lived cell population that provides blood cells through hematopoiesis throughout the human lifespan. ...
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Few rejuvenation and antiaging markers are used to evaluate food supplements. We measured three markers in peripheral blood to evaluate the antiaging effects of a food supplement containing placental extract. Samples were evaluated for CD34(+) cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and telomerase activity, which are all markers related to aging. To control the quality of this food supplement, five active components were monitored. In total, we examined 44 individuals who took the food supplement from 1.2 months to 23 months; the average number of CD34(+) cells was almost 6-fold higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. Food supplement intake did not change serum IGF1 levels significantly. Finally, the average telomerase activity was 30% higher in the subjects taking this food supplement. In summary, our results suggest that the placental extract in the food supplement might contribute to rejuvenation and antiaging.
Placental extract is a reservoir of a large number of bioactive molecules. It has been used in skin care cosmetics and soap, it is expected to have skin whitening effect. But, the effect of placental extract on melanogenesis is not clarified yet and there are several conflicting reports. To study the effect of the placental extract on proliferation and melanogenesis of pigment cells, we examined the proliferation and change of melanin amounts and expressions of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2 mRNA in SK30 melanoma cells, which were irradiated of not. The results were as follows: 1. The placental extract inhibited the melanogenesis of SK30 melanoma cells. 2. The placental extract showed no significant effect on the proliferation of SK30 melanoma cells. 3. The placental extract showed antimelanogenic effect by inhibiting the synthesis of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 mRNA. 4. The inhibitory effect of placental extract was more significant in UVB-irradiated SK30 melanoma cell lines. In conclusion, this study showed that the placental extract might be a good therapeutic regimens for UV-aggravated pigment disorders including melasma. Henceforth, further investigation is needed to identify and purify the active substance from the crude placental extract.
The ingestion of amino acids, peptides, and proteins from a variety of food sources is essential for maintaining health. Humans, as do other animals, use protein chiefly for its amino acid content. Proteins are converted to large and small peptides and individual amino acids by gastric and duodenal proteases (Castro 1991). Large peptides are hydrolyzed to small peptides, usually di- and tripeptides, by intestinal peptidases. Amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides leave the intestine and enter the hepatic portal system, but the peptides leave the liver and enter the peripheral blood as amino acids. The blood transports the amino acids to individual cells where they are placed in a cytosolic “pool.” They are utilized from the “pool” to synthesize proteins essential for growth and maintenance of healthy tissue. The continual hydrolysis and synthesis of proteins is central to their utilization. However, certain proteins and their hydrolytic products also carry out important functions unrelated to their primary metabolic mission.
One thousand eight hundreds and twenty two samples of raw milk were detected for antibiotic residues using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, B. stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C 593 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as test organisms, were carried out from July 1991 through June 1992. Apparent antibiotic residues were found through out the study period, except in January. The detection rate varied from 0.7% in March and May to 11% in April. One hundred and thirty six (72%) samples of the 187 screening positive samples were considered to contain only the indigenous antimicrobial agents. Of the total, 51 (2.8%) samples were positive for antibiotic residues. Among the tested organisms, B. stearothermophilus var. calidolactis was the most sensitive organism in detection of the antibiotic residues.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of MnSO4 on controlling harmful microorganisms in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro experiment was conducted to examine the effects of manganese sulfate (MnSO4) on the reduction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by growth stimulation of Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici; lactic acid bacteria). Manganese ion (0.003 %) was found to stimulate the growth of P. acidilactici in the In Vitro system. When E. coli and S. aureus were grown in a mixture with P. acidilactici, their numbers were reduced. This may be the result of a reduction of pH in the medium as a result of better growth of P. acidilactici due to stimulation by the Mn ion. The in vivo experiment was conducted to determine the effects of MnSO4 in diets on controlling harmful microorganisms in fecal samples of pigs. There were no significant differences for the microbial numbers (i.e., total microorganisms, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria and S. aureus) in feces of pigs fed MnSO4 compared to feces of pigs fed the control diet through 7 days. However, on day 7 of experiment, the pH of feces in pigs fed MnSO4 (0.1%) decreased faster than pigs fed the control diet.
The efficient dryer design and the optimization of existing drying processes require both effective drying models and hygrothermal properties. Following extensive research during the previous decades, today's existing models for the drying process are mostly adequate. Thus.most of the requirements for appropriate process design and operation depend on the existence of data for the various properties. The correct estimation of properties is of fundamental importance for the design.optimization and control of the process. The existing knowledge is adequate regarding the hygrothermal properties of the drying medium (air). Most of the efforts should address the problem of finding and standardizing appropriate measuring techniques and selecting and compiling the existing data, concerning hygrothermal and quality properties of the product being dried. The article identifies those areas, where adequate data not exist and future research is needed or data banks should be created.
This work was undertaken to study the effect of dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of pork, and to evaluate the effect of inclusion of vitamin E in pig diets on lipid oxidation of pork tissue and processed pork products. Fifty-six pigs were allocated to four treatments, that included two dietary fat sources and two levels of vitamin E inclusion. Dietary fat was derived from either tallow, a source of saturated fatty acids (SFA), or from a mixture of soybean and linseed oils, which contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Vitamin E was included at either 0% or 0.011% of the diet. Growth and carcass characteristics were not affected by the dietary treatments. Dietary fat source affected the fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue, with the PUFA diet resulting in significantly more polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues, and more favourable ratios of SFA to PUFA and C18:2 to C18:3 in terms of human health considerations. Lipid oxidation was significantly greater in tissues and processed products from PUFA-fed pigs. Inclusion of vitamin E in the diets, however, reduced the extent of lipid oxidation in the meat and meat products. Dietary manipulation of the fatty acid profile of pigs is an effective means of altering the fat composition of pork in order to provide human consumers with a healthy product. Vitamin E is effective as an antioxidant agent, particularly where processed products are concerned.
The effects of heating 5% (w/v) Na caseinate solutions in the temperature range 120-140 degrees C for 30 or 60 min at pH 7.0 on the nutritional properties of the protein were investigated. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was slightly but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by both heat treatments from 2.8 for the control (unheated Na caseinate) to 2.6 (120 degrees C treatment) and 2.4 (132 degrees C treatment). The digestibility in vivo in rats of the sample heated at 132 degrees C (94.0%) was slightly lower than that of the control (95.3%), but there was no significant difference between the control and the sample heated at 120 degrees C (94.7%). Digestibility in vitro by trypsin plus chymotrypsin was lower for both heated samples than for the control. Available lysine and methionine contents were reduced slightly in the heated samples. The results suggest that the decrease in PER of Na caseinate on heating may be due mainly to loss of available methionine. The reactivity of caseinate to TNBS was increased on heating, which indicates that some proteolysis occurred. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretograms of treated samples showed that several peptides were formed due to the heat-induced proteolysis.